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1. (WO2019023749) A METHOD OF 3D PRINTING
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A method of 3D printing an item, comprising the steps:

a) printing part of the item in three dimensions on a substrate;

b) reorienting the part with respect to holding means that holds the part or substrate; and

c) printing a further part of the item in three dimensions on the first mentioned part.

A method according to claim 1 , wherein step b) involves disengaging the first mentioned part from the substrate, reorienting that part, and then reengaging it with the substrate, or engaging it with the holding means or another substrate.

A method according to claim 2, wherein the reorientation involves a change of 45° -180°.

A method according to claim 1 , 2 or 3, carried out without providing any support for the item as it forms, other than the substrate mentioned in claim 1 and/or the other substrate mentioned in claim 2.

A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the item is built up from print material sprayed from a spray head.

A method according to claim 5, wherein the print material is cold sprayed.

A method according to any one claims 1 to 4, wherein the printing is via a spray head, and wherein the spray head and/or at least the substrate mentioned in claim 1 is/are moved under the influence of a computerised controller to facilitate targeted placement of the print material as a cold spray as the item is built up, such movement being guided by recorded geometry parameters for the item.

A method according to claim 7, wherein the geometry parameters notionally divide the item to be formed into distinct portions at least one of which is designated to be reoriented with respect to means that holds the first mentioned part or substrate after that part is printed.

A method according to claim 1 , wherein:

a) step b) involves disengaging the first mentioned part from the substrate, reorienting that part, and then reengaging it with the substrate or engaging it with the holding means or another substrate; b) the reorientation involves a change of 45° - 180°;

c) the method is carried out without providing any support for the item as it forms, other than the substrate or substrates;

d) the item is built up from print material cold sprayed from a spray head; e) the spray head and/or the substrate or substrates is/are moved under the influence of a computerised controller to facilitate targeted placement of the print material as the item is built up, such movement being guided by recorded geometry parameters for the item; and f) the geometry parameters notionally divide the item to be formed into distinct portions at least one of which is designated to be reoriented after it is printed.

10. A method according to claim 9, wherein disengaging the first mentioned part from the substrate is by flexing or shock-loading the substrate in a jig and causing it to fracture along an interface with the part.

11. A method according to claim 9 wherein one or both substrates is/are incorporated into the item.

12. A method according to claim 9, 10 or 11 , wherein the print material comprises one or more of:

• ferrous alloy;

• powdered non-ferrous alloy; and

• molten plastic filament.