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1. (WO2019032422) APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR DETERMINING PROPERTIES OF LIQUID-BEARING SOLIDS USING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tool, comprising:

a magnet;

a transmitter including a pulse sequencer and a power amplifier, wherein said pulse sequencer generates an NMR pulse sequence including a solid state pulse sequence portion and a CPMG pulse sequence portion;

a receiver including at least one antenna arranged to detect signals resulting from an interaction of said NMR field with a sample, including at least one first echo following said solid state pulse sequence portion and a train of echoes between pulses of said CPMG pulse sequence portion;

a processor that processes said first echo and said train of echoes and determines an indication of a hydrogen content of the sample.

2. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion includes a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed after a wait period rby a second ninety degree excitation pulse.

3. The NMR tool of claim 2, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said solid state pulse sequence portion, and said second ninety degree excitation pulse constitutes a beginning of said CPMG pulse sequence portion.

4. The NMR tool of claim 2, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion is a two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion that further includes at least one additional ninety degree excitation pulse separated by a wait period τ between said first and second ninety degree excitation pulses.

5. The NMR tool of claim 4, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion.

6. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion includes a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed by a sub-sequence including a second ninety degree excitation pulse following said first ninety degree excitation pulse after a time period of 2r + τρ, said second ninety degree excitation pulse followed after a time period τ by an 180 degree pulse of length τρ, followed after a time period 2rby three 180 degree pulses each spaced by a time period 2τ, and followed by another ninety degree excitation pulse.

7. The NMR tool of claim 6, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said solid state pulse sequence portion, and said another ninety degree excitation pulse constitutes a beginning of said CPMG pulse sequence portion.

8. The NMR tool of claim 6, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion is a two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion that comprises a repetition of said sub-sequence at least one time.

9. The NMR tool of claim 7, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion.

10. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion includes a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed by a sub-sequence comprising a second ninety degree excitation pulse that follows said first ninety degree excitation pulse after a period of time τ, followed after a period of time rby a third ninety degree excitation pulse followed after a period of time 2 rby a fourth ninety degree excitation pulse, followed after a period of time rby a fifth ninety degree excitation pulse.

11. The NMR tool of claim 10, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said solid state pulse sequence portion, and said fifth ninety degree excitation pulse constitutes a beginning of said CPMG pulse sequence portion.

12. The NMR tool of claim 10, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion is a two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion that comprises a repetition of said sub-sequence at least one time.

13. The NMR tool of claim 12, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion.

14. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion includes a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed by a sub-sequence including a second ninety degree excitation pulse following said first ninety degree excitation pulse after a period of time r, which is followed after a period of 4 τ during which time spin-locking +x and -x pulses are provided by another ninety degree excitation pulse.

15. The NMR tool of claim 14, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said solid state pulse sequence portion, and said another ninety degree excitation pulse constitutes a beginning of said CPMG pulse sequence portion.

16. The NMR tool of claim 14, wherein said line-narrowing pulse sequence portion is a two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion that comprises a repetition of said sub-sequence at least one time.

17. The NMR tool of claim 16, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion.

18. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said pulse sequencer generates an NMR pulse sequence further including a Ti pulse sequence and said processor further processes data resulting from said Ti pulse sequence.

19. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said hydrogen content of the sample comprises the hydrogen content of a solid portion of the sample, and said processor determines said indication of the hydrogen content of the solid portion of the sample by using said echo resulting from the solid state sequence portion of the pulse sequence to establish a total organic hydrogen content of the sample, and by using said echoes resulting from said CPMG pulse sequence portion to establish a fluid organic hydrogen content, and by subtracting said fluid organic hydrogen content from said total organic hydrogen content to obtain said hydrogen content of the solid portion of the sample.

20. The NMR tool of claim 1, wherein said NMR tool includes a body in which said magnetic, said transmitter and said receiver are located and a cable coupled to said body.

21. A method of investigating a sample having a solid portion with a solid hydrogen content and a fluid portion with a fluid hydrogen content, comprising:

generating and subjecting the sample to an NMR field, said NMR field varying according to an NMR pulse sequence including a solid state pulse sequence portion and a CPMG pulse sequence portion having a plurality of pulses;

detecting signals resulting from an interaction of said NMR field with the sample, including at least one first echo following said solid state pulse sequence portion and a plurality of CPMG echoes between pulses of said CPMG pulse sequence portion;

processing said first echo and said CPMG echoes to determine an indication of a hydrogen content of the solid portion of the sample.

22. The method of claim 21, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion includes one of (i) a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed after a wait period rby a second ninety degree

excitation pulse, (ii) a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed by a sub-sequence including a second ninety degree excitation pulse following said first ninety degree excitation pulse after a time period of 2r + τρ, said second ninety degree excitation pulse followed after a time period τ by an 180 degree pulse of length τΡ, followed after a time period 2rby three 180 degree pulses each spaced by a time period 2r, and followed by another ninety degree excitation pulse, (iii) a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed by a sub-sequence comprising a second ninety degree excitation pulse that follows said first ninety degree excitation pulse after a period of time T, followed after a period of time rby a third ninety degree excitation pulse followed after a period of time 2 rby a fourth ninety degree excitation pulse, followed after a period of time rby a fifth ninety degree excitation pulse, and (iv) a first ninety degree excitation pulse followed by a sub-sequence including a second ninety degree excitation pulse following said first ninety degree excitation pulse after a period of time r, which is followed after a period of 4 τ during which time spin-locking +x and -x pulses are provided by another ninety degree excitation pulse.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said solid state pulse sequence portion, and said second ninety degree excitation pulse constitutes a beginning of said CPMG pulse sequence portion.

24. The method of claim 22, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion is a two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein said CPMG pulse sequence portion follows said two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion.

26. The method of claim 21, wherein said solid state pulse sequence portion is a two-dimensional line-narrowing sequence portion, and said NMR pulse sequence further including a Ti pulse sequence,

27. The method of claim 21, wherein said processor determines said indication of the hydrogen content of the solid portion of the sample by using said echo resulting from the solid state sequence portion of the pulse sequence to establish a total organic hydrogen content of the sample, and by using said echoes resulting from said CPMG pulse sequence portion to establish a fluid organic hydrogen content, and by subtracting said fluid organic hydrogen content from said total organic hydrogen content to obtain said hydrogen content of the solid portion of the sample.

28. A method of investigating a sample, comprising:

generating and subjecting the sample to an NMR field, said NMR field varying according to an NMR pulse sequence including a two-dimensional line-narrowing pulse sequence portion and a CPMG pulse sequence portion having a plurality of pulses;

detecting signals resulting from an interaction of said NMR field with the sample, including a series of echoes resulting from said two-dimensional line-narrowing pulse sequence portion and a train of CPMG echoes between pulses of said CPMG pulse sequence portion; determining an indication of a characteristic of the sample by processing said series of echoes and said train of CPMG echoes.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein said processing includes conducting a Laplace-Laplace inverse transform and finding line-narrowing T2 values from said series of echoes and finding CPMG T2 values from said train of CPMG echoes, said method further comprising: plotting a map said line-narrowing T2 values versus said CPMG Ί2 values; and identifying different hydrogen-containing species in the sample from the map.

30. The method of claim 28, wherein said processing include conducting a Fourier-Laplace transform and finding chemical shift values from said series of echoes and finding CPMG Ί2 values from said train of CPMG echoes, said method further comprising: plotting a chemical shift - T2 map; and identifying different hydrogen-containing species in the sample from the map.

31. The method of claim 28, wherein said characteristic is a hydrogen content of the solid portion of the sample.

32. The method of claim 28, wherein said MR pulse sequence further includes a Ti pulse sequence, and said method further comprises plotting a map with Ti as one axis of the map.