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1. (WO2004070169) ROTARY ENGINE
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ROTARY ENGINE

FIELD OF THE INVENTION:
This invention relates generally to a perfectly balanced, zero vibration, rotary device, and specifically to rotary engines, compressors, and pressure or vacuum pumps.

DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART:
The patent USA 6,164,263 discloses a general rotary device called the Quasiturbine (Qurbine in short), which uses four pivoting blades and four rolling carriages to make a rotor of variable diamond-shaped geometry, the rotor mounted within a contoured housing wall formed along a Saint-Hilaire confinement profile shaped somewhat like a skating rink, the sides of the housing wall closed by lateral side covers. That Quasiturbine device uses four peripheral rolling carriages to hold the rotor in place within the housing wall and to transfer the pivoting blade radial load-pressure to the opposite part of the housing wall, in such a manner as to remove all load pressure from the center, making the Quasiturbine a center-free engine. USA 6,164,263 also discloses an effective but simple rotor-to-shaft differential linking mechanism and further provides a general method for the precise calculation of the Saint-Hilaire confinement profile family of curves for the housing wall. In most rotary engines, the sealing at the pivot connection or apex between two adjacent blades must be done simultaneously with the contoured housing wall and also with the two lateral side covers which is a critical and difficult five-bodies sealing problem. This sealing problem was satisfactorily solved in patent USA 6,164,263 through a male-female pivot design overlapped by the carriage. Results of theoretical simulation and some experimental data revealed exceptional engine characteristics for the Quasiturbine device, and in particular the possibility of a shorter pressure pulse with a linear ramp compression-pressure raising-falling slope near top dead center.

In the present context, this invention is not an improvement of the Quasiturbine device in USA 6,164,263, but instead discloses a "central, annular, rotor support" applicable to all the family of Quasiturbine rotor arrangements for similar or other applications, where pivoting blades, wheel-bearings, and annular tracks are located within the rotor, while maintaining a center-free engine characteristic for direct power takeoff. To illustrate the central, annular, rotor support, an embodiment of the Quasiturbine has been used which employs a rotor made up of four blades incorporating simple cylindrical pivoting joints between adjacent blades without rolling carriages. The pivoting joint includes an underneath holding finger at die male end, and efficiently solves the five bodies sealing problem. The device of the present invention includes wheel-bearings and lateral side covers carrying the annular tracks to take the pressure-load applied by the blades. The invention also provides a precise parametric calculation method and criteria for unique selection of the appropriate Saint-Hilaire confinement profile so as to satisfy the optimum engine efficiency of the PV (Pressure-Volume) diagram; and this geometry permits the Quasiturbine to be scaled-up to provide power in excess of 100 MW and more. This new rotor arrangement further allows the insertion of annular power sleeves each linking each pair of two opposite blades with or without centrifuge clutch weights, on the external surface of the sleeves. A Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) allows pumping-ventilating action and is particularly useful to cool the interior of the rotor in an internal combustion engine mode. The MIRV is also generally applicable to the Quasiturbine design disclosed in patent USA 6,164,263. Finally, on the interior wall of the annular power sleeve, differential washers make a large diameter tangential mechanical differential coupling with the power disk and shaft. Due to a shorter confinement time and a faster linear ramp compression-pressure raising-falling slope, a new combined Otto and Diesel QTIC-cycle mode is made possible, and is photo-detonation compatible.

OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:
The object of this invention is to provide a Quasiturbine central, annular, rotor support using pivoting blades, wheel-bearings, and lateral side covers carrying annular tracks (or alternatively the canceling out of the pressure-load in the fluid energy converter mode through the annular power sleeves) generally applicable to all the family of Quasiturbine rotor arrangements and other rotary engines, compressors or pumps, and particularly to an embodiment of the Quasiturbine which employs four blades incorporating simple cylindrical pivoting joints between adjacent blades without carriages, all this while maintaining a large empty area in the center of the engine for direct power takeoff and preserving most previously claimed Quasiturbine characteristics.

Another object of this invention is to provide a "Saint-Hilaire confinement profile calculation method" of the contoured housing wall appropriate to the chosen Quasiturbine design arrangement, minimizing the surface to volume ratio in the compression chambers and reducing the flow turbulence. This calculation method includes criteria for engine optimum confinement profile selection from the family of curves to generate the contoured housing wall.

A further object of this invention is to provide a low friction, pivoting blade, joint design which is particularly suitable for non-metallic material like plastic, ceramic or glass, the joint allowing for maximum air-tightness; space for gate-type, near zero in-groove movement with single or multiple contour seals; higher maximum RPM; and suitable for very high-pressure 80 applications with the seals designed accordingly. A compression ratio tuner can replace the sparkplug in high compression ratio photo-detonation combustion engine mode.

Another further object of this invention is to provide a Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) producing annular pumping-ventilating action between the inner surfaces of the moving pivoting blades and the outer surfaces of the annular power sleeves, with or without centrifuge clutch weights. The Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) is particularly useful to cool the interior of the rotor in an internal combustion engine mode, while allowing for the insertion of the differential washers on the inner surface of the annular power sleeves, to be able to make a large diameter tangential mechanical differential coupling with the power disk 90 and shaft.

Yet another further object of this invention is to provide a new combined Otto and Diesel Quasiturbine operation in an Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle mode, this due to the possible shorter confinement time and the faster linear ramp compression-pressure raising-falling slope, which is photo detonation compatible.

In order to achieve these objects, the Quasiturbine rotor arrangement makes use of an appropriate contoured housing wall calculated to receive the present, pivoting blades, rotor geometry, with a set of contour and lateral seals (linear gate type and pellets) engineered for 100 the selected rotor arrangement.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS:
A more complete appreciation of the invention will be readily apparent when considered in reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective exploded view of the Quasiturbine device with a contoured housing wall and the four interconnected pivoting blades shown in a square configuration.

110 FIG. 2 is a top view with the lateral side covers removed, the four interconnected pivoting blades shown in a diamond configuration.

FIG. 3 is a detail perspective exploded view of the Quasiturbine showing interior details, where the contoured housing wall and two of the pivoting blades have been removed for better viewing.

DETADLED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT:
The USA 6,164,263 patent disclosed a Quasiturbine rotor arrangement using four rolling 120 carriages to take the pivoting blade pressure-load and transfer it to the opposite contoured housing wall. The present invention discloses a Quasiturbine rotor arrangement without carriages, where the pressure-load on each pivoting blade is taken by its own set of wheelbearings located in a power transfer slot in the inner side of blade, the wheel-bearings rolling on annular tracks, one track attached to the central area of each lateral side cover. This rotor supporting configuration can apply to all the Quasiturbine family of designs, and is here illustrated on a specific Quasiturbine embodiment without rolling carriages. This Quasiturbine rotor arrangement reduces the number of components, reduces the friction surface, reduces the total wall surface in the compression chambers, and is particularly suitable for non- metallic pivoting blades, the blades being made instead from material such as plastic, ceramic 130 or glass. Furthermore, this rotor arrangement allows for single or multiple contour seals with a near zero in-groove movement, and eliminates the need of a cooling system for carriages. This invention applies generally to rotary engines, compressors, or pressured or vacuum pumps.

The present Quasiturbine invention is generally referred on FIG. 1 as number 10, and comprises a stator casing 12- made of a contoured housing wall 14 and two lateral side covers 16, one on each side of the housing wall 14,, and a rotor 18 of four or more pivoting blades 20 confined within this casing. Each pivoting blade 20 carries a power transfer slot 22 on its inner surface 24 in which wheel-bearings 26 are located. The lateral side covers 16 each have 140 an annular track 28, not necessarily circular, on their inner surface 30 to support the wheelbearings 26 carried by the pivoting blades 20, the wheel-bearings rolling on the tracks. Multiple notches 32 are provided on the external perimeter of the covers 16 where cooling fins 34 can be inserted. Liquid cooling is also easily feasible. Radial intake 36 and exhaust 38 ports are located in the housing wall 14 or axially (not shown) in the lateral side covers 16. A check-valve port 40 can be located through each pivoting blade 20 to benefit from the centrifuge intake pressure. A compression ratio tuner 42 can replace the sparkplug 44 at high compression ratio photo-detonation mode.

One end of each pivoting blade 20 carries a male connector 46 and the other end carries a 150 complementary female connector 48, the male and female connectors of adjacent blades connected to provide a low friction pivot joint 50 as shown in FIG. 2. The cylindrical male connector 46 carries a contour seal groove 52 and has a rounded outer portion that acts as a guiding-rubbing pad 54 with the contoured housing wall 14, with provision for a hard metal or ceramic insert in that guiding-rubbing area. The pivoting blades 20 also have a lateral pellet hole 56 in the male connector 46 at the joints 50, and lateral seal grooves 58 along their sides extending between the connectors 46 48. The set of seals used in the pivoting blades is made up of contour seals 60; lateral arched side cover seals 62 (which can be made continuous when located in a groove within the lateral side covers 16), and small pellet seals 64 in the male connector 46 at the pivoting blade joint 50. All the seals have a back spring, and in 160 addition the contour seal 60 sits on a contour seal damper made of a rubber band lying in the bottom of its groove to help extend the seal life from hammering against the housing wall.

Two annular power sleeves 66, 68 are provided, as shown in FIG. 3, each linked to the axels 70 of the wheel-bearings 26 in two opposed pivoting blade power transfer slots 22 by opposed rings 72 on each sleeve. The sleeves 66, 68 leave a large circular hole in the engine center for the shaft power disk, a direct power takeoff or other uses. The annular power sleeves 66, 68 can carry their own set of lateral side cover seals (not shown) to insulate their inward central area from their outward area. Furthermore, the inner surface 74 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 carries several grooves 76 from which any mechanism enclosed by the sleeves can be 170 driven. Centrifuge clutch weights 78 are located between the inner surface 24 of the pivoting blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68, a clutch weight 78 located adjacent each side of each of the power transfer slots 22. A tangential mechanical differential is located on the inner surface 74 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68, and is made of several (from two to twelve or more) differential washers 82 linking the annular power sleeves 66, 68 to the central power disk 84 and the shaft 86. A calculation method for the stator Saint-Hilaire confinement profile of the contoured housing wall 14 is disclosed for the chosen Quasiturbine rotor arrangement, with a set of optimum engine contoured housing wall 14 selection criteria.

180 FIG. 1 shows the four interconnected pivoting blades 20 in a square configuration within the housing wall 14, guided by the solid guiding-rubbing pads 54 provided by the male connectors 46 at the joints 50 between adjacent blades. The wheel-bearings 26 of the blades 20 roll on the annular tracks 26 carried by the lateral side covers 16. The port locations 36, 38 shown are the ones used when the Quasiturbine is operated as a fluid energy converter or compressor. The spark plug 44 is positioned as for the internal combustion mode. For clarity, the centrifuge weights 78 are not shown on FIG. 1.

FIG. 2 shows the four interconnected pivoting blades 20 in a diamond configuration. FIG. 2 also shows details of the interconnecting pivot joint 50 including details of the male 46 and

190 female 48 connectors; the contour 60 and lateral arched seals 62 and pellet seal 64; the wheelbearings 26 and annular track 28 positioning; and the guiding-rubbing action of the pad 54 in the cylindrical male joints 50. The compression ratio tuner 42, the flame transfer slot-cavity 88 and one of the pivoting blade check valve ports 40 with the central area are shown. The port locations 36, 38 shown in FIG. 2 are the ones used when the Quasiturbine is operated in an internal combustion engine mode with counterclockwise direction of rotation. FIG. 2 also shows the Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90. Annular pumping action is provided by the varying size of the volumes 90, each located in between the inner surface 24 of the pivoting blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68. It will be seen that the centrifuge clutch weights 78 are located within the volumes 90 and move along

200 the outer surface 80 of the power sleeves 66, 68.

FIG. 3 shows details of the Quasiturbine with the contoured housing wall 14 and two of the pivoting blades 20 removed. It also shows details of the centrifugal clutch weights 78, which weights could possibly pivot around the closest wheel-bearings, the annular power sleeves 66, 68 and the differential washers 82 making a large diameter tangential mechanical differential coupling with the power disk 84 and shaft 86.

The four pivoting blades 20 are attached to one another as a chain in forming the rotor 18 and show a variable diamond-shaped geometry while moving in a Saint-Hilaire-like confinement

210 profile of the contoured housing wall 14 calculated to confine the rotor 18 at all angles of rotation. Contour seals 60 between the pivoting blades 20 and the contoured housing wall 14 are located at each pivot joint 50. The expansion or combustion chamber 92 is defined by the volume in-between the outer surface 94 of a pivoting blade 20 and the inner surface 96 of the contoured housing wall 14 and extends from one pivot joint contour seal 60 to the next. Referring to FIG. 2, as the rotor 18 turns, it does make minimum combustion chamber 92 volumes at the top and bottom (TDC), and maximum volumes at left and right (BTC). During one rotation, each pivoting blade 20 goes through four complete engine strokes, so that a total of sixteen strokes are completed in every rotation. Furthermore, as an expansion stroke starts from a horizontal pivoting blade 20 and ends when it gets vertical, the next following pivoting

220 blade 20 is immediately starting a new expansion cycle without any dead time, which means that the Quasiturbine is a quasi-continuous flow engine at intake and exhaust, both of which can be located either radially in the contoured housing wall 14 or axially in the lateral side covers 16. Several removable intake and exhaust plugs 98 may be used to convert the two parallel compression and expansion circuits into a sole serial circuit. The two quasi- independent circuits are used in parallel with all plugs removed, for operation as a two stroke internal combustion engine, fluid energy converter, compressor, vacuum pump and flow meter. The two quasi-independent circuits are used in serial by plugging intermediate ports, to make a four stroke internal combustion engine as shown in the port arrangement of FIG. 2. Notice that the intake and exhaust ports have different locations for different applications and

230 their position can be time advanced or delayed for exliaust and intake as shown in FIG. 2. The load-pressure force exercised by the compressed fluids on each pivoting blade 20 is taken by the wheel-bearings 26 rolling on the annular tracks 28 attached to their respective lateral side covers 16. With this geometrical arrangement, even with heavy pressure-loads on the pivoting blades 20, the diamond-shaped deformation of the rotor 18 requires only very little energy, and the rubbing pads 54 located in the vicinity of the pivot joints 50 and contour seals 60 guide the rotor 18 during its diamond-shaped deformation. During rotation, the wheelbearings axels 70 are not moving at a constant angular velocity and for this reason, a differential linkage must be built within the annular power sleeves 66, 68 to drive the power disk 84 and shaft 86 at constant angular velocity.
240
The stator 12 and the lateral side covers 16 are centered on the engine rotor axis. The lateral side covers 16 have annular tracks 28 receiving the wheel-bearings 26 carried by the blades 20, which tracks are not necessarily circular. FIG. 1 shows a central hole 100 in the lateral side covers 16 that can be made large enough so that the power disk 84 and the differential washers 82 can be slide in-and-out without having to dismantle the engine. A cap bearing- holder can be inserted in the large side cover hole 100. Intake and exhaust ports 36, 38 are located either radially in the stator 12 or axially (not shown) in the lateral side covers 16. For the Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) 90, the lateral side covers 16 carry a set of ventilation ports 102 for cooling the rotor 18. A sparkplug 44 can be located at a variable

250 angle on the top of the stator 12, and also at bottom (not shown) in the two stroke engine mode, and replaced, when in a very high compression ratio photo-detonation mode by a small threaded piston called a "compression ratio tuner" 42, which can be feedback controlled to optimize combustion chamber conditions for different fuels or running operation. The surface of contact between the stator 12 and the lateral side covers 16 carry a fix gasket 104.

The annular tracks 28 are circular only if the wheel-bearings 26 are on the line joining the axis of two successive blade pivots. The central opening in the rotor 18 could be made smaller or larger by moving the wheel-bearings 26 towards or away of the outer surface 94 of the pivoting blades 20, out of alignment with pivot joints 50, but then the annular track 28 in the 260 side covers 16 will no longer be a perfect circle, but be elliptical-like in shape. The wheelbearings 26 are located on each side of the pivoting blade 20 and carry roller or needle bearings 106. The blade rubbing pads 54, located in the vicinity of the contour seals 60, can be formed by the pivoting blade male connector 46 itself, or it can be formed by a little insert (not shown) containing the contour seal 60 so as to prevent the hardening of the whole pivoting blade 20. In this arrangement, hard inserts can, alternatively, be used to make the complete pivoting blade joint 50. Pressure in the combustion chamber 92 does not generate a significant torque around the wheel-bearings axles 70 carried by the pivoting blades 20 and consequently the combustion chamber pressure has little effect on the rubbing pad 54 pressure against the housing contour wall 14. The rubbing pad pressure is essentially due to the small 270 rotor deformation, which is quite independent of the pressure-load. However, this same pressure-load gives a great tangential rotational force on the whole rotor. The combustion chamber 92 can be enlarged by cutting the pivoting blade 20 and the very high compression ratio photo-detonation mode makes use of a "compression ratio tuner" 42 instead of a sparkplug 44. The manufacturing method allows for the entire stator and rotor to be made out of a cylindrical disk, the housing contour wall being formed in the interior of the disk and the pivoting blades being formed in the outer periphery. Alternatively, the contoured housing wall 14 can be shaped by precision forging and the pivoting blades 20 can be metal cast or metal powder pressed. Similar techniques and molds will also work for plastic or ceramic.

280 The pivoting blades 20 can be made all alike with a male connector 46 and a female connector 48 to form the pivot joints 50. Alternatively, half the blades 20 can have two female connectors and the other half two male connectors. A good "five-bodies" sealed joint design is quite important and must satisfy an extensive force vector analysis. The blade pivot joint 50 of the present invention must be strong enough to take some load-pressure and all the tangential push-and-pull forces of the torque, while allowing independent low-friction rotational movement of the two connected pivoting blades 20. Simultaneously, the joint must be leak proof within itself, the contoured housing wall 14 and with the two lateral side covers 16. This pivot joint 50 has space, if needed, to enclose a bearing to further reduce the required rotor energy deformation. Extensive research has led to a double chisel joint pivot concept

290 detailed on FIG. 2, where the male connector 46 has two different radii 106, 108 on its main body 110 and a finger 112 spaced from the main body 110 for use in holding the pivoting blades together. The female connector 48 has also two different radii 114, 116 located on an extending arm 118, the radii 114 116 cooperating with the radii 106, 108 on the male connector 46 when the arm 118 is mounted between the main body 110 and the finger 1 12, and preventing the connectors 46, 48 from opening up. As the rotor torque increases, the joints 50 get tighter and tighter, and still more leak proof.

The contour seals 60 are single or multi-pieces drawer type seals located in the axial direction along the pivoting blade male connector 46 and have a near zero in-groove displacement,

300 making a contact angle almost perpendicular to the contoured housing wall 14 at all times, departing only slightly from -6,35 to +6,35 degrees for the selected arrangement. Consecutive multiple pieces contour seals (not shown) can be used to prevent two successive chambers to be in contact with one another at the time the joint 50 passes in front of the ports 36, 38. This multi-seals configuration would also insure that at least one of the seals is at all times moving inward in its groove, while the others may be moving outward. In addition, .the contour seal sits on a contour seal damper made of a rubber band lying in the bottom of its groove 52 or between the springs to help extend the seal life from hammering against the housing contour wall. The pivoting blades 20 seal with the lateral side covers 16, on each side, by a linear or slightly curved gate-type lateral seal 62 and. a pellet type seal 64 at the end of the male

310 connector 46. The seal grooves are at different depth levels, so that the pressure gas behind the seals cannot propagate. A non-mandatory linear intra-pivot seal can be incorporated in the female connector 48 from one lateral side cover to the other, if required. When the pivoting blades 20 are made of smooth or fragile material like plastic, ceramic or glass, there is room for a metal insert to be placed at each pivoting blade joint 50 for proper movement and friction control. When shaped as an arc, the pivoting blade lateral seal grooves 58 are easy to make on a lathe. This arched seal, positioned near the edge of the outer surface of the pivoting blade 20 traps a minimum volume in combustion mode, and being at the far reach of the rotor, it keeps the high-pressure in the outer area of the covers 16, which reduces the total pressure- force on them. A continuous elliptical-like seal, shaped like a slightly shrunken confinement

320 wall profile, and incorporated into the lateral side covers 16 i≤ also a simple alternative to the multi-components lateral seal set described. All seals 60, 62, 64 have a back spring to maintain them at all time respectively in contact with the housing wall 14 and the lateral side covers 16. The low-friction wheel-bearings 26, the pivot joint 50 design, and the described seal set, allow the Quasiturbine to withstand high-pressure-load, while maintaining an excellent leak proof condition.

Many Quasiturbines may benefit in having some type of centrifuge clutches. The Quasiturbine geometry permits it to have the centrifuge clutch weights 78 within the rotor 18, each weight located between the wheel-bearings 26 and a blade end, in-between the pivoting 330 blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 within the volumes 90 well ventilated by the Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) annular central pump effect. The centrifuge clutch weights 78 can pivot around the wheel-bearings axis 70. As with any centrifuge clutches, the weights 78 will contribute slightly to increase the rotor inertia. The centrifuge clutch weights 78 can be used to drive clutch friction pads (not shown) located either on the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68; or within the power disk 84 where the angular rotational speed is uniform; or externally to the Quasiturbine. Notice that with such a centrifuge clutch in place, a conventional starter must be used to drive the Quasiturbine rotor and not the power shaft 86, unless some kind of clutch-locking is provided.

Because each pair of opposed wheel-bearings 26 does not rotate at constant angular velocity, two distinct but identical central annular power sleeves 66, 68 are used side-by-side along the engine axis as shown on FIG. 3, each one linking two different opposite wheel-bearings axis 70 by opposed rings 72. Each annular power sleeve 66, 68 is in the form of an annular ring with the two outer opposed rings 72 on the outer surface 80 taking the torque from the opposite pivoting blades 20 via the wheel-bearings axis 70. As an alternative of the two outer opposed mounting rings 72 on the annular power sleeves 66, 68, conventional centrifuge clutch pads (not shown) linked to the centrifuge weights 78 could be inserted between the two consecutive wheel-bearings 26 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68. Inside the annular sleeves 66, 68 are multiple grooves 76 in the inner surface 74 in which the differential washers 82 can be attached, via washer pins 118 thereon. The differential washers 82 are rotably attached to the surface of the power disk 84 via power disk pins 120 to link the power disk 84, via an oscillating movement of the washers 82 around the power disk pins 120, to the power sleeves 66, 68. In the design shown, the maximum relative angular variation of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 is 6.35 degrees ahead and behind their respective average angular position, for a maximum differential angle of 12.7 degrees, which produces a +/- 15 degrees oscillation of the differential washers 82. In the case of the pressurized fluid energy converter mode, like pneumatic or steam, where both the upper and lower chambers are symmetrically pressurized, the annular power sleeves 66, 68 can take and cancel out the mutual pressure-load of the two opposite pivoting blades 20, possibly suppressing in this case the need to use the wheel-bearings 26 and the lateral side cover annular tracks 28.

To power the shaft 86 by the two side-by-side annular power sleeves 66, 68, the shaft power disk 84 or the large diameter shaft have multiple radial extending disk pins 120 on which sits the set of differential washers 82. Each washer 82 has two opposite radially extending washer pins 118, each one fitting into its own internal groove 76 on power sleeve 66, 68 respectively. The thicker, or wider, that the Quasiturbine design is, the greater can be the diameter of the differential washers 82, however, fewer differential washers can be setup on the circumference of the power disk 84, except if one accepts a partial overlapping, which is well possible. Practically, the numbers of differential washers 82, the number of power disk pins 370 120 and the corresponding grooves 76 in the power sleeves 66, 68 can vary from two to twelve or more. In the design shown, the differential washers 82 angular oscillation around the disk pin 120 is +/- 15 degrees, which requires a little play between the power disk 84 and the internal surface 74 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 to account for the washer being slightly off shaft axis during oscillation. Alternatively, if the power disk 84 external surface is shaped as part of a sphere of the same diameter, the differential washer 82 can sit perfectly on it if also shaped accordingly and furthermore, since the washer pins 118 on the differential washers 82 need to be cylindrical only on a 15 degree arc, the two pins shape can be elongated toward the washer center for better strength. Each radially extending disk pin 120 can be part of the differential washer itself, and can carry a bearing. This set of differential

380 washers 82 makes a large diameter tangential mechanical differential coupling between the two annular power sleeves 66, 68 and the unique power disk 84, and suppresses the rotational harmonic for a constant and uniform rotational speed of the output shaft. Another differential design is presented in USA 6,164,263, and most other conventional differential designs can work, but the above described tangential differential design is more convenient because it works at a high radius, where the torque-force is minimal; it takes up little space; and it leaves a large central-free engine area for power take-off. Furthermore, it allows the large shaft diameter or the power disk-shaft 84 86 assembly to slide in-and-out of the Quasiturbine engine without it being disassembled. Like for the Quasiturbine rotor, this differential design has a fixed center of gravity during rotation and maintains the zero vibration engine

390 characteristics. The power disk can hold a conventional feed-through shaft, or can carry, or be part of, a very large diameter thin wall tube shaft. This tube shaft may enclose a propeller screw for a water jet or pumping, or an electrical generator or else. It can also carry an axial thrust bearing at least at one end, and an engine crank starting device at either ends.

Each Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) 90 is generally triangular in shape, each volume formed by the inner surfaces 24 of adjacent pivoting blades 20 extending from their common pivot 50 to their respective transfer slots 22 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68. The volumes 90 vary as the rotor 18 rotates. The volumes 90 are forty five degrees out of phase with the outer combustion chambers 92, and make an integrated 400 efficient annular pump or ventilating device, displacing a total of 8 times its volume in every rotation. Ventilating ports 102 are located in the lateral side covers 16 near the external surface of the annular track 28 in the vicinity of the wheel-bearings 26 when the rotor is in its maximum diamond length configuration. The geometry permits pulsing ventilation if all the ventilating ports, 102 in the lateral side covers 16 are open, or two different one-way ventilation circuits in the same or opposed axial direction, if proper ventilation ports 102 are selected on both sides of the engine. When the side covers 16 have only a crossed- symmetrical-through-center set of ventilation ports 102, as shown in FIG. 1, entrances occur only from one engine side and exits to the other, while consecutive ports on the same side covers would make the entrances and exits on the same engine side. Using a radial check

410 valve 40 across and through the pivoting blade body could allow transfer to-and-from the chambers with the central area, which may be of interest for example in the Quasiturbine- Stirling-Steam engine, compressor, or enhanced mixture intake by the gas centrifuge force through the central engine area. The Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90 forms a well-integrated annular pump and can be used as such in many applications, or to venti late and cool the rotor in engine mode. They can also form a second stage low flow high-pressure device when in compressor mode, or to provide the pressure fluctuation required by a standard carburetor diaphragm fuel pump. Furthermore, a very high-pressure can be obtained from the scissor-pivoting-blade effect at the joint 50 when the guiding male finger 112 moves in and out of position. Similarly, other piston-like devices can be incorporated in this scissor

420 action to produce high-pressure pumping effect like a Diesel fuel pump to drive the fuel injectors. Ultimately, the Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90 can also be made to work as an Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ), while the Quasiturbine outward rotor is used as a compressor, a pump, or for other applications.

A new Quasiturbine Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle mode is made possible, combining Otto, Diesel and eventually photo-detonation mode. Otto engine cycle intakes and compresses a sub-atmospheric manifold pressure air-mixture for uniform combustion, while the Diesel engine cycle always intakes and compresses atmospheric pressure air-only, which gives a non-uniform injected fuel combustion. Due to the possibility of a shorter confinement time

430 and a faster linear ramp compression-pressure raising-falling slope, the new Quasiturbine Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle mode consists of intaking, at atmospheric pressure, a continuous air-fuel mixture for uniform combustion, thereby combining Otto and Diesel modes. This mode is not possible with a piston engine, because the sine-wave shape of the maximum compression ratio poorly defines the top dead center by making an unnecessary long confinement time, consequently requiring a reliable external trigger source such as a sparkplug or a fuel injector. The Quasiturbine Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle can work at a moderate compression ratio with a sparkplug 44, or without it at a very high compression ratio for almost any fuel, the photo-detonation being auto-synchronized by its very short linear ramp pressure pulse tip. A regular piston cannot stand photo-detonation because it

440 keeps the mixture confined too long, and because the relatively small piston mass required by the severe accelerations at both strokes ends prevent making a stronger piston. The upward piston momentum aggravates the effect of knocking, while the homo-kinetic rotation of the Quasiturbine allows for relatively more massive pivoting blades making the passage at top dead center almost without momentum change. This QTIC-cycle mode only requires a non- synchronized fuel pulverization and vaporization in the Quasiturbine atmospheric intake continuous airflow, suppressing the need of conventional vacuum carburetor or synchronized fuel injector and sparkplug timing in photo-detonation mode, and allows for a much higher RPM than the conventional mode due to continuous intake flow without valve obstruction and faster photo-detonation chemistry combustion. The photo-detonation being a fast radiative

450 volumetric combustion, it leaves much less unburnt hydrocarbon that has plenty of extra time left for completing the combustion. Furthermore, due to the possibility of shorter confinement time, the combustion chemistry does not have enough time-pressure to produce the NOx before expansion begins, producing a cleaner exliaust, including with the hot hydrogen combustion in presence of nitrogen. Because of the zero dead time, the Quasiturbine can provide continuous combustion by using an ignition transfer slot-cavity 88 cut into the housing wall 14 for flame transfer from one chamber to the following one. This ignition flame transfer slot-cavity 88 also allows the injection of high-pressure hot burning gas into the following, ready-to-fire, chamber, producing a dynamically enhanced compression ratio, since near top dead center, a little volume change in the combustion chamber makes a large

460 change in the compression ratio. For better multi-fuel capability, a compression ratio tuner 42 made of a simple small threaded piston in a tube is used in place of the sparkplug 44, and allows compression ratio fine-tuning as needed, and can be dynamically feedback controlled.

The Quasiturbine can be generally used as an engine, compressor or pump, and sometimes in a dual mode. To name a few applications, it is suitable for small or very large units in steam, pneumatic and hydraulic mode (including use in reversible waterfall hydro-electric stations), and in a combined engine-turbo-pump mode where one intake port and its corresponding exhaust port are used in a compressed fluid energy converter engine mode while the other intake and exhaust ports can be used as a positive or vacuum pump or compressor. The

470 Quasiturbine can be used as an internal combustion engine in Otto or Diesel in two or four stroke mode. The Quasiturbine engines in photo-detonation mode with a high compression ratio (20 to 30: 1) are particularly suitable for natural gas and other fuels that are hard to burn to environmental standards like jet fuel or low specific energy gases, in which case the fuel is simply mixed to the atmospheric pressure intake without any synchronization means. It can be further used in a continuous combustion mode with a flame transfer cavity 88 at the forward contour seal 60 near top dead center. It can be used in a Quasiturbine-Stirling-Steam rotary engine mode with pressurized gas or phase change liquid-steam, with the hot poles alternating with the cold poles, a device which is reversible and can be used as a heat pump. Most of the previous engine modes allow operation without a sparkplug (no electromagnetic field), with a

480 plastic or ceramic engine bloc and with low noise level, all qualities most suitable for low signature stealth military operation. Furthermore, those previous modes permit very energy efficient operation and more complete internal combustion than conventional piston engines to meet the most severe environmental standards of the future. The Quasiturbine can also be used as an engine to drive a turbo-jet engine-compressor, allowing the suppression of the hot- power-turbine and its associated limitations in temperature, efficiency and speed. In the opened or closed Brayton mode, a cold Quasiturbine can act as compressor while a second hot Quasiturbine possibly on the same shaft can produce power in a pneumatic mode, in order to make a jet engine without jet (no gas kinetic energy intermediary transformation is involved, which makes it almost insensitive to dust particles). The second hot Quasiturbine can be

490 suppressed and the system used as a high flow hot gas generator. It can be used in a vacuum engine mode, including with imploding Brown gas. Many applications do not require the Quasiturbine to have its own power disk 84 and/or shaft 86, since the shaft attachment differential washers 82 can be fixed directly on the accessory shaft (of a generator, a gearbox, a differential shaft, by way of example) and the Quasiturbine simply slides over the accessory shaft to mount it without any need for shaft alignment. The empty center of the Quasiturbine is particularly suitable to locate a propeller therein and makes a self-integrated marine jet propulsion system, or a liquid or gas turbine-like pump, where the complete engine can be submerged. This empty center is also suitable to locate electrical components for a lightweight compact electrical generator or electrical motor for a compressor or pump. The

500 fast acceleration resulting from the absence of the flywheel and the high engine specific power density allows the use of the engine in strategic applications, as in heavy load soft landing parachuting. Improved engine intake characteristics allow the Quasiturbine to run better than piston engines in rarefied-air as in high altitude airplane operation. Its low sensitivity to photo-detonation and potentially oil-free operation make it most suitable for hydrogen fuel operation, including with lateral intake stratification and natural atmospheric aspiration. Since the Quasiturbine has no oil pan and does not require gravity oil collection, it can run in all possible orientations, and even out in space in micro-gravity. The Quasiturbine can also be used as a general replacement engine, compressor or pump in most present and future applications, and with most principles or processes where modulated volume is

510 required.

The contoured housing wall 14 is derivate from an empirical generating equation of the variable diamond geometry of the rotor for all rotation angles. The housing wall 14 is not unique but part of a family of curves, and selection must be done according to an engine efficiency criteria. Before calculating the Saint-Hilaire confinement profile for the housing wall 14, one must calculate the blade pivots 44 profile curve. Since this profile does require only symmetry across the central engine axis, any initial arbitrary pivot movement from 0 to 45 degrees (or 1/8 of a turn in a non-orthogonal axis situation) does determine the complete pivot point curve. This empirical 0 to 45 degree curve must meet three constraints: be parallel ( to the y- axis at 0 degree angle x- crossing; be matching at the diamond-square configuration corners; and furthermore, the slope at those corners must be continuous. Assuming Rx the pivot profile radius on the x- axis, and Ry the pivot profile radius on y- axis, and R45 the pivot profile radius at 45 degrees where the rotor is in square configuration, the modified M(θ) linear radius variation between 0 and 45 degree could be empirically of the form (pivot profile, not the actual housing contour wall 14):

R(θ) = (Rx - (Rx - R45) θ /45) M(θ)

Where the modifying parametric function M(θ) has the form:

M(θ) = 1 + A sin(4 θ (1 - P sin(4 θ)))

The pivot profile in the 45 (R45) to 90 (Ry) degrees interval is simply given by the Pythagoras diamond-lozenge formula. The two constants A and P provide a parametric adjustment of the radius variation where +/- A controls the amplitude and affects mostly the axis areas, and +/- P controls the angular maximum variation position and affects the wideness of the overlap zone near 45 degree from the x- axis. This empirical representation has been found adequate to explore most of the family of pivot profiles of interest, including the very high eccentricities leading to two lobes confinement profiles. The housing wall 14 presented in Figs. 1 and 2 is obtained from the pivot concave eccentricity limit profile curve, enlarge by the rubbing pad radius 106 all around. This enlargement must be perpendicular to the local pivot profile tangency at all angles. Furthermore, in order for the engine to be described by the most efficient Pressure - Volume PV diagram, the final expansion volume of the engine chamber must be equal to the volume generated by the variable surface of tangential push, which is proportional to the radius difference of two successive contour seal 60 positions during rotation. These criteria permit to select a subfamily for the optimum engine mode efficient housing wall 14. A good way to fine-tune the value of the A and P parameters is to control the smoothness of the calculated confinement wall radius of curvature. This radius of curvature continuity can be easily achieved for the no-lobe limit case with both A and P positive and less than 0.09, but it is not progressive here as other profiles previously reported in USA 6,164,263. Great care must be taken not to be mislead by the appearance of this housing wall 14 which is far more complex than an ellipse. For the example presented here, where the pivot to pivot length is L = 3.5" and the pivot rubbing pad 47 diameter is D = 0.5", the housing wall 14 radius of curvature in one quadrant goes from 2.67" near the x- axis, down to 2.05" near 33 degrees, up to 4.50" near 65'degree, and finally down again to 2.60" near the y- axis, which indicates a relative flat zone between 33 and 65 degree. This flat zone housing wall 14 structure is not as obvious in USA 6,164,263, but demands- a high precision calculation method. An additional interesting exploratory profile parameter is the exponent of M(θ) in the 0.3 to 3 range, which is not detailed here. Notice that 560 the profile complexity depends greatly on the selected pivoting blades diamond eccentricity (here Ry /Rx = 0.8).

The Saint-Hilaire housing wall 14 presented on the FIGURES uses nearly the same rotor pivot eccentricity (Ry /Rx = 0.8) as the Quasiturbine in patent USA 6,164,263. One should notice that increasing the radius of the joint-rubbing pad centered on each pivot tends to attenuate the high curvature in the corners of the Saint-Hilaire "skating rink" confinement profile, but contributes to increase the maximum torque, with no net penalty on the specific power and weight density of the Quasiturbine, without however achieving as stiff a linear ramp pressure that the rolling carriages design permits. If the rotor can be made of strong

570 material like steel, the pivot pad radius 106 can be made relatively small and lead to the selected housing wall 14 shown, which is a near optimum Quasiturbine specific power and weight density. It is hard to notice by looking at the housing wall 14 that the radius of curvature fluctuates along the profile. Inside the rotor 18, one notices a generally triangular Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) 90 in-between the inner surface 24 of the pivoting blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 at every rotor pivot 50 location. Changing the shape of the rotor 18 for the purpose of producing internal central volume variation for an annular pumping application would need no rotor rotation, but only a steady on-site "oscillating rotor deformation", possibly driven by a rotating external confinement profile, or by a x- or y- axes movement. The rotor deformation could also be

580 driven from an alternating pressurization of these Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90, such as to make an Internal Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ). This calculation method does not require profile symmetry through x- and y- axes, but only through the central point, which means that the axes may not be orthogonal with this same calculation method, in which case the confinement profile could be asymmetrical, producing an interesting Quasiturbine with different intake and exhaust volume characteristics, and with only minor rotor change.

QUASITURBINE (QURBINE) ROTOR WITH
CENTRAL ANNULAR SUPPORT AND VENTILATION

CROSS REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS:

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
USA 6,164,263 Dec. 26, 2000 Saint-Hilaire et al. 123/205