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1. (WO2019043206) PHASE TRANSITION THIN FILM DEVICE
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Claims

1. A thin film device (1, 201) comprising:

a substrate (2, 202),

a thin film layer (4, 204) disposed over the substrate (2, 202), the thin film layer (4, 204) comprising a first material capable of undergoing a phase transition,

a confinement layer (3, 203) adjacent to the thin film layer (4, 204), the confinement layer (3, 203) having confinement layer lattice parameters comprising first and second in plane confinement layer lattice parameters and an out of plane confinement layer lattice parameter; wherein the thin film layer (4, 204) has transition lattice parameters comprising first and second in— plane thin film layer lattice parameters and an out of plane thin film layer lattice parameter when undergoing the phase transition,

wherein the confinement layer lattice parameters are within a pinning range which allows to control the onset of the phase transition and/or which allow blocking the phase transition.

2. A thin film device (1, 201) according to claim 1, the thin film device (1, 201) comprising a control drive means for controlled inducing changes in the lattice parameter.

3. A thin film device (1, 201) according to claim 2, wherein the control drive means is a means for influencing the structural properties by means of a drive mechanism based on one or more of electrical, magnetic, optical, polar, dipolar, pressure, ordering, adhesion, reaction, elastic, phononic, thermal, transformation, diffusion, migration, chemical, electrochemical, thermal expansion properties.

4. A device (1, 201) according to any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the phase transition is a non- isostructural phase transition associated with a first stable state and a second stable state, wherein the first material in the first stable state close to the phase transition has a first set of bulk lattice parameters, wherein the first material in the second stable state close to the phase transition has a second set of bulk lattice parameters, and wherein the pinning range includes the first set of bulk lattice parameters and the second set of bulk lattice parameters.

5. A device (1, 201) according to claim 4, wherein the transition lattice parameters are the first set of bulk lattice parameters.

6. A device (1, 201) according to claim 4, wherein the transition lattice parameters are the second set of bulk lattice parameters.

7. A device (1, 201) according to any preceding claim, wherein the thin film layer (4, 204)

comprises BaTiC>3.

8. A device (1, 201) according to any preceding claim, wherein the confinement layer (3, 203) is a buffer layer disposed between the thin film layer (4, 204) and the substrate (2, 202).

9. A device (201) according to any of claims 1 to 3,

wherein the confinement layer (203) is a buffer layer disposed between the thin film layer (4, 204) and the substrate (2, 202), the buffer layer having a buffer layer lattice parameters, wherein the thin film material being made of a first material has thin film layer lattice parameters,

the thin film layer lattice parameter is substantially equal to the buffer layer lattice parameter; wherein first material is a material which is capable of undergoing an isostructural or non- isostructural phase transition in a bulk phase associated with a first state and a second state, wherein the first stable state has a first state lattice parameter, wherein the second stable state has a second state lattice parameter; and

wherein the thin film layer is capable of undergoing an isostructural or non-isostructural phase transition with a lattice parameter that is controllable between at least the first state having a first lattice parameter and a second state having a second, different lattice parameter, wherein at least one of the first lattice parameter and the second lattice parameter is different to the first state lattice parameter and the second state lattice parameter.

10. A device (1, 201) according to claim 9, wherein at least one of the first lattice parameter and the second lattice parameter is less than the first state lattice parameter and the second state lattice parameter.

11. A device (1, 201) according to any of claims 9 or 10, wherein at least one of the first lattice parameter and the second lattice parameter is greater than the first state lattice parameter and the second state lattice parameter.

12. A device (201) according to any of claims 9 to 11, wherein the buffer layer is a first buffer layer and the thin film layer is a first thin film layer, wherein the first buffer layer extends over a first region of the substrate, the device further comprising:

a second buffer layer disposed on the substrate, the second buffer layer extending over a second region of the substrate which is different to the first region of the substrate, the second buffer layer comprising a third material, the second buffer layer having a second buffer layer lattice parameter;

a second thin film layer disposed on the second buffer layer, the second thin film layer comprising a fourth material, the second thin film layer having a second thin film layer lattice parameter;

wherein the second thin film layer lattice parameter is substantially equal to the second buffer layer lattice parameter;

wherein the fourth material is a material which is capable of undergoing an isostructural or non- isostructural phase transition in a bulk phase;

wherein the isostructural or non-isostructural phase transition in the thin film layer is controllable; and

wherein the second thin film layer lattice parameter is not equal to the first thin film layer lattice parameter.

13. A device (201) according to any of claims 1 to 3 ,

wherein the confinement layer (203) is a buffer layer disposed on at least a portion of the substrate, the buffer layer comprising a fifth material, the buffer layer having a buffer layer lattice parameter,

wherein the thin film material is being made of a sixth material and has thin film layer lattice parameters,

the thin film layer lattice parameter is substantially equal to the buffer layer lattice parameter; wherein the sixth material is a material which is not capable of undergoing an isostructural or non-isostructural phase transition in a bulk phase; and

wherein the thin film layer is capable of controllably undergoing an isostructural or non- isostructural phase transition.

14. A device according to claim 13, wherein the buffer layer is a third buffer layer and the thin film layer is a third thin film layer, wherein the third buffer layer extends over a third region of the substrate, the device further comprising:

a fourth buffer layer disposed on the substrate, the fourth buffer layer extending over a fourth region of the substrate which is different to the third region of the substrate, the fourth buffer layer comprising a seventh material, the fourth buffer layer having a fourth buffer layer lattice parameter;

a fourth thin film layer disposed on the fourth buffer layer, the fourth thin film layer comprising an eighth material, the fourth thin film layer having a fourth thin film layer lattice parameter; wherein the fourth thin film layer lattice parameter is substantially equal to the fourth buffer layer lattice parameter;

wherein the eighth material is a material which is not capable of undergoing an isostructural or non-isostructural phase transition in a bulk phase;

wherein the fourth thin film layer is capable of undergoing an isostructural or non-isostructural phase transition;

wherein the fourth thin film layer lattice parameter is not equal to the third thin film layer lattice parameter.

15. A device (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the thin film layer (4) is disposed between the confinement layer (3) and the substrate (2).

16. A device (1) according to the previous claim, wherein the thin film layer has a first face adjacent to the substrate (2) and in the plane of the substrate (2) and a second face opposite the first face, wherein the confinement layer (3) is disposed on the second face.

17. A device (1) according to any one of claim 1 to 7, wherein the confinement layer (3) is disposed next to at least one out-of-plane face of the thin film layer (4).

18. A device (1, 201) according to any of the previous claims, wherein the confinement layer

comprises (Cri-yFey)2C>3 and y takes a value between 0 and 1.

19. A device (1, 201) according to any of the previous claims, wherein the confinement layer

comprises (Cri-yTiy)2C>3 and y takes a value between 0 and 1.

20. A device (1, 201) according to any of the previous claims, wherein the substrate comprises aluminum oxide.

21. A device (1, 201) according to any of the previous claims, wherein the thin film layer is doped.

22. A device (1, 201) according to any of the previous claims, wherein the thin film layer comprises vanadium (III) oxide.

23. A device (1, 201) according to any of the previous claims, wherein the thin film layer comprises chromium-doped vanadium (III) oxide, Cr doped V2O3.

24. A device (1, 201) according to the previous claim, wherein the thin film layer is additionally doped with titanium.

25. A device (1, 201) according to any of claim 17or 18, wherein the thin film layer is additionally doped with oxygen.

26. A device (1, 201) according to any preceding claim, wherein the thin film layer (4, 204) has a thin film layer thermal expansion coefficient, wherein the confinement layer (3, 203) has a confinement layer thermal expansion coefficient, and wherein the thin film layer thermal expansion coefficient is substantially larger or substantially smaller, than the confinement layer thermal expansion coefficient.

27. A thin film device according to any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the thin film comprises a first thin film sub-layer, a second thin film sub-layer and a third thin-film sub layer, wherein the second thin film layer is between the first thin film layer and the third thin film layer and wherein the second thin film layer comprises a material capable of undergoing a phase transition.

28. A device according to claim 27, wherein the first thin film layer comprises silicon.

29. A device according to claim 27 or 28, wherein the second thin film layer comprises germanium.

30. An electronic device comprising a device (1, 201) according to any preceding claim 1 to 29, the electronic device being any of an integrated circuit, a pressure sensor, a memory device, a surface acoustic wave device, a radio frequency device, a resonant device, a bio-chemical sensor or a MEMS device.

31. Use of a device according to any of claims 1 to 29 as a composite substrate for a further thin film layer.

32. Use according to claim 31, wherein the further thin film layer comprises a ninth material, the ninth material having a ninth bulk lattice parameter and wherein the thin film layer ot the thin film device according to any of claims 1 to 29 comprises thin film layer lattice parameters matching the ninth bulk lattice parameter.

33. A method of manufacturing a thin film device, the method comprising:

providing a substrate;

providing a thin film layer, the thin film layer comprising a material capable of undergoing a phase transition,

providing a confinement layer,

wherein the confinement layer at least partially counteracts a thermal and/or lattice mismatch between the substrate and the thin film layer and/or wherein the confinement layer at least partially pins or blocks the onset of the phase transition.

34. A method according to claim 33, the method comprising providing a control drive means for controlled inducing changes in the lattice parameter.

35. A method according to claim 34, wherein providing a control drive means comprises applying lithography and/or contact layers.

36. A method according to any of claims 33 to 35, wherein the phase transition is an isostructural phase transition.

37. A method according to any of claims 33 to 35, wherein the phase transition is a non- isostructural phase transition.