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1. (WO2017041056) CHEMICALLY-SENSITIVE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS FOR MANUFACTURING AND USING THE SAME
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CLAIMS

We claim:

1. A chemically-sensitive field effect transistor having a multi-layered structure, comprising:

a substrate layer having an extended body;

a first insulating layer positioned above the extended body of the substrate layer;

a second insulating layer positioned above the first insulating layer;

a source electrode and a drain electrode each having a top surface and a bottom surface, the top surface separated from the bottom surface by opposing outer and inner side portions, each of the opposed side portions and each of the bottom surfaces of the source and drain electrodes being disposed within the first insulating layer, the source electrode being separated from the drain electrode by a distance; and

a graphene layer positioned between the first and second insulating layers and extending between the outer side portion of the source electrode and the outer side portion of the drain electrode thereby forming a channel between the source and drain electrodes, the graphene layer contacting the top surface of the source and drain electrodes.

2. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 1, wherein the multi-layered structure is configured so as to shift an l-V curve or an l-Vg curve in response to a chemical reaction occurring within the well of the chemically-sensitive field effect transistor.

3. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 1, wherein the conductive source and the conductive drain are each composed of a copper material, an aluminum material, a platinum material, or a gold material.

4. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 1, wherein a length of the channel from the source to the drain ranges from 0.05 micron to 3 microns, and a width of the channel ranges from 0.05 micron to 2 microns.

5. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 4, wherein the channel has a thickness of 50 nanometers or less.

6. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 2, wherein the first insulating layer comprises an analyte or reaction-sensitive dielectric layer.

7. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 6, wherein the analyte or reaction-sensitive dielectric layer comprises an oxide layer.

8. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 6, wherein the analyte or reaction-sensitive dielectric layer is comprised of one of an aluminum oxide, a silicon dioxide, a hafnium dioxide, a hafnium silicate, a zirconium silicate, a zirconium dioxide, a lanthanum oxide, a tantalum oxide, a titanium oxide, an iron oxide, or a yttrium oxide an ion sensitive material with a high intrinsic buffer capacity.

9. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 6, wherein the second insulating layer is composed of a polyimide, BCB, silicon oxide, a silicon nitride, a silicon oxynitride or a silicon carbide.

10. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 6, wherein the chemical reaction involves a biological material, and the chemically-sensitive field effect transistor is configured for detecting the biological material.

11. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 40, wherein the biological material is a nucleotide, nucleic acid, protein, or other biological molecule.

12. A chemically-sensitive field effect transistor having a multi-layered structure, comprising:

a substrate layer having an extended body;

a first insulating layer positioned above the extended body of the substrate layer;

a source electrode and a drain electrode positioned in the first insulating layer, the source electrode separated from the drain electrode by a channel;

a second insulating layer positioned above the first insulating layer and proximate the source and drain electrodes;

a one-dimensional transistor material layer positioned between the first and second insulating layers and extending between the source and drain electrodes thereby forming a channel; and

a well structure provided in the second insulating layer, the well structure having a bottom surface positioned above and in contact with the one-dimensional transistor material or two-dimensional transistor material layer, a top surface opposed to the bottom surface, and a chamber extending from the top surface to the bottom surface to expose the one-dimensional transistor material or two-dimensional transistor material layer within the chamber.

13. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 12, wherein the one-dimensional transistor material or two-dimensional transistor material is selected from the group consisting of a single layer planar graphene, black

phosphorous, silicene, borophene, tungsten disulfide, germanane, nickel HITP, stanene and Mxenes.

14. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 13, wherein the multi-layered structure is configured so as to shift an l-V curve or an l-Vg curve in response to a chemical reaction occurring within the chamber of the chemically-sensitive field effect transistor.

15. A chemically-sensitive field effect transistor having a multi-layered structure, comprising:

a substrate layer having an extended body;

a first insulating layer positioned above the extended body of the substrate layer;

a source electrode and a drain electrode positioned in the first insulating layer, the source electrode and the drain electrode being separated by a channel;

a second insulating layer positioned above the first insulating layer and proximate the source and drain electrodes;

a two-dimensional transistor material layer positioned between the first and second insulating layers and extending over the channel between the source and drain electrodes; and

a well structure provided in the second insulating layer, the well structure having an opening therein, the opening defined by opposed side portions and a bottom formed by the one-dimensional transistor material or a two-dimensional transistor material layer.

16. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 15, wherein the one-dimensional transistor material or two-dimensional transistor material selected from the group consisting of a single layer planar graphene, silicene, molybdenum disulfide, black phosphorous (phophorene), borophene, tungsten disulfide, boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, stanene, germanane, nickel HITP, and/or metal dichalcogenides or Mxenes such as Ti2C, (Ti0.5,Nb0.5), V2C, Nb2C, Ti3C2, Ti3CN, Nb4C3 , or Ta4C3.

17. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 15, wherein the multi-layered structure is configured so as to shift an l-V curve or an l-Vg curve in response to a chemical reaction occurring within the well of the chemically-sensitive field effect transistor.

18. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 17, wherein a length of the channel from the source to the drain ranges from 0.05 micron to 3 microns, and a width of the channel ranges from 0.05 micron to 2 microns.

19. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 15, wherein the first insulating layer comprises an analyte or reaction-sensitive dielectric layer.

20. The chemically-sensitive field effect transistor according to Claim 15, wherein the chemical reaction involves a biological material selected from the group consisting of a nucleotide, nucleic acid, and a protein, and the chemically-sensitive field effect transistor is configured for detecting the biological material.