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1. (US20140355337) Method of pinning domain walls in a nanowire magnetic memory device
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Claims

1. A method of pinning moveable domain walls in a magnetic shift register device comprising creating a permanent exchange bias interaction between a ferromagnetic material and an antiferromagnetic material to create domain wall pinning sites, wherein the exchange bias interaction is created by heating the antiferromagnetic material whilst proximal the ferromagnetic material in an applied magnetic field, and wherein the applied magnetic field sets an anisotropy direction of the antiferromagnetic material at 45° to an anisotropy direction of the ferromagnetic material.
2. A method of pinning domain walls according to claim 1, wherein there is an exchange bias field of between 30 to 3600 Oe.
3. A method of pinning domain walls according to claim 1 comprising associating regions of antiferromagnetic material with regions of a ferromagnetic material.
4. A method of pinning domain walls according to claim 1, wherein the method further comprises applying the applied magnetic field whilst cooling takes place.
5. A method of pinning domain walls according to claim 1, wherein the method further comprises angularly offsetting a plurality of parallel elongate antiferromagnetic material elements with respect to a plurality of adjacent parallel elongate ferromagnetic material elements, with junctions occurring where the respective elements cross each other.
6. A magnetic shift register device comprising a first array of spaced-apart ferromagnetic elongate elements extending in a first direction crossed by a second array of spaced-apart elongate elements extending in a second direction to create an array of junctions, wherein the elongate elements of the second array are antiferromagnetic and each junction has a permanent exchange bias field, wherein an anisotropy direction of the ferromagnetic elements is set to be 45° to an anisotropy direction of the antiferromagnetic elements.
7. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein the first direction and the second direction are rotated with respect to each other such that the two arrays are angularly offset.
8. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 7, wherein the first direction and second direction are offset from each other by an angle between 135° and 45°.
9. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 8, wherein the first direction and second direction are offset from each other by an angle of 90°.
10. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein the elongate elements in each array are regularly spaced and are parallel to the other elongate elements in that array.
11. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is one of IrMn, FeMn, PtMn, CoO coupled to Co, NiO coupled to Ni, any antiferromagnetic metallic alloy, or CoNiO.
12. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein the antiferromagnetic elongate elements have a width in the range 10 to 500 nm.
13. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein the antiferromagnetic elongate elements have a depth in the range 20 to 100 nm.
14. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein each junction has an exchange bias field of between 50 and 3600 Oe.
15. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 6, wherein each junction comprises a single layer of antiferromagnetic grains.
16. A magnetic shift register device comprising a first array of spaced-apart ferromagnetic elongate elements extending in a first direction crossed by a second array of spaced-apart elongate elements extending in a second direction to create an array of junctions, wherein the elongate elements of the second array are antiferromagnetic and each junction has a permanent exchange bias field, wherein the first direction and the second direction are rotated with respect to each other such that the two arrays are angularly offset, and wherein the first direction and second direction are offset from each other by an angle between 135° and 45°.
17. A magnetic shift register device according to claim 16, wherein the first direction and second direction are offset from each other by an angle of 90°.