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1. WO1991016408 - COMPOSITIONS COMBUSTIBLES

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]

CLAIMS :
1. The use of an additive in a fuel oil, to reduce particulate emission on combustion of the fuel oil, of an oil soluble compound of the formula:



or
R6R4NR5[NR4R5]bNR4R4 (II) or mixtures of two or more such compounds, wherein R1, R2 and R3 may be the same or different and are independently hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl substituent having from 2 to 600 carbon atoms, or a keto, halo, hydroxy, nitro, cyano, or alkoxy derivative thereof, provided that at least one of R1, R2 and R3 is a hydrocarbyl substituent having from 2 to 600 carbon atoms or said derivative thereof, or wherein R1 and R2 together form a hydrocarbylene substituent having 4 to 600 carbon atoms or a keto, halo, hydroxy, nitro, cyano or alkoxy derivative thereof, provided that R1 and R2 together with the carbon atom which forms the C-R1 bond with R1 and the nitrogen atom which forms the N-R2 bond with R2 form a ring having at least 5 members, wherein Z represents
-R10[NR11(R10)]c- or
-[R10R11N]dR10[NR11R10]e wherein each R10, which may be the same or different, represents an alkylene group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms in its chain, each R11, which may be the same or different, represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group, and c is from 0 to 6, d is from 1 to 4, e is from 1 to 4, provided that d + e is at most 5 , each R4 is independently H or an alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoms, R5 is an alkylene group having up to 6 carbon atoms in the chain, optionally substituted by one or more hydrocarbyl groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, an acyl group having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms, or a keto, halo, hydroxy, nitro, cyano or alkoxy derivative of a
hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms or of an acyl group having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms, R6 is a hydrocarbyl substituent having from 2 to 600 carbon atoms or said derivative thereof, a is from 1 to 150, and b is from 0 to 12, or a post-treatment derivative of such a compound.
2. The use as claimed in claim 1, wherein the compound is a compound of the formula I and is of the formula:




wherein R7 is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl substituent having from 1 to 600 carbon atoms, R8 is hydrogen or a C1 to C12 hydrocarbyl substituent, and, if there is more than one R8 in a compound, they may be the same or different, R9 is a hydrocarbylene substituent having from 2 to 600 carbon atoms, two of which carbon atoms are bonded to the α-carbon atoms of the succinic anhydride based ring, X1 represents hydrogen or an alkyl group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, X2 represents hydrogen, an alkyl group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, a hydroxy group, or an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, or X1 and X2 may together represent an oxygen or sulphur atom, Z has the meaning given in claim 1, and h is from 1 to 20, or a post-treatment derivative of such a compound.
3. The use as claimed in claim 2, wherein the compound is an oil soluble compound of the formula




or mixtures of two or more such compounds, wherein R is a hydrocarbyl substituent having from 2 to 400 carbon atoms, R13 is hydrogen or a C1 to C12 hydrocarbon substituent, and, if there are more than one R1 in a compound, they may be the same or different, R14 is a hydrocarbylene substituent having from 4 to 400 carbon atoms, two of which carbon atoms are bonded to the α- carbon atoms of the succinic anhydride based ring and Z represents -CH2CH2CH2-; -(CH2CH2CH2NH)nCH2CH2CH2-, where n is 1 to 6, or
-(CH2CH2CH2NH)m(CH2)p(NHCH2CH2CH2)q- where m and q are each at least 1 and m+q = 2 to 5, p is 1 to 5, a is 1 to 20, b is from 1 to 6, c is from 1 to 6, and d is from 0 to 12, or a post-treatment derivative of such a compound.

4. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein at least one of R1, R2 and R3, or wherein at least one of R7 and R9, or wherein at least one of R12 or R14 is derived from a C2 to C5 olefin polymer.
5. The use as claimed in claim 4, wherein the polymer is polyisobutylene.
6. The use as claimed in claim 4 or claim 5, wherein the polymer contains from 10 to 200 carbon atoms.

7. The use as claimed in claim 6, wherein the polymer contains from 20 to 100 carbon atoms.
8. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to

7, wherein -Z- represents -(CH2)3NH(CH2)3,
(CH2)3NHCH2CH2NH(CH2)3-, or (CH2)3.
9. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to

8, wherein the oil soluble compound has been prepared by the reaction of a hydrocarbyl reactant and a polyamine reactant in a mole ratio of from 0.2:1 to 5:1.
10. The use as claimed in claim 9, wherein the mole ratio is 0.5:1 to 2:1.
11. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the oil soluble compound is used in the form of a post-treatment derivative.
12. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the post-treatment derivative is formed by post-treatment of the oil soluble compound with boron oxide, boron oxide hydrate, a boron halide, a boron acid, sulphur, a sulphur chloride, a phosphorus oxide or sulphide, a carboxylic acid or anhydride, an acyl
halide, an epoxide, an episulphide or acrylonitrile.
13. The use as claimed in claim 12, wherein the post-treatment derivative is formed by post-treatment with polyisobutylene succinic anhydride.
14. The use of an oil soluble compound as defined in any one of claims 1 to 13 in reducing particulate emission in the combustion of a fuel oil.
15. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the oil soluble compound is present in the fuel in a proportion in the range of from 0.005 to 2% by weight, based on the weight of the fuel.
16. The use as claimed in claim 15, wherein the proportion is from 0.001 to 0.5% by weight.

17. The use as claimed in claim 15, wherein the proportion is from 0.005 to 0.3% by weight.
18. The use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17, wherein the oil soluble compound is used in admixture or association with a cetane improver.
19. The use as claimed in claim 18, wherein the cetane improver is an aliphatic or cycloaliphatic
nitrate.
20. The use as claimed in claim 18, wherein the cetane improver is an alkyl or cycloalkyl nitrate
containing up to 30 carbon atoms.
21. The use as claimed in any one of claims 18 to 20, wherein the cetane improver is present in the fuel in a proportion in the range of from 0.0005 to 1% by weight, based on the weight of the fuel.
22. The use as claimed in claim 21, wherein the proportion is from 0.005 to 0.5% by weight.
23. The use as claimed in claim 21, wherein the proportion is from 0.05 to 0.2% by weight.