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1. (WO2019028314) HIGH DENSITY PIXELATED-LED CHIPS AND CHIP ARRAY DEVICES, AND FABRICATION METHODS
Nota: O texto foi obtido por processos automáticos de reconhecimento ótico de caracteres.
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CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1 . A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions; and

a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light-transmissive material, a light injection surface, and a light extraction surface, wherein the light injection surface is arranged between the active layer and the light extraction surface;

wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is

independently electrically accessible and is configured to illuminate a different substrate portion of the plurality of substrate portions and transmit light through the light extraction surface of the substrate portion, such that the plurality of active layer portions and the plurality of substrate portions form a plurality of pixels;

wherein the light extraction surface of each substrate portion comprises a plurality of protruding features and a plurality of light extraction surface recesses, and each protruding feature of the plurality of protruding features is separated from at least one other protruding feature by a light extraction surface recess of the plurality of light extraction surface recesses; and

wherein lateral borders between different pixels of the plurality of pixels are aligned with selected light extraction surface recesses of the plurality of light extraction surface recesses.

2. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein the lateral borders between different pixels of the plurality of pixels are aligned with selected light extraction surface recesses of the plurality of light extraction surface recesses that extend through an entire thickness of the substrate portions.

3. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of protruding features comprises a first group of protruding features comprising a first size including at least one of height, width, or length, and comprises a second group of protruding features comprising a second size including at least one of height, width, or length, wherein the second size differs from the first size

4. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of protruding features comprises a first group of protruding features comprising a first shape, and comprises a second group of protruding features comprising a second shape, wherein the second shape differs from the first shape.

5. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein each protruding feature of the plurality of protruding features comprises a polyhedral or truncated polyhedral shape with a plurality of inclined lateral faces, and each inclined lateral face of the plurality of inclined lateral faces comprises an angle of inclination from vertical in a range of from about fifteen degrees to about forty-five degrees.

6. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein each protruding feature of the plurality of protruding features comprises a maximum width of from about one fifth to about one half of a maximum width of a pixel of the plurality of pixels with which each protruding feature is associated.

7. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein:

the plurality of substrate portions comprises a plurality of lateral edges;

the plurality of protruding features comprises a first group of protruding features positioned adjacent to at least some lateral edges of the plurality of lateral edges, and comprises a second group of protruding features positioned distal from the plurality of lateral edges; and

at least some protruding features of the first group of protruding features differ in at least one of (a) size, (b) shape, (c) number, or (d) distribution relative to at least some protruding features of the second group of protruding features.

8. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 1 , wherein:

the plurality of substrate portions comprises a plurality of corners;

the plurality of protruding features comprises a first group of protruding features positioned adjacent to the plurality of corners, and comprises a second group of protruding features positioned distal from the plurality of corners; and

at least some protruding features of the first group of protruding features differ in at least one of (a) size, (b) shape, (c) number, or (d) distribution relative to at least some protruding features of the second group of protruding features.

9. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 1 to 8, further comprising at least one lumiphoric material arranged on or over the plurality of protruding features, wherein the at least one lumiphoric material is configured to receive at least a portion of light emitted by the plurality of active layer portions and to responsively generate lumiphor emissions.

10. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 9, wherein lumiphoric material associated with at least one first pixel of the plurality of pixels differs with respect to at least one of (a) composition, (b) concentration, (c) particle size, or (d) distribution relative to lumiphoric material associated with at least one second pixel of the plurality of pixels.

1 1 . The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the plurality of substrate portions comprises silicon carbide, and the plurality of active layer portions comprises at least one Group II I nitride material.

12. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions includes a separate anode and cathode.

13. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions, wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is independently electrically accessible to form a plurality of pixels;

wherein each pixel of the plurality of pixels comprises an anode and a cathode; and an underfill material arranged between (i) lateral sidewalls of the plurality of pixels and (ii) between the anode and the cathode of each pixel of the plurality of pixels.

14. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 13, wherein the underfill material comprises a light-altering or a light-reflecting material.

15. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 14, wherein the light-altering or light-reflecting material comprises light-altering or light-reflecting particles suspended in a binder.

16. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 15, wherein the light-altering or light-reflecting particles comprise titanium dioxide particles and the binder comprises silicone.

17. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 16, wherein a weight ratio of titanium dioxide particles to silicone is in the range of 50% to 150%.

18. The pixelated-LED of any one of claims 13 to 17, wherein a width of the underfill material between the lateral sidewalls of the plurality of pixels is no greater than about 60 microns (μηι).

19. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 18, wherein the width of the underfill material between the lateral sidewalls of the plurality of pixels is in a range of from about 10 μηι to about 30 μηι.

20. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 13 to 17, further comprising a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light-transmissive material.

21 . The pixelated-LED chip of claim 20, being devoid of an air gap between the plurality of substrate portions.

22. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 20, wherein the plurality of substrate portions comprises silicon carbide or sapphire.

23. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions, wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is independently electrically accessible to form a plurality of pixels; and

an underfill material arranged between the plurality of active layer portions, wherein the underfill material comprises a material with a Shore D hardness scale durometer value of at least 40.

24. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 23, wherein the underfill material comprises a material with a Shore D hardness scale durometer value in a range of from about 40 to about 100.

25. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 24, wherein the underfill material comprises a material with a Shore D hardness scale durometer value in a range of from about 60 to about 80.

26. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 23, wherein the underfill material comprises a light-altering or a light-reflecting material.

27. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 26, wherein the light-altering or light-reflecting material comprises light-altering or light-reflecting particles suspended in a binder.

28. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 27, wherein the light-altering or light-reflecting particles comprise titanium dioxide particles and the binder comprises silicone.

29. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 23 to 28, wherein each pixel of the plurality of pixels comprises an anode and a cathode.

30. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 29, wherein the underfill material is arranged between the anode and the cathode of each pixel of the plurality of pixels.

31 . The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 23 to 28, further comprising a lumiphoric material on the plurality of pixels.

32. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 31 , further wherein the lumiphoric material comprises a material with a Shore D hardness scale durometer value of less than about 40.

33. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 23 to 28, further comprising a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light-transmissive material.

34. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 33, wherein the plurality of substrate portions comprises silicon carbide or sapphire.

35. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions;

a substrate comprising a plurality of discontinuous substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light-transmissive material;

wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is

independently electrically accessible and is configured to illuminate a different substrate portion of the plurality of discontinuous substrate portions and transmit light through the substrate portion, such that the plurality of active layer portions and the plurality of discontinuous substrate portions form a plurality of pixels; and

a first lumiphoric material on the plurality of pixels.

36. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 35, wherein the first lumiphoric material comprises one or more materials including cyan, green, amber, yellow, orange, and/or red peak emission wavelengths.

37. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 35, wherein the first lumiphoric material is continuous on the plurality of discontinuous substrate portions.

38. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 35 to 37, wherein the first lumiphoric material comprises a plurality of light segregation elements that are registered between pixels of the plurality of pixels.

39. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 38, further comprising an underfill material between pixels of the plurality of pixels and registered with the plurality of light segregation elements.

40. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 38, further comprising a second lumiphoric material over the first lumiphoric material and the plurality of light segregation elements.

41 . The pixelated-LED chip of claim 35, wherein the first lumiphoric material comprises phosphor particles and scattering particles.

42. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 41 , wherein the scattering particles comprise at least one of fused silica, fumed silica, or titanium dioxide particles.

43. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions, wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is independently electrically accessible to form a plurality of pixels; and

a first lumiphoric material on the plurality of pixels, wherein the first lumiphoric material comprises a plurality of light segregation elements that are registered between pixels of the plurality of pixels.

44. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 43, wherein the first lumiphoric material comprises one or more materials including cyan, green, amber, yellow, orange, and/or red peak emission wavelengths.

45. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 43, wherein the first lumiphoric material is continuous on the plurality of pixels.

46. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 43, further comprising a second lumiphoric material over the first lumiphoric material and the plurality of light segregation elements.

47. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 43 to 46, further comprising an underfill material between pixels of the plurality of pixels and registered with the plurality of light segregation elements.

48. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 43 to 46, wherein the plurality of light segregation elements comprises cuts in the first lumiphoric material.

49. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions; and

a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light-transmissive material, a light injection surface, and a light extraction surface, wherein the light injection surface is arranged between the active layer and the light extraction surface;

wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is

independently electrically accessible and is configured to illuminate a different substrate portion of the plurality of substrate portions and transmit light through the light extraction surface of the substrate portion, such that the plurality of active layer portions and the plurality of substrate portions form a plurality of pixels;

wherein at least one substrate portion of the plurality of substrate portions

comprises:

a first protruding feature comprising a first angle between two opposing faces; and

a second protruding feature comprising a second angle between two opposing faces, wherein the second angle is larger than the first angle.

50. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 49, wherein the second angle exceeds the first angle by at least fifteen degrees.

51 . The pixelated-LED chip of claim 50, wherein the second angle is about ninety degrees and the first angle is about sixty degrees.

52. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 49, wherein the second protruding feature is closer to a pixel sidewall than the first protruding feature.

53. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 49 to 52, wherein the first protruding feature and the second protruding feature comprise silicon carbide.

54. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions; and

a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light-transmissive material, a light injection surface, and a light extraction surface, wherein the light injection surface is arranged between the active layer and the light extraction surface;

wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is independently electrically accessible and is configured to illuminate a different substrate portion of the plurality of substrate portions and transmit light through the light extraction surface of the substrate portion, such that the plurality of active layer portions and the plurality of substrate portions form a plurality of pixels;

wherein the light extraction surface of each substrate portion comprises a light extraction surface recess between pixel sidewalls of the plurality of pixels; and

the pixelated-LED chip further comprises a reflective layer on the pixel sidewalls.

55. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 54, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one of a metal reflector, a dielectric reflector, or a metal reflector in combination with a dielectric reflector.

56. A pixelated-LED chip comprising:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions; and

a substrate comprising a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, wherein each substrate portion comprises a light extraction surface; wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is independently electrically accessible and is configured to illuminate a different substrate portion of the plurality of substrate portions and transmit light through the light extraction surface of the substrate portion, such that the plurality of active layer portions and the plurality of substrate portions form a plurality of pixels;

wherein the light extraction surface of each substrate portion comprises at least one first light extraction surface recess and at least one second light extraction surface recess; and

wherein the at least one second light extraction surface recess is aligned with a street between adjacent pixels of the plurality of pixels; and

the pixelated-LED chip includes at least one of the following features (i) or (ii): (i) the at least one first light extraction surface recess extends deeper into the substrate than the at least one second light extraction surface recess, or (ii) the second light extraction surface recess comprises a wider bottom than the first light extraction surface recess.

57. The pixelated-LED chip of claim 56, wherein the at least one first light extraction surface recess extends deeper into the substrate than the at least one second light extraction surface recess.

58. The pixelated-LED chip of any one of claims 56 or 57, wherein the second light extraction surface recess comprises a wider bottom than the first light extraction surface recess.

59. A method for fabricating a pixelated-LED lighting device comprising:

defining a plurality of recesses or streets through an active layer on a substrate to form a plurality of active layer portions, wherein the substrate comprises (i) a light injection surface proximate to a plurality of active layer portions, and (ii) a light extraction surface generally opposing the light injection surface, wherein recesses or streets of the plurality of recesses or streets are (a) defined through the light injection surface and less than an entire thickness of the substrate and (b) arranged generally between the plurality of active layer portions, and the substrate includes a plurality of anode-cathode pairs in conductive electrical communication with the plurality of active layer portions;

mounting the substrate over a mounting surface;

thinning the substrate after said mounting of the substrate over the mounting surface;

removing portions of the substrate through an entire thickness of the substrate along a plurality of regions registered with the plurality of recesses or streets to form a plurality of discontinuous substrate portions.

60. The method of claim 59, wherein the mounting surface includes a plurality of electrode pairs, and the mounting comprises establishing electrically conductive paths between the plurality of anode-cathode pairs and the plurality of electrode pairs.

61 . The method of claim 59, wherein:

each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is configured to illuminate a different light-transmissive portion of a plurality of light-transmissive portions and transmit light through the light extraction surface, such that the plurality of active layer portions and the plurality of discontinuous substrate portions form a plurality of pixels, and pixels of the plurality of pixels comprise a maximum pixel width; and

the method further comprises forming a plurality of protruding features in the light extraction surface, wherein each protruding feature of the plurality of protruding features comprises a width in a range of from about one fifth to about one half of the maximum pixel width.

62. The method of claim 60, further comprising applying a first lumiphoric material to the light extraction surface.

63. The method of claim 61 , further comprising removing a portion of the first lumiphoric material that is registered between pixels of the plurality of pixels to form a plurality of light segregation elements.

64. The method of claim 63, further comprising applying a second lumiphoric material over the first lumiphoric material and the plurality of light segregation elements.

65. The method of any one of claims 59 to 64, further comprising planarizing the plurality of anode-cathode pairs prior to the mounting of the substrate over the mounting surface.

66. The method of any one of claims 59 to 64, further comprising applying an underfill material between the substrate and the mounting surface, between the plurality of anode-cathode pairs, and between the plurality of active layer portions before the thinning of the substrate.

67. A method for fabricating a pixelated-LED lighting device, the method comprising: defining a plurality of recesses or streets through an active layer on a substrate to form a plurality of active layer portions, wherein the substrate comprises (i) a light injection surface proximate to the plurality of active layer portions, and (ii) a light extraction surface generally opposing the light injection surface, wherein recesses or streets of the plurality of recesses or streets are (a) defined through the light injection surface and less than an entire thickness of the substrate and (b) arranged generally between the plurality of active layer portions, and the substrate includes a plurality of anode-cathode pairs in conductive electrical communication with the plurality of active layer portions;

mounting the substrate over a mounting surface;

applying an underfill material between the substrate and the mounting surface, between the plurality of anode-cathode pairs, and between the plurality of active layer portions; and

thinning the substrate after applying the underfill material between the substrate and the mounting surface.

68. The method of claim 67, further comprising removing portions of the substrate along a plurality of regions, wherein some regions of the plurality of regions are registered with the plurality of recesses or streets.

69. The method of claim 68, further comprising removing portions of the substrate through an entire thickness of the substrate along the plurality of regions registered with the plurality of recesses or streets to form a plurality of discontinuous substrate portions.

70. The method of claim 69, further comprising separating the plurality of discontinuous substrate portions, the underfill material, and the plurality of anode-cathode pairs in combination from the mounting surface.

71 . A method for fabricating a pixelated-LED lighting device, the method comprising: defining a plurality of recesses or streets through an active layer to form a plurality of active layer portions;

depositing a plurality of anode-cathode pairs on the plurality of active layer portions to form a plurality of individually electrically accessible pixels;

mounting the plurality of pixels over a mounting surface;

applying a first lumiphoric material to the plurality of pixels; and

removing at least a portion of the first lumiphoric material between each pixel of the plurality of pixels to form a plurality of light segregation elements.

72. The method of claim 71 , wherein the removing at least a portion of the first lumiphoric material comprises passing a saw blade across the first lumiphoric material.

73. The method of claim 71 , further comprising applying a second lumiphoric material over the first lumiphoric material and the plurality of light segregation elements.

74. The method of claim 71 , further comprising applying an underfill material within the plurality of recesses or streets and between the plurality of anode-cathode pairs after mounting the plurality of pixels over the mounting surface.

75. The method of claim 71 , wherein a plurality of substrate portions supporting the plurality of active layer portions, and the method further comprises removing the plurality of substrate portions before applying the first lumiphoric material.

76. The method of claim 75, further comprising applying a second lumiphoric material over the first lumiphoric material and the plurality of light segregation elements.

77. A lighting device comprising at least one pixelated-LED chip, wherein the at least one pixelated-LED chip comprises:

an active layer comprising a plurality of active layer portions, wherein each active layer portion of the plurality of active layer portions is independently electrically accessible to form a plurality of pixels; and

an underfill material arranged between lateral sidewalls of the plurality of pixels; wherein the at least one pixelated-LED chip is configured to project at least one image onto a surface.

78. The lighting device of claim 77, wherein the underfill material comprises at least one of an insulating material, light-altering suspended in a binder, or light-reflecting particles suspended in a binder.

79. The lighting device of claim 77, wherein the at least one image includes at least one of alphanumeric characters, symbols, different colors, still images, and moving images such as videos.

80. The lighting device of claim 77, wherein individual pixels or subgroups of pixels of the plurality of pixels are configured to be selectively activated or deactivated to form the at least one image, and wherein all pixels of the plurality of pixels are further configured to be selectively activated or deactivated simultaneously to provide general illumination.

81 . The lighting device of any one of claims 77 to 80, wherein the surface comprises an upright surface of a billboard or a sign.

82. The lighting device of any one of claims 77 to 80, comprising an indoor lighting device including at least one of an area light, a downlight, a high-bay or low-bay lighting fixture, a suspended lighting fixture, a troffer, a wall-mounted or ceiling mounted fixture, track lighting, a table or floor lamp, and a light bulb.

83. The lighting device of any one of claims 77 to 80, comprising an outdoor lighting device including at least one of an area light, a street or roadway light fixture, a canopy light fixture, a soffit light fixture, parking garage lighting fixture, flood lighting, and wall-mounted or ceiling mounted outdoor fixture.

84. The lighting device of any one of claims 77 to 79, comprising a display backlight with localized dimming for a display screen.

85. The lighting device of any one of claims 77 to 80, comprising a portable or hand-held lighting device including at least one of a flashlight, a personal computer, tablet, phone, or a watch.