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1. (WO2019063750) COMBINED SYSTEM FOR SUN-SKY IMITATING ILLUMINATION
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Claims

1. A combined system (300) comprising:

a sun-sky imitating device (310) that is configured as an artificial illumination device (20) for generating light with a luminance profile and an appearance, which feature a directed- light component (314) and a first diffused- light component (316) that are emitted from a sun- sky imitating output area (312) for imitating the natural light from the sun and the sky, respectively, and the sun- sky imitating output area (312) has a transversal dimension (D310) of at least 7 cm, wherein the transversal dimension is the longest line segment (LS) joining two points of a perimeter (Psun+sky) of the sun-sky imitating output area (312); and a sky imitating device (320) that is configured as an additional diffused- light emitter to emit a second diffused- light component (326) from a sky imitating output area (322) for imitating the natural light from the sky only and the sky imitating output area (322) has a transversal dimension (D320) that is the longest line segment joining two points of a perimeter (Psky) of the sky imitating output area (322), wherein

the sun-sky imitating device (310) and the sky imitating device (320) are placed one with respect to the other at a distance (D) smaller than a predefined value that is given by 10 times the maximum of the transversal dimension (D310) of the sun-sky imitating device (310) and the transversal dimension (D320) of the sky imitating device (320).

2. The combined system (300) of claim 1 or 25, wherein the predefined value is given by 5 times, preferably 3 times the maximum of the transversal dimension (D310) of the sun-sky imitating device (310) and the transversal dimension (D320) of the sky imitating device (320).

3. The combined system (300) of claim 1 or 2 or 25, wherein the transversal dimension (D310) of the sun-sky imitating device (310) is at least 10 cm such as at least 15 cm; and/or

the sun-sky imitating device (310) and the sky imitating device (320) are carried by a common support structure and/or share a common housing (370).

4. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sun- sky imitating output area (312) and the sky imitating output area (322) extend in respective light output surfaces, in particular planes, with an inclination angle (a) equal to or smaller than 90°, or equal to or smaller than 45°, or equal to or smaller than 25° between the light output surfaces, and

wherein the inclination angle between the light output surfaces is smaller than 20° or 15° or the light output surfaces form substantially parallel planes or the light output surfaces extend each other.

5. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sun-sky imitating device (310) comprises a collimation and/or folding optics (366), and a direction and a full width at half maximum of a luminance intensity distribution of the directed-light component (314) is formed by the collimation and/or folding optics (366).

6. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the first diffused- light component (316) and the second diffused- light component (326) are chromatically similar, wherein two colors are considered similar if their color difference is equal to or smaller than 4 times, preferably equal to or smaller than 3 times, even more preferably equal to or smaller than 2 times a just noticeable difference defined in CIE76 color space, or have a chromatic difference limited by natural chromatic appearances, and/or

wherein the first diffused- light component (316) and the second diffused- light component (326) have luminance values that differ by a luminance value difference of the first diffused- light component (316) with respect to the second-diffused light component (326) that is less than 3 times, 2 times or even 1.5 times the larger luminance value of the first diffused-light component (316) and the second-diffused light component (326).

7. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sun- sky imitating output area (312) is substantially surrounded by the sky imitating output area (322), and/or

wherein the emitting side of the combined system (300) comprises an inner region such as a hexagonally shaped region and an outer region surrounding the inner region, and the sun- sky imitating output area (312) is provided in the inner region, and the sky imitating output area (322) is provided in the outer region.

8. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25,

wherein the sky imitating device (320) is configured as an additional diffused- light source that is provided additionally to a diffused light source of the sun- sky imitating device (310), or

wherein the sky imitating device (320) is configured as a diffused light source that is partly used as a component of the sun-sky imitating device (310) to emit the first diffused- light component (316) from the directed- light output area (368) associated with a directed light source (360), and partly used to emit the second diffused- light component (326) from the diffused- light output area (322), and/or

wherein the sky imitating output area (322) is larger than 1.2 times the sun-sky imitating output area (312).

9. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sky imitating device (320) is configured as the additional

diffused- light emitter by being configured as one of

a display such as an OLED display or an LCD display,

a backlight device, which comprises a plurality of light emitting devices (14), such as LEDs, and a diffuser (250) downstream of the light emitting devices (14), and

a side- lit device, which comprises a diffuser panel (264) and a plurality of light emitting devices (266) that emit into the diffuser panel (264) from an edge of the diffuser panel (264).

10. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sun- sky imitating device (310) comprises

a direct-light source (12) comprising a plurality of first light emitting devices (14), such as LEDs (44), with in particular a circular aperture, configured to produce directional light as a basis for the directed- light component (314) for imitating the natural light from the sun, and

a diffused- light source (10) configured to emit the diffused- light component for imitating the natural light from the sky, and

wherein the sun- sky imitating output area (312) is a common output area that is defined in a light output surface of the sun-sky imitating device (310) and emits the directed- light component (314) and the first diffused-light component (316); and

wherein optionally the sun-sky imitating device (310) further comprises collimation optics (48) with refractive and/or reflective properties and, when the direct-light source (12) comprises a plurality of LEDs (44), respective collimation optical elements of the collimation optics (48) are associated to the LEDs of the plurality of the LEDs (44) and are in particular more than 2 times bigger than an LED of the plurality of the LEDs (44), and wherein optionally the sun-sky imitating device (310) further comprises light absorbing material placed between the first light emitting device (14) and the related collimation optics (48).

11. The combined system (300) of claim 10, wherein

the direct-light source (12) is configured to emit a primary light (62), and is associated with a first emitting surface (28) positioned downstream the first light-emitting device (14),

the diffused-light source (10) is at least partially light -transparent and positioned downstream of the first light-emitting device (14), wherein the diffused-light source (10) is associated with a second emitting surface (34) and is configured to cause the first diffused-light component (316) at the second emitting surface (34), and

wherein the sky imitating device (320), which is configured as the additional diffused-light emitter, is positioned such that the sky imitating output area (322) is laterally shifted with respect to the sun- sky imitating device (310) so that the primary light (62) does not impinge on the additional diffused-light emitter, and

the additional diffused-light emitter comprises a diffused-light emitting surface, which is associated with the diffused-light output area, and is configured to emit the second diffused-light component (326) at the diffused-light emitting surface,

wherein the direct-light source (12) is configured so that, with the

diffused-light source (10) being removed if positioned upstream of the first emitting surface (28), the direct-light source (12) produces from the primary light (62) the directed-light component (236) that exits the first emitting surface (28) with a luminance profile which has a peak (30) in the angular distribution around a direct-light direction (32),

wherein one of the first emitting surface (28) and the second emitting surface (34) is positioned downstream with respect to the other and forms the sun-sky imitating

output area (312) of the sun-sky imitating device (310) or both the first emitting surface (28) and the second emitting surface (34) coincide to form the sun-sky imitating output area (312) of the sun-sky imitating device (310),

wherein the sun-sky imitating device (310) is configured such that the direct-light source (12) and the diffused-light source (10) co-operate to form at the sun-sky imitating output area (312) the directed- light component (314), which propagates along directions contained within the peak (30), and

the first diffused-light component (316) which propagates along directions spaced apart from the peak (30), has a correlated color temperature, and the directed- light component (314) has a correlated color temperature that is lower than a correlated color temperature of the first diffused-light component (316), and the second diffused-light component (326) has a correlated color temperature optionally corresponding to the correlated color temperature of the first diffused-light component (316).

12. The combined system (300) of claim 10 or claim 1 1, wherein the chromaticity values and/or the luminance of the first diffused-light component (316) and the second diffused-light component (326) varies according to a relative distance between a point of the emission on the sky imitating output area (322) and a reference point, such as optionally the barycenter, of the sun-sky imitating output area (312) associated with the first diffused light component (316).

13. The combined system (300) of anyone of claims 10 to 12, wherein the common output area of the sun-sky imitating device (310) is part of an outer emitting surface of the combined system, the outer emitting surface being the minimum area from which the light produced by the combined system emerges and propagates into the ambience,

wherein the direct-light source is configured to produce the directed- light component at the outer emitting surface with a luminance profile, which has a peak in the angular distribution around a directed- light direction (32), wherein the directed-light component (314) exits from at least 10% and less than 90% of the area of the outer emitting surface, wherein the combined system (300) is configured such that the direct-light source (12) and the diffused light source (10) and the at least one sky imitating device (320) co-operate to form an outer light, which exits from the outer emitting surface.

14. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sun-sky imitating device (310) is structurally coupled to the sky imitating device (320), in particular for forming a continuity of a sky perception.

15. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, further comprising a photovoltaic system (390) mounted at an external surface of the combined system (300), which is exposed to an outdoor, and in particular wherein the photovoltaic system (390) is positioned on the sun-sky imitating device (310) and/or on the sky imitating device (320).

16. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, integrated in a vehicle, such as in a roof of a car (380) or in a transportation unit such as a train or plain, wherein the combined systems (300) is a part of a main casing of the vehicle, and wherein in particular the emitted light exits the combined system (300) to light an internal environment of the vehicle, and an external surface of the combined system (300) is exposed to an external environment, wherein the external surface is in particular exposed to external light such as the sunlight, and a photovoltaic system (390) is provided at the external surface to produce electric energy from the external light.

17. The combined system (300) of claim 15 or 16, further comprising a battery used to store the energy collected by the photovoltaic system (390) and to power the combined system (300).

18. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sky imitating device (320) and/or a folding mirror (366) of the sun-sky imitating device (310) comprise an output surface that is curved in at least one direction.

19. The combined system (300) of any one of the preceding claims or of claim 25, wherein the sun- sky imitating device (310) comprises a housing (370) that defines a footprint of the sun-sky imitating device (310), and the sky imitating device (320) is positioned to recover the usage of an area associated with the footprint.

20. A sky imitating device (320) for use in a combined system (300) as recited in any of the preceding claims, wherein the sky imitating device further comprises a light shutter layer with a light shutter (382), that is in particular positioned upstream of a diffuser of the sky imitating device (320).

21. The sky imitating device (320) of claim 20, installed in a combined system (300) as recited in any one of claims 1 to 19 or in claim 25 such that, for an operation state, in which the sun-sky imitating device (310) and the sky imitating device (320) emit, any image forming light coming from an exterior is absorbed by the light shutter (382) being in a closed state, and for an operation state, in which the sun-sky imitating device (310) and sky imitating device (320) are turned off, the light shutter (392) is in an open state and transmits light from the exterior.

22. The sky imitating device (320) of claim 20 or claim 21, installed in a combined system (300) next to a transparent window, wherein the light shutter (382) comprises a layer of a light absorbing material that is configured such that, in an open state of the light shutter (382), the light absorbing material layer is mechanically moved away from the transparent window, and in a closed state of the light shutter (382), the light absorbing material layer is positioned to cover the transparent window.

23. The sky imitating device of an one of claims 20 to 22, wherein the light shutter layer is made of a tunable smart material, in which light transmitting properties are electronically tunable, such as electrochromic, electro-wettable or Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC) materials.

24. A control method for operating a combined system (300) of any one of claims 1 to 19 or of claim 25, wherein

a color of a diffused light portion of the second diffused light component (326) emitted by the sky imitating device (320) is controlled based on a distance (d) from the sun- sky imitating device (310) to a point of emission of the diffused light portion.

25. A combined system (300) comprising:

a directed light source (360) that is configured as an artificial illumination device (20) for generating light with a luminance profile and an appearance, which feature a directed- light component (314) that is emitted from a directed- light output area (368) for imitating the natural light from the sun and the directed-light output area (368) has a

transversal dimension (D310) of at least 7 cm, wherein the transversal dimension as the longest line segment joining two points of a perimeter of the sun-sky imitating output area (312); and

a sky imitating device (320) that is configured as a diffused- light emitter to emit diffused light including a first diffused- light component (316) and a second diffused-light component (326), wherein the first diffused- light component (316) is emitted from the directed- light output area (368) for adding the imitation of natural light from the sky to the imitation of the natural light of the sun, and the second diffused- light component (326) is emitted from a sky imitating output area (322) for imitating the natural light from the sky only.

26. The combined system (300) of claim 25, wherein the diffused light is emitted from a surface area of the combined system that is larger than the directed-light output area (368), and/or

wherein the combined system (300) is further configured as in any one of claims 1 to 19.