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1. (WO2019032687) TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. An additive manufacturing apparatus, comprising:

a platform;

a dispenser to dispense successive layers of feed material on the platform;

a heat source above the platform, the heat source configured to deliver energy to a first region of a topmost layer of the successive layers of feed material to pre-heat and/or heat-treat the first region;

an energy source to emit a beam of energy to impinge a second region of the topmost layer to generate a melt pool from feed material in the second region, the second region smaller than the first region;

a sensor system to measure temperatures of the topmost layer of feed material and to measure a dimension of the melt pool; and

a controller configured to

operate the heat source to heat the topmost layer of feed material based on the measured temperatures, and

operate the energy source to fuse feed material in the topmost layer based on the measured dimension.

2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein:

the heat source comprises an array of lamps to deliver energy to the first region, and the controller is configured to selectively operate each lamp of the array of lamps based on the measured temperatures.

3. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the controller is configured to operate the energy source such that a size of the second region, a power of the beam of energy, or a scan speed is adjusted based on the measured dimension.

4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the sensor system comprises an infrared image capture system configured to measure the temperatures across an entire width and an entire length of the topmost layer of feed material.

5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the sensor system comprises an infrared image capture system configured to measure the temperature at multiple locations uniformly distributed through an entire length and an entire width of the topmost layer of feed material based on thermal emissions from the topmost layer of feed material.

6. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a high-speed camera configured to measure the dimension of the melt pool and a thermal gradients at a solid-liquid interface.

7. The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the high-speed camera is configured to measure temperatures of feed material in the melt pool, and the controller is configured to determine the dimension of the melt pool based on the measured temperatures of feed material relative to a threshold temperature.

8. The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the high-speed camera is configured to measure a length and to measure a width of the melt pool, and the controller is configured to operate the energy source based on the measured length and the measured width.

9. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the sensor system comprises a

spectrophotometer to detect wavelengths emitted by feed material in a third region of the topmost layer based on the detected wavelengths, and the controller is configured to determine cooling rates of feed material in the third region based on the detected wavelengths and operate the heat source or the energy source based on the determined cooling rates.

10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the third region is smaller than the first region and larger than the second region.

11. An additive manufacturing method comprising:

dispensing successive layers of feed material on a platform;

measuring temperatures of a topmost layer of feed material of the successive layers of feed material;

delivering heat to a first region covering the topmost layer based on the measured temperatures; and

emitting a beam of energy to a second region smaller than the first region based on a dimension of a melt pool of the feed material created by the beam of energy.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein measuring the temperatures of the topmost layer of feed material comprises measuring a temperature at multiple locations uniformly distributed through an entire length and an entire width of the topmost layer of feed material based on thermal emissions from the topmost layer of feed material.

13. The method of claim 11, further comprising measuring, using a high-speed camera, the dimension of the melt pool.

14. The method of claim 11, wherein measuring the temperatures comprises detecting wavelengths emitted by feed material in a third region of the topmost layer, and determining cooling rates of feed material in the third region based on the detected wavelengths.

15. An additive manufacturing apparatus, comprising:

a platform;

a dispenser to dispense successive layers of feed material on the platform;

a heat source above the platform, the heat source configured to deliver energy to a first region of a topmost layer of the successive layers of feed material to pre-heat and/or heat treat the first region;

an energy source to emit a beam of energy to impinge a second region of the topmost layer to generate a melt pool from feed material in the second region, the second region smaller than the first region;

a sensor system including

a first camera having a stationary first field of view of a build region of the platform,

a second camera having a second field of view that is smaller than the first field of view and that is configured to trail the second region, and

a third camera having a third field of view that is smaller than the second field of view and that covers the second region; and

a controller configured to

receive data from the first camera, the second camera and the third camera and generate a temperature map of the layer of feed material from the data, and

operate the energy source to fuse feed material in the topmost layer based on the temperature map.