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1. US20180026445 - Distributed hierarchical control architecture for integrating smart grid assets during normal and disrupted operations

Nota: O texto foi obtido por processos automáticos de reconhecimento ótico de caracteres.
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Claims

1. A system for coordinating distribution of electricity according to a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA), comprising:
one or more device-level transactive controllers at a device level of the DHCA;
one or more feeder-level transactive controllers at a feeder level of the DHCA;
one or more area-level transactive controllers at an area level of the DHCA; and
one or more system-level transactive controllers of the DHCA,
at least one of the device-level transactive controllers and at least one of the feeder-level transactive controllers being configured to communicate with one another,
at least one of the feeder-level transactive controllers and at least one of the area-level transactive controllers being configured to communicate with one another,
at least one of the area-level transactive controllers and at least one of the system-level transactive controllers being configured to communicate with one another,
wherein the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers are configured to participate in a real-time market for settling a price for electricity in one or more upcoming time intervals for the real-time market, and
wherein at least some of the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers are also configured to participate in a balancing market different than the real-time market, the balancing market being configured to maintain system stability during periods of imbalance in the system, reduce deviations in system frequency, and reduce deviations in inter-area power flow from a desired level.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the device-level transactive controllers operate at a faster frequency in the balancing market than in the real-time market.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to control a controllable load or a controllable energy supply.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to control discharging and charging of an electric battery.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to provide balancing services by reacting autonomously to one or more of a frequency of the power system, voltage of the power system, a broadcast imbalance signal, current real-time market price, day-ahead price, or device conditions.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers are further configured to participate in a day-ahead market for settling a price for electricity for a following day.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the real-time market is configured to operate at a first time scale and the balancing market is configured to operate at a second time scale faster than the first time scale, wherein, for the first time scale, the upcoming time intervals for the real-time market occur every 5 to 15 minutes, and wherein the second time scale is less than 60 seconds.
8. One or more non-transitory computer-readable media having stored thereon computer-executable instructions for causing one or more processing units, when programmed thereby, to perform operations to coordinate distribution of electricity according to a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA), the operations comprising:
providing one or more device-level transactive controllers at a device level of the DHCA;
providing one or more feeder-level transactive controllers at a feeder level of the DHCA;
providing one or more area-level transactive controllers at an area level of the DHCA;
providing one or more system-level transactive controllers of the DHCA;
configuring at least one of the device-level transactive controllers and at least one of the feeder-level transactive controllers to communicate with one another;
configuring at least one of the feeder-level transactive controllers and at least one of the area-level transactive controllers to communicate with one another;
configuring at least one of the area-level transactive controllers and at least one of the system-level transactive controllers to communicate with one another;
configuring the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers to participate in a real-time market for settling a price for electricity in one or more upcoming time intervals for the real-time market; and
configuring at least some of the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers to participate in a balancing market different than the real-time market, the balancing market being configured to maintain system stability during periods of imbalance in the system, reduce deviations in system frequency, and reduce deviations in inter-area power flow from a desired level.
9. The one or more non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 8, wherein the device-level transactive controllers operate at a faster frequency in the balancing market than in the real-time market.
10. The one or more non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 8, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to control a controllable load or a controllable energy supply.
11. The one or more non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 8, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to control discharging and charging of an electric battery.
12. The one or more non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 8, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to provide balancing services by reacting autonomously to one or more of a frequency of the power system, voltage of the power system, a broadcast imbalance signal, current real-time market price, day-ahead price, or device conditions.
13. The one or more non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 8, wherein the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers are further configured to participate in a day-ahead market for settling a price for electricity for a following day.
14. The one or more non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 8, wherein the real-time market is configured to operate at a first time scale and the balancing market is configured to operate at a second time scale faster than the first time scale, wherein, for the first time scale, the upcoming time intervals for the real-time market occur every 5 to 15 minutes, and wherein the second time scale is less than 60 seconds.
15. A method for coordinating distribution of electricity according to a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA), the method comprising:
providing one or more device-level transactive controllers at a device level of the DHCA;
providing one or more feeder-level transactive controllers at a feeder level of the DHCA;
providing one or more area-level transactive controllers at an area level of the DHCA;
providing one or more system-level transactive controllers of the DHCA;
configuring at least one of the device-level transactive controllers and at least one of the feeder-level transactive controllers to communicate with one another;
configuring at least one of the feeder-level transactive controllers and at least one of the area-level transactive controllers to communicate with one another;
configuring at least one of the area-level transactive controllers and at least one of the system-level transactive controllers to communicate with one another;
configuring the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers to participate in a real-time market for settling a price for electricity in one or more upcoming time intervals for the real-time market; and
configuring at least some of the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers to participate in a balancing market different than the real-time market, the balancing market being configured to maintain system stability during periods of imbalance in the system, reduce deviations in system frequency, and reduce deviations in inter-area power flow from a desired level.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the device-level transactive controllers operate at a faster frequency in the balancing market than in the real-time market.
17. The method of claim 15, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to control a controllable load or a controllable energy supply.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to control discharging and charging of an electric battery.
19. The method of claim 15, wherein one or more of the device-level transactive controllers participating in the balancing market are configured to provide balancing services by reacting autonomously to one or more of a frequency of the power system, voltage of the power system, a broadcast imbalance signal, current real-time market price, day-ahead price, or device conditions.
20. The method of claim 15, wherein the device-level transactive controllers, feeder-level transactive controllers, area-level transactive controllers, and system-level transactive controllers are further configured to participate in a day-ahead market for settling a price for electricity for a following day.
21. The method of claim 15, wherein the real-time market is configured to operate at a first time scale and the balancing market is configured to operate at a second time scale faster than the first time scale, wherein, for the first time scale, the upcoming time intervals for the real-time market occur every 5 to 15 minutes, and wherein the second time scale is less than 60 seconds.