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1. (WO2019030343) METHOD OF CONTROLLING SALINITY OF AN INJECTION WATER DURING COMMISSIONING OF AN INJECTION WELL
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Claims:

1. An integrated system comprising:

a desalination plant comprised of a reverse osmosis (RO) array to produce an RO permeate blending stream and a nanofiltration (NF) array to produce an NF permeate blending stream;

a blending system;

a control unit; and

an injection system for an injection well that penetrates an oil-bearing layer of a reservoir, the injection system comprising an injection line and at least one injection pump; wherein the blending system is configured to blend the RO permeate blending stream and the NF permeate blending stream to produce a blended injection water stream and to pass the blended injection water stream to the injection system,

wherein the control unit is configured to dynamically alter operation of the blending system to adjust amounts of at least one of the RO permeate blending stream and the NF permeate blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream from an initial composition to a target composition.

2. The integrated system of claim 1 wherein the blending system is further configured to blend the RO permeate blending stream and the NF permeate blending stream with a high salinity water blending stream having a salinity of from 17,500 to 50,000 mg/L to produce the blended injection water stream, and

wherein the control unit is configured to dynamically alter operation of the blending system to adjust the amounts of at least one of the RO permeate blending stream, the NF permeate blending stream and the high salinity water blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream from the initial composition to the target composition.

3. The integrated system of claims 1 or 2 wherein the control unit is to dynamically alter operation of the blending system to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream from the initial composition to the target composition by following a concentration profile for decreasing the salinity or ionic strength of the blended injection water stream.

4. The integrated system of claim 3, wherein the control unit is configured to receive the concentration profile from a source external to the control unit.

5. The integrated system of any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the control unit is configured to monitor the pressure in the injection well or at a wellhead of the injection well, in real time, for an increase in pressure to a value at or above a threshold value; and,

if the control unit detects an increase in pressure to a value at or above the threshold value, the control unit either ceases to dynamically alter the composition of the blended injection water stream or dynamically alters the composition of the blended injection water stream by following a recovery concentration profile for increasing the salinity or ionic strength of the blended injection water stream, until the pressure falls to below the threshold value.

6. The integrated system of any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the control unit is configured to monitor the flow rate of the blended injection water stream in the injection line of the injection system downstream of the at least one injection pump, in real time, for a decrease in flow rate to at or below a threshold value; and,

if the control unit detects a decrease in flow rate to a value at or below the threshold value, the control unit either ceases to dynamically alter the composition of the blended injection water stream or dynamically alters the composition of the blended injection water stream by following a recovery concentration profile for increasing the salinity or ionic strength of the blended injection water stream, until the flow rate increases to above the threshold value.

7. The integrated system of claims 5 or 6, wherein the control unit is configured to receive the recovery concentration profile from a source external to the control unit.

8. The integrated system of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the control unit is configured to dynamically alter operation of the blending system to adjust the amounts of at least one of the RO permeate and NF permeate blending streams by adjusting the amounts of at least one of the RO permeate and NF permeate discharged from the blending system via an RO permeate dump line or an NF permeate dump line, respectively.

9. The integrated system of any one of claims 1 to 8 wherein the blending system is further configured to blend the RO permeate blending stream and the NF permeate blending stream with a fines stabilizing blending stream to produce the blended injection water stream wherein the fine stabilizing blending stream comprises an aqueous solution of at least one fines stabilizing additive, and

wherein the control unit is configured to dynamically alter operation of the blending system to adjust the amount of fines stabilizing blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream from the initial composition to the target composition.

10. The integrated system of claim 9 wherein the control unit is configured to dynamically alter operation of the blending system to adjust the amount of fines stabilizing blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream by following a concentration profile or recovery concentration profile that includes changes to the concentration of the fines stabilizing additive in the blended injection water stream.

11. A method for operating an integrated system comprising:

a desalination plant comprised of a reverse osmosis (RO) array and a nanofiltration (NF) array;

a blending system;

a control unit;

an injection system for an injection well that penetrates an oil-bearing layer of a reservoir;

the method comprising:

introducing a high salinity water feed to the desalination plant;

producing an RO permeate blending stream using the RO array of the desalination plant; producing an NF permeate blending stream using the NF array of the desalination plant; blending the RO permeate blending stream and the NF permeate blending stream in the blending system; and

dynamically altering operation of the blending system during commissioning of the injection well to adjust amounts of at least one of the RO permeate blending stream and the NF permeate blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream from an initial composition to a target composition for a main phase of a low salinity waterflood by following a concentration profile for decreasing the salinity or ionic strength of the blended injection water stream.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the desalination plant has a high salinity water by-pass line configured to pass a portion of the high salinity water feed stream as a blending stream to the blending system wherein the high salinity water feed stream has a total dissolved solids content in the range of 17,500 mg/L to 50,000 mg/L and wherein dynamically altering operation of the

blending system during commissioning of the injection well further comprises adjusting the amount of the high salinity water blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream.

13. The method of claims 11 or 12, wherein dynamically altering operation of the blending system during commissioning of the injection well further comprises adjusting the amount of at least one fines stabilizing additive in the blended injection water stream by following a concentration profile that includes changes in the concentration of the fines stabilizing additive.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein the blending system further comprises a vessel for storing a fines stabilizing concentrate comprising an aqueous solution of at least one fines stabilizing additive coupled to a line configured to deliver a fines stabilizing concentrate blending stream, and wherein dynamically altering operation of the blending system during commissioning of the injection well further comprises adjusting the amount of the fines stabilizing concentrate blending stream to alter the composition of the blended injection water stream.

15. The method of any one of claims 11 to 14, wherein dynamically adjusting the operation of the blending system comprises adjusting an adjustable valve in the blending system.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the valve that is adjusted is selected from a valve on an RO permeate dump line, a valve on an NF permeate dump line, a valve on the high salinity water by-pass line, a valve on a high salinity water dump line, a valve on the fines stabilizing concentrate line or any combination thereof.

17. An integrated system comprising a desalination plant, a blending system and a control unit wherein:

the desalination plant comprises

a water inlet line;

a reverse osmosis array in fluid communication with the water inlet line, wherein the reverse osmosis array is configured to receive a feed water and produce a reverse osmosis permeate;

a nanofiltration array in fluid communication with the water inlet line, wherein the nanofiltration array is configured to receive a feed water and produce a nanofiltration permeate, wherein the nanofiltration permeate has a salinity that is higher than a salinity of the reverse osmosis permeate; and

the blending system comprises:

a flow line for a reverse osmosis permeate blending water stream,

a flow line for a nanofiltration permeate blending stream,

a flow line for a blended injection water stream,

at least one of a reverse osmosis dump line configured to pass an unused portion of the reverse osmosis permeate out of the blending system and a nanofiltration dump line configured to pass an unused portion of the nanofiltration permeate out of the blending system, and

one or more adjustable valves; and wherein

the control unit is configured to adjust, in response to measured flow rate data, pressure data or composition data, the one or more adjustable valves of the blending system, to selectively combine at least a portion of the reverse osmosis permeate with at least a portion of the nanofiltration permeate to produce a blended injection water stream having a predetermined composition.

18. The integrated system of claim 17 wherein the control unit is configured to adjust an adjustable valve on the RO dump line or on the NF dump line.

19. The integrated system of claims 17 or 18, wherein the desalination plant further comprises:

a by-pass line coupled to the water inlet line configured to pass at least a portion of the feed water to the blending system wherein the control unit is further configured to adjust a valve on the by-pass line to selectively combine a portion of the feed water from the by-pass line with at least the portion of the reverse osmosis permeate and at least the portion of the nanofiltration permeate to produce the blended injection water stream having the predetermined composition.

20. The integrated system of claims 17 or 18 wherein the desalination plant further comprises:

a by-pass line coupled to the water inlet line configured to pass at least a portion of the feed water to the blending system and wherein the by-pass line is further coupled to a feed water dump line and the control unit is further configured to adjust a valve on the feed water dump line to selectively combine a portion of the feed water from the by-pass line with at least the portion of the reverse osmosis permeate and at least the portion of the nanofiltration permeate to produce the blended injection water stream having the predetermined composition.

21. The integrated system of any of claims 17 to 20, wherein the blending system further comprising a vessel for storing a fines stabilizing concentrate comprising an aqueous solution of at least one fines stabilizing additive coupled to a flow line for a fines stabilizing concentrate blending stream, wherein the control unit is further configured to adjust a valve on the fines stabilizing concentrate flow line to selectively combine the fines stabilizing concentrate with at least one of the reverse osmosis permeate, the nanofiltration permeate, the feed water blending stream, or any combination thereof to produce a blended injection water stream having the predetermined composition.

22. The integrated system of any one of claims 17 or 21, wherein the flow rate data, pressure data or composition data pertain to the blended injection water stream.

23. The integrated system of any one of claims 17 to 22, wherein the integrated system further comprise a plurality of ion concentration sensors configured to measure at least one of salinity, concentrations of individual ions (Ci) or concentrations of types of individual ions in the nanofiltration permeate, the reverse osmosis permeate or the blended injection water stream and to transmit the measured composition data to the control unit.

24. The integrated system of any of claims 17 to 23, further comprising one or more flow rate sensors, wherein the flow rate sensors are configured to measure at least one of: a flow rate of the reverse osmosis permeate, a flow rate of the nanofiltration permeate, a flow rate of the blended injection water stream, a flow rate of a feed water bypass stream, or a flow rate of a fines stabilizing concentrate stream and to transmit the flow rate data to the control unit.

25. The integrated system of any one of claims 17 to 24 wherein the control unit is configured to adjust, in response to the measured flow rate, pressure and composition data, the one or more valves of the blending system to adjust a composition of the blended injection water stream from an initial composition to a target composition along a concentration profile.

26. A method of producing a blended injection water stream, the method comprising:

producing a reverse osmosis permeate stream;

producing a nanofiltration permeate stream;

blending at least a portion of the reverse osmosis permeate stream with at least a portion of the nanofiltration permeate stream to provide a blended injection water stream having a first salinity;

increasing a blending ratio of the reverse osmosis permeate stream to the nanofiltration permeate stream to decrease the salinity of the blended injection water stream from the first salinity to a second salinity;

dumping a decreasing portion of the reverse osmosis permeate stream while the blending ratio is being increased; and

maintaining the blending ratio when the second salinity is reached, wherein the blended injection water stream is injected into an injection well that penetrates an oil-bearing layer of a reservoir.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein, at the first salinity, the injection water stream has a total dissolved solids (TDS) content in the range of from 10,000 mg/L to 22,500 mg/L and, at the second salinity, the blended injection water stream has a total dissolved solids content in the range of from 500 to 5,000 mg/L.

28. The method of claims 26 or 27, further comprising:

increasing a flow rate of the blended injection water stream from a first flow rate to a second flow rate while increasing the blending ratio of the reverse osmosis permeate stream to the nanofiltration permeate stream by dumping a decreasing portion of the reverse osmosis permeate stream and a decreasing portion of the nanofiltration permeate stream as the blending ratio is increased; and

maintaining the flow rate and the blending ratio when the flow rate of the blended injection water stream reaches the second flow rate and the salinity of the injection stream reaches the second salinity.

29. The method of any one of claims 26 to 28, wherein the reverse osmosis permeate stream and the nanofiltration permeate stream are produced from a feed water having a TDS in the range of 17,500 to 50,000 mg/L and a divalent cation concentration in the range of 500 to 3500 mg/L, wherein the method further comprises:

blending at least a portion of the feed water with at least the portion of the reverse osmosis permeate stream and with at least the portion of the nanofiltration permeate stream to provide the blended injection water stream; and

decreasing a divalent cation concentration of the blended injection water stream from first divalent cation concentration to a second divalent cation concentration by blending a decreasing portion of the feed water with at least the portion of the reverse osmosis permeate stream and with at least the portion of the nanofiltration permeate stream.

30. The method of claim 29, further comprising:

detecting a sulfate anion concentration in the blended injection water stream; and adjusting an amount of the feed water being blended with the reverse osmosis permeate stream and with the nanofiltration permeate stream to maintain the sulfate anion concentration in the blended injection water stream below a sulfate concentration threshold.

31. The method of any of claims 26 to 30, further comprising:

blending at least a portion of a fines stabilizing concentrate stream comprising at least one fines stabilizing additive with at least one of the portion of the reverse osmosis permeate stream, the portion of the nanofiltration permeate stream, the portion of the feed water or any combination thereof to provide the blended injection water stream; and

increasing a fines stabilizing additive concentration of the blended injection water stream in response to a decreasing injectivity of the blended injection water stream into the oil-bearing layer of the reservoir.

32. A method of controlling a composition of a blended injection water stream, the method comprising:

receiving, by a control system, one or more composition parameters for the blended injection water stream;

automatically adjusting, by the control system, one or more valves within a blending system;

blending a reverse osmosis permeate with a nanofiltration permeate in the blending system to produce the blended injection water stream in response to automatically adjusting the one or more valves;

controlling, by the control system, the one or more composition parameters for the blended injection water stream to meet corresponding one or more injection water composition parameter targets by:

automatically adjusting the one or more valves to vary a flow rate of the blended injection water stream, and, to vary a blend ratio of the reverse osmosis permeate to the nanofiltration permeate to produce the blended injection fluid having the one or more composition parameters meeting the one or more injection fluid composition parameter targets.

33. The method of claim 32, wherein the one or more composition parameters comprise a total dissolved solids content of the blended injection water stream, and wherein controlling the one or more composition parameters comprises controlling the total dissolved solids content of the blended injection water stream to match a planned total dissolved solids concentration profile, wherein the planned total dissolved solids concentration profile defines the one or more injection water composition parameter targets over a defined time period.

34. The method of claims 32 or 33, further comprising:

blending at least a portion of a feed water with the reverse osmosis permeate and the nanofiltration permeate to produce the injection fluid in response to automatically adjusting the one or more valves in the blending system.

35. The method of any of claims 33 to 34, further comprising:

injecting the injection fluid into a wellbore via an injection line, wherein controlling the one or more composition parameters is based on pressure in the wellbore, pressure at the wellhead or flow rate in the injection line.