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1. (WO2018038711) ACOUSTIC BIOREACTOR PROCESSES
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CLAIMS

1 . A process for continuously collecting cells from a cell culture, comprising: suspending the cell culture in a growth volume of a bioreactor, the bioreactor including at least one ultrasonic transducer and a reflector located opposite the at least one ultrasonic transducer, each ultrasonic transducer being driven to produce a multi-dimensional acoustic standing wave that holds the cell culture in the growth volume; and

flowing a nutrient fluid stream through the cell culture to dislodge cells from the cell culture; and

separating the dislodged cells from the nutrient fluid stream.

2. The process of claim 1 , wherein the cell culture is composed of T cells, genetically modified T-cells, B cells, or NK cells.

3. The process of claim 1 , wherein the dislodged cells are separated from the nutrient fluid stream in an external filtering device, the separated cells being recovered from a product outlet and the nutrient fluid stream exiting the external filtering device through a recycle outlet.

4. The process of claim 1 , wherein the bioreactor further comprises a secondary filtering system located between the growth volume and a bioreactor outlet.

5. The process of claim 4, further comprising activating the secondary filtering system if the multi-dimensional acoustic standing wave fails.

6. The process of claim 1 , wherein the multi-dimensional acoustic standing wave is in resonance.

7. The process of claim 1 , wherein the at least one ultrasonic transducer is an array of elements.

8. The process of claim 1 , wherein each ultrasonic transducer produces a plurality of multi-dimensional acoustic standing waves.

9. The process of claim 1 , wherein the bioreactor does not include an impeller within the growth volume.

10. The process of claim 1 , wherein the multi-dimensional acoustic standing wave has an axial force component and a lateral force component which are of the same order of magnitude.

1 1 . The process of claim 1 , wherein the ultrasonic transducer comprises a piezoelectric material that can vibrate in a higher order mode shape.

12. The process of claim 1 1 , wherein the piezoelectric material has a rectangular shape.

13. The process of claim 1 , wherein the ultrasonic transducer comprises:

a housing having a top end, a bottom end, and an interior volume; and a crystal at the bottom end of the housing having an exposed exterior surface and an interior surface, the crystal being able to vibrate when driven by a voltage signal.

14. The process of claim 13, wherein a backing layer contacts the interior surface of the crystal, the backing layer being made of a substantially acoustically transparent material.

15. The process of claim 14, wherein the substantially acoustically transparent material is balsa wood, cork, or foam.

16. The process of claim 14, wherein the substantially acoustically transparent material has a thickness of up to 1 inch.

17. The process of claim 14, wherein the substantially acoustically transparent material is in the form of a lattice.

18. The process of claim 13, wherein an exterior surface of the crystal is covered by a wear surface material with a thickness of a half wavelength or less, the wear surface material being a urethane, epoxy, or silicone coating, or being made of aluminum oxide.

19. The process of claim 13, wherein the crystal has no backing layer or wear layer.

20. The process of claim 1 , wherein the multi-dimensional acoustic standing wave is a three-dimensional standing wave.

21 . A process for preparing CAR T-cells from a patient, comprising:

suspending a cell culture in a growth volume of a bioreactor, the bioreactor including at least one ultrasonic transducer and a reflector located opposite the at least one ultrasonic transducer, each ultrasonic transducer being driven to produce a multi-dimensional acoustic standing wave that holds the cell culture in the growth volume, wherein the cell culture is formed from T-cells that have been removed from the patient and genetically modified into CAR T-cells.