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1. (WO2018140608) eLWA/LWIP ACTIONS UPON WLAN DISCONNECT
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eLWA/LWIP ACTIONS UPON WLAN DISCONNECT

PRIORITY CLAIM

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional

Patent Application Serial No. 62/451,423, filed January 27, 2017, entitled "eLWA/LWIP ACTIONS UPON WLAN DISCONNECT," which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] Embodiments pertain to radio access networks (RANs). Some embodiments relate to handover in cellular and wireless local area network (WLAN) networks, including Third Generation Partnership Project Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) networks and LTE advanced (LTE-A) networks as well as legacy networks, 4th generation (4G) networks and 5th generation (5G) networks.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The vast increase in the number and types of devices involved in communications has resulted in an explosion in network usage. This, along with the ever-increasing desire for faster data rates, has created a significant amount of congestion in LTE networks, leading to reduced speeds and potential network connectivity failures. Some efforts to increase data rates and provide greater network capacity have turned to use of the unlicensed carrier bands of a wireless local area network (WLAN). In particular, the networks may aggregate the unlicensed carrier bands with the licensed carrier bands using LTE-WLAN aggregation (LWA) and LTE WLAN Radio Level Integration with IPsec Tunnel (LWIP). In LWA, the user equipment (UE) may be connected both to the LTE network and to the WLAN network, with coordinated data being provided through both networks to the UE. Numerous issues, however, may arise due to lack of WLAN availability when LWA/LWIP is unable to be used.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0004] In the figures, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, like numerals may describe similar components in different views. Like numerals having different letter suffixes may represent different instances of similar components. The figures illustrate generally, by way of example, but not by way of limitation, various embodiments discussed in the present document.

[0005] FIG. 1 illustrates an architecture of a system of a network in accordance with some embodiments.

[0006] FIG. 2 illustrates example components of a device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0007] FIG. 3 illustrates example interfaces of baseband circuitry in accordance with some embodiments.

[0008] FIG. 4 is an illustration of a control plane protocol stack in accordance with some embodiments.

[0009] FIG. 5 is an illustration of a user plane protocol stack in accordance with some embodiments.

[0010] FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments.

[0011] FIG. 7 illustrates a LWA process in accordance with some embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] The following description and the drawings sufficiently illustrate specific embodiments to enable those skilled in the art to practice them. Other embodiments may incorporate structural, logical, electrical, process, and other changes. Portions and features of some embodiments may be included in, or substituted for, those of other embodiments. Embodiments set forth in the claims encompass all available equivalents of those claims.

[0013] FIG. 1 illustrates an architecture of a system 100 of a network in accordance with some embodiments. The system 100 is shown to include a user equipment (UE) 101 and a UE 102. The UEs 101 and 102 are illustrated as smartphones (e.g., handheld touchscreen mobile computing devices connectable to one or more cellular networks), but may also comprise any mobile or non-mobile computing device, such as Personal Data Assistants (PDAs), pagers, laptop computers, desktop computers, wireless handsets, or any computing device including a wireless communications interface.

[0014] In some embodiments, any of the UEs 101 and 102 can comprise an Internet of Things (IoT) UE, which can comprise a network access layer designed for low-power IoT applications utilizing short-lived UE connections. An IoT UE can utilize technologies such as machine-to-machine (M2M) or machine-type communications (MTC) for exchanging data with an MTC server or device via a public land mobile network (PLMN), Proximity-Based Service (ProSe) or device-to-device (D2D) communication, sensor networks, or IoT networks. The M2M or MTC exchange of data may be a machine-initiated exchange of data. An IoT network describes interconnecting IoT UEs, which may include uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices (within the Internet infrastructure), with short-lived connections. The IoT UEs may execute background applications (e.g., keep-alive messages, status updates, etc.) to facilitate the connections of the IoT network.

[0015] The UEs 101 and 102 may be configured to connect, e.g., communicatively couple, with a radio access network (RAN) 110 - the RAN 110 may be, for example, an Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN), a NextGen RAN (NG RAN), or some other type of RAN. The UEs 101 and 102 utilize connections 103 and 104, respectively, each of which comprises a physical communications interface or layer (discussed in further detail below); in this example, the connections 103 and 104 are illustrated as an air interface to enable

communicative coupling, and can be consistent with cellular communications protocols, such as a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) protocol, a code-division multiple access (CDMA) network protocol, a Push-to-Talk (PTT) protocol, a PTT over Cellular (POC) protocol, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) protocol, a 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) protocol, a 5G protocol, a New Radio (NR) protocol, and the like.

[0016] In this embodiment, the UEs 101 and 102 may further directly exchange communication data via a ProSe interface 105. The ProSe interface 105 may alternatively be referred to as a sidelink interface comprising one or more logical channels, including but not limited to a Physical Sidelink Control Channel (PSCCH), a Physical Sidelink Shared Channel (PSSCH), a Physical Sidelink Discovery Channel (PSDCH), and a Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel (PSBCH).

[0017] The UE 102 is shown to be configured to access an access point

(AP) 106 via connection 107. The connection 107 can comprise a local wireless connection, such as a connection consistent with any IEEE 802.11 protocol, wherein the AP 106 would comprise a wireless fidelity (WiFi) router. In this example, the AP 106 is shown to be connected to the Internet without connecting to the core network of the wireless system (described in further detail below).

[0018] The RAN 110 can include one or more access nodes that enable the connections 103 and 104. These access nodes (ANs) can be referred to as base stations (BSs), NodeBs, evolved NodeBs (eNBs), next Generation NodeBs (gNBs), RAN nodes, and so forth, and can comprise ground stations (e.g., terrestrial access points) or satellite stations providing coverage within a geographic area (e.g., a cell). The RAN 110 may include one or more RAN nodes for providing macrocells, e.g., macro RAN node 111, and one or more RAN nodes for providing femtocells or picocells (e.g., cells having smaller coverage areas, smaller user capacity, or higher bandwidth compared to macrocells), e.g., low power (LP) RAN node 112.

[0019] Any of the RAN nodes 111 and 112 can terminate the air interface protocol and can be the first point of contact for the UEs 101 and 102. In some embodiments, any of the RAN nodes 111 and 112 can fulfill various logical functions for the RAN 110 including, but not limited to, radio network controller (RNC) functions such as radio bearer management, uplink and downlink dynamic radio resource management and data packet scheduling, and mobility management.

[0020] In accordance with some embodiments, the UEs 101 and 102 can be configured to communicate using Orthogonal Frequency -Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) communication signals with each other or with any of the RAN nodes 111 and 112 over a multicarrier communication channel in accordance various communication techniques, such as, but not limited to, an Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) communication technique (e.g., for downlink communications) or a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) communication technique (e.g., for uplink and ProSe or sidelink communications), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. The OFDM signals can comprise a plurality of orthogonal subcarriers.

[0021] In some embodiments, a downlink resource grid can be used for downlink transmissions from any of the RAN nodes 111 and 112 to the UEs 101 and 102, while uplink transmissions can utilize similar techniques. The grid can be a time-frequency grid, called a resource grid or time -frequency resource grid, which is the physical resource in the downlink in each slot. Such a time-frequency plane representation is a common practice for OFDM systems, which makes it intuitive for radio resource allocation. Each column and each row of the resource grid corresponds to one OFDM symbol and one OFDM subcarrier, respectively. The duration of the resource grid in the time domain corresponds to one slot in a radio frame. The smallest time-frequency unit in a resource grid is denoted as a resource element. Each resource grid comprises a number of resource blocks, which describe the mapping of certain physical channels to resource elements. Each resource block comprises a collection of resource elements; in the frequency domain, this may represent the smallest quantity of resources that currently can be allocated. There are several different physical downlink channels that are conveyed using such resource blocks.

[0022] The physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) may carry user data and higher-layer signaling to the UEs 101 and 102. The physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) may carry information about the transport format and resource allocations related to the PDSCH channel, among other things. It may also inform the UEs 101 and 102 about the transport format, resource allocation, and H-ARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) information related to the uplink shared channel. Typically, downlink scheduling (assigning control and shared channel resource blocks to the UE 102 within a cell) may be performed at any of the RAN nodes 111 and 112 based on channel quality information fed back from any of the UEs 101 and 102. The downlink resource assignment information may be sent on the PDCCH used for (e.g., assigned to) each of the UEs 101 and 102.

[0023] The PDCCH may use control channel elements (CCEs) to convey the control information. Before being mapped to resource elements, the PDCCH complex-valued symbols may first be organized into quadruplets, which may then be permuted using a sub-block interleaver for rate matching. Each PDCCH may be transmitted using one or more of these CCEs, where each CCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as resource element groups (REGs). Four Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) symbols may be mapped to each REG. The PDCCH can be transmitted using one or more CCEs, depending on the size of the downlink control information (DCI) and the channel condition. There can be four or more different PDCCH formats defined in LTE with different numbers of CCEs (e.g., aggregation level, L=l, 2, 4, or 8).

[0024] Some embodiments may use concepts for resource allocation for control channel information that are an extension of the above-described concepts. For example, some embodiments may utilize an enhanced physical downlink control channel (EPDCCH) that uses PDSCH resources for control information transmission. The EPDCCH may be transmitted using one or more enhanced the control channel elements (ECCEs). Similar to above, each ECCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as an enhanced resource element groups (EREGs). An ECCE may have other numbers of EREGs in some situations.

[0025] The RAN 110 is shown to be communicatively coupled to a core network (CN) 120— via an SI or NG interface 113. In embodiments, the CN 120 may be an evolved packet core (EPC) network, a 5GC network, or some other type of CN. In this embodiment, the SI interface 113 is split into two parts: the Sl-U interface 114, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 111 and 112 and the serving gateway (S-GW) 122, and the S l-mobility

management entity (MME) interface 115, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 111 and 112 and MMEs 121.

[0026] In this embodiment, the CN 120 comprises the MMEs 121, the S- GW 122, the Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway (P-GW) 123, and a home subscriber server (HSS) 124. The MMEs 121 may be similar in function to the control plane of legacy Serving General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Support Nodes (SGSN). The MMEs 121 may manage mobility aspects in access such as gateway selection and tracking area list management. The HSS 124 may comprise a database for network users, including subscription-related information to support the network entities' handling of communication sessions. The CN 120 may comprise one or several HSSs 124, depending on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment, on the organization of the network, etc. For example, the HSS 124 can provide support for routing/roaming, authentication, authorization, naming/addressing resolution, location dependencies, etc.

[0027] The S-GW 122 may terminate the S I interface 113 towards the

RAN 110, and routes data packets between the RAN 110 and the CN 120. In addition, the S-GW 122 may be a local mobility anchor point for inter-RAN node handovers and also may provide an anchor for inter-3GPP mobility. Other responsibilities may include lawful intercept, charging, and some policy enforcement.

[0028] The P-GW 123 may terminate an SGi interface toward a PDN.

The P-GW 123 may route data packets between the EPC network 123 and external networks such as a network including the application server 130 (alternatively referred to as application function (AF)) via an Internet Protocol (IP) interface 125. Generally, the application server 130 may be an element offering applications that use IP bearer resources with the core network (e.g., UMTS Packet Services (PS) domain, LTE PS data services, etc.). In this embodiment, the P-GW 123 is shown to be communicatively coupled to an application server 130 via an IP communications interface 125. The application server 130 can also be configured to support one or more communication services (e.g., Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) sessions, PTT sessions, group communication sessions, social networking services, etc.) for the UEs 101 and 102 via the CN 120.

[0029] The P-GW 123 may further be a node for policy enforcement and charging data collection. Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) 126 is the policy and charging control element of the CN 120. In a non-roaming scenario, there may be a single PCRF in the Home Public Land Mobile Network

(HPLMN) associated with a UE's Internet Protocol Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) session. In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic, there may be two PCRFs associated with a UE's IP-CAN session: a Home PCRF (H-PCRF) within a HPLMN and a Visited PCRF (V-PCRF) within a Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). The PCRF 126 may be

communicatively coupled to the application server 130 via the P-GW 123. The application server 130 may signal the PCRF 126 to indicate a new service flow and select the appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) and charging parameters. The PCRF 126 may provision this rule into a Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) (not shown) with the appropriate traffic flow template (TFT) and QoS class of identifier (QCI), which commences the QoS and charging as specified by the application server 130.

[0030] FIG. 2 illustrates example components of a device 200 in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the device 200 may include application circuitry 202, baseband circuitry 204, Radio Frequency (RF) circuitry 206, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 208, one or more antennas 210, and power management circuitry (PMC) 212 coupled together at least as shown. The components of the illustrated device 200 may be included in a UE or a RAN node. In some embodiments, the device 200 may include less elements (e.g., a RAN node may not utilize application circuitry 202, and instead include a processor/controller to process IP data received from an EPC). In some embodiments, the device 200 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory /storage, display, camera, sensor, or input/ output)I/0( interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may be included in more than one device (e.g., said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) implementations).

[0031] The application circuitry 202 may include one or more application processors. For example, the application circuitry 202 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The processor)s( may include any combination ofgeneral -purpose processors and dedicated processors (e.g., graphics processors, application processors, etc.(. The processors may be coupled with or may include memory/ storage and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the device 200. In some embodiments, processors of application circuitry 202 may process IP data packets received from an EPC.

[0032] The baseband circuitry 204 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The baseband circuitry 204 may include one or more baseband processors or control logic to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry 206 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 206. Baseband processing circuity 204 may interface with the application circuitry 202 for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 206. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may include a third generation (3G) baseband processor 204A, a fourth generation (4G) baseband processor 204B, a 5G baseband processor 204C, or other baseband processor(s) 204D for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., second generation (2G), sixth generation (6G), etc.). The baseband circuitry 204 (e.g., one or more of baseband processors 204A-D) may handle various radio control functions that enable communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry 206. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 204A-D may be included in modules stored in the memory 204G and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 204E. The radio control functions may include, but are not limited to, signal modulation/demodulation, encoding/decoding, radio frequencyshifting, etc. In some embodiments,

modulation/demodulation circuitry of the baseband circuitry 204 may include Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, or constellation mapping/demapping functionality. In some embodiments, encoding/decoding circuitry of the baseband circuitry 204 may include convolution, tail-biting convolution, turbo,

Viterbi, or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments.

[0033] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may include one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 204F. The audio DSP(s) 204F may be include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other embodiments. Components of the baseband circuitry may be suitably combined in a single chip, a single chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board in some embodiments. In some embodiments, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 204 and the application circuitry 202 may be implemented together such as, for example, on a system on a chip)SOC(.

[0034] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may provide for communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may support communication with an evolved universal terrestrial radio access network)EUTRAN( or other wireless metropolitan area networks) WMAN( ,a wireless local area network) WLAN( ,a wireless personal area network )WPAN .( Embodiments in which the baseband circuitry 204 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry.

[0035] RF circuitry 206 may enable communication with wireless networks using modulatedelectromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In various embodiments, the RF circuitry 206 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry 206 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 208 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 204. RF circuitry 206 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 204 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 208 for transmission.

[0036] In some embodiments, the receive signal path of the RF circuitry

206 may include mixer circuitry 206A, amplifier circuitry 206B and filter

circuitry 206C. In some embodiments, the transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 206 may include filter circuitry 206C and mixer circuitry 206A. RF circuitry 206 may also include synthesizer circuitry 206D for synthesizing a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 208 based on the synthesized frequency provided by synthesizer circuitry 206D. The amplifier circuitry 206B may be configured to amplify the down-converted signals and the filter circuitry 206C may be a low-pass filter (LPF) or band-pass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry 204 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a requirement. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0037] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206A of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry 206D to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 208. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry 204 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 206C.

[0038] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206A of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206A of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206A may be arranged for direct downconversion and direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206A of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206A of the transmit signal path may be configured for super-heterodyne operation.

[0039] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 206 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 204 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 206.

[0040] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0041] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 206D may be a fractional -N synthesizer or a fractional N/N+1 synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry 206D may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

[0042] The synthesizer circuitry 206D may be configured to synthesize an output frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 206A of the RF circuitry 206 based on a frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 206D may be a fractional N/N+1 synthesizer.

[0043] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a requirement. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry 204 or the applications processor 202 depending on the desired output frequency. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a lookup table based on a channel indicated by the applications processor 202.

[0044] Synthesizer circuitry 206D of the RF circuitry 206 may include a divider, a delay -locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the

phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DPA). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+l (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip-flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[0045] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 206D may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 206 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[0046] FEM circuitry 208 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry configured to operate on RF signals received from one or more antennas 210, amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 206 for further processing. FEM circuitry 208 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals for transmission provided by the RF circuitry 206 for transmission by one or more of the one or more antennas 210. In various embodiments, the amplification through the transmit or receive signal paths may be done solely in the RF circuitry 206, solely in the FEM 208, or in both the RF circuitry 206 and the FEM 208.

[0047] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry 208 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry may include an LNA to amplify

received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 206). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry 208 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry 206), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmission (e.g., by one or more of the one or more antennas 210).

[0048] In some embodiments, the PMC 212 may manage power provided to the baseband circuitry 204. In particular, the PMC 212 may control power-source selection, voltage scaling, battery charging, or DC-to-DC conversion. The PMC 212 may often be included when the device 200 is capable of being powered by a battery, for example, when the device is included in a UE. The PMC 212 may increase the power conversion efficiency while providing desirable implementation size and heat dissipation characteristics.

[0049] While FIG. 2 shows the PMC 212 coupled only with the baseband circuitry 204. However, in other embodiments, the PMC 2 12 may be additionally or alternatively coupled with, and perform similar power management operations for, other components such as, but not limited to, application circuitry 202, RF circuitry 206, or FEM 208.

[0050] In some embodiments, the PMC 212 may control, or otherwise be part of, various power saving mechanisms of the device 200. For example, if the device 200 is in an RRC_Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the device 200 may power down for brief intervals of time and thus save power.

[0051] If there is no data traffic activity for an extended period of time, then the device 200 may transition to an RRC Idle state. In the RRC Idle state, the device 200 may disconnect from the network and avoid performing operations such as channel quality feedback, handover, etc. The device 200 may enter a very low power state and perform paging in which the device 200 may periodically wake up to listen to the network and then power down again. To receive data, the device 200 may transition back to the RRC_Connected state. [0052] An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[0053] Processors of the application circuitry 202 and processors of the baseband circuitry 204 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 204, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, or Layer 1 functionality, while processors of the application circuitry 204 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., transmission communication protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a radio resource control (R C) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a medium access control (MAC) layer, a radio link control (RLC) layer, and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a physical (PHY) layer of a UE/RAN node, described in further detail below.

[0054] FIG. 3 illustrates example interfaces of baseband circuitry in accordance with some embodiments. As discussed above, the baseband circuitry 204 of FIG. 2 may comprise processors 204A-XT04E and a memory 204G utilized by said processors. Each of the processors 204A-XT04E may include a memory interface, 304A-XU04E, respectively, to send/receive data to/from the memory 204G.

[0055] The baseband circuitry 204 may further include one or more interfaces to communicatively couple to other circuitries/devices, such as a memory interface 312 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from memory external to the baseband circuitry 204), an application circuitry interface 314 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from the application circuitry 202 of FIG. 2), an RF circuitry interface 316 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from RF circuitry 206 of FIG. 2), a wireless hardware connectivity interface 318 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth® components (e.g., Bluetooth® Low Energy), Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components), and a power management interface 320 (e.g., an interface to send/receive power or control signals to/from the PMC 212) .

[0056] FIG. 4 is an illustration of a control plane protocol stack in accordance with some embodiments. In this embodiment, a control plane 400 is shown as a communications protocol stack between the UE 101 (or alternatively, the UE 102), the RAN node 111 (or alternatively, the RAN node 112), and the MME 121.

[0057] The PHY layer 401 may transmit or receive information used by the MAC layer 402 over one or more air interfaces. The PHY layer 401 may further perform link adaptation or adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), power control, cell search (e.g., for initial synchronization and handover purposes), and other measurements used by higher layers, such as the RRC layer 405. The PHY layer 401 may still further perform error detection on the transport channels, forward error correction (FEC) coding/decoding of the transport channels, modulation/demodulation of physical channels, interleaving, rate matching, mapping onto physical channels, and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna processing.

[0058] The MAC layer 402 may perform mapping between logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC service data units (SDUs) from one or more logical channels onto transport blocks (TB) to be delivered to PHY via transport channels, de-multiplexing MAC SDUs to one or more logical channels from transport blocks (TB) delivered from the PHY via transport channels, multiplexing MAC SDUs onto TBs, scheduling information reporting, error correction through hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and logical channel prioritization.

[0059] The RLC layer 403 may operate in a plurality of modes of operation, including: Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), and Acknowledged Mode (AM). The RLC layer 403 may execute transfer of upper layer protocol data units (PDUs), error correction through automatic repeat request (ARQ) for AM data transfers, and concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers. The RLC layer 403 may also execute re-segmentation of RLC data PDUs for AM data transfers, reorder RLC data PDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect duplicate data for UM and AM data transfers, discard RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect protocol errors for AM data transfers, and perform RLC re-establishment.

[0060] The PDCP layer 404 may execute header compression and decompression of IP data, maintain PDCP Sequence Numbers (SNs), perform in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at re-establishment of lower layers, eliminate duplicates of lower layer SDUs at re-establishment of lower layers for radio bearers mapped on RLC AM, cipher and decipher control plane data, perform integrity protection and integrity verification of control plane data, control timer-based discard of data, and perform security operations (e.g., ciphering, deciphering, integrity protection, integrity verification, etc.).

[0061] The main services and functions of the RRC layer 405 may include broadcast of system information (e.g., included in Master Information Blocks (MIBs) or System Information Blocks (SIBs) related to the non-access stratum (NAS)), broadcast of system information related to the access stratum (AS), paging, establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and E-UTRAN (e.g., RRC connection paging, RRC connection establishment, RRC connection modification, and RRC connection release), establishment, configuration, maintenance and release of point to point Radio Bearers, security functions including key management, inter radio access technology (RAT) mobility, and measurement configuration for UE

measurement reporting. The MIBs and SIBs may comprise one or more information elements (IEs), which may each comprise individual data fields or data structures.

[0062] The UE 101 and the RAN node 111 may utilize a Uu interface

(e.g., an LTE-Uu interface) to exchange control plane data via a protocol stack comprising the PHY layer 401, the MAC layer 402, the RLC layer 403, the PDCP layer 404, and the RRC layer 405.

[0063] The non-access stratum (NAS) protocols 406 form the highest stratum of the control plane between the UE 101 and the MME 121. The NAS protocols 406 support the mobility of the UE 101 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 101 and the P-GW 123.

[0064] The S 1 Application Protocol (SI -AP) layer 415 may support the functions of the SI interface and comprise Elementary Procedures (EPs). An EP is a unit of interaction between the RAN node 111 and the CN 120. The S 1-AP layer services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services and non UE-associated services. These services perform functions including, but not limited to: E-UTRAN Radio Access Bearer (E-RAB) management, UE capability indication, mobility, NAS signaling transport, RAN Information Management (RIM), and configuration transfer.

[0065] The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) layer (alternatively referred to as the SCTP/IP layer) 414 may ensure reliable delivery of signaling messages between the RAN node 111 and the MME 121 based, in part, on the IP protocol, supported by the IP layer 413. The L2 layer 412 and the LI layer 411 may refer to communication links (e.g., wired or wireless) used by the RAN node and the MME to exchange information.

[0066] The RAN node 111 and the MME 121 may utilize an S 1 -MME interface to exchange control plane data via a protocol stack comprising the LI layer 411, the L2 layer 412, the IP layer 413, the SCTP layer 414, and the Sl-AP layer 415.

[0067] FIG. 5 is an illustration of a user plane protocol stack in accordance with some embodiments. In this embodiment, a user plane 500 is shown as a communications protocol stack between the UE 101 (or alternatively, the UE 102), the RAN node 111 (or alternatively, the RAN node 112), the S-GW 122, and the P-GW 123. The user plane 500 may utilize at least some of the same protocol layers as the control plane 400. For example, the UE 101 and the RAN node 111 may utilize a Uu interface (e.g., an LTE-Uu interface) to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising the PHY layer 401, the MAC layer 402, the RLC layer 403, the PDCP layer 404.

[0068] The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol for the user plane (GTP-U) layer 504 may be used for carrying user data within the GPRS core network and between the radio access network and the core network. The user data transported can be packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example. The UDP and IP security (UDP/IP) layer 503 may provide checksums for data integrity, port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination, and encryption and authentication on the selected data flows. The RAN node 111 and the S-GW 122 may utilize an Sl-U interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising the L 1 layer 411, the L2 layer 412, the UDP/IP layer 503, and the GTP-U layer 504. The S-GW 122 and the P-GW 123 may utilize an S5/S8a interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising the LI layer 411, the L2 layer 412, the UDP/IP layer 503, and the GTP-U layer 504. As discussed above with respect to FIG. 4, NAS protocols support the mobility of the UE 101 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 101 and the P-GW 123.

[0069] FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments. The components of FIG. 6 are able to read instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. Specifically, FIG. 6 shows a diagrammatic representation of hardware resources 600 including one or more processors (or processor cores) 610, one or more memory/storage devices 620, and one or more communication resources 630, each of which may be communicatively coupled via a bus 640. For embodiments where node virtualization (e.g., NFV) is utilized, a hypervisor 602 may be executed to provide an execution environment for one or more network slices/sub-slices to utilize the hardware resources 600. Specifically, FIG. 6 shows a diagrammatic representation of hardware resources 600 including one or more processors (or processor cores) 610, one or more memory/storage devices 620, and one or more communication resources 630, each of which may be communicatively coupled via a bus 640. For

embodiments where node virtualization (e.g., NFV) is utilized, a hypervisor 602 may be executed to provide an execution environment for one or more network slices/sub-slices to utilize the hardware resources 600

[0070] The processors 610 (e.g., a central processing unit (CPU), a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor, a complex instruction set computing (CISC) processor, a graphics processing unit (GPU), a digital signal processor (DSP) such as a baseband processor, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), another processor, or any suitable combination thereof) may include, for example, a processor 612 and a processor 614.

[0071] The memory/storage devices 620 may include main memory, disk storage, or any suitable combination thereof. The memory/storage devices 620 may include, but are not limited to any type of volatile or non-volatile memory such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM), static random-access memory (SRAM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), Flash memory, solid-state storage, etc.

[0072] The communication resources 630 may include interconnection or network interface components or other suitable devices to communicate with one or more peripheral devices 604 or one or more databases 606 via a network 608. For example, the communication resources 630 may include wired communication components (e.g., for coupling via a Universal Serial Bus (USB)), cellular communication components, NFC components, Bluetooth® components (e.g., Bluetooth® Low Energy), Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components.

[0073] Instructions 650 may comprise software, a program, an application, an applet, an app, or other executable code for causing at least any of the processors 610 to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. The instructions 650 may reside, completely or partially, within at least one of the processors 610 (e.g., within the processor's cache memory), the memory /storage devices 620, or any suitable combination thereof. In some embodiments, the instructions 650 may reside on a tangible, nonvolatile communication device readable medium, which may include a single

medium or multiple media. Furthermore, any portion of the instructions 650 may be transferred to the hardware resources 600 from any combination of the peripheral devices 604 or the databases 606. Accordingly, the memory of processors 610, the memory/storage devices 620, the peripheral devices 604, and the databases 606 are examples of computer-readable and machine-readable media.

[0074] As above, as the demand for data services (e.g., voice and video) continues to increase, LTE networks experience increasingly heavy traffic, leading to adverse network effects such as reduced data rates, increased delay and increased interference. There is an inherent limit, however, to increasing the capacity of the LTE network and provide additional bandwidth within the LTE network for a UE. Operators have increasingly turned to unlicensed spectrum use in a WLAN network that service the location to alleviate network traffic on the LTE licensed spectrum and increase network communication capability. A WLAN network may be a WiFi network that operates using IEEE 802.11 protocols. UEs and eNBs (or for 5G NBs - gNBs) that operate in the unlicensed spectrum in addition to the licensed LTE band may be referred to as LAA UEs and LAA eNBs, which are generally referred to herein merely as UEs and eNBs.

[0075] In some embodiments, a WLAN access point (e.g., AP or WAP) may communicate data to the UE, acting as a secondary cell (SCell) (or the equivalent) to the primary cell (PCell) provided by the eNB. Alternatively, another eNB, such as a macro or local eNB, may act as an intermediary, providing data from the core network to the AP or from the AP to the core network via the WLAN Termination (WT). In this case, the eNB may schedule at least some packets to be sent to the UE to the AP (in addition to some of the packets being sent directly from the eNB to the UE), thereby providing

LTE/WLAN Aggregation (LWA) and/or LWIP capabilities according to 3 GPP RAN2 and/or 3GPP RAN3 working group (WG) technical specifications (RAN2: TS 36.300, TS 36.331; RAN3: TS 36.461, 36.462, 36.463, 36.464 and 36.465). In LWA, a UE in RRC CONNECTED mode is configured by the eNB to utilize radio resources of LTE and WLAN. In some collocated embodiments, the eNB and the AP may be integrated into the same device (collocated), or, in non-collocated embodiments, the eNB and the AP may be connected via a WT using an Xw interface. Two bearer types exist for LWA: a split LWA bearer (in which the PDCP layer is able to send PDUs to the RLC layer and the LWAAP layer) and a switched LWA bearer (in which the PDCP layer sends PDUs solely to the LWAAP layer).

[0076] In some embodiments, LWA may be provided based on an architecture with aggregation below Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) and LWA split and switched bearer configuration and optionally a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol (GTP)-User (GTP-U) tunnel between the eNB and the WT. The GTP-U tunnel may be employed in the user plane to carry LTE user data traffic between the tunnel endpoints. The WT may be located in either an AP, an Admission Control (AC) or deployed as a standalone network node. WTs can be added, modified or released by the eNB.

[0077] To make efficient use of the LTE and WLAN networks when LWA (and/or LWIP) is used, the UE may, as shown in FIGS. 1-6, have one or more transceivers configured to communicate with the E-UTRAN (containing the eNB) and the WLAN (containing one or more APs). In some embodiments, the UE may have separate transceivers to communicate with the eNB and with the AP.

[0078] However, WLAN radio unavailability when LWA is to be used may be problematic as, up to Release 14 of the 3GPP Specification, there has been no clear definition of the UE and eNB interworking when this occurs. The WLAN radio unavailability may be caused by different reasons. These reasons may include that the WiFi bands are being used for another purpose (e.g., other UEs), based on user preference (e.g., WiFi access by the UE is limited by the user), or when the WiFi is simply deactivated (e.g., WiFi access on the UE is deactivated or the AP is deactivated) or when UE is connected to another (e.g. home or enterprise) WiFi AP, which is not part of the LWA/LWIP network.

[0079] Various WLAN availability scenarios may also exist. In one scenario, the WLAN may become unavailable while LWA is active. In another scenario, the WLAN may become unavailable for LWA while WLAN measurements are being sent. In another scenario, the WLAN may have been

unavailable and then become available. In this latter scenario, the WLAN may have been suspended for an extended period of time, after which the network may release the LWA bearer and terminate LWA. The resulting

interoperability issues may include lack of definition regarding what happens to packets already in the WLAN Tx queue, as well as the manner in which the UE may be able to indicate to the network that WLAN radio is unavailable or has become available.

[0080] It may thus be desirable for the UE to inform the network of availability of WLAN via new signaling, as well as to provide a determination for disposal of packets in transmission over the WLAN. For the latter case, in some embodiments, packets in transmission over the WLAN may be discarded and TCP/IP may be depended on for retransmission of the discarded packets. In some embodiments, the UE may additionally inform the network of the WLAN unavailability via the new signaling. Alternatively, cross-RAT communications may be used for retransmission of the discarded packets.

[0081] In some embodiments, measurement reports can be used by the eNB to detect if the WLAN connection becomes available after being unavailable. While such measurement reports may not be excessively accurate, a high level of accuracy may be superfluous as the measurement report itself may be used as an indication of the availability and of the WLAN general strength. Moreover, there is currently no restriction in the 3GPP specification on sending measurement reports if the WLAN is being used for user WiFi.

[0082] In some embodiments, the eNB may leave the measurement reports always configured, even if LWA is disconnected at present. This solution, while simple in one regard may however increase power use by the UE and consume network resources. In addition, inter-operability issues between the UE and eNB may delay activation of the LWA for example, since the network may not be aware that radio resources are again available.

Likewise, when the WLAN is being used for user WiFi, the network may continue to attempt to activate LWA. This may result in continuous rejects from the UE, as the network may not be aware of when the WLAN is not being used for user WiFi, leading to wasted network resources.

[0083] Alternatively or in addition to using the measurement reports to determine whether the WLAN connection is available, in some embodiments, the LWA suspend/resume framework may be used only to indicate to the eNB that the WLAN has again become available if the LWA connection was suspended, but the LWA bearer not released. When the LWA bearer is completely released (with cause wlanUnavailable for example), then the LWA connection may be unable to be resumed using the LWA suspend/resume framework. In this case, the eNB may receive an error indication from the WT.

[0084] In some embodiments, packets in the WLAN Tx queue after

LWA disconnection may be discarded. The transmitter (the UE or eNB) may further depend on Status Reports or TCP/IP for retransmission of the discarded packets. Alternatively, cross-RAT retransmission may be used: that is, packets that fail to be transmitted/ACKed by the WLAN may be retransmitted on the LTE network after LWA is disconnected.

[0085] In more detail, as above, different embodiments may be used to notify the network of LWA availability after WLAN unavailability. The embodiments may be in some cases complementary or in other cases may be used as alternatives. FIG. 7 illustrates a LWA process in accordance with some embodiments. The devices in FIG. 7 may be described in FIGS. 1-6. FIG. 7 shows some operations but for convenience may not show all communications between various devices for the LWA process.

[0086] Prior to signaling LWA disconnection, the E-UTRAN

(hereinafter referred to as the eNB 704) can configure the UE 702 to connect to a WLAN using RRC signalling. Specifically, in some embodiments, the UE 702 may be configured through a LWA-Configuration information element in a RRCConnectionReconfiguration message containing a WLAN-MobilityConfig information element. The LWA-Configuration information element may be used to setup, modify or release LTE-WLAN Aggregation.

The eNB 704 may also configure bearers for LWA (referred to herein as LWA DRBs). The WLAN-MobilityConfig information element may be shown as:


[0087] The UE 702 may use WLAN parameters received from the E- UTRAN in performing WLAN measurements. The UE 702 may also perform WLAN connection management while LWA is configured. The UE 702 may be configured by the eNB 704 with multiple LWA DRBs. An example of the LWA-Configuration information element is:

L WA-Configurcttion


[0088] In the LWA-Configuration information element, Iwa-MobilityConfig may indicate parameters used for WLAN mobility (procedures to use when moving to a different eNB), hva-WT -Counter may indicate a parameter used by the UE 702 for WLAN authentication (the key for the UE 702 to use for encrypting communications with the eNB 704), and WT-MAC-Address may indicate the WT MAC address of the WT handling the LWA operation for the UE 702. The UE may use the WT MAC address in uplink transmissions to enable routing of LWA uplink data from the AP 706 to the WT. The E-UTRAN may configure the WT-MAC-Address field only if ul-LWA-Config-rl4 is configured for at least one LWA bearer. The Iwa-MobilityConfig information element may include a wlan-ToReleaseList and/or wlan-ToAddList with one or more WLAN-Identifiers , from which the UE 702 may identify APs that are to be released and remove the WLAN-Identifiers from the wlan-MobilitySet or APs that are to be added and add the WLAN-Identifiers to the wlan-MobilitySet, respectively; an associationTimer information element used by the UE 702 to start or restart timer T351 with the timer value set to the associationTimer; a successReportRequested information element used by the UE 702 to set the corresponding value in the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig information element; and a wlan-SuspendConfig information element used by the UE 702 to set the corresponding value in the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig information element.

[0089] The Iwa-Configuration information element may be set to release, in which case the UE 702 may release the LWA configuration. To release the LWA configuration, the UE may disable data handling for each LWA DRB that is part of the UE configuration and then perform PDCP data recovery. The UE may also stop WLAN status monitoring and WLAN connection attempts for LWA and indicate the release of the LWA configuration, if configured, to upper layers. The UE may also delete any existing values in the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig and VarWLAN-Status information element and stop timer T351, if running, which is used for retransmissions of the RRC Connection Setup message. The UE variable VarWLAN-Status includes information about the status of WLAN connection for LWA, RCLWI or LWIP and, more specifically, indicates the connection status to WLAN and causes for connection failures.

[0090] Once set up, WLAN connection management procedures may occur when the UE 702 is using a WLAN connection for LWA. The WLAN connection management procedures may include WLAN status monitoring and WLAN connection status reporting to the eNB 704. To perform the WLAN connection management procedures, the UE 702 may store a WLAN mobility set, which is a set of one or more WLAN identifiers (WLAN APs identified by at least one Basic Service Set Identification (BSSID), SSID, and/or Homogeneous Extended SSID (HESSID)) in a wlan-MobilitySet information element in the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig variable received in an LWA configuration of an RRC message from the eNB 704 or in a SIB message, such as SIB 17. A WLAN is considered to be inside the WLAN mobility set if its identifiers match all WLAN identifiers of at least one entry in wlan-MobilitySet and outside the WLAN mobility set otherwise. An example of the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig variable is:

VarWLAN-MobilityConfig UE variable


[0091] where, as above, the wlan-MobilitySet information element may indicate the WLAN mobility set and successReportRequested may indicate whether the UE is to report a successful connection to the WLAN. The UE 702 may switch between WLAN APs belonging to the mobility set without informing the eNB 704. When the UE 702 is configured with a wlan-MobilitySet, the UE 702 may attempt to connect to a WLAN (as shown, AP 706) whose identifiers match those of the configured mobility set. UE mobility to WLAN APs not belonging to the UE mobility set may be controlled by the eNB 704. This may be accomplished by the eNB 704 updating the WLAN mobility set based on measurement reports provided by the UE 702. In some embodiments, the UE 702 may be connected to at most

one mobility set at a time. All APs belonging to a mobility set may share a common WT that terminates the control (Xw-C) and user (Xw-U) interface.

[0092] When the UE 702 receives a new or updated WLAN mobility set, the UE 702 may initiate a connection to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set, if not already connected to such a WLAN, and start WLAN status monitoring. As above, the UE 702 can perform WLAN mobility within the WLAN mobility set (connect or reconnect to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set) without any signaling to the E-UTRAN.

[0093] The UE 702 in the RRC CONNECTED state may also start WLAN Status Monitoring, which may inform the eNB 704 about the status of WLAN connection for LWA. The UE 702 may determine whether a WLAN configuration (rclwi-Configuration) has been configured and whether a WLAN connection to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set has been successfully established or maintained after a WLAN mobility set configuration update, after a hva-WT -Counter update or after a Iwip-Counter update. If so, the UE 702 may set the status in the VarWLAN-Status information element to successfulAssociation, stop timer T351, if running and if successReportRequested in the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig information element is set to TRUE, perform WLAN Connection Status Reporting.

[0094] However, if the WLAN connection or connection attempts to all WLANs inside the WLAN mobility set fails, the UE 702 may set the status in the VarWLAN-Status information element to failureWlanRadioLink if the failure is due to WLAN radio link issues and set the status in VarWLAN-Status information element to failureWlanUnavailable if the failure is due to internal WLAN-related problems in the UE 702 (e.g., connection to another WLAN [not in the wlan-MobilitySet] based on user preferences, the WLAN connection of the UE 702 turned off, a connection rejection from WLAN or other WLAN problems). In either case, the UE 702 may remove all WLAN related measurement reporting entries within VarMeasReportList to be transmitted to the eNB 704, stop timer T351, if running, perform WLAN

Connection Status Reporting with the appropriate values, stop WLAN Status Monitoring and WLAN connection attempts, and, if the UE is configured with the WLAN configuration (rclwi-Configuration), release the rclwi-Configuration and inform the upper layers of a move-traffic -from- WLAN indication.

[0095] If a wlan-SuspendResume 'Allowed information element in the wlan-SuspendConfig information element within the VarWLAN- MobilityConfig is set to TRUE and the WLAN connection to all WLANs inside WLAN mobility set has become temporarily unavailable, the UE 702 may set the status in the VarWLAN-Status information element to suspended, WLAN Connection Status Reporting may be performed, and if the wlan-SuspendTriggersStatusReport information element in the wlan-SuspendConfig information element within the VarWLAN-MobilityConfig is set to TRUE a PDCP Status Report may be triggered. If the wlan-SuspendResume Allowed information element is set to TRUE and the status in the VarWLAN-Status information element in the last WLAN Connection Status Report by the UE 702 was suspended and the WLAN connection to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set is successfully re-established, the UE 702 may set the status in the VarWLAN-Status information element to resumed and the WLAN Connection Status Reporting performed.

[0096] The UE 702 may be configured by the E-UTRAN 704 to perform WLAN measurements. The WLAN measurement can be configured using WLAN identifiers (BSSID, HESSID and SSID), WLAN carrier information and WLAN band. WLAN measurement reporting may be triggered using Received signal strength indication (RSSI). The WLAN measurement report may contain, for each included WLAN, RSSI and WLAN identifier, WLAN carrier information, WLAN band, channel utilization, station count, admission capacity, backhaul rate and an indication whether the UE 702 is connected to the WLAN 704. WLAN measurements may be configured to support LWA activation and deactivation, as well as inter-WLAN mobility set mobility. The RRC signaling may thus configure the UE 702 for WLAN connection status reporting and LWA. The UE 702 may in consequence perform WLAN status monitoring to determine whether a status of a WLAN connection of the LWA comprises the WLAN connection being

temporary unavailable or the WLAN connection being successfully established after the previous WLAN Connection Status Report message from the UE indicates WLAN suspension (or the WLAN connection being successfully established after being temporary unavailable). The UE 702 may store the status in memory.

[0097] The UE 702 may subsequently initiate the WLAN status reporting procedure to provide feedback to the eNB 704 related to the WLAN status and operation (i.e., WLAN connection failure or success) as a

WLANConnectionStatusReport. In some embodiments, a determination of what constitutes a WLAN connection failure may be based on a UE implementation. Upon determination of a WLAN connection failure, data reception on the WLAN may be suspended and the UE 702 may avoid triggering RRC connection re-establishment. If the WLAN bearer is a split bearer, no impact occurs to the LTE portion of the bearer.

[0098] The WLAN status reporting procedure may include transmission of the WLANConnectionStatusReport message in other RRC signalling. The other RRC signaling message may be a UL-DCCH-Message that contains:



[0099] The WLANConnectionStatusReport message may include a

WLAN-Status information element that indicates the current status of the WLAN connection of the UE 702. The WLAN status reporting procedure may be performed in response to a number of conditions, including: after successful connection to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set while timer T351 is running after a WLAN mobility set change; after a hva-WT -Counter update or after a Iwip-Counter update (if success report is requested by the eNB 704), connection or connection attempts to all WLANs inside WLAN mobility set fails; timer T351 expires (in which case, the UE 702 may transmit the WLANConnectionStatusReport message in which a wlan-status in a VarWLAN -Status information element is set to failureTimeout and then stop WLAN status monitoring and WLAN connection attempts); the WLAN connection to all WLANs inside WLAN mobility set becomes temporarily unavailable; or the WLAN connection to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set is successfully established after its previous WLANConnectionStatusReport indicating WLAN temporary suspension.

[00100] Once the WLAN status reporting procedure is initiated, the UE

702 may initiate transmission of the WLANConnectionStatusReport message, which after is submitted to lower layers for transmission to the eNB 704. This message may contain a VarWLAN -Status information element in which a wlan-status is set to the current status (e.g., suspended/resumed). When the UE 702 becomes unable to establish or continue WLAN offloading, the UE 702 may send the WLANConnectionStatusReport message to indicate to the eNB 704 that the WLAN connection has failed; the UE 702 may then move all offloaded traffic to the E-UTRAN 704. Thus, in response to a determination that the status of the WLAN connection is the WLAN connection is temporary unavailable or the WLAN connection is successfully established after a previous WLAN Connection Status Report from the UE indicates WLAN temporary suspension, the UE 702 may initiate transmission of a WLAN Connection Status Reporting message that contains the status.

[00101] The WLANConnectionStatusReport message may be transmitted on signalling radio bearer SRB l on a Dedicated Control Channel. One example of a WLANConnectionStatusReport message is provided below, in which the WLAN-Status information element may indicate the connection status to WLAN and the cause of failures. The WLANConnectionStatusReport message may or may not have the wlan-Status-vl430. If the wlan-Status-vl430 is included in the WLANConnectionStatusReport message, the E-UTRAN may ignore the wlan-Status-rl3.

WLANConnectionStatusReport message


[00102] As above, explicit signaling of LWA/WLAN availability to the network may be used to indicate whether the WLAN has become available. An example of a 2-bit WLAN-Status information element is provided below:

WLAN-Status information element

a L a L. :.i : ■ .; I'. U t-" Ι·;Η '.': Ι·.[. ·:: ο..-;.·.-; o :.■ a L o'i , l"a ' " ,j e* " a Rao : o , ' n k , f a ' " a n J a '-'a ■ * a Ό " c , fa ' " j c': : mco j L ;

ϊΐ νΥ-j L a L ;.i .-; ..- - S O : : K Ut hi) i jpe -id c , : c-.-; jni:: d '·

[00103] In this case, the WLAN-Status information element may contain values that indicate whether a WLAN connection to a WLAN inside the WLAN mobility set has been successfully established (or maintained during an update) (successfulAssociation), the WLAN connection or connection attempts fails (failureWlanRadioLink), the WLAN connection fails due to internal UE WLAN -related problems (failureWlanUnavailable), or timer T351 expires (failureTimeout) . As shown above, the "resumed" value in the WLAN-Status-vl430 may be used in all cases rather than a separate new value (wlanAvailable). The WLAN-Status-vl430 may use a 2-bit value as above (i.e., indicate one of two possible statuses) or a 4-bit value provided below, where spare values are reserved for later changes to the 3GPP standard:

WLAN-Status information element

¾!!¾!!!!!!¾!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!¾

[00104] The "resumed" value may thus be used in two different scenarios. In the first scenario, LWA is already suspended; the "resumed" value may indicate to the network that LWA is resumed. In the second scenario, LWA is not suspended nor active; the "resumed" value may indicate to the network that WLAN is available again to be used for LWA/LWIP.

[00105] Alternatively, a new value may be added to the

WLANConnectionStatusReport to indicate that the WLAN has become available. This value may be optional, and thus only used if the WLAN becomes available after a reported unavailability, after LWA was released while in suspended mode, or after LWA was rejected because of WLAN availability. An example of a 4-bit WLAN-Status information element containing the new value (wlanAvailable) is provided below:

WLAN-Status information element

i ||¾|S| § |||||||||||||||||||

[00106] The above may be used provided that WLAN suspend/resume functionality, provided from the eNB in a WLAN-SuspendConfig information element, is permitted. An example of the WLAN-SuspendConfig information element is provided below:

WLAN-SuspendConfig


[00107] where the wlan-SuspendResume Allowed may indicate whether the UE is allowed to use the suspend-resume mechanism, i.e., to indicate that the WLAN is temporarily unavailable and WLAN then becoming again available after temporary unavailability; and the wlan-SuspendTriggersStatusReport may indicate whether the UE is to trigger a

PDCP status report when the WLAN is temporarily unavailable and the UE to report the status.

[00108] In some embodiments, a race condition may exist in which the

UE resumes LWA, but the network releases LWA before receiving the resume information. In this case, the UE may already receive the LWA Release message and release LWA normally. Afterwards if the network continues to enable LWA, LWA may be reconfigured.

[00109] Alternatively or in addition, measurement reports may be restricted during a non-LWA WLAN or when the WLAN is not available for LWA. In particular, the UE may avoid triggering Wl reports if the WLAN is not available for LWA/LWIP. In some embodiments, at least event-based LWA measurement reports may not be triggered or reported the when WLAN is unavailable for LWA and/or LWIP operation. This can be added as a clarification to 3GPP TS 36.331. For example, section 5.5.3.1 of 3GPP TS 36.331 may be modified to not transmit the report if the WLAN is unavailable for LWA and/or LWIP.

[00110] In this case, once the WLAN becomes unavailable for

LWA/LWIP, the UE may reset the measurement reports counters, and perform all actions corresponding to the events (including Wl) satisfying the exit criteria. This may guarantee that once the WLAN is once again available, the UE is still allowed to send measurement reports, and is not blocked because of reaching the reportAmount.

[00111] In another embodiment, entry criteria for event Wl may be modified such that WLAN measurement reports are not triggered if the WLAN is not available for LWA and/or LWIP operation. The above condition may be added to the exit criteria: the WLAN not available for LWA/LWIP.

[00112] In the race condition in which the UE sends a Wl measurement report, and afterwards the WLAN becomes unavailable a number of operations may or may not be performed. In some embodiments, nothing may be done -the eNB may try to activate LWA, but receives a reject from the UE because of WLAN unavailability. In this case, when the WLAN is available again, the above embodiments may be used to notify the eNB of WLAN availability.

[00113] In other embodiments, a WLANConnectionStatusReport may be transmitted by the UE to indicate that the WLAN is unavailable. In this case, periodic measurements may be excluded from this restriction since the periodic measurements are in general used for Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) rather than for activation. In this case, the eNB would leave the WLAN measurements always configured even if LWA is reported to be unavailable. As above, this can be added as a clarification to the specification.

[00114] In some embodiments, the UE may indicate WLAN availability for LWA/LWIP in the measurement. The UE may indicate that the measurements may be reported, although LWA cannot be initiated. This may be accomplished either by adding a new field in the measurement report sent to the eNB or by adding a new value to WLAN-Status-rl4, e.g.

wlanMeasurements Available. However, this assumes that the network may perpetually retain the measurements configured for this to indicate WLAN availability to the network.

[00115] Such a solution may be used for ANR, where the eNB might desire to have the measurement reports even if LWA cannot be enabled. This permits differentiation between two scenarios: APs available but LWA is not possible and APs not available.

[00116] Alternatively, a new field can be added to WLAN-Status-vl4 to indicate whether measurements and LWA/LWIP are both available or only measurements are available.

[00117] In another embodiment, while the WLAN radio in the UE is

ON but cannot be used for LWA/LWIP, the UE may build and send

measurement as if the WLAN AP related to LWA/LWIP are not visible. In this case, the UE may act as if the WLAN RSSI for the AP is in the noise floor even if the AP is within the reception range.

[00118] In all the above embodiments, error handling at the eNB may be adapted to consider cases in which the eNB would receive information about WLAN availability when LWA is not enabled.

[00119] Examples

[00120] Example 1 is an apparatus of user equipment (UE), the apparatus comprising: a memory; and processing circuitry arranged to: decode Radio Resource Control (RRC) signalling from an evolved NodeB (eNB); configure the UE for Wireless Local Area network (WLAN) connection status reporting and Long Term Evolution (LTE)-WLAN aggregation (LWA), in response to RRC signalling; perform WLAN status monitoring to determine whether a status of a WLAN connection of the LWA comprises the WLAN connection being unavailable or the WLAN connection being successfully established after a previous WLAN Connection Status Report message from the UE indicates WLAN suspension, the status stored in the memory; and in response to a

determination that the status of the WLAN connection comprises the WLAN connection being unavailable or the WLAN connection being successfully established after the previous WLAN Connection Status Report message from the UE indicates WLAN suspension, initiate transmission of UE RRC signalling, the UE signalling comprising a WLAN Connection Status Report message, wherein the WLAN Connection Status Report message comprises the status.

[00121] In Example 2, the subject matter of Example 1 includes, wherein: the WLAN Connection Status Report message comprises a WLAN-Status information element that indicates the status.

[00122] In Example 3, the subject matter of Example 2 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to: set a value of the WLAN-Status information element to: suspended when the WLAN connection is unavailable, and resumed when the WLAN connection is successfully established and a status of the previous WLAN Connection Status Report message is suspended.

[00123] In Example 4, the subject matter of Examples 1-3 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: determine whether the RRC signalling indicates to the UE to release the LWA configuration; and in response to a determination that the RRC signalling indicates to the UE to release the LWA configuration, release the LWA configuration in place of initiation of the transmission of the WLAN Connection Status Report message.

[00124] In Example 5, the subject matter of Examples 1-4 includes, wherein: the WLAN Connection Status Report message indicates suspended or resumed in response to the RRC signalling indicating suspension or resumption of the WLAN connection is to trigger transmission of the WLAN Connection Status Report message.

[00125] In Example 6, the subject matter of Examples 1-5 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: perform a predetermined set of measurements on the WLAN connection dependent on whether the WLAN connection is available.

[00126] In Example 7, the subject matter of Example 6 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: initiate transmission of a measurement report that includes the measurements to the eNB dependent on

which WLANs the RRC signalling indicates are to be reported, the

measurements dependent on WLAN identifiers when the RRC signaling indicates that measurement reports are transmitted for fewer than all WLANs.

[00127] In Example 8, the subject matter of Examples 6-7 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: initiate transmission of a measurement report that indicates whether the UE is connected to the WLAN.

[00128] In Example 9, the subject matter of Examples 1-8 includes, wherein: the processing circuitry comprises a baseband processor configured to encode transmissions to, and decode transmissions from, the eNB.

[00129] Example 10 is an apparatus of an evolved NodeB (eNB), the apparatus comprising: a memory; and processing circuitry arranged to: establish communication with a user equipment (UE) using Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) aggregation (LWA) comprising a WLAN connection; and in response to a status of the WLAN connection being unavailable or the WLAN connection being successfully established after a previous WLAN Connection Status Report from the UE indicates WLAN suspension, decode a WLAN Connection Status Report message that comprises the status of the WLAN connection, a status of a last WLAN Connection Status Report message stored in the memory.

[00130] In Example 11, the subject matter of Example 10 includes, wherein: the WLAN Connection Status Report message comprises a WLAN-Status information element that indicates the status.

[00131] In Example 12, the subject matter of Example 11 includes, wherein: a value of the WLAN-Status information element is set to: suspended when the WLAN connection is unavailable, and resumed when the WLAN connection is successfully established and the status of the last WLAN

Connection Status Report message is suspended.

[00132] In Example 13, the subject matter of Example 12 includes, wherein: the WLAN-Status information element indicates a status selected from suspended and resumed.

[00133] In Example 14, the subject matter of Example 13 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: encode, for transmission to the UE, RRC signalling that indicates to the UE that suspension or resumption of the WLAN connection is to trigger transmission of the WLAN Connection Status Report message.

[00134] In Example 15, the subject matter of Examples 12-14 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: encode, for transmission to the UE, RRC signalling that indicates to the UE to release the LWA configuration, the LWA configuration released in place of reception of the WLAN Connection Status Report message.

[00135] In Example 16, the subject matter of Examples 12-15 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: decode the transmission of the WLAN Connection Status Report message with the value resumed in response to the WLAN connection being successfully established after being unavailable.

[00136] In Example 17, the subject matter of Examples 10-16 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: encode, for transmission to the UE, RRC signalling that indicates to the UE that WLAN measurements are dependent on WLAN identifiers; and decode a measurement report containing the measurements from the UE in response to the WLAN connection failing matching the WLAN identifiers.

[00137] In Example 18, the subject matter of Examples 10-17 includes, wherein the processing circuitry is further arranged to: encode, for transmission to the UE, RRC signalling that indicates to the UE that WLAN measurements are to be made for all WLANs; and decode a measurement report containing measurements from the UE in response to the UE being connected to the WLAN.

[00138] Example 19 is a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium that stores instructions for execution by one or more processors of a user equipment (UE), the one or more processors to configure the UE to, when the instructions are executed: establish communication with an evolved NodeB (eNB) through Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Wireless Local Area network (WLAN) aggregation (LWA) comprising an LTE connection and a WLAN connection; determine whether a status of a WLAN connection of the LWA

comprises the WLAN connection being unavailable or the WLAN connection being successfully established after a previous WLAN Connection Status Report from the UE indicates WLAN suspension; and in response to a determination that the status of the WLAN connection comprises the WLAN connection being unavailable or the WLAN connection being successfully established after being unavailable, initiate transmission of a WLAN Connection Status Report message, the WLAN Connection Status Report message comprising a WLAN-Status information element having a status selected from: suspended when the WLAN connection is unavailable, and resumed when the WLAN connection is successfully established and a status of a last WLAN Connection Status Report message is suspended.

[00139] In Example 20, the subject matter of Example 19 includes, wherein the instructions further configure the one or more processors to configure the UE to: initiate the transmission of the WLAN Connection Status Report message that indicates resumed in response to the WLAN connection being successfully established after being unavailable prior to reception from the eNB of a message to release a LWA configuration.

[00140] Example 21 is at least one machine-readable medium including instructions that, when executed by processing circuitry, cause the processing circuitry to perform operations to implement of any of Examples 1-20.

[00141] Example 22 is an apparatus comprising means to implement of any of Examples 1-20.

[00142] Example 23 is a system to implement of any of Examples 1-20.

[00143] Example 24 is a method to implement of any of Examples 1-20.

[00144] Although an embodiment has been described with reference to specific example embodiments, it will be evident that various modifications and changes may be made to these embodiments without departing from the broader scope of the present disclosure. Accordingly, the specification and drawings are to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense. The

accompanying drawings that form a part hereof show, by way of illustration, and not of limitation, specific embodiments in which the subject matter may be practiced. The embodiments illustrated are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the teachings disclosed herein. Other embodiments may be utilized and derived therefrom, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of this disclosure. This Detailed Description, therefore, is not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of various embodiments is defined only by the appended claims, along with the full range of equivalents to which such claims are entitled.

[00145] The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided to comply with 37

C.F.R. § 1.72(b), requiring an abstract that will allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. In addition, in the foregoing Detailed Description, it can be seen that various features are grouped together in a single embodiment for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure. This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed embodiments require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter lies in less than all features of a single disclosed embodiment. Thus, the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment.