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1. (WO2016193813) SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PROCESSING FLUIDS
Nota: O texto foi obtido por processos automáticos de reconhecimento ótico de caracteres.
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CLAIMS

1. A vortex reactor, comprising:

a reactor body having a first end and a second end;

a single inlet port, or a plurality of asymmetrically arranged inlet ports, disposed at the first end and configured to direct a fluid into the reactor body; and

an outlet configured to receive and pass the fluid out of the reactor body,

wherein the vortex reactor is configured to induce formation of at least one vortex within the fluid as the fluid is passed from the one or more inlet ports to the outlet in order to impart at least one physical or chemical effect to the fluid.

2. The vortex reactor of claim 1, wherein the outlet is disposed at the second end.

3. The vortex reactor of claim 1 or 2, further comprising one or more additional inlet ports for directing the fluid and/or one or more additional fluids into the reactor body.

4. The vortex reactor of claim 1 or 3, further comprising an annular inner structure disposed within the reactor body, the inner structure defining an annular space between the inner structure and an outer wall of the reactor body, the inner structure being formed of a porous material to enable sparging of gas from the annular space into an interior of the reactor.

5. The vortex reactor of claim 4, wherein the inner structure is formed of a sintered metal material.

6. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 5, further comprising an electrically conductive inner structure disposed within the reactor body and an electrically conductive outer shell wrapped at least partially around the reactor body, the electrically conductive inner structure defining an annular space between an outer wall of the reactor and the electrically conductive inner structure for receiving a portion of the vortically flowing fluid into the annular space.

7. The vortex reactor of claim 6, further comprising an annular space outlet for outputting the portion of the vortically flowing fluid received into the annular space.

8. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the outlet is divided into a central line outlet configured to receive gas generated or flowing through the reactor and a plurality of fluid outlets radially disposed around the central line outlet.

9. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 8, further comprising a vortex induction mechanism disposed within the reactor body between the first and second ends and that is configured to induce vortical motion within the fluid as the fluid is directed across or through the induction mechanism.

10. The vortex reactor of claim 9, wherein the vortex induction mechanism includes a

plurality of angled flights disposed on an exterior surface of the induction mechanism, the induction mechanism being positioned to direct passing fluid over the flights to induce vortical motion in the fluid.

11. The vortex reactor of claim 9 or 10, wherein the vortex induction mechanism is a prolate spheroid.

12. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the plurality of angled flights form a screw.

13. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 9 to 12, wherein the plurality of angled flights of the induction mechanism are configured to progressively increase the angular velocity of the fluid as the fluid passes across or through the induction mechanism

14. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 9 to 13, further comprising an energy-imparting device configured to deliver energy to the fluid within the reactor body.

15. The vortex reactor of claim 14, wherein the energy-imparting device is an ultrasound transducer or an ultrasonic horn.

16. The vortex reactor of claim 14 or 15, wherein the energy-imparting device is configured as an axial probe extending from the first end into the reactor body.

17. The vortex reactor of claim 16, wherein the induction mechanism includes a bore, and wherein at least a portion of the axial probe extends into the bore and beyond the induction mechanism.

18. The vortex reactor of claim 17, wherein the axial probe includes a non-emitting section and an emitting section, the emitting section being disposed on the portion of the probe extending beyond the induction mechanism.

19. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 9 to 15, wherein the induction mechanism includes an inner channel, an exterior induction structure disposed along at least a portion of an exterior surface of the induction mechanism, and an interior induction structure disposed along at least a portion of a surface of the inner channel, the inner channel being in communication with a second inlet port to receive a second fluid into the inner channel.

20. The vortex reactor of claim 19, wherein the fluid is passed across the exterior induction structure and the second fluid is passed across the interior induction structure, and wherein the fluid and the second fluid meet and are mixed at a mixing zone disposed beyond the induction mechanism.

21. The vortex reactor of claim 20, wherein the exterior induction structure and the interior induction structure are configured to induce the fluid and second fluid to rotate in opposite directions.

22. The vortex reactor of claim 20 or 21, wherein the energy-imparting device is arranged radially around the reactor body and configured to impart energy into the mixing zone.

23. The vortex reactor of claim 1 or 2, wherein the inlet port is configured to direct a fluid at an angle that is substantially tangential to an inner surface of the reactor body, thereby causing the fluid to flow in a vortex along the inner surface of the reactor body toward the second end.

24. The vortex reactor of claim 23, wherein the outlet is disposed at the first end or between the inlet and the second end, and wherein advancing the fluid into the reactor body through the inlet port causes the fluid to flow in an outer vortex along the inner surface of the reactor body a distance toward the second end before the fluid reverses axial direction to flow toward the outlet in an inner vortex.

25. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 24, wherein the reactor body has a circular cross-section.

26. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 25, further comprising a bleed opening disposed at the second end of the reactor body and configured to allow passage of air or other gas.

27. The vortex reactor of claim 26, wherein the bleed opening is configured as a valve allowing one way passage of liquid or air or other gas.

28. The vortex reactor of claim 26 or 27, wherein the bleed opening includes an attachment for coupling a gas line to the reactor body.

29. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 28, wherein the reactor is configured such that the at least one vortex forms a hyperbolic cone shape.

30. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 29, further comprising a wall outlet disposed in a reactor wall configured to collect a heavy phase from the fluid.

31. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 30, wherein the fluid flow of the at least one vortex introduces a negative pressure into the reactor body.

32. The vortex reactor of claim 31, wherein the negative pressure enhances the formation of cavitation bubbles generated by an ultrasonic horn positioned on or near the reactor.

33. The vortex reactor of claim 32, wherein the negative pressure draws the cavitation bubbles away from the ultrasonic horn.

34. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 33, wherein the reactor is configured to operate with a pulsating fluid action.

35. The vortex reactor of claim 34, wherein the pulsating fluid action is initiated

and/or strengthened by introducing a resonant pressure change into the reactor body.

36. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 35, further comprising an energy-imparting device configured to impart energy to the fluid.

37. The vortex reactor of claim 36, wherein the energy-imparting device is an ultrasonic horn.

38. The vortex reactor of claim 37, wherein the ultrasonic horn is positioned at the first end or second end of the reactor body.

39. The vortex reactor of claim 37 or 38, wherein the ultrasonic horn is configured to operate within a frequency range of about 20 kHz to 3 MHz.

40. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 37 to 39, wherein the ultrasonic horn has a concave geometry.

41. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 37 to 40, wherein the ultrasonic horn is configured to form a stream of cavitation bubbles that substantially matches the shape of the at least one vortex.

42. The vortex reactor of claim 41, wherein the stream of cavitation bubbles has a hyperbolic cone shape.

43. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 37 to 42, wherein the vortex includes a cavitation bubble density that is substantially uniform along the length of the vortex.

44. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 37 to 42, wherein the vortex includes a cavitation bubble density that increases along the length of the vortex toward the vortex outlet.

45. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 37 to 42, wherein the vortex includes a cavitation bubble density that decreases along the length of the vortex toward the vortex outlet.

46. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 45, further comprising a volume of gas in fluid communication with the fluid.

47. The vortex reactor of claim 46, wherein the volume of gas is contained in a separate vessel.

48. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 47, wherein the fluid is a non-compressible liquid.

49. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 48, wherein the fluid is a hydrocarbon fuel, crude oil, wastewater, water, or seawater.

50. The vortex reactor of claim 48 or 49, wherein the reactor is configured to desalinate seawater by causing the separation of seawater solutes from the seawater.

51. The vortex reactor of any of claims 1 to 50, wherein the reactor body is at least partially formed of a porous material configured to allow passage of one or more fluid

components into and/or through the reactor wall in order to separate the one or more fluid components.

52. The vortex reactor of claim 51, wherein a voltage across the porous material enables the porous material to remove ions from fluid passing at least partially through the porous material.

53. The vortex reactor of claim 51 or 52, wherein the porous material is a carbon aerogel.

54. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 53, wherein 90% or more of fluid flow through the reactor exits the reactor through the outlet.

55. The vortex reactor of any of claims 1 to 54, wherein the outlet is configured as a plurality of concentric sections, each concentric section being associated with a radial separation zone within the reactor.

56. The vortex reactor of any of claims 1 to 55, further comprising a solid object positioned along an axis of the reactor.

57. The vortex reactor of any of claims 1 to 56, further comprising a processing zone formed within the reactor by reducing fluid flow through the outlet and optionally compensating for the reduced fluid flow through the outlet by increasing fluid flow through one or more wall outlets.

58. The vortex reactor of any of claims 1 to 57, further comprising a fluid collection tank in fluid communication with the outlet.

59. The vortex reactor of claim 58, wherein the outlet is in communication with an air space in the fluid collection tank.

60. The vortex reactor of claim 58, wherein the outlet is not in communication with an air space in the fluid collection tank so that there is continuous liquid between the outlet and the fluid collection tank.

61. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 36 to 60, wherein the energy-imparting device includes a first tactile sound transducer.

62. The vortex reactor of claim 61, further comprising a second tactile sound transducer, the first and second tactile sound transducers being disposed on opposite ends of the reactor body so as to enable the production of standing waves during operation of the reactor.

63. The vortex reactor of claim 61 or 62, wherein the energy-imparting device includes a waveform generator and an amplifier.

64. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 61 to 63, further comprising a first transmitting plate coupled to the first tactile sound transducer and configured to transmit

acoustic energy from the first tactile sound transducer into the reactor body.

65. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 61 to 64, wherein the first tactile sound transducer is configured to operate at a frequency of about 5 Hz to 20 kHz, or about 20 Hz to 20 kHz, or about 1 kHz to 20 kHz, or about 5 kHz to 20 kHz, or about 7 kHz to 17 kHz, or about 12 kHz

66. The vortex reactor of any one of claims 1 to 65, wherein ozone is imparted to the reactor fluid.

67. The vortex reactor of claim 66, wherein the ozone is imparted to the reactor fluid using one or more Venturi injectors coupled to one or more inlet ports.

68. A vortex reactor system including a plurality of vortex reactors according to any one of claims 1 to 67, the plurality of vortex reactors being arranged in series and/or in parallel.

69. The vortex reactor system of claim 68, further comprising one or more heat exchangers configured to exchange heat with an outlet fluid from one or more of the plurality of vortex reactors.

70. A vortex reactor, comprising:

a reactor body having a first end, a second end, and an inner surface;

one inlet port, or a plurality of inlet ports, disposed at the first end and configured to direct a fluid at an angle that is substantially tangential to the inner surface of the reactor body, at least one of the plurality of inlet ports being asymmetrically arranged with respect to at least one other inlet port; and

an outlet disposed at the first end and/or between the one or more inlet ports and the second end;

wherein advancing a fluid into the reactor body through the one or more inlet ports causes the fluid to flow in a vortex along the inner surface of the reactor body toward the second end.

71. A vortex reactor, comprising:

a reactor body having a first end, a second end, and an inner surface;

one or more inlet ports disposed at the first end and configured to direct a fluid at an angle that is substantially tangential to the inner surface of the reactor body; and

an outlet disposed at the first end and/or between the one or more inlet ports and the second end;

wherein advancing a fluid into the reactor body through the one or more inlet ports causes the fluid to flow in an outer vortex along the inner surface of the reactor body a distance toward the second end before the fluid reverses direction to flow toward the outlet in an inner vortex.

72. A method of processing a fluid in order to impart one or more physical and/or chemical effects to the fluid, the method comprising passing the fluid through a vortex reactor or vortex reactor system according to any one of claims 1 to 71.

73. The method of claim 72, wherein the fluid is processed according to one or more of a hydrogen production, water clarification, cetane number boosting, biodiesel production, crude oil demulsifying, crude oil desalting, light cycle oil processing, sparging, waste sludge disintegration, desalination, mixing, destruction of pharmaceuticals in wastewater, or separating operation.