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1. WO2020112895 - MOTIF DE CATALYSEUR DE REFORMAGE POUR PILE À COMBUSTIBLE FONCTIONNANT AVEC UNE UTILISATION AMÉLIORÉE DU CO2

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method for producing electricity, the method comprising: passing a fuel stream comprising a reformable fuel into a fuel stack comprising a first surface, the first surface comprising a first portion comprising a reforming catalyst, a reforming catalyst density on the first portion of the first surface having a difference between a maximum catalyst density and a minimum catalyst density of 20% to 75%; reforming at least a portion of the reformable fuel in the presence of the first surface to produce reformed hydrogen; introducing at least a portion of the reformable fuel, at least a portion of the reformed hydrogen, or a combination thereof into an anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell; introducing a cathode input stream comprising O2 and CO2 into a cathode of the molten carbonate fuel cell, a direction of flow in the cathode of the molten carbonate fuel cell being substantially orthogonal to a direction of flow in the anode of the molten carbonate fuel cell; and operating the molten carbonate fuel cell at a transference of 0.97 or less and an average current density of 60 mA/cm2 or more to generate electricity, an anode exhaust comprising Hz, CO, and COz, and a cathode exhaust comprising 2.0 vol% or less COz, 1.0 vol% or more HzO, and 1.0 vol% or more Oz.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the cathode input stream comprises 5.0 vol% or less of COz, or wherein the cathode exhaust comprises 1.0 vol% or less of COz, or a combination thereof.

3. A method for producing electricity, the method comprising: passing a fuel stream comprising a reformable fuel into a fuel stack comprising a first surface, the first surface comprising a first portion comprising a reforming catalyst, a reforming catalyst density on the first portion of the first surface having a difference between a maximum catalyst activity and a minimum catalyst activity of 20% to 75%; reforming at least a portion of the reformable fuel in the presence of the first surface to produce reformed hydrogen; introducing at least a portion of the reformable fuel, at least a portion of the reformed hydrogen, or a combination thereof into an anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell; introducing a cathode input stream comprising O2 and CO2 into a cathode of the molten carbonate fuel cell, a direction of flow in the cathode of the molten carbonate fuel cell being substantially orthogonal to a direction of flow in the anode of the molten carbonate fuel cell; and operating the molten carbonate fuel cell at a transference of 0.97 or less and an average current density of 60 mA/cm2 or more to generate electricity, an anode exhaust comprising H2, CO, and CO2, and a cathode exhaust comprising 2.0 vol% or less CO2, 1.0 vol% or more H2O, and 1.0 vol% or more O2.

4. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the transference is 0.95 or less, or 0.90 or less.

5. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the reforming catalyst on the first portion of the first surface comprises a monotonic catalyst density variation.

6. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the maximum catalyst density is in proximity to the anode inlet, or wherein the maximum catalyst density is in proximity to the cathode inlet.

7. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the minimum catalyst density is in proximity to the anode outlet, or wherein the minimum catalyst density is in proximity to the cathode outlet.

8. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the fuel cell stack comprises a reforming element associated with the anode, wherein the first surface comprises an interior surface of the reforming element, and wherein a temperature variation within the fuel cell stack at a separator plate between the reforming element and the anode is optionally 70°C or less (or 40°C or less).

CT

9. The method of any of claims 1 - 7, wherein the first surface comprises an interior surface of the anode, and wherein a temperature variation within the fuel cell stack at a separator plate between the anode and another element is optionally 70°C or less (or 40°C or less).

10. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the first surface further comprises a second portion, the second portion optionally comprising at least one of a constant catalyst density and a constant catalyst activity, and wherein the second portion is in proximity to the cathode inlet, or wherein the second portion is in proximity to the anode inlet.

11. The method of any of the above claims, wherein the reforming catalyst comprises a plurality of lines of catalyst particles, and wherein reforming the at least a portion of tiie reformable fuel comprises flowing the at least a portion of the reformable fuel over the catalyst particles in a direction that is substantially parallel to the lines of catalyst particles.

12. A fuel cell stack comprising: a molten carbonate fuel cell comprising an anode and a cathode; a reforming element associated with the anode, the reforming element comprising a first surface, the first surface comprising a first portion comprising a reforming catalyst, a reforming catalyst density on the first portion of the first surface comprising a monotonically decreasing catalyst density, the reforming catalyst density on the first portion of the first surface having a difference between a maximum catalyst density and a minimum catalyst density of 20% to 75% (or 25% to 70%, or 25% to 65%); and a separator plate between the anode and the reforming element, wherein the first surface optionally further comprises a second portion, the optional second portion being in proximity to the cathode inlet or in proximity to the anode inlet, the optional second portion comprising a constant catalyst density.

13. The fuel cell stack of claim 12, wherein the maximum catalyst density is in proximity to the anode inlet, or wherein the maximum catalyst density is in proximity to the cathode inlet.

CT

14. The fuel cell stack of claim 12 or 13, wherein the minimum catalyst density is in proximity to the anode outlet, or wherein the minimum catalyst density is in proximity to the cathode outlet.

15. The fuel cell stack of any of claims 12 to 14, wherein the reforming catalyst comprises substantially parallel lines of catalyst particles.