Traitement en cours

Veuillez attendre...

Paramétrages

Paramétrages

Aller à Demande

1. WO2020110110 - EFFET INSECTICIDE D'ENGRAIS À BASE DE MICRONUTRIMENTS

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]
10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

1

INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENT FERTILIZERS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[001 ] The present application claims the benefit of priority to US Provisional

Patent Application Serial Number 62/771 ,612, filed, November 27th 2018,

entitled "INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENT FERTILIZER." The

aforementioned application is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[002] The present invention generally relates to use of agricultural fertilizer

for the control of some insects.

BACKGROUND ART

The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stal),

(hereinafter H. Halys) is an invasive pentatomid species native of Asia, which

has been accidentally introduced in North America in the 1990s and

subsequently in Europe. More than 300 species of wild and cultivated plants

can be attacked by this pest, whose feeding activity induces symptoms such as

seed abortion, fruit deformation and discolorations, necrosis and other tissue

alterations (Rice KB, Bergh CJ, Bergmann EJ, Biddinger DJ, Dieckhoff C, Dively

G. , et al. (2014): Bio ecology, and management of brown marmorated stink bug

(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) J Integr Pest Manag 5: 1 -13.). Moreover, its widely

aggregative behaviour observed in overwintering adults makes this insect an

important household nuisance pest as well. Even though in its native area H.

halys is considered only as an occasional pest of few crops (Lee et al. 2013), its 10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

2

high invasive potential in areas where biodimatic condition are favourable to its

development makes this stink bug a very destructive pest in countries of new

introduction. In Europe, H. halys was first detected in 2004 in Switzerland, where

it is rarely harmful to vegetables and crops. Afterwards it was found in many

countries of central and southern Europe; particularly, most of economic losses

have been recorded in Italy. Indeed, in Italy H. halys has two generations per

year, high reproductive rates, and high mobility. Due to reduced effectiveness

and high impact of chemical control of H. halys, alternative environmentally

friendly tools are under investigation (Gariepy TD, Bruin A, Konopka J, Scott- Dupree C, Fraser H, Bon M-C, Talamas E (2018): A modified DNA barcode

approach to define trophic interactions between native and exotic

pentatomids and their parasitoids. Mol Ecol doi: 10.1111/mec.14868.).

A promising approach for sustainable integrated control of economically relevant

stink bugs pests could be the suppression of gut primary symbioses typically

occurring in these insects. Indeed, similarly to other Hemiptera, pentatomids rely

on obligate bacterial symbionts complementing their nutritionally unbalanced

diets (Moran NA, McCutcheon JP, Nakabachi A (2008): Genomics and

evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts. Annu Rev Genet 42: 165-190.) In

stink bugs, these primary symbionts are hosted in caeca in the posterior midgut

region. Transmission to the progeny is achieved through a distinctive strategy,

diverging from transovarial transmission commonly reported for other

Hemiptera. Maternal secretions containing symbiotic bacteria are smeared on or

laid close to egg masses during oviposition; nymphs immediately acquire

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

- 3 -

symbionts by consuming this secretion (Prado SS, Rubinoff D, Almeida RPP

(2006): Vertical transmission of a pentatomid caeca- associated symbiont.

Ann Entomol Soc Am 99: 577-585.). Aposymbiotic (i.e. deprived of their

primary symbionts) individuals most commonly display reduced survival or

fitness (Taylor et al. 2014, The Importance of Gut Symbionts in the

Development of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys

Stal). PLOS ONE 9: e90312). During the transmission process symbionts live

outside the insect gut for several days from oviposition to neonate emergence,

being protected only by secretions on the egg surface.

The gut primary symbionts of H. halys, named‘Candidatus Pantoea carbekii’

(hereafter P. carbekii) (Bansal R, Michel AP, Sabree ZL (2014): The cryptdwelling primary bacterial symbiont of the polyphagous pentatomid pest

Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Environ Entomol 43: 617- 625.), inhabits the posterior midgut caeca of the host and the extrachorion

secretions on the egg surface, and supplies the host with nutrients limited in its

diet (Kenyon LJ, Meulia T and Sabree ZL (2015): Habitat visualization and

genomic analysis of 'Candidatus Pantoea carbekii,’ the primary symbiont

of the brown marmorated stink bug. Genome Biol Evol 7: 620-635.).

Moreover, preventing vertical transmission of P. carbekii heavily affects the

fitness of first generation nymphs of H. halys and their progeny (Taylor CM,

Coffey PL, DeLay BD, Dively G (2014): The Importance of Gut Symbionts in

the Development of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys

(Stal). PLOS ONE 9: e90312.) The application of substances with antimicrobial 10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

- 4 -

activity has been tested on H. Halys egg masses, in some cases showing high

mortality (Mathews CR, Barry S (2014): Compost tea reduces egg hatch and

early-stage nymphal development of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera:

Pentatomidae). Fla Entomol 97: 1726-1732.). Hence, their use was proposed

for symbiont-targeted control strategies against H. Halys. Even though stink bug

primary symbionts are regarded as a promising target for the control of H. halys

(Mathews CR, Barry S (2014), above), at present specific control methods

based on this strategy are still unavailable in Europe. Hence, research on

European populations is required to implement integrated crop management

solutions targeting the containment of this pest. In this study, the application of

active substances was assessed on H. halys egg masses in laboratory

conditions and also in the field. Specifically, products were selected according to

actual admission in European agriculture and well-known direct or indirect

protective effects from pathogenic microorganisms. Their effect on nymphal

survival on selected Italian population - as in Europe most of economic damage

is produced in this Country - was tested along with the interruption of P.carbekii

acquisition. on this strategy are still unavailable in Europe. Hence, research on

European populations is required to implement integrated crop management

solutions targeting the containment of this pest. In this study, the application of

active substances was assessed on H. halys egg masses in laboratory

conditions. Specifically, products were selected according to actual admission in

European agriculture and well-known direct or indirect protective effects from

pathogenic microorganisms. Their effect on nymphal survival on selected Italian 10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

- 5 -

population - as in Europe most of economic damage is produced in this country

- was tested along with the interruption of P. carbekii acquisition.

[003] SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[004] There is provided in accordance with embodiments of the present

invention a method for suppressing the population of various pentatomid bugs.

[005] In accordance with the present invention compositions and method

for such control involves the application of some fertilizers containing chelated or

non chelated heavy metals known to be otherwise deleterious to bacteria and or

fungi. The suppression is realized by inducing mortality among neonates.

[006] BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[007] Fig. 1 . Mean mortality rates recorded for H. halys neonate nymphs

after treatment with different micronutrient fertilizers.

[008] DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

[009] In accordance with some embodiments of the present invention,

mixtures of nutritive heavy metal chelated with organic acids were tested for

their effect in suppressing stink bug populations. In addition, a non chelated

copper fertilizer nutrient was tested, as will be described in more detail below..

Trials were performed in DISAFA, University of Turin, Italy.

[010] Trials

[011] Insects

[012] During spring and summer of 2018, about 1 ,000 brown marmorated

stink bug adults were collected from different wild and cultivated host plants in

the Piedmont region, Italy. Field- collected adults were reared at the DISAFA

laboratories, in climatic chambers at 25 ± 1 °C, with an L:D of 16:8 photoperiod,

in net cages (930 x 475 x 475 mm) containing seedlings of broad bean, apples,

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

6

and shelled hazelnuts obtained from the DISAFA experimental farms and never

treated with insecticides. H. Halys egg masses were collected daily from the

mass rearing to obtain two distinct groups, corresponding to 24-hour old and 5- day old egg masses, respectively.

[013] Egg masses treatment using micronutrient fertilizers

Three commercially available micronutrient EC fertilizers (i.e. admitted for the

EU market), suitable for organic farming, were selected: (1 ) a zinc (4.0%),

copper (2.0%) and citric acid biocomplex (Dentamet®, Diagro Sri, Italy); (2) a

zinc (4.8%), manganese (2.7%) and citric acid biocomplex (Bio-D®, Diagro); (3)

a copper hydroxide 50% wettable powder (Keos®, Green Ravenna Sri, Italy).

Moreover, the experimental product Dentamet® A3 (Diagro) (hereafter A3)

containing citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, zinc (4.1 %), and copper (1 .9%), was

tested as well (4). All products were used on 24-hour old egg masses at label

recommended doses: 1 % v/v (corresponding to a mean of 775g/hl) for

micronutrient and citric acid biocomplexes (Dentamet®, Bio-D®, and A3), and

0.15% (w/v) for Keos®. Additionally, 0.5% (v/v) were added of a Poly-1 -p-

menthene-based pesticide additive (NU-FILM-P®, CBC, Italy), to increase active

ingredients penetration of maternal secretions covering P. carbekii cells

(Kenyon LJ, Meulia T and Sabree ZL (2015): Habitat visualization and

genomic analysis of 'Candidatus Pantoea carbekii,’ the primary symbiont

of the brown marmorated stink bug. Genome Biol Evol 7: 620-635.).

Additive concentration was selected according to the manufacturer’s indications

as well. Finally, an untreated control (5) and a water + 0.5% additive control (6)

were included. The two products showing the higher mortality rates on 24-hour

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

- 7 -

old egg masses were used to perform a second experiment on 5-day old egg

masses, along with controls, with the purpose to assess whether the treatment

effect was visible even after a short time of product exposure.

[014] A total of 120 egg masses were collected and randomly allocated to

treatments, once the number of eggs per mass was recorded. Exposure to the

products was carried out on 24-hour old and 5- day old egg masses for each

treatment and water + additive control (N=10); 20 replicates for the untreated

control were collected as well. The egg masses were individually placed into

Petri dishes covered with filter paper, and then treated with the active

substances solutions by means of a 250 ml hand sprayer (Nalgene®, NY, USA)

under a fume hood. A single spray (651 ±7.42 mI) was applied with the hand

sprayer held approximately 20 cm away from the Petri dish with the egg mass.

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

8

[016] Nymphal rearing

[017] After the treatment, egg masses were individually reared in climatic

chamber (25 °C, RH 70%) in clear plastic Petri dishes with a wider lid with

respect to the base to provide ventilation. Nymphs were provided with an

organic green bean (purchased at a local farmers’ market), as a food source;

hatching percentages were checked daily. Newly hatched nymphs were fed with

green beans until reaching second nymph instar. Mortality rates were calculated;

dead nymphs were collected each day and stored at -80°C in RNA later®

(Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA). As live nymphs moulted to the second instar, they

were collected as well and stored as described above.

[018] Statistical analyses

[019] To compare egg hatching and mortality, the percentages of dead

specimens were derived with respect to the total number of emerged nymphs for

each egg mass. Corrected mortality rates were calculated according to the

Abbott’s formula with respect to untreated control (Abbott WS (1925 ), A

method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol

287 18: 265-267). Moreover, absolute mortality rates were calculated as the

ratio between dead I instar nymphs and hatched eggs for each egg mass, and

analysed with SPSS Statistics 25 (IBM Corp. Released 2017, Armonk, NY,

USA), using a generalized linear model (GLM) with a binomial probability

distribution and logit link function. Means were separated by a Bonferroni post

hoc test (P < 0.05).

[020] In Fig. 1 , the percentage of dead nymphs before reaching II instar was

calculated for 24-hour old (light hatched columns) and 5-day old (cross hatched

columns) egg masses. Bars indicate standard errors. Different letters indicate

significantly different values according to binomial GLM + Bonferroni’s test (P <

0.05); capital letters refer to experiments with 24-hour old egg masses whereas

lowercase letters indicate experiments with 5-day old egg masses.

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

- 9 -

Table 1

Average number Average egg

Egg masses age Treatment Corrected mortality rate

of eggs per mass hatching rate

to II nymphal instar (% )

Dentamet® 25.8 ± 1.12 68.60 ± 1.78 a 92.60 ± 0.29

Bio-D® 25.6 ± 0.95 81.64 ± 1.24 b L 90.96 ± 0.86

Keos® 26.0±1.03 82.30 ± 1.22 b 87.67 ± 1.44

24 hours

A3 24.2 ± 1.71 66.94 ± 2.20 a 91.58 ± 0.68

Water + additive 19.70 ± 2.04 71.06 ± 1.91 ab 64.36 ± 15.17

Untreated control 24.75 ± 1.46 82.22 ± 1.68 b 0.00 Dentamet® 26.4 ± 1.10 82.57 ± 2.26 c 87.84 ± 0.76

A3 21.0 ± 1.57 60.95 ± 1.96 a 82.57 ± 3.38

5 days

Water + additive 21.1 ± 2.10 68.05 ± 1.77 ab 37.25 ± 4.71

Untreated control 22.9 ± 1.93 75.10 ± 1.76 be 0.00

Table 1. Data recorded during laboratory experimental application of micronutrient

fertilizers to 24-hour old and 5-day old H. halys egg masses. Results are expressed as mean

values ± SE. For egg hatching rates, different letters indicate significantly different values

according to binomial GLM analysis + Bonferroni’s test. Separate statistical tests were

conducted for 24- hour old egg masses (df = 5; x2 = 41.376; P <0.001) and 5-day old egg

masses (df = 3; x2 = 29.332; P <0.001).

[021 ] As can be seen from graph 1 and table 1 , Dentamet® (copper and

zinc combination with citric acid as a complexant) performed best in lowering the

population of instar I and II nymphs, by inducing neonate mortality. As a

candidate for second best, the Keos® (non chelated copper) may be found in

graph 1 , but if corrected to average hatching rate, Bio D® or A3, appear as

better candidates.

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

10

[022] Additional data: it was recently observed that further species of

Pentatomids exhibited significant signs of vulnerability to the application of

Dentamet®. Thus, application of Dentamet® on egg masses of Eurygaster

maura, a parasitic Pentatomid of cereals, caused statistically significant mortality

among nymphs.

10 January 2020

WO 2020/110110 PCT/IL2019/051289

1 1