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1. (WO2019066863) WAKEUP RADIO PACKET FOR USE IN A SUB GIGAHERTZ BAND
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WAKEUP RADIO PACKET FOR USE IN A SUB GIGAHERTZ BAND

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This disclosure generally relates to devices and methods for wireless communications. More particularly, this disclosure relates to devices and methods of waking up a main radio based on receipt of a packet by a low power radio, wherein the main radio and low power radio operate on different frequency bands.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Small mobile computing devices such as wearable devices and sensors may be constrained by their small battery capacity but still need to support wireless communications technologies such as, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) or Bluetooth (BT) to connect to other computing devices (e.g., smartphone or access point) and exchange data. The process of periodically waking up and connecting computing devices via Wi-Fi or BT can consume a considerable amount of the power of battery -constrained devices and the available bandwidth, thereby making it critical to minimize energy consumption of such communications technologies in wearable devices.

[0003] Given recent increases in both the number of larger mobile computing devices and small mobile computing devices, that use Wi-Fi based technologies to connect to the Internet, and that each of these devices must share a limited amount of the bandwidth, the total amount of signaling also increases. This can become especially problematic when small mobile computing devices continue to exchange packets with the access point in order to maintain a connection with the WLAN when uploading data to the WLAN or downloading data from the WLAN. The reason why this is a problem is because the same bandwidth allocated to download or upload large amounts of data by larger mobile computing devices, with high data rate radios, is the same allocated to download or upload small amounts of data by smaller mobile computing devices, with low data rate radios. As a result, the same amount of bandwidth is reserved for smaller and larger amounts of data, resulting in an inefficient use of the bandwidth. Furthermore, because low data rate radios are allocated the same amount of bandwidth as high data rate radios, when a low data rate radio is using a channel, to transmit or receive data, the channel will be reserved by the low data rate radio for a longer period. This is because the data rate at which the low data rate radio transmits and/or receives data is lower than that of a high data rate radio. This is further compounded by the fact that the same amount of bandwidth is allocated for use by low data rate radios to wake up smaller mobile computing devices and the period that the channel must be reserved in order for the smaller mobile computing devices to be awoken is longer than that of a high data rate radio. Consequently, a WLAN that is densely populated with both larger mobile computing devices and smaller mobile computing devices could result in substantial delays in the larger mobile computing devices gaining access to the channel to transmit and/or receive data.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] FIG. 1 depicts an example network environment of an illustrative wireless network, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0005] FIG. 2 depicts an illustrative legacy LP-WUR wake-up packet, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0006] FIG. 3 depicts an illustrative LP-WUR wake-up packet, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0007] FIG. 4 depicts an illustrative operating channel bandwidth chart, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0008] FIG. 5 depicts an illustrative flow diagram for determining a low power wake-up radio (LP-WUR) wake-up packet, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0009] FIG. 6 depicts an illustrative flow diagram for identifying a LP-WUR wake-up packet, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0010] FIG. 7 illustrates a functional diagram of an example communication station that may be suitable for use as a user device, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the disclosure.

[0011] FIG. 8 is a block diagram of an example machine upon which any of one or more techniques (for example, methods) may be performed, in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] The following description and the drawings sufficiently illustrate specific embodiments to enable those skilled in the art to practice them. Other embodiments may incorporate structural, logical, electrical, process, and other changes. Portions and features of some embodiments may be included in, or substituted for, those of other embodiments. Embodiments set forth in the claims encompass all available equivalents of those claims.

[0013] The pervasiveness of small battery constrained devices that are traditionally equipped with low power radios, are increasingly being equipped with Wi-Fi radios. Wi-Fi radios require more power than low power radios and therefore have to be shut off when not in use. However, because current applications being executed on these battery constrained devices, and future applications that have yet to be developed, are projected to require more bandwidth, and therefore larger bandwidth radios, such as Wi-Fi radios, the Wi-Fi radios must be power cycled in such a way to maximize the amount of time between battery charges. In other words, a wake-up and sleep cycle must be implemented by the Wi-Fi radios that maximizes the amount of time that the battery constrained devices can be used without being recharged. This may be achieved when a low power radio, equipped with a low-power wake-up radio (LP-WUR), receives a low-power wake-up signal (e.g., in a payload field of a packet) that causes the corresponding Wi-Fi radio to power on, thereby reducing the amount of power consumed by the Wi-Fi radio. The LP-WUR may operate at power levels approximately equal to 100 microwatts or less, and maintain an always-on companion radio link to a Wi-Fi radio, a Bluetooth (BT) radio or other radio.

[0014] Current versions of LP-WURs operate in the 2.4GHz or 5GHz Wi-Fi frequency bands. Wi-Fi enabled wireless devices operating in these two bands send and receive several control packets (i.e., signaling) in order to maintain a connection between themselves and the devices that they are connected to (e.g., an access point (AP)). Depending on what the wireless device is used for, a certain type of signaling may be required in order for the wireless device to execute properly. For example, a mobile phone may be streaming a 640 x 480 pixel (480p) video, and the video may have a data rate requirement of 128 kilobytes per second (kBps) in order to ensure that the video is streamed without any interruptions or aberrations to the image or audio quality. An application on the mobile phone may be responsible for ensuring that a connection is maintained between the mobile phone and a video server hosting the video, through an AP. The application may accomplish this by exchanging control packets with the AP interspersed between data packets comprising data corresponding to the video. Because the mobile phone is streaming a video, and in order to prevent intermittent disruptions of the data packets being streamed to the application from the AP, the application will have to exchange several control packets with the AP. This may be referred to as a higher bandwidth application relative to a wearable device, comprising a LP-WUR, which may only require a data rate of a few hundred kilobits (kbps). For example, the wearable device may be an activity tracker (e.g., a smart watch) that is only active when a user is walking, but not while the user is sitting down or sleeping. The data collected by the activity tracker may be no more than a few hundred kbps, and the data may be temporarily stored and transmitted to the AP a few seconds to a minute after the data is collected. Accordingly, the data rate required to transmit the collected data to the AP is significantly lower than that of the application streaming the video to the AP. Because the number of wireless devices operating in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi frequency bands continues to increase with the advent of wearables, and multiple mobile devices per user (e.g., mobile phones, tablets), as well as laptops, the resources (e.g., bandwidth or data rates) of the WLANs supporting these wireless devices becomes constrained by the number of devices, the number of applications executing on the wireless devices, and the bandwidth and data rate requirements of the applications. Thus as the number of wireless devices and applications requiring a connection to the Internet via WLAN increases, the less resources there are available to support the increasing number of wireless devices and applications. As WLANs become more sparsely populated with IoT devices, the amount of bandwidth remaining for higher bandwidth devices such as laptops and mobile phones begins to diminish thereby preventing these devices from accessing the WLAN.

[0015] One way to alleviate the increasing amount of congestion in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi frequency bands, is to tune the radios of lower data rate devices, such as wearables, or Internet of Thing (IoT) devices like those illustrated in FIG 1, to frequencies that are not in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz Wi-Fi frequency bands. The frequencies that the radios in the lower data rate devices are tuned to may be based at least in part on the data rates of the radios. Because wearable devices and IoT devices generally comprise lower data rate radios, which have a data rate of a few hundred kilobits per second (kbps), the lower data rate radios of the wearable devices and IoT devices may be tuned to frequencies in the sub 1 GHz frequency band. Similarly, because larger mobile computing devices comprise higher data rate radios, with data rates of a few hundred megahertz, the higher data rate radios tuned to the 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz Wi-Fi frequency bands, may continue to have their radios tuned to the 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz Wi-Fi frequency bands. By separating lower data rate radios from higher data rate radios, in the available frequency spectrum of the Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio band, based on the data rates of these respective radios, enables the efficient use of bandwidth allocated to larger mobile computing devices, wearables, and IoT devices.

[0016] This signaling contributes to the overhead and can adversely affect the throughput available for use by all devices, wearable or non-wearable, that are connected to a WLAN via an AP. There are two aspects, which contribute to this phenomenon. The first aspect is that existing LP-WURs use wake-up packets (LP-WUR wake-up packets), to communicate with one another, wherein the LP-WUR wake-up packets comprise a legacy Wi-Fi preamble at the beginning of the LP-WUR wake-up packet, that is transmitted over a 20 MHz channel. Current LP-WURs are implemented using technologies based on the IEEE 802.11 ah or 802.11af standards, which leverage non-LP-WUR technologies described in the IEEE 802.11 b, g, and n standards such as transmitting legacy Wi-Fi preambles. Wireless devices that transmit/receive legacy Wi-Fi preambles use the entire bandwidth of a 20 MHz channel to transmit/receive Wi-Fi preambles. Consequently, an entire 20 MHz channel is used to transmit the legacy Wi-Fi preamble, while only 1/5 of the 20 MHz channel (4 MHz) is used to transmit the LP-WUR wake-up packet trailing the legacy Wi-Fi preamble. Because current LP-WURs transmit a legacy Wi-Fi preamble proceeding the LP-WUR wake-up packet, and use 20 MHz to transmit a packet that can be transmitted using just 4 MHz the channel is unnecessarily occupied by wireless devices that could relinquish 16 MHz for other LP-WURs to transmit/receive LP-WUR wake-up packets. Accordingly, transmitting a LP-WUR wake-up packet decreases the throughput of the channel per number of available wireless devices. For example, if there are five LP-WURs that need to transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet, and each LP-WUR must share a 20 MHz channel to transmit their LP-WUR wake-up packets, but one of the LP-WURs transmits a legacy Wi-Fi preamble ahead of its LP-WUR wake-up packet, then the remaining LP-WURs will be unable to transmit their LP-WUR wake-up packets. Thus the 20 MHz channel, which could have been used by each of the five LP-WURs to transmit their LP-WUR wake-up packets using 4 MHz of the 20 MHz, is occupied by a single LP-WUR. This effectively reduces the throughput of the channel, per number of users attempting to transmit a packet to the AP, by 80%. By foregoing the transmission of a legacy Wi-Fi preamble, all of the LP-WURs could transmit their LP-WUR wake-up packets thereby increasing the throughput of the channel, per number of users attempting to transmit their LP-WUR wake-up packets. The details of this approach are explained below.

[0017] The second aspect contributing to the overhead and that may adversely affect the throughput is that LP-WURs use very low data rates, about a few kHz, to transmit the LP-WUR wake-up packets. This is because LP-WURs use very low power (e.g., approximately 100 microwatts of power) to transmit and receive data. LP-WURs may have lower data rates

because they are usually small battery constrained devices that have to conserve power expenditures in order to increase the amount of operational time before having to be recharged. Thus, increasing the number of bits transmitted would increase the amount of power needed to transmit the increase in number of bits. As a result, the energy stored in the battery would more quickly be depleted. Because LP-WURs use low data rates to transmit and receive data, when they transmit components of legacy Wi-Fi packets, such as legacy Wi-Fi preambles, which were intended to be transmitted or received by non-LP-WURs, it will take longer for the component of the legacy Wi-Fi component to be transmitted. Legacy Wi-Fi preambles comprise more bits than LP-WUR wake-up packet preambles, so when a LP-WUR transmits a legacy Wi-Fi preamble before it transmits a LP-WUR wake-up packet, the LP-WUR is spending more time transmitting the LP-WUR wake-up packet as compared to when it is not transmitting the legacy Wi-Fi preamble. Transmitting a legacy Wi-Fi preamble with the LP-WUR wake-up packet increases the overhead needed to transmit the LP-WUR wake-up packet. This is because the LP-WUR transmits the legacy Wi-Fi preamble with the LP-WUR wake-up packet. As noted above, because LP-WURs that transmit a legacy Wi-Fi preamble use an entire 20 MHz channel, reserved for communications by LP-WURs and non-LP-WURs alike, to transmit the legacy Wi-Fi preamble, the throughput of the 20 MHz channel per available number of wireless devices decreases. Furthermore, the throughput decreases over a longer period than it would if a non-LP-WUR transmitted the legacy Wi-Fi preamble. This is because the data rate of LP-WURs is lower than that of a non-LP-WUR, thereby requiring the LP-WUR to spend more time transmitting, and therefore utilize the 20 MHz channel, for a longer period than a non-LP-WUR.

[0018] When a LP-WUR implements the technologies outlined in the 802.11 ah and 802.11af standards, the battery power expenditures of the LP-WUR, may be greater than the battery power expenditures of the LP-WURs disclosed herein. The overhead that the LP-WUR contributes to the WLAN also increases, and the throughput of the channel per number of wireless devices decreases. Accordingly, by transmitting the LP-WUR wake-up packet without the legacy Wi-Fi preamble the LP-WUR can decrease its battery power expenditures, decrease the overhead experienced by the WLAN, and increase the throughput of the channel per number of wireless devices. This becomes especially important in congested networks, where there are a limited number of channels available for non-LP-WURs and LP-WURs that must share the limited number of channels.

[0019] As the number of wireless devices that include low power radios, and in particular as the number of LP-WUR being utilized in wireless devices increases, for example with battery operated Internet of Thing (IoT) devices, the number of wake-up signals transmitted may increase substantially thereby further increasing latency experienced by non-low power radio devices operating in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band. Accordingly, systems, methods, and devices are desired that can alleviate the bandwidth and latency constraints that may be experienced by wireless devices in a geographic area of even a moderate number of these devices.

[0020] The systems, methods, and devices disclosed herein alleviate the overhead and throughput constraints mentioned above by, at least in part, shifting the signaling performed by the LP-WURs from the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band to another band. One potential frequency band that is slightly less crowded than the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands is the unlicensed sub 1 GHz frequency band, for example, between 750 MHz and 900 MHz within the sub 1 GHz frequency band there is sufficient spectrum available across the world, for use by multiple LP-WURs in multiple regions of the world.

[0021] By shifting the signaling operations performed by the LP-WURs to the sub 1 GHz band a slower data rate can be used by the LP-WURs, thereby decreasing the amount of power consumed by the LP-WUR and consequently the device equipped with the LP-WUR. This reduces the number of devices competing for wireless resources in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz band. By shifting the signaling performed by the LP-WURs to the sub 1 GHz band, more efficient signaling can be achieved, and because the frequency band within which the LP-WURs would operate is lower than the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands within which legacy Wi-Fi devices would operate within, there is less congestion and no need for the LP-WURs to transmit a legacy Wi-Fi preamble. By having the LP-WURs use a lower frequency, the range of the LP-WURs transmissions may increase as well. This may result in increased accuracy and/or precision with which LP-WURs can detect LP-WUR wake-up packets, which are close to a transmitting device, and it may decrease the false detection rate thereby improving power savings of a battery-constrained device such as a wearable. The reason for this is that the LP-WURs would not have to retransmit LP-WUR wake-up packets, due to false positive detections of LP-WUR wake-up packets. The systems and devices, disclosed herein, and the methods for operating these systems and devices may be paired with any radio technology (e.g., fifth generation (5G) cellular, long term evolution, (LTE), long term evolution unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U), Wi-Fi, or BT) thereby making the systems, devices, and methods described herein

technology agnostic, and useable with devices equipped with one or more different radios (e.g., 5G, LTE, LTE-U, Wi-Fi, or BT).

[0022] A criterion of the design of an LP-WUR in accordance with this disclosure is that it is low cost and low power. These criteria ensure that the LP-WUR can operate in a "powered down" state affording substantial power savings in typical operational modes. One of the drawbacks to LP-WURs operating in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands is the loss in system throughput for all Wi-Fi devices in those frequency bands. This is due to the need of a legacy Wi-Fi preamble for a LP-WUR wake-up packet, along with the very low data rate signaling of the LP-WUR to transmit the legacy Wi-Fi preamble along with the LP-WUR wake-up packet. The designs disclosed herein address this problem by moving the LP-WUR signaling to the unlicensed sub 1 GHz band, where less legacy Wi-Fi devices are currently operating. These designs also propose a new LP-WUR wake-up packet structure that differs from a LP-WUR wake-up packet structure operating in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands. These designs also provide huge advantages by offloading signaling that would degrade all Wi-Fi systems', and other systems', performance such as LTE-U systems in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands. As a result, the designs herein allow the exchange of LP-WUR wake-up packets (signaling) to be structured in such a way as to provide more efficient use of WLAN resources (increase throughput per amount of bandwidth consumed).

[0023] FIG. 1 is an exemplary network comprising low power Internet-of-Things (IoT) wireless devices (e.g., cameras 130, sensors 110, lightbulbs 115, stereo 140, and speakers 135) and non-low power wireless devices (e.g., smart television 120 and laptops 125) in network environment 100. Specifically, FIG. 1 shows a diagram of a conventional exemplary wireless device 101 (interchangeably referred to as an access point (AP)) that can send and receive data with various wireless devices through different mechanisms. IoT has led to an increased amount of wireless devices requesting service from the wireless devices like wireless device 101, as illustrated in FIG. 1. For example, a smart thermostat 105 may require several devices to be connected to wireless device 101, such as one or more temperature or humidity sensors 110 that may be communicatively coupled to smart thermostat 105 via wireless device 101. In a smart home, each smart lightbulb 115 can be a wireless device. Similarly, each smart speaker 135 in the house can be a wireless device (e.g., each speaker in a six-speaker system can be a wireless device). Various other devices can also be a part of IoT network environment 100, including but not limited to, smart television 120, laptops 125, cameras 130, stereo receiver 140, speakers 135, light switch 122 and the like. Some of the wireless devices in network

environment 100 may be low power wireless devices equipped with LP-WURs and other wireless devices in network environment 100 may not be low power wireless devices, but may also be equipped with a LP-WUR because they may have the ability to communicate with a wireless device that has a LP-WUR. For example, wireless device 101 may be an AP equipped with a LP-WUR and anyone of a Wi-Fi, Bluetooth (BT), and or a cellular radio, but wireless device 101 may be powered via an electrical outlet and may not be a battery constrained device. Similarly one or more of laptops 125 may be equipped with both a Wi-Fi radio, that may be used, for example, to stream audio data from a website, and may also be equipped with a LP-WUR to send a LP-WUR wake-up packet to one or more of speakers 135 to wake up one or more speakers 135 if they are asleep. For instance, one or more of laptops 125 may transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet to one or more of speakers 135 requesting one or more speakers 135 to wake up its Wi-Fi radio, after which one or more laptops 125 may begin streaming the audio data to one or more speakers 135. In some embodiments, one or more laptops 125 may stream the audio data directly to one more speakers 135 in a peer-to-peer network configuration. In other embodiments, one or more laptops 125 may transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet to one or more speakers 135 requesting that one or more speakers 135 turn on a Wi-Fi radio, after which wireless device 101 may stream the audio data to one or more speakers 135.

[0024] Wireless devices thermostat 105, temperature or humidity sensors 110, smart lightbulbs 115, smart television 120, light switch 122, laptops 125, cameras 130, speakers 135, and stereo receiver 140 may each exhibit different behaviors. These different behaviors may result in the wireless devices generating different traffic types (patterns), requiring different data rates and/or bandwidths, and having different duty cycles.

[0025] Thermostat 105 may comprise one or more processors, one or more Wi-Fi radios, and one or more LP-WURs. The one or more processors may log data collected by the temperature and humidity sensors 110. Thermostat 105 may comprise one or more computer-readable memories storing instructions which when executed by the one or more processors may cause the one or more processors to turn on (wake up) one or more non-LP-WUR, that may in turn listen for one or more non-LP-WUR wake-up packets from a non-LP-WUR in temperature and humidity sensors 110. The instructions may also further cause the one or more processors to turn off, or put the one or more non-LP-WURs in a sleep state when there is no data to download to the non-LP-WURs in temperature and humidity sensors 110 or upload from the non-LP-WURs in temperature and humidity sensors 110. For example, an over-the-air software update for temperature and humidity sensors 110 may be received by thermostat

105 from a server associated with the manufacturer of temperature and humidity sensors 110, on its Wi-Fi radio from wireless device 101. The one or more processors may determine that the over-the-air software update is destined for temperature and humidity sensors 110, and may turn on its LP-WUR and transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet to a LP-WUR in temperature and humidity sensors 110, comprising the over-the-air software update, to the non-LP-WUR in temperature and humidity sensors 110. More specifically, a microprocessor in the LP-WUR of temperature and humidity sensors 110 may receive a LP-WUR wake-up packet from a LP-WUR in wireless device 101 with instructions to turn the non-LP-WUR on. Temperature and humidity sensors 110 include a LP-WUR that is always on, listening for wake-up packets, and upon receipt of the LP-WUR wake-up packet will turn on its non-LP-WUR, or main radio, (e.g., Wi-Fi or Bluetooth radio) to establish a communication link with thermostat 105.

[0026] Stereo receiver 140 may comprise one or more processors, one or more Wi-Fi radios, and one or more LP-WURs. The one or more processors may process analog and/or digital audio data that may be transmitted to speakers 135. Stereo receiver 140 may comprise one or more computer-readable memories storing instructions which when executed by the one or more processors may cause the one or more processors to turn on (wake up) one or more non-LP-WURs, and transmit one or more non-LP-WUR wake-up packets, to a non-LP-WUR (e.g., a Wi-Fi radio) in speakers 135. The instructions may also further cause the one or more processors to turn off, or put the one or more non-LP-WURs in a sleep state when audio data is not streaming to speakers 135 from stereo receiver 140. An over-the-air software update for speakers 135 may be received, by stereo receiver 140, from a server associated with the manufacturer of speakers 135, on its Wi-Fi radio from wireless device 101. The one or more processors may determine that the over-the-air software update is destined for speakers 135, and may turn on its non-LP-WUR and transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet to a LP-WUR in speakers 135. A microprocessor in the LP-WRU in speakers 135 may receive a LP-WUR wake-up packet from a LP-WUR in wireless device 101 with instructions to turn on the non-LP-WUR. After the microprocessor sends the instructions, that cause the non-LP-WUR to turn on, the non-LP-WUR may transmit the over-the-air software update. In other embodiments, the microprocessor may send the instructions to a Central Processing Unit (CPU), which may in turn send another set of instructions to the non-LP-WUR, instructing the non-LP-WUR to turn on. After the non-LP-WUR is on, the non-LP-WUR may transmit the over-the-air software update, to the non-LP-WUR in speakers 135. In this example, speakers 135 may be battery operated portable speakers.

[0027] Some of the wireless devices may be battery powered, and thus, those devices may have different power saving capabilities that influence the duty cycle and traffic patterns. Some of the wireless devices may require a continuous connection, whereas others may require intermittent connections. The different wireless devices may also require different signaling optimizations. However, conventional APs may exchange data with the different wireless devices using a uniform data rate and/or uniform bandwidth, even though some of the different wireless devices may not require the same data rates and/or bandwidths as other different wireless devices. Conventional APs may attempt to maintain a continuous connection with all of the different wireless devices, even when some of the different wireless devices may not require a continuous connection. Conventional APs may also apply the same signaling optimizations to all of the different wireless devices, even though not all of the different wireless devices require the same signaling optimizations. Because conventional APs uniformly apply the same service resources to different wireless devices, the AP may improperly allocate AP resources (e.g., bandwidth, over-the-air occupancy and congestion, and/or over-the-air time reservation for wireless activities) in order to provide the service resources to the different wireless devices. As explained above, and in the examples given below, because the conventional AP may allocate the same AP resources for each wireless device, then a smaller number of wireless devices can use the available service resources of the AP, as opposed to when an intelligent allocation of AP resources is implemented based on the different wireless devices as explained below. This is especially compacted by low power devices, such as wearables and IoT devices that have lower data rates, when they cease an entire 20 MHz Wi-Fi channel and transmit data at a lower rate thereby utilizing the channel for a longer period than non-low power devices. This can result in fewer devices having the ability to access to the Wi-Fi channel over a period, because, for example, a low data rate device will utilize the channel for a longer period. Accordingly, wireless device 101 and some of the non-low power wireless devices may include LP-WURs that may be used by the non-low power wireless devices to communicate with the low power wireless devices when low power wireless devices need to upload data or download data during a wake-up period. Wireless device 101 and some of the non-low power wireless devices, may use their LP-WURs to send signals to the low power wireless devices instructing the low power wireless devices to switch their LP-WURs to an awake or sleep state. The LP-WURs may use a different frequency band (e.g., 750 MHz - 900 MHz) than Wi-Fi radios (e.g., 2.4 GHz and/or 5GHz frequency bands) thereby allowing the low data rate low power wireless devices to utilize a different frequency band to upload and download data without further congesting the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands.

[0028] With reference to FIG. 1, as in network environment 100, wireless device 101 may uniformly allocate resources to all wireless devices regardless of the requirements of the applications executing on the devices. This may result in the inefficient allocation of the resources to wireless devices. For example, temperature and humidity sensors 110 may not require the same bandwidth as smart television 120 to transmit and receive data, from wireless device 101, because the amount of data (cardinality of data) transmitted between temperature and humidity sensors 110 and wireless device 101 may be significantly smaller in size than the amount of data transmitted between smart television 120 and wireless devicelOl . This is because the data (for example, motion data and audio data) associated with smart television 120 has a greater cardinality than that of the cardinality of the data (for example, still images and text data) associated with sensors 110. Accordingly, allocating the same bandwidth to both smart television 120 and temperature and humidity sensors 110 is an inefficient use of the bandwidth. That is, because there is only a finite amount of bandwidth, or other resources, to be allocated to wireless devices, the number of wireless devices that can connect to wireless device 101 may be limited. Accordingly, by assigning a new frequency band (e.g., a sub 1 GHz frequency band spanning the 750 MHz-900 MHz) for use by low power low data rate wireless devices, the bandwidth that would otherwise be used by the low power low data rate devices could be reserved for higher data rate devices (e.g., laptops 125).

[0029] With reference to FIG. 2, LP-WUR wake-up packet 200 is an example of a structure of a LP-WUR wake-up packet operating at the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band. LP-WUR wake-up packet 200 may include a 20 MHz IEEE 802.11 legacy Wi-Fi preamble (legacy preamble 202), followed by a LP-WUR wake-up packet preamble (wake-up preamble 204), followed by a media access control (MAC) header (MAC header 206) associated with a MAC layer of the LP-WUR. A payload field (payload 208) and a frame control sequence (FCS) field (FCS 210) may follow these fields. The 20 MHz channel used to transmit the legacy Wi-Fi preamble is required in order for LP-WURs to communicate with legacy devices implementing one or more of the IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, or n standards, and more particularly to negotiate media access with correct deferral with the legacy devices. Accordingly, for all LP-WUR transmissions that are sent using LP-WUR 200, legacy preamble 202 is required and results in a fixed overhead that is considerably larger than the overhead associated with wake-up preamble 204, MAC header 206, payload 208, and FCS field 210. Therefore, the media, or channel, is inefficiently used because legacy preamble 202 comprises substantially more bits than wake-up preamble 204, MAC header 206, payload 208, and FCS field 210 combined.

Furthermore, as explained above, a LP-WUR wake-up packet is transmitted on a channel that is 4 MHz or less in bandwidth, thereby allowing more wireless devices with LP-WURs to utilize the sub 1 GHz frequency band.

[0030] Wireless devices implementing the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 a, b, g, or n standards may use LP-WUR wake-up packet 200. In particular, legacy preamble 202 may comprise one or more legacy short training fields (L-STFs), one or more legacy long training fields (L-LTFs), and one or more legacy signal fields (L-SIGs). Each of the one or more L-STFs may correspond to two orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. Each of the one or more L-STFs may be modulated with a bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation technique at a rate of 6 megabits per second (Mbps). Each of the one or more L-STFs may not comprise channel coding information, and it may not be scrambled. Each of the one or more L-STFs may have a period of 0.8 microseconds (μβ). Each of the one or more L-STFs may be used for initial timing synchronization between two communicating wireless devices (e.g., a Wi-Fi radio in laptops 125 and speakers 135). It may also be used to estimate the frequency at which the oscillators of the Wi-Fi radios of the two communicating wireless devices are oscillating at, so that the Wi-Fi radios of the two communicating wireless devices can determine a frequency offset (difference between the frequencies as the two oscillators are oscillating at). Each of the one or more L-STFs may use 13 subcarriers of the available OFDM subcarriers, and the 13 subcarriers may repeat every 16 chips. There may be 52 OFDM subcarriers available for use with the IEEE 802.11 standards. Each of the one or more L-LTFs may correspond to two OFDM symbols. Each of the one or more L-LTFs may be modulated using a BPSK modulation technique at a rate of 6 megabits per second (Mbps). Each of the one or more L-LTFs may not comprise channel coding information, and it may not be scrambled. Each of the one or more L-LTFs may have a period of 0.8 microseconds (μβ). Each of the one or more L-LTFs may be used for fine timing synchronization between two communicating wireless devices (e.g., a Wi-Fi radio in laptops 125 and speakers 135), and fine frequency synchronization between the two communicating wireless devices. Each of the one or more L-LTFs may also be used to determine an estimate of the channel between the two communicating wireless devices. Each of the one or more L-LTFs may use all 52 subcarriers. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may correspond to one OFDM symbol. It may be encoded using the same encoding scheme used to encode the LP-WUR wake-up packet (legacy preamble 202, wake-up preamble 204, MAC header 206, payload 208, and FCS field 210), and may be encoded at a ½ rate. Each of the one or more L- SIGs may be modulated at six Mbps using a BPSK modulation technique, and may comprise 24 bits of configuration data. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may be used to transfer rate and length information. The OFDM symbol may be assigned to all 52 subcarriers. The OFDM symbol is BPSK modulated at six Mbps and is encoded at a ½ rate. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may be interleaved and mapped, and may have pilot tones inserted in subcarriers -21, -7, 7 and 21. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may not be scrambled. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may comprise a rate field comprising four bits that may be used to indicate the forward error correction (FEC) modulation and coding scheme (MCS) used to modulate the data in the LP-WUR wake-up packet. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may comprise a length field comprising two bits that may be used to indicate the number of octets (bytes) carried in the LP-WUR wake-up packet. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may comprise a parity field comprising one bit that may be used by a receiving wireless device (e.g., speakers 135) from a transmitting wireless device (e.g., laptops 125) in the example given above, to perform an even parity-check on the rate and length fields. Each of the one or more L-SIGs may comprise a tail field comprising seven bits that may be used by a receiving wireless device to perform FEC decoding of the OFDM symbol carrying the L-SIG.

[0031] Media Access Control (MAC) header 206 may comprise a MAC radio address (RA) subfield comprising the MAC address of a LP-WUR. Payload 208 may comprise time information that may be used for scheduling transmission times between a transmitting and receiving device. For example, a wake-up packet may indicate a future time at which a receiving device of the wake-up packet should power on a non-LP-WUR, and receive a data packet. The contents of payload 208 may comprise data that may instruct a non-LP-WUR to wake up. In some embodiments, payload 208 may comprise wake-up and sleep data. For example, payload 208 may comprise a sequence of bits that may be associated with a unique instruction set that may cause a microprocessor in a LP-WUR receiving payload 208 to send instructions to CPU, in a device comprising the LP-WUR, to wake up a non-LP-WUR. In some embodiments, the sequence may include more than just binary instructions instructing a non-LP-WUR to wake up or sleep. For example, the sequence of bits may comprise instructions associated with setting one or more parameters of the non-LP-WURs. For instance, the sequence of bits may correspond to a setting of the gain of a receiver in the non-LP-WUR. The sequence of bits may correspond to a setting associated with a channel that the receiver in the non-LP-WUR should be tuned to. The sequence of bits may correspond to one or more power levels that the receiver or transmitter in the non-LP-WUR should transmit or look to receive a non-LP-WUR wake-up packet at. Frame Check Sequence (FCS) 210 may comprise a number (FCS number) that is calculated by a transmitting device (e.g., laptops 125 in FIG. 1) based on data in payload 208. The FCS number may be added to the end of a frame comprising LP-WUR wake-up packet 200. When a receiving device (e.g., speakers 135 of FIG. 1) receives a LP-WUR wake-up packet, the FCS number is recalculated and compared with the FCS number included in the LP-WUR wake-up packet. If the recalculated FCS number is not the same as the FCS number transmitted in the LP-WUR wake-up packet, an error is determined to have occurred during transmission and the frame is discarded. The transmitting device may compute a cyclic redundancy check on the entire LP-WUR wake-up packet and append FCS 210 as a trailer to the data. The receiving device may compute the cyclic redundancy check on the LP-WUR wake-up packet using the same algorithm used to generate the cyclic redundancy check, and may compare it to FCS 210. This may enable the receiving device to detect whether any data was lost or altered in transit. In some embodiments, if an error is detected, it may discard the data, and request retransmission of the frame. In some embodiments, FCS 210 may be transmitted in such a way that the receiving device can compute a running sum over the entire frame, together with the trailing FCS, expecting to see a fixed result (such as zero) when it is correct. The fixed result may be a CRC32 residue. When transmitted and used in this way, FCS 210 generally appears immediately before a frame-ending delimiter.

[0032] LP-WURs operating in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band send LP-WUR wake-up packets in order to wake up a main radio (e.g., Wi-Fi radio) when needed. One drawback of the 5 GHz frequency band is the presence of dynamic frequency selection (DFS) channels in the 5 GHz frequency band, which are unlicensed channels that may be selected by any device implementing an IEEE 802.11 protocol, resulting in crowding of the 5 GHz frequency band by additional devices. This may reduce the overall system throughput. In addition, LP-WUR wake-up packets may comprise a legacy Wi-Fi preamble (e.g., legacy preamble 202) that is transmitted either in a DFS channel or in channels that are adjacent to the DFS channels. When LP-WURs use the legacy Wi-Fi preamble with LP-WUR wake-up packets in one of the DFS channels it causes the DFS channels to become saturated with LP-WUR wake-up packets that require 20 MHz of the DFS channel to transmit the legacy Wi-Fi preamble, when 4 MHz, or less, of the channel is required to send the LP-WUR wake-up packet. The LP-WUR wake-up packet is a narrow band signal, and it has the potential to cause false alarms in the DFS channels because access points (APs) may falsely determine that a radar signal is being received due to the fact that the LP-WUR is receiving the LP-WUR in a DFS channel. Because of the inverse

relationship between frequency and transmission power range, as explained above, the range at which a LP-WUR wake-up packet may be received is less for a LP-WUR operating in the 5 GHz frequency band as opposed to a LP-WUR operating in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, whose range is less than a LP-WUR operating in the sub 1 GHz frequency band. The advantage of using the DFS channels in the 5 GHz frequency band may be nullified by the decreased range, which has resulted in the a number of LP-WURs such as wearables operating in the 2.4 GHz frequency band. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of LP-WURs operating in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which is the frequency band that many non- wearable devices such as mobile phones, laptops, and tablets operate in, resulting in a congested frequency band that only becomes more congested in densely populated areas. As a result, a sub 1 GHz frequency band that increases the distance, and that meets the data rate requirements of LP-WURs, may be used to avoid any interference that may be experienced by LP-WURs on a DFS channel.

[0033] FIG. 3 depicts an illustrative LP-WUR wake-up packet 300, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure for use in sub 1 GHz frequency bands. The LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 comprises wake-up preamble 302, MAC header 304, payload 306, and FCS 308. The wake-up preamble 302, MAC header 304, payload 306, and FCS 308 are substantially the same as those described above with reference to LP-WUR wake-up packet 200, though there is no legacy Wi-Fi preamble. The bandwidth used to transmit each of wake-up preamble 302, MAC header 304, payload 306, and FCS 308 is substantially the same, which increases the efficiency of bandwidth consumption in comparison to the bandwidth consumption of LP-WUR wake-up packet 200, because 4 MHz or less of bandwidth is used to transmit LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 as opposed to 20 MHz used to transmit LP-WUR wake-up packet 200. The bandwidth used to transmit LP-WUR wake-up packet 300, may be in the unlicensed sub 1 GHz band, for example, 750-900 MHz However the 750-900 MHz range may be geographically dependent as the regulation of the sub 1 GHz band varies between countries and regions. In one embodiment, 1 MHz, 2 MHz, and/or 4 MHz may be utilized, thereby allowing devices utilizing a LP-WUR to receive wake-up signals without interfering or affecting the efficiency of proximate devices operating at other frequencies, such as the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands. For example, in a house or place of business with a Wi-Fi access point in constant or periodic (even random) communication with a plurality of IoT devices, the access point may send wake-up signals to the devices having LP-WURs using LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 using a sub IGHz frequency band. Since LP-WUR wake-up packet

300 is transmitted by a LP-WUR, which has a low data rate, it is well suited for sending on a sub 1 GHz frequency band. Also, with no legacy Wi-Fi devices operating in the sub 1 GHz frequency band, a legacy Wi-Fi preamble is not needed, making the utilization of the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands, by the other devices operating at those frequency bands, more efficient. It should be noted that, in some embodiments, it might be possible for the LP-WUR to switch between the sub 1 GHz, 2.4 GHz, or 5 GHz frequency bands for the sending of a wake-up packet using the various frequency bands.

[0034] Media Access Control (MAC) header 304 may comprise a MAC radio address (RA) subfield comprising the MAC address of a LP-WUR. Payload 306 may comprise timing information that may be used for scheduling transmission times between a transmitting and receiving device. For example, a wake-up packet may indicate a future time at which a receiving device of the wake-up packet should power on and receive a data packet. The contents of payload 306 may comprise synchronization data including wake-up and sleep data. For example, may comprise a sequence of bits that may be associated with a unique instruction set that may cause a microprocessor in a LP-WUR receiving payload 208 to send instructions to CPU, in a device comprising the LP-WUR, to wake up a non-LP-WUR. In some embodiments, the sequence may include more than just binary instructions instructing a non-LP-WUR to wake up or sleep. For example, the sequence of bits may comprise instructions associated with setting one or more parameters of the non-LP-WURs. For instance, the sequence of bits may correspond to a setting of the gain of a receiver in the non-LP-WUR. The sequence of bits may correspond to a setting associated with a channel that the receiver in the non-LP-WUR should be tuned to. The sequence of bits may correspond to one or more power levels that the receiver or transmitter in the non-LP-WUR should transmit or look to receive a non-LP-WUR wake-up packet at. Frame Check Sequence (FCS) 308 may comprise a number (FCS number) that is calculated by a transmitting device (e.g., laptops 125 in FIG. 1) based on data in payload 306. The FCS number may be added to the end of a frame comprising LP-WUR wake-up packet 300. When a receiving device (e.g., speakers 135 of FIG. 1) receives LP-WUR, wake-up packet with the FCS number is recalculated and compared with the FCS number included in the LP-WUR wake-up packet. If the recalculated FCS number is not the same as the FCS number transmitted in the LP-WUR wake-up packet, an error is determined to have occurred during transmission and the frame is discarded. The transmitting device may compute a cyclic redundancy check on the entire LP-WUR wake-up packet and append FCS 308 as a trailer to the data. The receiving device may compute the cyclic redundancy check on the LP-WUR

wake-up packet using the same algorithm used to generate the cyclic redundancy check, and may compare it to FCS 308. This may enable the receiving device to detect whether any data was lost or altered in transit. In some embodiments, if an error is detected, it may discard the data, and request retransmission of the frame. In some embodiments, FCS 308 may be transmitted in such a way that the receiving device can compute a running sum over the entire frame, together with the trailing FCS, expecting to see a fixed result (such as zero) when it is correct. The fixed result may be a CRC32 residue. When transmitted and used in this way, FCS 308 generally appears immediately before a frame-ending delimiter.

[0035] LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 does not include a legacy Wi-Fi preamble field like LP-WUR wake-up packet 200. When two wireless devices use a LP-WUR wake-up packet such as LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 that does not have a legacy Wi-Fi preamble field, the devices may be said to be operating in a Greenfield mode. Removing the legacy Wi-Fi preamble field from a LP-WUR wake-up packet reduces the amount of time spent between two wireless devices in initiating and establishing communication between one another. This is especially noticeable if one, or both, of the two wireless devices are low power or low data rate devices such as, for example, temperature or humidity sensors 110 or data rate. The reason why this is noticeable is because LP-WURs may have a transmission power level of 100 microwatts or less, resulting in a receive power level at an intended recipient of a LP-WUR wake-up packet, that is less than the transmission power level. Because the achievable channel capacity is related to the received power level, and the bandwidth of the channel, the achievable channel capacity may be low because the received power levels will be less than 100 microwatts due to path loss and/or the distance between a transmitting device and a receiving device. For example, the bandwidth may be 20 MHz, and the achievable channel capacity may be approximated by the bandwidth times a base 10 logarithm of a received power level divided by a noise level at the receiving device. That is C = B log10(l + -), where C is the achievable channel capacity, B is the bandwidth, S is the received power level, and N is the noise level at a receiver in a receiving device. Thus for the example given above, C = 20 x

106 log10 (l + J), where S < 100 x 10"6 (less than 100 microwatts), and N < S. The achievable channel capacity may approach a small value because N < S resulting in a signal to noise ratio (jj approaching a value slightly greater than zero (e.g., approximately equal 1 x

10~3). Because the achievable channel capacity of the LP-WUR is a few kilobits per second, the signal to noise ratio may be approximately equal to equal 1 x 10~3. Thus C « 20 x

106 log10(l + 1 x lO-3) = 20 x 106 (4.3 x lO-3) = 8.6 x 103 bits per second (bps), using the example given above. In some embodiments, the signal to noise ratio may be smaller than the one given in the example above, resulting in a lower achievable channel capacity. Consequently, LP-WURs exchanging LP-WUR wake-up packets using a 20 MHz channel will result in a very low achievable channel capacity, and a packet transmitted on that channel will take longer to transmit than a non-LP-WUR with a greater transmission power level and a higher signal to noise ratio.

[0036] Therefore when a LP-WUR transmits a LP-WUR wake-up packet in a traditional 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz 802.11 frequency band, the LP-WUR will reserve, or use, a channel with a 20 MHz bandwidth for a longer period of time than a non-LP-WUR as mentioned above. This results in less devices (non-LP-WUR) being able to access the 20 MHz bandwidth channel, thereby limiting the number of devices that can access a WLAN. Thus by tuning the LP-WURs to a sub Gigahertz frequency, and configuring the LP-WURs to transmit LP-WUR wake-up packets on a channel with a smaller bandwidth will reduce the number of LP-WURs accessing the 20 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz frequency bands. This has the effect of increasing the capacity of WLANs operating in the 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz frequency band, and improving or increasing the capacity of existing 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz WLANs.

[0037] Wake-up preamble 302 may comprise one or more bits that may be used to indicate to a wireless device receiving LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 when the MAC header 304, payload 306, and/or FCS 308 fields begin. Upon receipt of LP-WUR wake-up packet 300, a wireless device may decode MAC header 304 and determine whether the MAC address recorded in MAC header 304 matches its own MAC address. If it does not, then wireless device may discard LP-WUR wake-up packet 300, otherwise it will decode the remaining fields of LP-WUR wake-up packet 300. The wireless device may decode payload 306, which may comprise synchronization data that may enable the wireless device to determine a TWT of the transmitting device, as explained below with reference to FIG. 5 and FIG. 6.

[0038] FIG. 4 depicts an illustrative operating channel bandwidth chart, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure. Operating Channel Bandwidth Chart 400 illustrates the respective regulatory domains per operating channel bandwidths 404, wherein the regulatory domains coincide with countries/regions 402. There are parts of the sub 1 GHz frequency band where there are openings for unlicensed use in most countries/regions, as illustratively noted in FIG. 4. However, the amount of bandwidth available varies by

geographic region or country. Nonetheless, there is spectrum that is well suited for LP-WUR signaling available today in most countries. Operating channel bandwidth chart 400 provides the potential operating bandwidths versus the number of channels available at those bandwidths in various countries/regions. For example, the United States (US) may comprise 26 channels available for a LP-WUR with an operational bandwidth of 1 MHz, and six channels available with an operational bandwidth of 4 MHz As noted above, these operational bandwidths advantageously match the data rate requirements of the LP-WURs. Additionally, there currently are no legacy Wi-Fi devices operating in the sub 1 GHz frequency band so there is no need for a legacy Wi-Fi preamble to be transmitted along with the LP-WUR wake-up packet, and there is no utilization of the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands by the LP-WUR.

[0039] Utilizing the frequencies outlined in Operating Channel Bandwidth Chart 400, LP-WURs used in the countries listed in Operating Channel Bandwidth Chart 400 can use 1 MHz, 2 MHz, and/or 4 MHz channel bandwidths in the 750-900 MHz band. In some embodiments, channels with larger bandwidths are also permissible for use. This provides flexibility in the number of devices that can be serviced in a geographic area, by one or more access points in a building. This may allow different data rates to be used by different LP-WURs, or types of services (e.g., applications that can be supported), and possibly reduction in system latency. For example, a first LP-WUR may execute computer-readable instructions for a first application that requires a higher data rate than a second LP-WUR executing computer-readable instructions for a second application. As a result, the bandwidth required by the first LP-WUR may be greater than the bandwidth required by the second LP-WUR.

[0040] Operating a LP-WUR in the sub 1 GHz frequency band may also increase the range of coverage of the LP-WUR operating in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band, thereby enabling LP-WURs to meet all range or link budget requirements as a companion radio to Wi-Fi radios and other radio technologies. In some embodiments, a LP-WUR operating in the sub 1 GHz frequency band may meet the range requirements of the IEEE 802. l ib standard, which has proven to be a difficult task for radios implementing the IEEE 802. l ib standard in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band. In order for a LP-WUR to meet the range requirements of the IEEE 802.11b standard while operating in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, the LP-WUR would have to increase its transmission power level, thereby negating the benefits of the low power operation of the LP-WUR. By utilizing the sub 1 GHZ frequency band, a LP-WUR may reduce its power consumption to approximately 100 microwatts in an active state.

[0041] A first wireless device, and more particularly processing circuitry such as a baseband processor, may receive a signal from a central processing unit (CPU) (e.g., hardware processor 802), indicating that the CPU has data to send to a second wireless device. For example, in some embodiments, the first wireless device may be an access point (AP) and the second wireless device may be a wearable or an IoT device. In other embodiments, the first wireless device may be a mobile device such as a mobile phone or laptop, and the second wireless device may be the wearable or another IoT device. The second wireless device may determine that there is data to transmit to the first wireless device such as data collected about the movement of a wearer of the wearable. For example, the wearable may be equipped with a highly sensitive piezoelectric bimorph that may measure movements of the wearer as they walk, run, job, sprint, perform different calisthenics, or perform another task. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which may in turn transmit the digitized data to a CPU in the second wireless device may sample electrical signals generated by the bimorph. The CPU in the second wireless device may store the digitized data in a memory buffer, and may send a signal to a baseband processor, controlling a LP-WUR, to encode a wake-up signal in a LP-WUR wake-up packet (e.g., LP-WUR wake-up packet 300). A media access control layer management entity (MLME) of the baseband processor may cause the baseband processor to generate LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 comprising one or more of the following. LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 may comprise a MAC address of a MLME of the first wireless device, a modulation scheme and a transmission rate that LP-WUR wake-up packet 300 will be transmitted at, a packet type (i.e., wake-up packet), a wake-up signal (sequence of bits) to be transmitted in a payload field, a frame control sequence (FCS) field, and a length field. The modulation scheme and transmission rate may be included in a rate subfield in wake-up preamble 302. In some embodiments, the modulation scheme may be an on-off-keying (OOK) modulation scheme. The length field may be included in a length subfield also included in wake-up preamble 302. A signal subfield, in the wake-up preamble 302, may include the packet type. In some embodiments, the packet type may be represented by a tuple of binary digits. A tuple of the binary digits may correspond to a wake-up packet. The FCS field may be a FCS similar to FCS 308, and may account for the data in LP-WUR wake-up packet 300. In some embodiments, the wake-up signal may be an OOK bit string that may cause a receiving LP-WUR of the wake-up signal indicated by the MAC address, in a MAC header (e.g., MAC header 304), to send a signal to its corresponding baseband processor. Returning to the example above, a baseband processor in the first wireless device may send a signal to the CPU in the first wireless device, which may in turn cause a non-LP-WUR to wake up in accordance with instructions in the

wake-up signal. In some embodiments, the wake-up signal may comprise instructions to configure the non-LP-WUR as explained above.

[0042] FIG. 5 depicts an illustrative flow diagram for transmitting a LP-WUR wake-up packet, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure. Method 500 may begin at step 502 where a baseband processor in an access point, for example, determines to send a wake-up radio (WUR) packet (e.g., LP-WUR wake-up packet 300) to a second device. This determination may be based on a signal received from a CPU indicating that there is data to send to the second device. The access point may determine that there is data buffered for a CPU in the second device, and that the buffered data should be sent via a non-LP-WUR, to a non-LP-WUR in the second device. A CPU in the access point may determine that the WUR packet should be sent to wake up the non-LP-WUR in the second device. At step 504, the method may determine a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band for the WUR packet. For example, the access point may select a channel from one or more operating channel bandwidths (e.g., operating channel bandwidths 404) based at least in part on, for example, a geographic location of the access point. The channel selection may further be based at least in part on the availability of channels in a given operating channel bandwidth, for use at a given time. The selection may also be based at least in part on the channels being used by devices comprising LP-WURs that are currently exchanging data with the access point. For example, if there are 26 LP-WURs each using a 1 MHz channel, of the 26 1 MHz channels of the operating channel bandwidths, to exchange data with the access point, then the access point may transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet comprising data instructing any devices attempting to use a 1 MHz channel, to tune their LP-WURs to one of the other channels of the operating channel bandwidths. In some embodiments, the access point may determine a channel based on a data rate requirement of a wireless device. For example, a smart thermostat device may be classified by the access point as a low data rate appliance, but may have a higher data rate requirement than that of a light switch dimmer. Accordingly, the access point may send a LP-WUR wake-up packet to the smart thermostat device with instructions to tune its LP-WUR to 4 MHz channel, and may transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet to the switch dimmer with instructions to tune its LP-WUR to a 1 MHz channel.

[0043] At step 506, the method may generate the WUR packet. In some embodiments, a baseband processor may generate a LP-WUR wake-up packet similar to LP-WUR wake-up packet 300, and the LP-WUR wake-up packet may comprise a wake-up preamble field, MAC

header field, pay load field, and FCS field. As explained above the wake-up preamble may include a rate subfield, signal subfield, length subfield, and a packet type subfield. The MAC header field may comprise a MAC address associated with the intended recipient of the LP-WUR wake-up packet. The payload field may comprise a wake-up signal that may cause a LP-WUR in the second wireless device designated by the MAC address in the MAC header field, to wake up a non-LP-WUR in the second wireless device. The FCS field may comprise a FCS of the LP -WUR wake-up packet.

[0044] At step 508 the method may cause to send the WUR packet to the second wireless device, having a LP-WUR, using a channel in the sub 1 GHz frequency band. In some embodiments, the sub 1 GHz frequency band may be between 750 MHz and 900 MHz in some embodiments the channel may be any one of the channels in operating channel bandwidths 404. At step 510, the method may identify an acknowledgement packet received from the second wireless device in response to sending the WUR packet to the second wireless device. The acknowledgment packet may be identified on a main radio such as a non-LP-WUR (e.g., Wi-Fi radio, Bluetooth radio, LTE radio, 5G radio, or LTE-U radio). A LP-WUR in an access point and more particularly a baseband processor in the LP-WUR may implement steps 508 and 510.

[0045] The acknowledgment packet may comprise a MAC header that may comprise a frame control field, a duration field, a radio address field, and a FCS field. The frame control field may be two bytes in length, and may comprise a bit protocol subfield, a two bit type subfield, a four bit subtype subfield, a one bit subfield indicating whether the WUR packet is being transmitted to a distribution system, a one bit subfield indicating whether the WUR packet is being received from a distribution system, a one bit fragmentation subfield, a one bit retry subfield, a one bit power management subfield, a one bit more data subfield, a one bit wireless equivalent privacy (WEP) subfield, and a one bit order subfield.

[0046] The duration field may include a network allocation value (NAV) to indicate, to the device indicated in the radio address field, the amount of time it will take for the acknowledgement packet to be transmitted over the air to the device indicated in the radio address field. The radio address field may be the MAC address of a MLME of the intended recipient of the acknowledgement packet. The FCS may be a FCS of the acknowledgment packet. The protocol subfield may be an indication of the version of the 802.11 protocol used to transmit the acknowledgment packet. The type subfield may indicate the type of the packet, which in this case is an acknowledgment packet. The acknowledgment packet may be a control packet. The subtype subfield may be a subfield that identifies the packet type. In this example, the packet subtype may be an acknowledgement subtype. The fragmentation subfield may indicate whether additional fragments will be sent in a subsequent packet that is related to the acknowledgment packet. The retry subfield may indicate whether the acknowledgment frame is a retransmitted frame. The power management subfield indicates the power management state of the transmitting device after the acknowledgment frame has been transmitted. For example, the transmitting device may transmit the acknowledgement frame and then may enter a sleep state. The WEP subfield may indicate whether the transmitting device supports WEP. The order subfield may indicate whether the transmitting device can accept a change in ordering between packets from unicast transmissions to multicast transmissions.

[0047] Furthermore a baseband processor, of the transmitting device, may transmit data using an on-off keying (OOK) modulation technique in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter and receive data using an OOK demodulation technique using an OFDM radio. That is, OOK may be used as a baseband modulation technique to map a uniform set of bits, corresponding to the contents of the WUR packet, to a real or complex number that may then be used by an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the OFDM transmitter, to generate real or complex time domain samples. The real or complex time domain samples may then in turn be used to generate an analog signal, corresponding to the WUR packet, which may in turn be transmitted to a wireless device that is the intended recipient of the WUR packet. The OFDM based radio may perform similar operations in a reverse order.

[0048] After step 510, the method may proceed to step 512, wherein the method may either establish a connection using a non-LP-WUR radio, such as a Wi-Fi radio, or immediately begin exchanging data with the Wi-Fi radio of a wireless device, using the 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz frequency band. Prior to the establishment of a connection between the non-LP-WUR radio and the Wi-Fi radio of the wireless device, the non-LP-WUR may receive connection data on a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band. In some embodiments, an access point, and more particularly, a CPU of an access point may determine that there is data queued for one or more wireless devices, and may send a signal to power up (wake up) a Wi-Fi baseband processor so that the data can be transmitted to the one or more wireless devices. In other embodiments, after the Wi-Fi baseband processor is powered up, the Wi-Fi baseband processor may begin to receive data from the one or more wireless devices. In some embodiments, the access point

may be a cellular base station, microcellular base station, or a picocellular base station, with a non-LP-WUR radio implementing the 5G cellular standard, or a LTE-U standard. The non-LP-WUR radio may be referred to in some embodiments as a main radio, which can be a radio implementing Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, 4G, 5G, LTE, LTE-U technologies etc. After step 512, the method may end.

[0049] FIG. 6 depicts an illustrative flow diagram for identifying a LP-WUR wake-up packet, according to one or more example embodiments of the disclosure. A method, 600, may begin at step 602 wherein the method identifies a wake-up radio (WUR) packet received on a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band from a first wireless device. For example, a low power device comprising a LP-WUR, such as an IoT device, may be always on and tuned to a sub 1 GHz channel, or it may scan multiple sub 1 GHz frequency channels, on which to receive the WUR packet on. At step 604, the method may determine a pay load field in the WUR packet. The payload field may comprise a wake-up signal that may cause the wireless device designated by the MAC address in the MAC header field to wake up a non-LP-WUR in the wireless device. The FCS field may comprise a FCS of the WUR packet. At step 606, the method may cause a non-LP-WUR to wake-up (i.e., power on). At step 606, one or more components of the low power device are turned on or activated, such as a non-LP-WUR, which for example may be a Wi-Fi radio or a Bluetooth radio. After the Wi-Fi radio or Bluetooth radio is powered on, a baseband processor of the Wi-Fi or Bluetooth radio may cause an acknowledgment packet to be sent to the device that transmitted the WUR packet. The method may then either establish a connection with a Wi-Fi radio of the device (e.g., access point) that transmitted the WUR packet, or immediately begin exchanging data with the Wi-Fi radio of the device that transmitted the WUR packet, using a non-sub 1 GHz frequency band (e.g., 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz frequency band). In some embodiments, a low power wireless device, and more particularly, a CPU of a low power wireless device may determine that there is data queued to be uploaded to an access point, and may send a signal to power up (wake up) a Wi-Fi baseband processor so that the data can be transmitted to the access point. In other embodiments, after the Wi-Fi baseband processor is powered up, the Wi-Fi baseband processor may begin to transmit data to the access point. In some embodiments, the low power wireless device may comprise one or more of a cellular radio implementing the 5G cellular standard, or a LTE-U standard. In some embodiments, the low power device may also comprise a Bluetooth radio. These radios may be referred to as non-LP-WUR radios or main radios. After step 606, the method may end.

[0050] The systems and devices, disclosed herein, and the methods for operating these systems and devices may be paired with any radio technology (e.g., fifth generation (5G) cellular, long term evolution, (LTE), long term evolution unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U), Wi-Fi, or BT) thereby making the systems, devices, and methods described herein technology agnostic, and useable with devices equipped with one or more different radios (e.g., Wi-Fi, 5G and LTE).

[0051] FIG. 7 shows a functional diagram of an exemplary communication station 700 in accordance with some embodiments. In one embodiment, FIG. 7 illustrates a functional block diagram of a communication station that may be suitable for use as an AP (e.g., APs 101) in FIG. 1 or at least one device (e.g., wireless devices 105, 110, 115, 122, 120, 125, 130, 135, and 140) in FIG. 1 in accordance with some embodiments. The communication station 700 may also be suitable for use as a handheld device, mobile device, cellular telephone, smartphone, tablet, netbook, wireless terminal, laptop computer, wearable computer device, femtocell, High Data Rate (HDR) subscriber station, access point, access terminal, or other personal communication system (PCS) device.

[0052] The communication station 700 may include communications circuitry 702 and a transceiver 710 for transmitting and receiving signals to and from other communication stations using one or more antennas 701. The communications circuitry 702 may include circuitry that can operate the physical layer communications and/or medium access control (MAC) communications for controlling access to the wireless medium, and/or any other communications layers for transmitting and receiving signals. The communication station 700 may also include processing circuitry 706 and memory 708 arranged to perform the operations described herein. In some embodiments, the communications circuitry 702 and the processing circuitry 706 may be configured to perform some of the operations detailed in FIGS. 5-6, for example steps 510 and 512, in method 500, and step 606 in method 600 performed by the non-LP-WUR described in those steps. The remaining operations detailed in FIGS. 5-6 may be performed by a LP-WUR such as, for example, low power wake-up radio 712.

[0053] In accordance with some embodiments, the communications circuitry 702 may be arranged to contend for a wireless medium and configure packets or packets for communicating over the wireless medium. The communications circuitry 702 may be arranged to transmit and receive signals. The communications circuitry 702 may also include circuitry for modulation/demodulation, up conversion/down conversion, filtering, amplification, etc. In some embodiments, the processing circuitry 706 of the communication station 700 may include one or more processors. In other embodiments, two or more antennas 701 may be coupled to the communications circuitry 702 arranged for sending and receiving signals. The memory 708 may store information for configuring the processing circuitry 706 to perform operations for configuring and transmitting message packets and performing the various operations described herein. The memory 708 may include any type of memory, including non-transitory memory, for storing information in a form readable by a machine (for example, a computer). For example, the memory 708 may include a computer-readable storage device, read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM), magnetic disk storage media, optical storage media, flash-memory devices and other storage devices and media.

[0054] In some embodiments, the communication station 700 may be part of a portable wireless device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), a laptop or portable computer with wireless communication capability, a web tablet, a wireless telephone, a smartphone, a wireless headset, a pager, an instant messaging device, a digital camera, an access point, a television, a medical device (for example, a heart rate monitor, a blood pressure monitor, etc.), a wearable computer device, an intemet-of-things (IoT) device, or another device that may receive and/or transmit information wirelessly.

[0055] In some embodiments, the communication station 700 may include one or more antennas 701. The antennas 701 may include one or more directional or omnidirectional antennas, including, for example, dipole antennas, monopole antennas, patch antennas, loop antennas, micro strip antennas, or other types of antennas suitable for transmission of RF signals. In some embodiments, instead of two or more antennas, a single antenna with multiple apertures may be used. In these embodiments, each aperture may be considered a separate antenna. In some multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) embodiments, the antennas may be effectively separated for spatial diversity and the different channel characteristics that may result between each of the antennas and the antennas of a transmitting station.

[0056] In some embodiments, the communication station 700 may include one or more of a keyboard, a display, a non-volatile memory port, multiple antennas, a graphics processor, an application processor, speakers, and other mobile device elements. The display may be an LCD screen including a touch screen.

[0057] Although the communication station 700 is illustrated as having several separate functional elements, two or more of the functional elements may be combined and may be implemented by combinations of software-configured elements, such as processing elements

including digital signal processors (DSPs), and/or other hardware elements. For example, some elements may include one or more microprocessors, DSPs, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) and combinations of various hardware and logic circuitry for performing at least the functions described herein. In some embodiments, the functional elements of the communication station 700 may refer to one or more processes operating on one or more processing elements.

[0058] Certain embodiments may be implemented in one or a combination of hardware, firmware, and software. Other embodiments may also be implemented as instructions stored on a computer-readable storage device, which may be read and executed by at least one processor to perform the operations described herein. A computer-readable storage device may include any non-transitory memory mechanism for storing information in a form readable by a machine (for example, a computer). For example, a computer-readable storage device may include read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM), magnetic disk storage media, optical storage media, flash-memory devices, and other storage devices and media. In some embodiments, the communication station 700 may include one or more processors and may be configured with instructions stored on a computer-readable storage device memory.

[0059] Low power wake-up radio 712 may comprise, for example, a transmitter (e.g., transmitter 714), receiver (e.g., receiver 716), a baseband processor, one or more analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), one or more digital-to-analog converters (DACs), one or more low noise amplifiers (LNAs), one or more power amplifiers, one or more oscillators, one or more antennas, a fast Fourier transform (FFT) circuit, and one or more baseband, bandpass, and/or low pass filters. Low power wake-up radio 712 may communicate with communications circuitry 702. More specifically, the baseband processor, in low power wake-up radio 712, may communicate with communications circuitry 702, and may instruct communications circuitry 702 to turn on and turn off transceiver 710 when a LP-WUR wake-up packet is received from another communication station. Communications circuitry 702 can also instruct low power wake-up radio 712 to transmit a LP-WUR wake-up packet to another communication station. Low power wake-up radio 712 may transmit and receive signals in a sub 1 GHz frequency band (e.g., 750-900 MHz), and communications circuitry 702 and transceiver 710 may transmit and receive signals in a 2.4 GHz and/or 5 GHz frequency band.

[0060] FIG. 8 illustrates a block diagram of an example of a machine 800 or system upon which any one or more of the techniques (for example, methodologies) discussed herein may be performed. In other embodiments, the machine 800 may operate as a standalone device or may be connected (for example, networked) to other machines. In a networked deployment, the machine 800 may operate in the capacity of a server machine, a client machine, or both in server-client network environments. In an example, the machine 800 may act as a peer machine in peer-to-peer (P2P) (or other distributed) network environments. The machine 800 may be a personal computer (PC), a tablet PC, a set-top box (STB), a personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile telephone, wearable computer device, a web appliance, a network router, switch or bridge, or any machine capable of executing instructions (sequential or otherwise) that specify actions to be taken by that machine, such as a base station. Further, while only a single machine is illustrated, the term "machine" shall also be taken to include any collection of machines that individually or jointly execute a set (or multiple sets) of instructions to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein, such as cloud computing, software as a service (SaaS), or other computer cluster configurations.

[0061] Examples, as described herein, may include or may operate on logic or a number of components, modules, or mechanisms. Modules are tangible entities (for example, hardware) capable of performing specified operations when operating. A module includes hardware. In an example, the hardware may be specifically configured to carry out a specific operation (for example, hardwired). In another example, the hardware may include configurable execution units (for example, transistors, circuits, etc.) and a computer readable medium containing instructions where the instructions configure the execution units to carry out a specific operation when in operation. The configuring may occur under the direction of the executions units or a loading mechanism. Accordingly, the execution units are communicatively coupled to the computer-readable medium when the device is operating. In this example, the execution units may be a member of more than one module. For example, under operation, the execution units may be configured by a first set of instructions to implement a first module at one point in time and reconfigured by a second set of instructions to implement a second module at a second point in time.

[0062] The machine (for example, computer system) 800 may include a hardware processor 802 (for example, a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), a hardware processor core, or any combination thereof), a main memory 804 and a static memory 806, some or all of which may communicate with each other via an interlink (for example, bus) 808. The machine 800 may further include a power management device 832, a graphics display device 810, an alphanumeric input device 812 (for example, a keyboard), and a user interface (UI) navigation device 814 (for example, a mouse). In an example, the graphics display device 810, alphanumeric input device 812, and UI navigation device 814 may be a touch screen display. The machine 800 may additionally include a storage device (i.e., drive unit) 816, a signal generation device 818 (for example, a speaker), a modulation-demodulation device in the signal generation device 818, a network interface device/transceiver 820 coupled to antenna(s) 830, and one or more sensors 828, such as a global positioning system (GPS) sensor, compass, accelerometer, or other sensor. The machine 800 may include an output controller 834, such as a serial (for example, universal serial bus (USB), parallel, or other wired or wireless (for example, infrared (IR), near field communication (NFC), etc.) connection to communicate with or control one or more peripheral devices (for example, a printer, card reader, etc.)).

[0063] The storage device 816 may include a machine readable medium 822 on which is stored one or more sets of data structures or instructions 824 (for example, software) embodying or utilized by any one or more of the techniques or functions described herein. The instructions 824 may also reside, completely or at least partially, within the main memory 804, within the static memory 806, or within the hardware processor 802 during execution thereof by the machine 800. In an example, one or any combination of the hardware processor 802, the main memory 804, the static memory 806, or the storage device 816 may constitute machine-readable media.

[0064] Wakeup radio circuitry 811 may comprise one or more silicon based circuits that may perform operations commensurate with methods 500 and 600.

[0065] For example, wake-up radio circuitry 811 may comprise a transmitter, receiver, baseband processor, one or more analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), one or more digital-to-analog converters (DACs), one or more low noise amplifiers (LNAs), one or more power amplifiers, one or more oscillators, one or more antennas, a fast Fourier transform (FFT) circuit, and one or more baseband, bandpass, and/or low pass filters. For example, the baseband processor may determine to send a wake-up radio (WUR) packet to a second wireless device, based on a signal received from a CPU. The baseband processor may determine a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band for the WUR packet based on a location of wake-up radio circuitry 811 in the world. The baseband processor may also determine a first channel based on one or more channel statistics characterizing the channel between a device that wake-up radio circuitry 811 is in and another device with similar wake-up radio circuitry. The baseband processor may then tune the oscillator to oscillate at a frequency corresponding to the first channel. The baseband processor may generate the WUR packet. The baseband processor may cause to send the WUR packet to the second wireless device using the sub 1 GHz frequency band by mapping a string of bits, representing the WUR packet, to one or more digital modulation constellation points corresponding to a digital modulation scheme. In some embodiments, the digital modulation scheme may be an OOK modulation scheme. After the one or more digital modulation constellation points (symbols) are generated, corresponding to the WUR packet, the baseband processor may transmit the symbols to the FFT circuit which may in turn perform a FFT on the symbols and generate time-domain samples that may comprise an in-phase and quadrature component. The in-phase and quadrature components may correspond to a passband range of frequencies at which the symbols will be transmitted. The FFT circuit may then transmit the in-phase and quadrature components to the one or more DACs, which may in turn generate analog signals. The in-phase and quadrature components are mixed with a passband frequency corresponding to a center frequency of the first channel that the analog signals will be transmitted on. The first channel has a center frequency that corresponds to a frequency in the first channel that evenly splits the range of frequencies in the first channel into two sets of frequencies. Frequencies above the center frequency may correspond to a first set of frequencies associated with the first channel, and frequencies below the center frequency may correspond to a second set of frequencies associate with the first channel. The in-phase component may be mixed with a first signal oscillating at the same frequency as the center frequency of the first channel, and the quadrature component may be mixed with a second signal oscillating at a frequency that is 90 degrees out of phase with the center frequency of the first channel. An adding circuit may add the resulting mixed in-phase component and first signal to the resulting mixed quadrature component and the second signal. The adding circuit may then send the summed signal of adding circuit to the one or more power amplifiers, which may in turn amplify the summed signal to a certain level, and transmit the signal to an antenna that may send the amplified summed signal to an intended recipient.

[0066] The instructions 824 may carry out or perform any of the operations and processes (for example, processes 500-600) described and shown above. While the machine-readable medium 822 is illustrated as a single medium, the term "machine-readable medium" may include a single medium or multiple media (for example, a centralized or distributed database, and/or associated caches and servers) configured to store the one or more instructions 824.

[0067] Various embodiments may be implemented fully or partially in software and/or firmware. This software and/or firmware may take the form of instructions contained in or on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium. Those instructions may then be read and executed by one or more processors to enable performance of the operations described herein. The instructions may be in any suitable form, such as but not limited to, source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. Such a computer-readable medium may include any tangible non-transitory medium for storing information in a form readable by one or more computers, such as but not limited to, read only memory (ROM); random access memory (RAM); magnetic disk storage media; optical storage media; a flash memory, etc.

[0068] The term "machine-readable medium" may include any medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying instructions for execution by the machine 800 and that cause the machine 800 to perform any one or more of the techniques of the present disclosure, or that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying data structures used by or associated with such instructions. Non-limiting machine-readable medium examples may include solid-state memories and optical and magnetic media. In an example, a massed machine-readable medium includes a machine-readable medium with a plurality of particles having resting mass. Specific examples of massed machine-readable media may include non-volatile memory, such as semiconductor memory devices (for example, Electrically Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), or Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)) and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, such as internal hard disks and removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD- ROM disks.

[0069] The instructions 824 may further be transmitted or received over a communications network 826 using a transmission medium via the network interface device/transceiver 820 utilizing any one of a number of transfer protocols (for example, packet relay, internet protocol (IP), transmission control protocol (TCP), user datagram protocol (UDP), hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), etc.). Example communications networks may include a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), a packet data network (for example, the Internet), mobile telephone networks (for example, cellular networks), Plain Old Telephone (POTS) networks, wireless data networks (for example, (IEEE) 802.11 family of standards known as Wi-Fi®, IEEE 802.16 family of standards known as WiMAX®), IEEE 802.15.4 family of standards, and peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, among others. In an example, the network interface device/transceiver 820 may include one or more physical jacks (for example, Ethernet, coaxial, or phone jacks) or one or more antennas to connect to the communications network 826. In an example, the network interface device/transceiver 820 may include a plurality of antennas to wirelessly communicate using at least one of single-input multiple-output (SIMO), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), or multiple-input single-output (MISO) techniques. The term "transmission medium" shall be taken to include any intangible medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying instructions for execution by the machine 800 and includes digital or analog communications signals or other intangible media to facilitate communication of such software. The operations and processes (for example, processes 500-600) described and shown above may be carried out or performed in any suitable order as desired in various implementations. Additionally, in certain implementations, at least a portion of the operations may be carried out in parallel. Furthermore, in certain implementations, less than or more than the operations described may be performed.

[0070] The word "exemplary" is used herein to mean "serving as an example, instance, or illustration." Any embodiment described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments. The terms "computing device", "user device", "communication station", "station", "handheld device", "mobile device", "wireless device" and "user equipment" (UE) as used herein refers to a wireless device such as a cellular telephone, smartphone, tablet, netbook, wireless terminal, laptop computer, a femtocell, High Data Rate (HDR) subscriber station, access point, printer, point of sale device, access terminal, or other personal communication system (PCS) device. The device may be either mobile or stationary.

[0071] As used within this document, the term "communicate" is intended to include transmitting, or receiving, or both transmitting and receiving. This may be particularly useful in claims when describing the organization of data that is being transmitted by one device and received by another, but only the functionality of one of those devices is required to infringe the claim. Similarly, the bidirectional exchange of data between two devices (both devices transmit and receive during the exchange) may be described as 'communicating', when only the functionality of one of those devices is being claimed. The term "communicating" as used herein with respect to a wireless communication signal includes transmitting the wireless communication signal and/or receiving the wireless communication signal. For example, a wireless communication unit, which is capable of communicating a wireless communication signal, may include a wireless transmitter to transmit the wireless communication signal to at least one other wireless communication unit, and/or a wireless communication receiver to receive the wireless communication signal from at least one other wireless communication unit. [0072] The term "access point" (AP) as used herein may be a fixed station. An access point may also be referred to as an access node, a base station, or some other similar terminology known in the art. An access terminal may also be called a mobile station, user equipment (UE), a wireless device, or some other similar terminology known in the art. Embodiments disclosed herein generally pertain to wireless networks. Some embodiments may relate to wireless networks that operate in accordance with one of the IEEE 802.11 standards.

[0073] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with various devices and systems, for example, a Personal Computer (PC), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) device, a handheld PDA device, an onboard device, an off-board device, a hybrid device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a consumer device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a wireless communication station, a wireless device, a wireless Access Point (AP), a wired or wireless router, a wired or wireless modem, a video device, an audio device, an audio-video (A/V) device, a wired or wireless network, a wireless area network, a Wireless Video Area Network (WVAN), a Local Area Network (LAN), a Wireless LAN (WLAN), a Personal Area Network (PAN), a Wireless PAN (WPAN), and the like.

[0074] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one way and/or two-way radio communication systems, cellular radio-telephone communication systems, a wireless device, a cellular telephone, a wireless telephone, a Personal Communication Systems (PCS) device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless device, a mobile or portable Global Positioning System (GPS) device, a device which incorporates a GPS receiver or transceiver or chip, a device which incorporates an RFID element or chip, a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transceiver or device, a Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) transceiver or device, a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) transceiver or device, a device having one or more internal antennas and/or external antennas, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) devices or systems, multi-standard radio devices or systems, a wired or wireless handheld device, for example, a Smartphone, a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) device, or the like.

[0075] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one or more types of wireless communication signals and/or systems following one or more wireless communication protocols, for example, Radio Frequency (RF), Infra-Red (IR), Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), Orthogonal FDM (OFDM), time-Division Multiplexing (TDM), time-

Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Extended TDMA (E-TDMA), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), extended GPRS, Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), CDMA 2000, single-carrier CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, Multi-Carrier Modulation (MDM), Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT), Bluetooth®, Global Positioning System (GPS), Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBee™, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks, 3GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE), LTE advanced, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), or the like. Other embodiments may be used in various other devices, systems, and/or networks.

[0076] Certain aspects of the disclosure are described above with reference to block and flow diagrams of systems, methods, apparatuses, and/or computer program products according to various implementations. It will be understood that one or more blocks of the block diagrams and flow diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and the flow diagrams, respectively, may be implemented by computer-executable program instructions. Likewise, some blocks of the block diagrams and flow diagrams may not necessarily need to be performed in the order presented, or may not necessarily need to be performed at all, according to some implementations.

[0077] These computer-executable program instructions may be loaded onto a special-purpose computer or other particular machine, a processor, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a particular machine, such that the instructions that execute on the computer, processor, or other programmable data processing apparatus create means for implementing one or more functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks. These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer-readable storage media or memory that may direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer-readable storage media produce an article of manufacture including instruction means that implement one or more functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks. As an example, certain implementations may provide for a computer program product, comprising a computer-readable storage medium having a computer-readable program code or program instructions implemented therein, said computer-readable program code adapted to be executed to implement one or more functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks. The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or other programmable data

processing apparatus to cause a series of operational elements or steps to be performed on the computer or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer-implemented process such that the instructions that execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide elements or steps for implementing the functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks.

[0078] Various embodiments of the invention may be implemented fully or partially in software and/or firmware. This software and/or firmware may take the form of instructions contained in or on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium. Those instructions may then be read and executed by one or more processors to enable performance of the operations described herein. The instructions may be in any suitable form, such as but not limited to source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. Such a computer-readable medium may include any tangible non-transitory medium for storing information in a form readable by one or more computers, such as but not limited to, read only memory (ROM); random access memory (RAM); magnetic disk storage media; optical storage media; a flash memory, etc.

[0079] Accordingly, blocks of the block diagrams and flow diagrams support combinations of means for performing the specified functions, combinations of elements or steps for performing the specified functions and program instruction means for performing the specified functions. It will also be understood that each block of the block diagrams and flow diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and flow diagrams, may be implemented by special-purpose, hardware-based computer systems that perform the specified functions, elements or steps, or combinations of special-purpose hardware and computer instructions.

[0080] In some example embodiments of this disclosure, there may be a wireless device, comprising: memory and processing circuitry configured to: determine to send a wake-up radio (WUR) packet to a second wireless device; determine a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band associated with the WUR packet; generate the WUR packet; cause to send the WUR packet to the second wireless device on the first channel in the sub 1 GHz frequency band; and cause to establish a wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) connection with the second wireless device. The sub 1 GHz frequency band may comprise one or more of a 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16 MHz channel. The sub 1 GHz frequency band may be a 900 MHz frequency band. The WUR packet may comprise a wake-up preamble field, media access control (MAC) header field, payload field, or frame control sequence (FCS) field. The first channel may be a 4 MHz bandwidth channel. The wireless device may further comprise a transceiver configured to transmit and receive wireless signals, and an antenna coupled to the transceiver.

[0081] In other example embodiments of this disclosure, there may be a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing computer-executable instructions which, when executed by a processor, cause the processor to perform operations comprising: determining to send a wake-up (WUR_ packet to a second wireless device, determining a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band associated with the WUR packet, generating the WUR packet, and causing to send the WUR packet to the second wireless device on the first channel in the sub 1 GHz frequency band. The sub 1 GHz frequency band may comprise one or more of a 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16 MHz channel.

[0082] In some example embodiments of this disclosure, there may be a wireless device, comprising memory and processing circuitry configured to: identify a wake-up radio (WUR) packet received on a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band from a first wireless device, determine a payload field in the WUR packet, and cause to wake up a non-sub 1 GHz radio. The sub 1 GHz frequency band may comprise one or more of a 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16 MHz channel. The sub 1 GHz frequency band may be a 900 MHz frequency band. The processing circuity may be further configured to: cause to send an acknowledgment packet to the first device in a second frequency band, wherein the second frequency band is a 2.4 GHz frequency band, a 5 GHz frequency band, a fifth generation (5G) frequency band, a Bluetooth (BT) frequency band, a long term evolution (LTE) frequency band, or a LTE unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U) frequency band. The packet may comprise at least a wake-up preamble field, media access control (MAC) header field, payload field, or frame control sequence (FCS) field. The first channel may be a 4 MHz bandwidth channel. The wireless device may further comprise a receiver with a circuit configured to transmit and receive wireless signals, and an antenna coupled to the circuit.

[0083] In other embodiments, there may be a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing computer-executable instructions which, when executed by a processor, cause the processor to perform operations comprising: identifying a wake-up receiver (WUR) packet received on a first channel in a sub 1 GHz frequency band from a first wireless device; determining a payload field in the WUR packet; and causing to wake up a non-sub 1 GHz radio. The sub 1 GHz frequency band may comprise one or more of a 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16 MHz channel.

[0084] Conditional language, such as, among others, "can," "could," "might," or "may," unless specifically stated otherwise, or otherwise understood within the context as used, is generally intended to convey that certain implementations could include, while other implementations do not include, certain features, elements, and/or operations. Thus, such conditional language is not generally intended to imply that features, elements, and/or operations are in any way required for one or more implementations or that one or more implementations necessarily include logic for deciding, with or without user input or prompting, whether these features, elements, and/or operations are included or are to be performed in any particular implementation.

[0085] Many modifications and other implementations of the disclosure set forth herein will be apparent having the benefit of the teachings presented in the foregoing descriptions and the associated drawings. Therefore, it is to be understood that the disclosure is not to be limited to the specific implementations disclosed and that modifications and other implementations are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims. Although specific terms are employed herein, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation.