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1. (WO2019068016) IMPROVED COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL
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A wall system, comprising:

a face joint member comprising a substantially flat face and at least two webs extending orthogonally on an opposite side to the flat face; and

a counterfort beam coupled to the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam comprises at least two counterfort webs extending from a counterfort flange that extends between the at least two counterfort webs,

wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by coupling the at least two counterfort webs to the at least two webs of the face joint member.

The wall system of claim 1, wherein the counterfort beam is formed together with the face joint member using monolithic construction.

The wall system of claim 1, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel.

The wall system of claim 1, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by a first connecting threadbar that extends through a first one of the counterfort webs of the counterfort beam and into a first one of the webs of the face joint member and further coupled by a second connecting threadbar that extends through a second one of the counterfort webs of the counterfort beam and into a second one of the webs of the face joint member.

The wall system of claim 4, wherein the connecting threadbars each comprise a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve.

The wall system of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of face joint members and counterfort beams coupled together to form a wall.

The wall system of claim 6, wherein the plurality of face joint members are adjacent to one another to form a substantially flat wall.

The wall system of claim 6, wherein the plurality of face joint members are spaced apart, and wherein the wall system further comprises wall panels that extend between the face joint members.

9. The wall system of claim 6, further comprising an intermediate slab that extends from a first web of a first counterfort beam to a second web of a second counterfort beam.

10. The wall system of claim 9, further comprising an upper support slab coupled to the at least two counterfort webs of the counterfort beam.

11. The wall system of claim 10, wherein the intermediate slab is positioned

directly below the upper support slab.

12. The wall system of claim 6, wherein the plurality of counterfort webs are adjacent to one another.

13. The wall system of claim 1, further comprising an upper support slab coupled to the at least two counterfort webs of the counterfort beam.

14. The wall system of claim 13, wherein the upper support slab is coupled to the at least two counterfort webs by a corresponding sleeved threadbar.

15. A wall system, comprising:

a plurality of face joint members each comprising a substantially flat face and at least two webs extending orthogonally on an opposite side to the flat face;

a plurality of counterfort beams respectively coupled to one of the plurality of face joint members, wherein a respective counterfort beam comprises at least two counterfort webs extending from a counterfort flange, the counterfort flange extending between the at least two counterfort webs, wherein the respective counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by coupling the at least two counterfort webs to the at least two webs of the face joint member; and

an intermediate slab that extends from a first web of a first counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams to a second web of a second counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams.

16. The wall system of claim 15, further comprising an upper support slab coupled to the at least two counterfort webs of the counterfort beam.

The wall system of claim 15, wherein the intermediate slab is positioned directly below the upper support slab.

The wall system of claim 15, wherein the plurality of counterfort beams each further comprises an inclined rear panel.

A wall system, comprising:

a plurality of face joint members each comprising a substantially flat face and at least two webs extending orthogonally on an opposite side to the flat face;

a plurality of counterfort beams respectively coupled to one of the plurality of face joint members, wherein a respective counterfort beam comprises at least two counterfort webs extending from a counterfort flange, the counterfort flange extending between the at least two counterfort webs, and wherein the respective counterfort beam comprises an inclined rear panel,

wherein the respective counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by coupling the at least two counterfort webs to the at least two webs of the face joint member;

an upper support slab coupled to the at least two counterfort webs of the respective counterfort beam; and

an intermediate slab that extends from a first web of a first counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams to a second web of a second counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams, wherein the intermediate slab is positioned directly below the upper support slab.

The wall system of claim 19, wherein the respective counterfort beam is coupled to the respective face joint member by a first connecting threadbar that extends through a first one of the counterfort webs of the counterfort beam and into a first one of the webs of the face joint member and further coupled by a second connecting threadbar that extends through a second one of the counterfort webs of the counterfort beam and into a second one of the webs of the face joint member, and wherein the connecting threadbar

comprises a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve.

21. A wall system, comprising:

a face j oint member comprising a web and a flange; and a counterfort beam coupled to the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by a connecting threadbar that extends through the counterfort beam and into the face joint member,

wherein the connecting threadbar comprises an inner metal threaded bar and an outer protective sleeve, and wherein the inner metal threaded bar is configured to rotate relative to the outer protective sleeve.

22. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the connecting threadbar comprises a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve.

23. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the connecting threadbar comprises a first segment within the face j oint member and a second segment positioned within the counterfort beam, wherein the first segment is coupled to the second segment.

24. The wall system of claim 23, wherein the face joint member further comprises a first duct segment, wherein the first segment of the connecting threadbar is positioned within the first duct segment.

25. The wall system of claim 21, wherein a first end of the connecting threadbar is monolithically cast within the face joint member and a second end of the connecting threadbar is coupled to a post tension coupler in the counterfort beam.

26. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel.

27. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the face joint member comprises a web threadbar in the web of the face joint member.

28. The wall system of claim 27, wherein the web threadbar and the connecting threadbar cross and pass by in proximity to each other in the web of the face j oint member.

29. The wall system of claim 27, wherein the web threadbar is orthogonal to the connecting threadbar.

30. The wall system of claim 27, wherein the web threadbar is off center of a centroid of the face joint member.

31. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the system further comprises a second connecting threadbar that extends through the counterfort beam and into the face joint member, wherein the second connecting threadbar comprises a second inner metal threaded bar and a second outer protective sleeve with a grease layer between the second inner metal threaded bar and the second outer protective sleeve.

32. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the counterfort beam is formed together with the face j oint member using monolithic construction.

33. The wall system of claim 21, wherein the connecting threadbar is off center of a centroid of the counterfort beam.

34. The wall system of claim 21, further comprising an upper support slab coupled to a counterfort web of the counterfort beam.

35. The wall system of claim 34, wherein the upper support slab extends out beyond a width of a counterfort flange of the counterfort beam.

36. The wall system of claim 35, wherein the upper support slab is coupled to the counterfort web by a sleeved threadbar.

37. A wall system, comprising:

a face joint member comprising a web and a flange, wherein the face joint member comprises a web threadbar in the web of the face joint member; and

a counterfort beam coupled to the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by a

connecting threadbar that extends through the counterfort beam and into the face joint member,

wherein the web threadbar and the connecting threadbar cross and pass by in proximity to each other in the web of the face joint member.

The wall system of claim 37, wherein the connecting threadbar comprises an inner metal threaded bar and an outer protective sleeve and the connecting threadbar comprises a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve.

The wall system of claim 37, wherein:

the connecting threadbar comprises a first segment within the face joint member and a second segment positioned within the counterfort beam, wherein the first segment is coupled to the second segment;

the face joint member further comprises a first duct segment; and the first segment of the connecting threadbar is positioned within the first duct segment.

A wall system, comprising:

a face joint member comprising a web and a flange, wherein the face joint member comprises a web threadbar in the web of the face joint member; and

a counterfort beam coupled to the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by a connecting threadbar that extends through the counterfort beam and into the face joint member,

wherein the connecting threadbar comprises an inner metal threaded bar and an outer protective sleeve and the connecting threadbar comprises a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve, and

wherein the web threadbar and the connecting threadbar cross and pass by in proximity to each other in the web of the face joint member.

41. A wall system, comprising:

a counterfort retaining wall forming at least one tier of the wall system, the counterfort retaining wall comprising counterfort beams and wall panels;

a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall, the MSE wall positioned above the counterfort retaining wall, wherein a bottom layer of the MSE wall is positioned above the counterfort beams; and a plurality of fascia panels spaced horizontally from a face of the MSE wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

42. The system of claim 41, wherein a bottom surface of the bottom layer of the

MSE wall rests on the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

43. The system of claim 41, wherein at least one of the counterfort beams further

comprises an inclined rear panel.

44. The system of claim 41, wherein the fascia panels cover an entirety of the face

of the MSE wall.

45. The system of claim 41, wherein the fascia panels cover the face of the MSE

wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

46. The system of claim 41, wherein the counterfort retaining wall further

comprises face joint members between the wall panels, and wherein the

plurality of fascia panels are spaced horizontally from the face joint members.

47. The system of claim 41, further comprising an impact barrier positioned over a

top edge of the fascia panels.

48. The system of claim 41, further comprising an impact barrier positioned over a

top edge of the fascia panels, wherein the impact barrier extends over an

exposed face of the fascia panels.

49. The system of claim 48, wherein the impact barrier is not in direct contact

with the fascia panels.

50. The system of claim 41, wherein the face of the MSE wall is closer to the

fascia panels than the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

51. The system of claim 41, wherein the wall panels of the counterfort retaining

wall are closer to the fascia panels than the face of the MSE wall.

52. The system of claim 41, further comprising a void replacement material

between the fascia panels and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

53. The system of claim 52, wherein the void replacement material is a tire-

derived aggregate (TDA) or an expanded polystyrene (EPS).

54. The system of claim 41, further comprising a leveling pad supporting a bottom

edge of the fascia panels.

55. The system of claim 41, wherein the bottom layer of the MSE wall is

substantially coplanar with a top edge of the wall panels of the counterfort

retaining wall.

56. The system of claim 41, wherein the counterfort retaining wall comprises:

a plurality of wall panels in an array and forming a plurality of tiers, wherein the wall panels of a first tier are coplanar to wall panels of a second tier;

a plurality of face joint members positioned between the wall panels, each face joint member partially positioned on a first side of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels through to a second side of the wall panels; and

a plurality of counterfort beams, each coupled at a first end to the a corresponding face joint member and comprising a counterfort web and a counterfort flange, wherein the a counterfort beam of

the plurality of counterfort beams extends away from the wall panels and is configured to extend into a backfill behind the plurality of wall panels, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a bottom edge of the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel; and

an upper support slab coupled to the counterfort web.

A wall system, comprising:

a retaining wall comprising combination of a counterfort retaining wall and a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall, wherein a lower portion of the retaining wall comprises the counterfort retaining wall and a upper portion of the retaining wall comprises the MSE wall, the counterfort retaining wall comprising counterfort beams and wall panels, and wherein a bottom layer of the MSE wall is positioned above the counterfort beams; and

a plurality of fascia panels spaced horizontally from a face of the MSE wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

The wall system of claim 57, wherein the fascia panels cover the face of the MSE wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

The wall system of claim 57, wherein the bottom layer of the MSE wall is substantially coplanar with a top edge of the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

The wall system of claim 57, wherein the counterfort retaining wall comprises: a plurality of wall panels in an array and forming a plurality of tiers, wherein the wall panels of a first tier are coplanar to wall panels of a second tier;

a plurality of face joint members positioned between the wall panels, each face joint member partially positioned on a first side of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels through to a second side of the wall panels;

a plurality of counterfort beams, each coupled at a first end to the a corresponding face joint member and comprising a counterfort web and a counterfort flange, wherein the a counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams extends away from the wall panels and is configured to extend into a backfill behind the plurality of wall panels, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a bottom edge of the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel; and

an upper support slab coupled to the counterfort web, wherein the upper support slab extends out beyond a width of the counterfort flange.

The wall system of claim 57, further comprising:

a leveling pad supporting a bottom edge of the fascia panels;

a void replacement material between the fascia panels and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall; and

an impact barrier positioned over a top edge of the fascia panels.

A counterfort retaining wall system, comprising:

a counterfort retaining wall forming at least one tier of the wall system, the counterfort retaining wall comprising counterfort beams and wall panels;

a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall, the MSE wall positioned above the counterfort retaining wall, wherein a bottom layer of the MSE wall is positioned above the counterfort beams;

a plurality of fascia panels spaced horizontally from a face of the MSE wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall;

a leveling pad supporting a bottom edge of the fascia panels;

a void replacement material between the fascia panels and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall; and

an impact barrier positioned over a top edge of the fascia panels.

A wall system, comprising:

a plurality of wall panels in an array and forming a plurality of tiers, wherein the wall panels of a first tier are coplanar to wall panels of a second tier;

a plurality of face joint members positioned between the wall panels, each face joint member partially positioned on a first side of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels through to a second side of the wall panels;

a plurality of counterfort beams, each coupled at a first end to the a corresponding face joint member and comprising a counterfort web and a counterfort flange, wherein the a counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams extends away from the wall panels and is configured to extend into a backfill behind the plurality of wall panels, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a bottom edge of the face j oint member, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel; and

an upper support slab coupled to the counterfort web.

The wall system of claim 63, wherein the upper support slab extends out

beyond a width of the counterfort flange.

The wall system of claim 63, wherein the upper support slab is coupled to the

counterfort web by a sleeved threadbar.

The wall system of claim 63, wherein the upper support slab is adjacent to a

web flange of the face j oint member.

The wall system of claim 63, wherein the counterfort flange does not span an

entirety of the length of the counterfort beam and wherein the upper support

slab is parallel to the counterfort flange.

The wall system of claim 67, wherein the upper support slab extends over to

above a first end of the counterfort flange.

The wall system of claim 63, further comprising:

a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall, the MSE wall positioned above the counterfort retaining wall, wherein a bottom layer of the MSE wall is positioned above the counterfort beams; and a plurality of fascia panels spaced horizontally from a face of the MSE wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

The wall system of claim 63, further comprising:

a retaining wall comprising combination of the counterfort retaining wall and a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall, wherein a lower portion of the retaining wall comprises the counterfort retaining wall and a upper portion of the retaining wall comprises the MSE wall, and wherein a bottom layer of the MSE wall is positioned above the counterfort beams;

a plurality of fascia panels spaced horizontally from a face of the MSE wall and the wall panels of the counterfort retaining wall.

A counterfort retaining wall system, comprising:

a plurality of wall panels in an array and forming a plurality of tiers, wherein the wall panels of a first tier are coplanar to wall panels of a second tier;

a plurality of face joint members positioned between the wall panels, each face joint member partially positioned on a first side of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels through to a second side of the wall panels; and

a plurality of counterfort beams, each coupled at a first end to a corresponding face joint member and comprising a counterfort web and a counterfort flange, wherein a counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams extends away from the wall panels and is configured to extend into a backfill behind the plurality of wall panels, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a bottom edge of the face joint member, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel.

72. The system of claim 71, wherein the bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a location at least one third of a height of the face joint member.

73. The system of claim 71, wherein a first wall panel of the plurality of wall panels spans vertically across a horizontal junction between vertically adjacent face joint members.

74. The system of claim 71, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a horizontal junction between the tiers.

75. The system of claim 71, wherein the wall panels are rectangular panels

comprising a panel face, a rear panel face, a top panel edge, a bottom panel edge, a first side panel edge, and a second side panel edge, and wherein the face joint member comprises a web and flange, wherein the web is positioned between the first side panel edge of the first wall panel and the second side panel edge of the second wall panel.

76. The system of claim 71, wherein the web spans an entirety of a length of the counterfort beam and the flange does not span an entirety of the length of the counterfort beam.

77. The system of claim 71, wherein, at the first end of the counterfort beam, the web extends through the flange.

78. The system of claim 71, wherein the flange and the web span an entirety of a length of the counterfort beam.

79. The system of claim 71, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that the flange at the first end of the counterfort beam extends out and above a compressed backfill.

80. The system of claim 71, wherein the inclined rear panel is a separate piece coupled to the web and the flange of the counterfort beam.

81. The system of claim 71, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member by a threadbar that extends through the counterfort beam and into the face joint member, wherein the threadbar comprises an inner metal threaded bar and an outer protective sleeve with a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve.

82. The system of claim 81, wherein a first end of the threadbar is formed within the face joint member.

83. The system of claim 71, wherein the counterfort web is orthogonal to the

counterfort flange and the wall panel, and the counterfort flange is orthogonal to the wall panel.

84. The system of claim 71, wherein the inclined rear panel extends above the counterfort web.

85. The system of claim 71, wherein each counterfort beam of the plurality of counterfort beams is formed together with a face joint member of the plurality of face joint members using monolithic construction.

86. A counterfort retaining wall system, comprising:

a plurality of wall panels in an array and forming a plurality of tiers, wherein the wall panels of a first tier are coplanar to wall panels of a second tier;

a face j oint member positioned between a first wall panel and a second wall panel, the face joint member partially positioned on a first side of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels through to a second side of the wall panels;

a counterfort beam coupled at a first end to the face j oint member and comprising a counterfort web and a counterfort flange, wherein the counterfort beam extends away from the wall panels and is configured to extend into a backfill behind the plurality of wall panels, wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel at a second end of the counterfort beam.

87. The counterfort retaining wall system of claim 86, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the flange is above a bottom edge of the face j oint member.

88. The counterfort retaining wall system of claim 86, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member through a threadbar that extends through the counterfort beam and the face joint member, wherein the threadbar comprises an inner metal threaded bar and an outer protective sleeve with a grease layer between the inner metal threaded bar and the outer protective sleeve.

89. The counterfort retaining wall system of claim 86, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face joint member such that a bottom surface of the counterfort flange is above a horizontal junction between the tiers.

90. The counterfort retaining wall system of claim 86, wherein the inclined rear panel is a separate piece coupled to the web and the flange of the counterfort beam.

91. A counterfort retaining wall system, comprising:

a plurality of wall panels in an array and forming a plurality of tiers, wherein the wall panels of a first tier are coplanar to wall panels of a second tier;

a face j oint member positioned between a first wall panel and a second wall panel, the face joint member partially positioned on a first side of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels through to a second side of the wall panels;

a counterfort beam coupled at a first end to the face j oint member and comprising a counterfort web and a counterfort flange, wherein the counterfort beam extends away from the wall panels and is configured to extend into a backfill behind the plurality of wall panels, wherein the counterfort beam is coupled to the face j oint member such that a bottom surface of the flange is above a bottom edge of the face joint member, and wherein the counterfort beam further comprises an inclined rear panel at a second end of the counterfort beam.