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1. (WO2017168032) BELL STATE MEASUREMENT
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CLAIMS:

1. An apparatus comprising:

- a first and a second polarization beam splitter-rotator, together arranged to split two incoming polarization encoded qubits into four first optical modes, the apparatus being configured to align polarizations of the four first optical modes;

- an interferometer stage configured to obtain, from the four first optical modes, four second optical modes, and

- four detectors arranged to receive at least one of the four second optical modes.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the first polarization beam splitter-rotator is arranged to receive a first one of the two incoming polarization encoded qubits and split it into two first optical modes, and the second polarization beam splitter-rotator is arranged to receive a second one of the two incoming polarization encoded qubits and split it into two further first optical modes.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the apparatus further comprises at least one processing core configured to determine, when photons are detected in the four detectors and to determine a Bell state of the incoming two polarization encoded qubits based on when the photons are detected.

4. The apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the at least one processing core is configured to determine a first Bell state responsive to photons being detected in a first and third one, or a second and fourth one, of the four detectors simultaneously, and the at least one processing core is configured to determine a second Bell state responsive to photons being detected in the first and the second one, or the third and the fourth one, of the four detectors simultaneously.

5. The apparatus according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the at least one processing core is configured to determine, responsive to photon detection in only one of the four detectors, one of the following: a third Bell state, a fourth Bell state, and only one qubit reached the apparatus.

6. The apparatus according to any of claims 1 - 5, wherein the interferometer stage comprises a double length 4x4 multimode interferometer.

7. The apparatus according to any of claims 1 - 5, wherein the interferometer stage comprises two 2x2 multimode interferometer elements, each 2x2 multimode interferometer element being arranged to provide its output to no more than two detectors from among the four detectors.

8. The apparatus according to any of claims 1 - 5, wherein the interferometer stage comprises two 2x2 multimode interferometer elements, each 2x2 multimode interferometer element being arranged to provide its output to at least three detectors from among the four detectors.

9. The apparatus according to any of claims 1 - 8, wherein the four detectors comprise four superconducting nanowire single photon detectors.

10. The apparatus according to any of claims 1 - 9, wherein the apparatus is integrated on an integrated photonic chip.

11. A method comprising:

- splitting two incoming polarization encoded qubits into four first optical modes;

- aligning polarizations of the four first optical modes;

- obtaining, using an at least one interferometer, from the four first optical modes, four second optical modes, and

- receiving at least one of the four second optical modes using four detectors.

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein a first polarization beam splitter-rotator receives a first one of the two incoming polarization encoded qubits and splits it into two first optical modes, and a second polarization beam splitter-rotator receives a second one of the two incoming polarization encoded qubits and splits it into two further first optical modes.

13. The method according to claim 11 or 12, further comprising determining, when photons of the four second optical modes are received in at least one of the four detectors, and determining a Bell state of the incoming two polarization encoded qubits based on when the photons are received.

14. The method according to claim 13, further comprising determining a first Bell state responsive to photons being detected in a first and third one, or a second and fourth one, of the four detectors simultaneously, and determining a second Bell state responsive to photons being detected in the first and the second one, or the third and the fourth one, of the four detectors simultaneously.

15. The method according to claim 13 or 14, further comprising determining, responsive to photon detection in only one of the four detectors, one of the following: a third Bell state, a fourth Bell state, and only one qubit reached the apparatus.

16. The method according to any of claims 11 - 15, wherein the at least one interferometer comprises a double length 4x4 multimode interferometer.

17. The method according to any of claims 11 - 15, wherein the at least one interferometer comprises two 2x2 multimode interferometer elements, each 2x2 multimode interferometer element being arranged to provide its output to no more than two detectors from among the four detectors.

18. The method according to any of claims 11 - 15, wherein the at least one interferometer comprises two 2x2 multimode interferometer elements, each 2x2 multimode interferometer element being arranged to provide its output to at least three detectors from among the four detectors.

19. The method according to any of claims 11 - 18, wherein the four detectors comprise four superconducting nanowire single photon detectors.

20. The method according to any of claims 11 - 19, wherein the method is performed in an apparatus that is integrated on an integrated photonic chip.

21. An apparatus comprising:

- means for splitting two incoming polarization encoded qubits into four first optical modes;

- means for aligning polarizations of the four first optical modes;

- means for obtaining, using an interferometer, from the four first optical modes, four second optical modes, and

- means for receiving at least one of the four second optical modes using four detectors.

22. A non-transitory computer readable medium having stored thereon a set of computer readable instructions that, when executed by at least one processor, cause an apparatus to at least:

- split two incoming polarization encoded qubits into four first optical modes;

- align polarizations of the four first optical modes;

- obtaining, using at least one interferometer, from the four first optical modes, four second optical modes, and

- receive at least one of the four second optical modes using four detectors.

23. A computer program configured to cause a method in accordance with at least one of claims 11 - 20 to be performed.