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1. (WO2019032820) GREY WATER MEASUREMENT
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claimed is:

A method for determining the grey water content remaining in a mixer drum from a previous concrete load that has been discharged from said mixer drum to provide accurate batching of a new concrete load into said mixer drum, said method comprising:

(A) providing a concrete mixer drum having an interior volume and an axis of rotation;

(B) providing at least one sensor mounted in a location in said interior volume of said mixer drum such that during a revolution of said mixer drum, the sensor separately achieves both a submerged state in any water in said interior and an unsubmerged state and generates a signal indicative of each said state;

(C) rotating the concrete mixer drum such that the sensor separately achieves both a submerged state in any water in said interior and an unsubmerged state;

(D) determining the angle between the axis of rotation of the concrete mixer drum and horizontal;

(E) determining the submersion fraction or inverse fraction that the sensor achieves based on the rotation of Step (C);

(F) providing data correlating the submersion fraction or inverse fraction to the corresponding volume of water in a vessel that is substantially geometrically similar to said mixer drum;

(G) determining the grey water content in said mixer drum by comparing the submersion fraction determined in Step (E) with said data of Step (F) and the angle between the axis of rotation of the concrete mixer drum and horizontal determined in Step (D); and either

(H) creating an alert if the grey water content detected is greater than a pre-defined limit, modifying the percentage of water in said new concrete load, based upon the grey water content determined in step (G), discharging at least a portion of the grey water from said mixer drum based upon the grey water content determined in step (G), or a combination thereof.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein said concrete mixer drum is mounted on a truck.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor is an electrical resistivity sensor, an electrical capacitance sensor, an acoustic sensor, a microwave sensor, a nuclear resonance sensor, or a light sensor.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixer drum has a length and a motor for

rotating said mixer drum, and wherein said at least one sensor is located in the bottom third along the length of the mixer drum, closest to said motor.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor is located less than 8 inches from the internal surface of the mixer drum.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor is located less than 2 inches from the internal surface of the mixer drum.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor is located less than ½ inches from the internal surface of the mixer drum.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor makes a measurement at least 5 times per second for drum rotational speeds less than or equal to 2 revolutions per minute.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor makes a measurement at least 15 times per second for drum rotational speeds less than or equal to 6 revolutions per minute but greater than 2 revolutions per minute.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one sensor makes a measurement at least 50 times per second for drum rotational speeds greater than 6 revolutions per minute.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the angle determined in Step (D) is provided by an accelerometer mounted on the drum.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the submersion fraction or inverse fraction

determined in Step (E) is based on the variability of the sensor output.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the submersion fraction or inverse fraction

determined in Step (E) is based on the time the sensor detects grey water compared to the total time to complete a drum revolution.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the total time to complete said revolution is based on the mixer drum revolution speed.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein the submersion fraction determined in Step (E) is based on the distance said at least one sensor traveled while detecting grey water compared to the total distance traveled to complete a drum revolution.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the position of said at least one sensor is

determined by an accelerometer mounted to the mixer drum.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the data generated in Step (F) is based on a

collection of data representing the geometry of the mixer drum and location of said at least one sensor in three-dimensions.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the data generated in Step (F) is based on sensor outputs corresponding to at least two measured volumes of water in said

substantially geometrically similar vessel.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the grey water content is determined based on at least three successive rotations of the mixer drum.

20. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixer drum has an interior surface, said method further comprising determining the amount of water adhering to said interior surface of said mixer drum, and modifying the amount of grey water content determined in step (G) based upon said determination.

21. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining the amount of hardened concrete built up within said mixer drum, and modifying the amount of grey water content determined in step (G) based upon said determination.

22. The method of claim 1, wherein said new concrete load comprises water and

cement, and wherein said percentage of water in said new concrete load is modified by adjusting the water content, the cement content, or both.

23. A method of determining the volume of grey water remaining in a vessel having an interior volume and an axis of rotation after a first cement load has been discharged from said vessel, said method comprising:

rotating said vessel at least one complete revolution and determining the angle of the axis of rotation of said vessel with respect to horizontal;

providing at least one sensor in said interior volume positioned so as to be submerged in the grey water in said vessel during a first portion of said one

complete revolution and not submerged in the grey water in said vessel during a second portion of said one complete revolution, said at least one sensor generating a first signal when it is submerged and a second signal when it is not submerged; determining the ratio of either said first portion or said second portion to said one complete revolution;

comparing said ratio to a predetermined ratio indicative of the volume of grey water in said vessel; and

modifying the percentage of water in a second cement load to be loaded into said vessel based on said comparison.

24. A method of determining the volume of grey water remaining in a vessel having an interior volume and an axis of rotation after a first cement load has been discharged from said vessel, said method comprising:

rotating said vessel at least one complete revolution and determining the angle of the axis of rotation of said vessel with respect to horizontal;

providing at least one sensor in said interior volume positioned so as to be submerged in the grey water in said vessel during a first portion of said one complete revolution and not submerged in the grey water in said vessel during a second portion of said one complete revolution, said at least one sensor generating a first signal when it is submerged and a second signal when it is not submerged; determining the ratio of either said first portion or said second portion to said one complete revolution;

comparing said ratio to a predetermined ratio indicative of the volume of grey water in said vessel; and

discharging at least a portion of said grey water from said vessel.

25. A system for determining the volume of grey water remaining in a vessel having an interior volume and an axis of rotation after a first cement load has been discharged from said vessel, said system comprising:

a motor for rotating said vessel at least one complete revolution so that the angle of the axis of rotation of said vessel with respect to horizontal can be determined;

at least one sensor in said interior volume of said vessel positioned so as to be submerged in the grey water in said vessel during a first portion of said one complete revolution and not submerged in the grey water in said vessel during a second portion of said one complete revolution, said at least one sensor generating a first signal when it is submerged and a second signal when it is not submerged; a positioning determining device or a time determining device for determining a submersion fraction that is the portion of a full revolution at which the sensor is submerged or the portion of a full revolution at which the sensor is not submerged;

a processor in communication with said at least one sensor to receive said first and second signals and with said positioning detecting device or said time determining device and configured to calculate a ratio of said first portion or said second portion to said one complete revolution and determine a volume of grey water in said vessel based on said ratio.

26. The system of claim 25, further comprising a memory in communication with said processor, said memory containing a calibration curve correlating ratios of a submersion fraction to respective volumes of water, wherein said processor uses said calibration curve to determine said volume of grey water in said vessel based on said ratios.

27. The system of claim 25, further comprising a memory in communication with said processor, said memory containing a geometric representation of said vessel, wherein said processor determines said volume of grey water using said geometric representation.

28. The system of claim 25, wherein said vessel is a concrete mixer drum.

29. A system for determining the grey water content remaining in a vessel having an interior volume and an axis of rotation after a first cement load has been discharged from said vessel, said system comprising:

a rotatable concrete mixer drum having an interior volume;

at least one sensor in said interior volume of said rotatable concrete mixer drum and positioned such that during a revolution of said rotatable concrete mixer drum, the at least one sensor separately achieves both a submerged state in water in said interior volume and an unsubmerged state and generates a signal indicate of each such state;

a position determining device or a time determining device for determining a submersion fraction that is the portion of a full revolution at which the sensor is submerged or the portion of a full revolution at which the sensor is not submerged; and

a processor having a memory containing instructions, which when executed by said processor, allow the system to: determine the submersion fraction of a revolution of said rotatable concrete mixer drum during which said sensor is in said submerged state or determine the inverse submersion fraction of a revolution of said rotatable concrete mixer drum during which said sensor is in said unsubmerged state; correlate the submersion fraction or inverse submersion fraction to a corresponding volume of water in a vessel that is substantially geometrically similar to said concrete mixer drum; and determine the volume of grey water in said concrete mixer drum based on said correlation.

30. The system of claim 30, wherein said memory contains further instructions, which when executed by said processor, uses the angle between the axis of rotation of said rotatable concrete mixer drum and horizontal to determine the volume of grey water in said concrete mixer drum based on said correlation.