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1. (WO2012064702) SULFUR CONTAINING NANOPOROUS MATERIALS, NANOPARTICLES, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
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CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A nanoparticle comprising:

a carbon material support; and

a sulfur material supported on the carbon material support, where a cyclic voltammogram of a lithium- sulfur cell that includes the nanoparticle within a cathode shows a stable reduction peak at about 2.4 volts.

2. The nanoparticle of claim 1 wherein:

the cyclic voltammogram uses a lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfone) imide in tetraglyme electrolyte;

the cyclic voltammogram also shows a stable reduction peak at about 2.0 volts; and

the cyclic voltammogram also shows a stable oxidation peak at about 2.35 volts and a stable oxidation peak at about 2.45 volts.

3. The nanoparticle of claim 1 wherein the carbon material support comprises a hollow shape sphere.

4. The nanoparticle of claim 1 wherein the carbon material support comprises at least in part a graphite carbon material.

5. The nanoparticle of claim 1 wherein the sulfur material comprises an amorphous sulfur material comprising up to about 70 percent by weight sulfur material. .

6. An electrode comprising:

a conductive support; and

a coating located upon the conductive support, the coating comprising a nanoparticle comprising:

a carbon material support; and

a sulfur material supported on the carbon material support, where a cyclic voltammogram of a lithium- sulfur cell that includes the nanoparticle within a cathode shows a stable reduction peak at about 2.4 volts.

7. A battery comprising an electrode comprising:

a conductive support; and

a coating located upon the conductive support, the coating comprising a nanoparticle comprising:

a carbon material support; and

a sulfur material supported on the carbon material support, where a cyclic voltammogram of a lithium- sulfur cell that includes the nanoparticle within a cathode shows a stable reduction peak at about 2.4 volts.

8. The battery of claim 7 wherein:

the electrode comprises a cathode; and

the battery comprises a lithium ion battery.

9. A nanoporous material comprising:

a bulk carbon material support; and

a sulfur material supported on the bulk carbon material support, where a cyclic voltammogram of a lithium- sulfur cell that includes a nanoparticle derived from the nanoporous material within a cathode shows a stable reduction peak at about 2.4 volts.

10. The nanoporous material of claim 9 wherein:

the cyclic voltammogram uses a lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfone) imide in tetraglyme electrolyte;

the cyclic voltammogram also shows a stable reduction peak at about 2.0 volts; and

the cyclic voltammogram also shows a stable oxidation peak at about 2.35 volts and a stable oxidation peak at about 2.45 volts.

11. A method for fabricating a nanoporous material comprising treating at a temperature at least about 450 degrees Celsius and a pressure at least about 2 atmospheres a porous carbon material support with a sulfur material source to provide a sulfur infused porous carbon material support.

12. The method of claim 11 wherein the treating the porous carbon material support uses the sulfur material source and an inert gas.

13. The method of claim 11 wherein the porous carbon material support has an average pore size from about 0.5 to about 20 nanometers.

14. The method of claim 11 wherein the porous carbon material support comprises a hollow porous carbon nanoparticle.

15. The method of claim 11 wherein the porous carbon material support comprises a

nanoparticle that is not hollow.

16. The method of claim 11 wherein the porous carbon material support is formed from coal.

17. The method of claim 11 wherein the porous carbon material support is formed from a carbon aerogel.

18. The method of claim 11 wherein the porous carbon material support is formed from a carbon source material selected from the group consisting of coal, a carbon aerogel, polyacrylonitrile, polysaccharides, citric acid, gallic acid, cynnamic acid, polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate carbon source materials.

19. A method for fabricating a nanoparticle comprising:

forming a carbon material layer upon a template nanoparticle to provide a carbon material coated template nanoparticle;

dissolving the template nanoparticle from the carbon material coated template

nanoparticle to form a hollow shape carbon material nanoparticle; and

infusing at a temperature at least about 450 degrees centigrade and at a pressure at least about 2 atmospheres the hollow shape carbon material nanoparticle with a sulfur material source to form a sulfur infused hollow shape carbon material nanoparticle.

20. The method of claim 19 wherein the forming the carbon material layer uses a solution coating and pyrolysis method.

21. The method of claim 19 wherein the infusing the hollow shape carbon material nanoparticle uses a sulfur infusion at a pressure of about 2 to about 20 atmospheres.

22. The method of claim 19 wherein the infusing uses the sulfur material source and an inert gas.

23. A method for fabricating a nanoparticle comprising:

treating at a temperature at least about 450 degrees Celsius and a pressure at least about 2 atmospheres a bulk porous carbon material support with a sulfur material source to provide a sulfur infused bulk porous carbon material support; and

grinding the sulfur infused bulk porous carbon material support to form the nanoparticle.

24. A nanoparticle comprising:

a core comprising a metal oxide material; and

a shell layer located upon the core and comprising a sulfur cross-linked polymultiene polymer material coupled with an ion conducting polymer material.

25. The nanoparticle of claim 24 wherein the nanoparticle comprises:

from about 2 to about 20 weight percent metal oxide material;

from about 10 to about 40 weight percent polymultiene polymer material;

from about 2 to about 5 weight percent ion conducting polymer material; and

from about 2 to about 80 weight percent sulfur.

26. The nanoparticle of claim 24 wherein:

the core comprises a silicon oxide material;

the polymultiene polymer material comprises a polybutadiene polymer material; and

the ion conducting polymer material comprises a polyethyleneglycol polymer material.

27. The nanoparticle of claim 24 wherein:

the shell layer is bonded to the core; and

the shell layer comprises a diblock copolymer comprising the sulfur cross-linked polymultiene polymer material coupled with the ion conducting polymer material.

28. An electrode comprising:

a conductive support; and

a coating located upon the conductive support, the coating comprising a nanoparticle comprising:

a core comprising a metal oxide material; and

a shell layer located upon the core and comprising a sulfur cross-linked polymultiene polymer material coupled with an ion conducting polymer material.

29. A battery comprising an electrode comprising:

a conductive support; and

a coating located upon the conductive support, the coating comprising a nanoparticle comprising:

a core comprising a metal oxide material; and

a shell layer located upon the core and comprising a sulfur cross-linked polymultiene polymer material coupled with an ion conducting polymer material.

30. The battery of claim 29 wherein:

the electrode comprises a cathode; and

the battery comprises a lithium ion battery.

31. A method for fabricating a nanoparticle comprising:

forming an organofunctional metal oxide core;

reacting the organofunctional metal oxide core with one of a multifunctional

polymultiene polymer material and a multifunctional ion conducting polymer material to form a partially sheathed metal oxide core;

reacting the partially sheathed metal oxide core with a complementary one of a functional polymultiene polymer material and a functional ion conducting polymer material to form a polymultiene polymer material and ion conducting polymer material shell bonded to the organofunctional metal oxide core; and

vulcanizing the polymultiene polymer material with a sulfur material.

32. The method of claim 31 wherein the reacting the organofunctional metal oxide core and the reacting the partially sheathed metal oxide core form a diblock copolymer material.

33. The method of claim 32 wherein the diblock copolymer material comprises the polymultiene polymer material bonded to the organofunctional metal oxide core.

34. The method of claim 32 wherein the diblock copolymer material comprises the ion conducting polymer material bonded to the organofunctional metal oxide core.