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1. WO2020109292 - ACTIVATION MÉCANOCHIMIQUE DANS LA SYNTHÈSE DE ZÉOLITE

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Mechanochemical Activation in Zeolite Synthesis

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a zeolitic material including the mechanochemical activation of the reaction mixture prior to crystallization, as well as to a cata lyst per se as obtainable or obtained according to said process. Furthermore, the present inven tion relates to the use of the inventive zeolitic material, in particular as a catalyst.

INTRODUCTION

Molecular sieves are classified by the Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Associ ation according to the rules of the lUPAC Commission on Zeolite Nomenclature. According to this classification, framework-type zeolites and other crystalline microporous molecular sieves, for which a structure has been established, are assigned a three letter code and are described in the Atlas of Zeolite Framework Types, 6th edition, Elsevier, London, England (2007).

Among said zeolitic materials, Chabazite is a well studied example, wherein it is the classical representative of the class of zeolitic materials having a CHA framework structure. Besides aluminosilicates such as Chabazite, the class of zeolitic materials having a CHA framework structure comprises a large number of compounds further comprising phosphorous in the framework structure are known which are accordingly referred to as silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO). In addition to said compounds, further molecular sieves of the CHA structure type are known which contain aluminum and phosphorous in their framework, yet contain little or no sili ca, and are accordingly referred to as aluminophosphates (APO). Zeolitic materials belonging to the class of molecular sieves having the CHA-type framework structure are employed in a varie ty of applications, and in particular serve as heterogeneous catalysts in a wide range of reac tions such as in methanol to olefin catalysis and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides NOx to name some two of the most important applications. Zeolitic materials of the CHA frame work type are characterized by three-dimensional 8-membered-ring (8MR) pore/channel sys tems containing double-six-rings (D6R) and cages.

Zeolitic materials having a CHA-type framework structure and in particular Chabazite with incor porated copper ions (Cu-CHA) are widely used as heterogeneous catalyst for the selective cata lytic reduction (SCR) of NOx fractions in automotive emissions. Based on the small pore open ings and the alignment of the copper ions in the CHA cages, these catalyst systems have a unique thermal stability, which tolerates temperatures higher than 700°C in presence of H2O.

Among zeolitic materials having the CHA-type framework structure, high silica aluminosilicate zeolite chabazite (CHA), SSZ-13, has a three-dimensional pore system with ellipsoidal-shaped large cages (6.7 x 10 A) that are accessible via 8-membered ring windows (3.8 x 3.8 A), which have attracted great interest because they exhibit extraordinary catalytic properties not only in selective catalytic reduction of NO* with NH3 (NH3-SCR) in recent years, but also in methanol to olefin (MTO) and in the conversion of syngas to olefins.

The synthesis of zeolitic materials from simple starting compounds and involves a complex pro cess of self organization which often necessitates special conditions such as elevated temperatures and/or pressure, wherein such reactions typically require the heating of starting materials under autogenous pressure for obtaining the zeolitic material after lengthy reaction times ranging from days to several weeks. Accordingly, due to the often harsh reaction conditions and the long reaction times, batch synthesis has long been the method of choice for synthesizing zeolit ic materials. Batch reactions however present numerous limitations, in particular relative to the levels of space-time-yield which may be attained. In this respect, WO 2015/185625 A relates to a process for the preparation of a zeolitic material of the CHA-type framework structure using cycloalkylammonium compounds in combination with a tetraalkylammonium compounds for achieving improvements in cast-effectiveness.

Efforts have accordingly been invested in finding improved batch reaction procedures as well as alternative methodologies which offer advantages to the classical batch synthetic procedures employed for the synthesis of zeolitic materials. One method which has been investigated in this respect involves the use of continuous stirred-tank reactors wherein the fluid reagents are con tinuously introduced at the top of a tank reactor, and the effluent containing the solid reaction product is continuously removed from the bottom of the tank reactor. Although said methodologies eliminate the need to empty the reaction vessel between batch runs under non-continuous conditions, the reaction times necessary for crystallization remain lengthy.

For increasing the efficiency of continuous stirred-tank reactors, these are often employed in series, wherein each stage contributes to a given incremental progress of the reaction to completion. The higher the number of stages which are employed, the higher the efficiency which may be attained, maximum efficiency being theoretically realized by an infinite number of infinitely small reaction stages. Besides in continuous stirred-tank reactors, the concept of multiple stages has also been realized e.g. in multiple stage cylindrical reactors such as disclosed in US 5,989,518 for the synthesis of a 4A zeolite.

Along these lines, reactor geometries have been conceived which allow for a rapid synthesis of zeolitic materials. Thus, US 2016/01 15039 A1 relates to a method for the continuous production of a zeolite in a tubular reactor displaying a low ratio of the volume to the lateral surface area. Similarly, Liu et al. in Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 5683-5687 discloses a continuous syn thesis of high-silica zeolite SSZ-13 employing very short reaction times. Ju, J. et al. in Chemical Engineering Journal 2006, 1 16, 1 15-121 as well as Vandermeersch, T. et al. in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2016, 226, 133-139, on the other hand, respectively disclose the rapid synthesis of micron sized NaA zeolite in a continuous flow reactor setup. Liu, Z. et al. in Chemistry of Materials 2014, 26, 2327-2331 concerns an ultrafast continuous-flow synthesis of crystalline microporous aluminophophate AIP04-5. Slangen et al.“Continuous Synthesis of Zeo-

lites using a Tubular Reactor”, 12th International Zeolite Conference, Materials Research Society 1999 relates to the continuous syntheses of NaA zeolite, NaY zeolite, and silicalite-1 in a tubular reactor of 6 mm outer diameter (~3 mm inner diameter) and variable length.

For reactions which do not necessitate high pressure, microwave-assisted procedures have been investigated such as Bonaccorsi, L. et al. in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2008, 112, 481 -493 which relates to the continuous synthesis of zeolite LTA. Similarly, US

2001/0054549 A1 concerns a continuous process and apparatus for preparing inorganic materials employing microwaves.

Although considerable progress has been made relative to the reaction efficiency in view of the use of continuous stirred-tank and multiple stage reactors, progress made in view of the reduction of the reaction times has been limited to reactor geometries applied on a lab-scale level. Furthermore, although in principle continuous, efforts made with respect to the reduction of reaction times remain limited with respect to economically viable durations of operation due to the clogging of the reactor, in particular in applications employing plug flow methodologies.

In this respect, DE 39 19 400 A1 describes a hydrothermal pre-treatment of a batch reaction mixture in a tubular reactor prior to crystallization thereof in a batch reactor for at least 40 h reaction time at ambient pressure on an industrial scale. There however remains the need to em ploy such flow reactor techniques not only as part of batch methodologies but to continuous processes wherein the crystallization takes place within the flow reactor without being limited to short operation periods in view of clogging issues.

In this regard, WO 2017/216236 A1 relates to a continuous process for preparing a zeolitic ma terial comprising continuously feeding the reaction mixture prepared into a continuous flow reactor. Although said reaction method affords a highly improved methodology for attaining high space-time-yields, said process is still limited by the foregoing preparation step of a reaction mixture apt for continuous synthesis, in particular in view of the lengthy aging of the reaction mixture prior to its use in continuous synthesis.

WO 2005/039761 A2 relates to a method for making a molecular sieve catalyst involving the aging of the reaction mixture and its analysis via 27AI NMR. US 7,528,089 B2, on the other hand, relates to the processing of a high solids material for the formation of a microporous material including a rotary calciner or rotary screw as a means of conveying the synthesis mixture continuously or semi-continuously. Finally, WO 2016/153950 A1 describes methods for the synthesis of zeolitic materials involving a step of subjecting the reaction mixture to high shear pro cessing conditions.

WO 03/020641 A1 relates to crystalline zeolite SSZ-62 that has the CHA crystal structure, a mole ratio greater than 10 of silicon oxide to aluminum oxide and has a crystallite size of 0.5 micron or less. Further, a method for preparing SSZ-62 using specific sources of silicon and aluminum, and a N,N,N-trimethyl-l-adamantylammonium cation templating agent is disclosed,

processes employing SSZ-62 as a catalyst, and processes using SSZ-62 to separate gases are disclosed.

WO 2018/059316 A1 relates to a specific process for preparing a zeolitic material having a zeolitic framework structure which exhibits a molar ratio (a AI2O3) : S1O2 or a crystalline precursor thereof, wherein a is a number in the range of from 0 to 0.5.

WO 2012/072527 A2 discloses a process comprising (1 ) mixing a silicon source, an aluminum source and an optional template to obtain a synthesis gel, (2) grinding the synthesis gel, (3) hydrothermal treatment of the ground synthesis gel. Preferred according to said document is the synthesis of zeolites having the BEA or MFI framework structure type.

V. Valtchev et al. (“Tribochemical activation of seeds for rapid crystallization of zeolite Y” in Zeolites 1995, vol. 15, p. 193-197) relates to the influence of tribochemical activation of seeds on the crystallization of zeolite Y.

DD 205 674 A1 relates to the preparation of crystalline zeolites having a silica to alumina molar ratio of S1O2 to AI2O3 of higher than 10. The preparation process involves use of a ZSM-containing material activated by means of grinding.

N. E. Gordina et al. (“Use of Mechanochemical Activation and Ultrasonic Treatment for the Synthesis of LTA Zeolite”, Russ. J. Gen. Chem. 2018, M A I K Nauka-lnterperiodica, vol. 88, p. 1981-1989) relates to a study on the use of mechanochemical activation and ultrasonic treatment for the synthesis of LTA zeolite.

K. Wantae et al. (“Effect of Dry Grinding of Pyrophyllite on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolite Na-X and Na-A”, Materials Transactions 2014, vol. 55, p. 1488-1493) relates to a study of the effect of dry grinding of pyrophyllite on the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Na-X and Na-A, wherein a mechanochemical activation of said material is followed by hydrothermal reaction in sodium hydroxide solution.

N. E. Gordina et al. (“Synthesis of NaA Zeolite by Mechanochemical Methods”, Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 2003, vol. 76, p. 661-662) relates to a study on the synthesis of Na-A zeolite by mechanochemical methods, wherein the starting materials are mechanochemically treated.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

It was therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved process for preparing a zeolitic material which may afford increased space-time-yields for both batch and continuous processes. Thus, it has surprisingly been found that that the specific mechanochemical treatment of a mixture of reactants having a high solids content results in an activation of the zeolite precursor materials similar to the activation achieved by the conventional aging of reaction mix- tures. Furthermore, it has quite unexpectedly been found that the mechanochemical activation route requires only a fraction of the time which conventional aging procedures necessitate, such that a tremendous increase in space-time-yields may be achieved compared to known ultrafast zeolite synthesis procedures. In addition to the aforementioned, it has surprisingly been found that the advantages of mechanochemical activation in zeolite synthesis are not restricted to methodologies which necessitate an aging procedure, but are also observed in classical batch reaction processes which do not include a separate aging step. In particular, it has quite unexpectedly been found that mechanochemical activation of a reaction mixture according to the inventive process leads to a greatly increased rate of crystallization in conventional batch synthesis, such that zeolites displaying a high crystallinity may be obtained in high yields after only a fraction of the time required in conventional batch synthesis.

Therefore, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure, wherein Y stands for a tetravalent element and X stands for a trivalent element, wherein said process comprises:

(i) preparing a mixture comprising one or more sources of YO2, one or more sources of X2O3, and H2O ;

(ii) grinding and/or mixing the mixture prepared in (i), wherein the energy intake of the mixture during the grinding and/or mixing procedure is in the range of from 5 to 2,000 kJ/kg of the mix ture;

(iii) heating the mixture obtained in (ii) at a temperature in the range of from 80 to 300 °C for crystallizing a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure from the mixture;

wherein the mixture prepared in (i) contains from 100 to 1 ,500 wt.-% of H20 based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii);

wherein the energy intake is preferably determined as described in reference example 1.

According to the present invention, it is preferred that the energy intake is determined via determination of the torque with a given mill, preferably with a stirred media mill. The torque has to be determined, first without the material of which the energy intake is to be determined and, second, with said material. The torque determined for the experiment without the material of which the energy intake is to be determined is subtracted from the torque determined for the experiment with said material. Based on the result from said calculation, the specific energy input in kJ/kg is calculated. It is also possible to determine the torque with other devices. Thus, either the torque with and without material load can be determined and the energy intake calcu lated as described above or the power input with material (load value) and without material (no-load value) is determined. With regards to the latter, the no-load value is subtracted from the load value und the energy intake as introduced into the product can be calculated.

It is particularly preferred that the energy intake is determined as described in reference exam ple 1 as disclosed herein.

No particular restriction applies according to the present invention regarding the mixture obtained in (ii), provided that it has been subject to a grinding and or mixing treatment according to any of the particular or preferred embodiments of the inventive process. It is, however, preferred that the 27AI MAS NMR of the mixture obtained in (ii), after drying thereof at 110°C, comprises: a first peak (P1 ) in the range of from 25 to 75 ppm, preferably of from 40 to 65 ppm, preferably of from 45 to 60 ppm, more preferably of from 50 to 55 ppm, more preferably of from 51.0 to 54.5 ppm, and more preferably of from 51 .0 to 53.5 ppm; and

one or more peaks (PX) in the range of from -20 to 25 ppm, preferably of from -10 to 15 ppm, more preferably of from 0 to 13 ppm, more preferably of from 4 to 1 1 ppm, and more pref erably of from 6 to 10 ppm;

wherein the relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm (Ii) and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm (h) of the zeolitic material offer a ratio of the integration values \å : (Ii + I2) comprised in the range of from 5 to 75%, preferably of from 10 to 70%, more preferably of from 20 to 65%, more preferably of from 30 to 63%, more preferably of from 40 to 61 %, more preferably of from 45 to 59%, more preferably of from 50 to 57%, and more preferably of from 52 to 55%,

wherein preferably the relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral ratio is measured at 9.4 Tesla and 10 kHz Magic Angle Spinning,

wherein preferably the one or more peaks (PX) consists of one or two peaks (PX), more prefer ably of one peak (PX), and

wherein drying of the mixture is preferably conducted by evaporating a portion of the mixture obtained in (ii) to dryness at a temperature of not greater than 110°C and subsequently further drying the mixture at 1 10°C under air for a period in the range of from 0.5 to 72 h, preferably of from 1 to 36 h, more preferably of from 3 to 30 h, more preferably of from 6 to 24 h, more pref erably of from 12 to 20 h, and more preferably of from 14 to 18 h, wherein more preferably the mixture is subsequently dried at 110°C under air for 16 h.

According to the present invention, it is particularly preferred that the 27 Al MAS NMR of the mixture obtained in (ii) is determined as described in the experimental section of the present application.

As concerns the energy intake of the energy intake of the mixture during the grinding and/or mixing procedure in (ii), it is preferred according to the present invention that it is in the range of from 10 to 1 ,000 kJ/kg of the mixture, preferably of from 30 to 500 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 50 to 300 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 80 to 250 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 100 to 200 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 120 to 180 kJ/kg of the mixture, and more preferably of from 140 to 160 kJ/kg.

As regards the heating of the mixture obtained in (ii) in (iii), it is preferred according to the present invention that said heating is conducted at a temperature in the range of from 100 to 280 °C, preferably of from 120 to 260 °C, more preferably of from 140 to 250 °C, more preferably of

from 160 to 245 °C, more preferably of from 180 to 240 °C, more preferably of from 200 to 235 °C, and more preferably of from 210 to 230 °C.

Concerning the duration of the heating in (iii), no particular restrictions apply provided that a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure may be crystallized from the mixture. According to the present invention it is however preferred that in (iii) the mixture obtained in (ii) is heated for a period in the range of from 0.1 to 24 h, more preferably of from 1 to 12 h, more preferably of from 1.5 to 9 h, more preferably of from 0.3 to 6 h, more preferably of from 0.5 to 4 h, more preferably of from 0.7 to 3 h, more preferably of from 0.8 to 2.5 h, more preferably of from 0.9 to 2 h, and more preferably of from 1 to 1.5 h.

With regard to the duration of the grinding and/or mixing in (ii), no particular restrictions apply provided that in (iii) a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure may be crystallized from the mixture. According to the present invention it is however preferred that grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out for a duration in the range of from 0.05 to 120 min, preferably of from 0.1 to 60 min, more preferably of from 0.5 to 30 min, more preferably of from 1 to 20 min, more preferably of from 2 to 15 min, more preferably of from 3 to 10 min, more preferably of from 4 to 9 min, more preferably of from 5 to 8 min, and more preferably of from 6 to 7 min.

In principle, no particular restrictions apply according to the present invention relative to the grinding and/or mixing of the mixture in (ii), provided that the energy intake of the mixture during the grinding and/or mixing is in the range of from 0.3 to 200 kJ/kg of the mixture, or of any of the preferred ranges described in the present application. It is, however, preferred according to the present invention that the rate of energy transfer to the mixture in (ii) is in the range of from 500 to 2,500 kJ/(kg*h), preferably from 800 to 2,000 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,000 to 1 ,750 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,150 to 1 ,600 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,250 to 1 ,500 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,310 to 1 ,460 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1340 to 1430 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,360 to 1 ,410 kJ/(kg*h), and more preferably from 1 ,380 to 1 ,390 kJ/(kg*h).

According to the invention, the mixture obtained in (i) may have any suitable temperature prior to the grinding and/or mixing in (ii), wherein it is preferred according to the present invention that the mixture prepared in (i) has an initial temperature in the range of from 10 to 50°C when sub ject to grinding and/or mixing in (ii), preferably in the range of from 15 to 40°C, and more prefer ably in the range of from 20 to 30°C.

With respect to the H2O content of the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii), it is preferred according to the present invention that said mixture contains from 150 to 1 ,100 wt.-% of H2O based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii), preferably of from 180 to 800 wt.-%, more preferably of from 220 to 600 wt.-%, more preferably of from 250 to 500 wt.-%, more preferably of from 280 to 450 wt.-%, more preferably of from 310 to 420 wt.-%, more preferably of from 330 to 400

wt.-%, more preferably of from 350 to 390 wt.-%, more preferably of from 360 to 380 wt.-%, and more preferably of from 365 to 375 wt.-%.

Concerning the grinding and/or mixing in (ii), any suitable apparatus may be employed to said effect, provided that the energy intake of the mixture during the grinding and/or mixing proce dure is in the range of from 5 to 2,000 kJ/kg of the mixture. According to the present invention it is preferred that grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a mill selected from the group consisting of a stirred media mill, a planetary ball mill, a ball mill, a roller mill, a kneader, a high shear mixer, and a mix muller, preferably from the group consisting of a stirred media mill, a ball mill, a roller mill, a planetary mill, and a high shear mixer, and more preferably from the group consisting of a ball mill, a planetary ball mill, a high shear mixer, and a mix muller, wherein more preferably grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a ball mill and/or a planetary ball mill, preferably in a planetary ball mill.

It is further preferred according to the present invention that grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is car ried out in a ball mill and/or in a planetary ball mill, preferably in a planetary ball mill, using balls made of a material selected from the group consisting of stainless steel, ceramic, and rubber, preferably from the group consisting of chrome steel, flint, zirconia, silicon nitride, and lead antimony alloy, wherein more preferably the balls of the ball mill are made of zirconia and/or silicon nitride, preferably of silicon nitride. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a ball mill using grinding media, preferably grinding balls, having a diameter in the range of from 0.5 to 25 mm, preferably of from 1 to 15 mm, preferably of from 1 .5 to 10 mm, preferably of from 2 to 8 mm, more preferably of from 2.5 to 6 mm, more preferably of from 3 to 5 mm, and more preferably of from 3.5 to 4.5 mm. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the filling degree of the grinding media in the ball mill is in the range of from 10 to 75%, preferably of from 20 to 70%, more preferably of from 30 to 65%, more preferably of from 40 to 60%, and more preferably of from 45 to 55%. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the ball mill is operated at a speed in the range of from 50 to 4,000 rpm, preferably of from 100 to 3,000 rpm, more preferably of from 300 to 2,500 rpm, more preferably of from 500 to 2,000 rpm, more preferably of from 600 to 1 ,800 rpm, more preferably of from 700 to 1 ,500 rpm, more preferably of from 800 to 1 ,200 rpm, and more preferably of from 900 to 1 ,000 rpm. Alternatively, the ball mill is operated at a tip speed in the range of from 1 to 20 m/s, preferably of from 2 to 15 m/s, more preferably of from 4 to 14 m/s, more preferably of from 5 to 10 m/s.

According to the present invention, heating in (iii) may be conducted under any suitable conditions, provided that a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure is crystallized from the mixture. It is however preferred that in (iii) the mixture is heated under autogenous pressure, wherein preferably heating in (ii) is performed in a pressure tight vessel, preferably in an autoclave.

As concerns the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), any conceivable zeolitic material may be ob tained, wherein it is preferred that the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has a framework structure type selected from the group consisting of AEI, AFX, ANA, BEA, BEC, CAN, CHA, CDO, EMT, ERI, EUO, FAU, FER, GME, HEU, ITH, ITW, KFI, LEV, MEI, MEL, MFI, MOR, MTN, MWW, OFF, RRO, RTH, SAV, SFW, SZR, and TON, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of CAN, AEI, EMT, SAV, SZR, KFI, ERI, OFF, RTH, GME, AFX, SFW, BEA, CHA, FAU, FER, HEU, LEV, MEI, MEL, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, FAU, FER, GME, LEV, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, GME, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, CHA, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has an AEI- and/or CHA-type framework structure, preferably a CHA-type framework structure. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has a CHA-type framework structure, wherein preferably the zeolitic material having a CHA-type framework structure is selected from the group consisting of Willhendersonite, ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, MeAPSO-47, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , |Li-Na| [AI-Si-0]-CHA, (Ni(deta)2)-UT-6, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or three thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) comprises chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably chabazite, and wherein more preferably the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) is chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably SSZ-13. As an alternative to the above, it is preferred that the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has an AEI-type framework structure, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is selected from the group consisting of SSZ-39, SAPO-18, SIZ-8, including mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is SSZ-39.

According to the inventive process, it is preferred that the mixture heated in (iii) is mechanically agitated, wherein preferably mechanical agitation is achieved by stirring.

In principle, the inventive process and in particular the heating in (iii) is preferably conducted as a batch process or as a continuous process. In instances wherein the inventive process and in particular the heating in (iii) is preferably conducted as a continuous process, it is further preferred that heating in (iii) comprises continuously feeding the mixture obtained in (ii) into a continuous flow reactor at a liquid hourly space velocity in the range of from 0.3 to 20 hr1 for a duration of at least 1 h, and crystallizing the zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure from the mixture in the continuous flow reactor, wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature in the range of from 80 to 300°C. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is

preferred that the volume of the continuous flow reactor is in the range of from 50 cm3 to 75 m3, preferably from 50 cm3 to 3 m3, preferably from 55 cm3 to 1 m3, more preferably from 60 cm3 to 0.7 m3, more preferably from 65 cm3 to 0.3 m3, more preferably from 70 cm3 to 0.1 m3, more preferably from 75 to 70,000 cm3, more preferably from 80 to 50,000 cm3, more preferably from 85 to 30,000 cm3, more preferably from 90 to 10,000 cm3, more preferably from 95 to 7,000 cm3, more preferably from 100 to 5,000 cm3, more preferably from 105 to 3,000 cm3, more preferably from 110 to 1 ,000 cm3, more preferably from 1 15 to 700 cm3, more preferably from 120 to 500 cm3, more preferably from 125 to 350 cm3, more preferably from 130 to 250 cm3, more preferably from 135 to 200 cm3, more preferably from 140 to 180 cm3, and more preferably from 145 to 160 cm3. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the continuous feeding is performed such that the liquid hourly space velocity is in the range of from 0.05 to 10 hr1, more preferably from 0.1 to 5 hr1 , more preferably from 0.2 to 3 hr1, more preferably from 0.4 to 2 hr1, more preferably from 0.6 to 1.5 hr1, more preferably from 0.8 to 1.2 hr1, and more preferably from 0.9 to 1 hr1. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that in (iii) the mixture obtained in (ii) is continuously fed into the continuous flow reactor for a duration ranging from 3 h to 360 d, more preferably from 6 h to 120 d, more preferably from 12 h to 90 d, more preferably from 18 h to 60 d, more preferably from 1 to 30 d, more preferably from 1.5 to 25 d, more preferably from 2 to 20 d, more preferably from 2.5 to 15 d, more preferably from 3 to 12 d, more preferably from 3.5 to 8 d, and more preferably from 4 to 6 d.

As regards the continuous flow reactor which may be employed according to the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process involving a continuous process, no particular restrictions apply, wherein it is preferred according to the present invention that the continuous flow reactor is selected among a tubular reactor, a ring reactor, and a continuously oscillating reactor, preferably among a plain tubular reactor, a tubular membrane reactor, a tubular reactor with Coanda effect, a ring reactor, and a continuously oscillating baffled reactor, wherein more preferably the continuous flow reactor is a plain tubular reactor and/or a ring reactor, wherein more preferably the continuous flow reactor is a plain tubular reactor. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that at least a portion of the preferred tubular reactor is of a regular cylindrical form having a constant inner diameter perpendicular to the direction of flow, wherein the inner diameter is preferably in the range of from 2 to 1200 mm, more preferably from 3 to 800 mm, more preferably from 3 to 500 mm, more preferably from 4 to 200 mm, more preferably from 4 to 100 mm, more preferably from 4.5 to 50 mm, more preferably from 4.5 to 30 mm, more preferably from 5 to 15 mm, more preferably from 5 to 10 mm, more preferably from 5.5 to 8 mm, and more preferably from 5.5 to 6.5 mm. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the continuous flow reactor has a length in the range of from 0.2 to 5,000 m, preferably from 0.5 to 3,000 m, more preferably from 1 to 1 ,000 m more preferably from 3 to 500 m more preferably from 3.5 to 200 m, more preferably from 3.5 to 100 m, more preferably from 4 to 50 m, more preferably from 4 to 30 m, more preferably from 4.5 to 20 m, more preferably from 4.5 to 15 m, more preferably from 5 to 10 m, and more preferably from 5 to 7 m. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the wall of the continuous flow reactor is made of a metallic material, wherein the metallic material comprises one or more metals select ed from the group consisting of Ta, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Mo, and combinations and/or alloys of

two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of Ta, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, and combinations and/or alloys of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of Cr, Fe, Ni,

Mo, and combinations and/or alloys of two or more thereof wherein preferably the metallic material comprises a nickel alloy, a nickel-molybdenum alloy, and more preferably a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the surface of the inner wall of the continuous flow reactor is lined with an organic polymer material, wherein the organic polymer material preferably comprises one or more polymers selected from the group consisting of fluorinated polyalkylenes and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of (C2-C3)polyalkylenes and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of fluorinated polyethylenes and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the polymer material comprises poly(tetrafluoroethylene), wherein more preferably the inner wall of the continuous flow reactor is lined with

poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the continuous flow reactor is straight and/or comprises one or more curves with respect to the direction of flow, wherein preferably the continuous flow reactor is straight and/or has a coiled form with respect to the direction of flow. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the walls of the continuous flow reactor are subject to vibration during crystallization in (iii).

As regards the conditions which may be employed according to the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process involving a continuous process, no particular restrictions apply, wherein it is preferred according to the present invention that the continuous flow reactor consists of a single stage. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that no matter is added to and/or removed from the reaction mixture during its passage through the continuous flow reactor in (iii), wherein preferably no matter is added, wherein more preferably no matter is added and no matter is removed from the reaction mixture during its passage through the con tinuous flow reactor in (iii). Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the mixture prepared in (ii) is directly fed to the continuous flow reactor in (iii), wherein while being fed to the continuous flow reactor in (iii), the mixture prepared in (ii) is pre-heated, preferably to a temperature in the range of from 100 to 300°C, more preferably of from 100 to 280°C, more preferably of from 140 to 260°C, more preferably of from 160 to 250°C, more preferably of from 180 to 240°C, more preferably of from 190 to 230°C, and more preferably of from 200 to 220°C. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the mixture crystallized in (iii) in the continuous flow reactor is mechanically agitated, wherein preferably mechanical agitation is achieved by movable parts contained in the continuous flow reactor, wherein more preferably the movable parts are provided such as to continually or periodically, preferably to continually free the walls of the continuous flow reactor from zeolitic materials and/or solid residue attached thereto, wherein more preferably the movable parts comprise a scraper, more preferably a screw, and more preferably a rotating screw.

Unless otherwise indicated in particular or preferred embodiments of the inventive process as described in the present application, there is generally no restriction as to the steps which in addition to steps (i) to (iii) may be comprised by the inventive process. Thus, it is preferred that the process further comprises

(iv) quenching the reaction product effluent continuously exiting the reactor in (iii) with a liquid comprising one or more solvents and/or via expansion of the reaction product effluent;

and/or, preferably and,

(v) isolating the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) or (iv);

and/or, preferably and,

(vi) washing the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv) or (v), preferably with distilled water; and/or, preferably and,

(vii) drying the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), or (vi);

and/or, preferably and,

(viii) calcining the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), or (vii).

Furthermore, it is preferred that in (iv) the liquid comprises one or more solvents selected from the group consisting of polar protic solvents and mixtures thereof,

preferably from the group consisting of n-butanol, isopropanol, propanol, ethanol, methanol, water, and mixtures thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of ethanol, methanol, water, and mixtures thereof, wherein more preferably the liquid comprises water, and wherein more preferably water is used as the liquid, preferably deionized water. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that in (iv) the weight ratio of the liquid comprising one or more solvents to the reaction product effluent continuously exiting the reactor in the range of from 0.5 to 30, preferably from 1 to 25, more preferably from 2 to 20, more preferably from 3 to 18, more preferably from 4 to 15, more preferably from 5 to 12, more preferably from 6 to 10, more preferably from 6.5 to 9, more preferably from 7 to 8.5, and more preferably from 7.5 to 8. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that drying in (vii) is effected at a temperature in the range from 50 to 220°C, preferably from 70 to 180°C, more preferably from 80 to 150°C, more preferably from 90 to 130°C, more preferably from 100 to 125°C, and more preferably from 110 to 120°C. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that calcining in (viii) is effected at a temperature in the range from 300 to 900 °C, preferably of from 400 to 700 °C, more preferably of from 450 to 650 °C, and more preferably of from 500 to 600 °C. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that calcining in (viii) is effected for a duration in the range of from 0.5 to 12 h, preferably in the range of from 1 to 9 h, more preferably in the range of from 2 to 6 h. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the supernatant obtained from the isolation of the zeolitic material in (v), and/or a feed having the same composi tion as said supernatant, is not at any point recycled to the reaction mixture during its passage through the continuous flow reactor. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that in (v) isolating the zeolitic material includes a step of spray-drying the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) or (iv),

and/or

wherein in (vii) drying of the zeolitic material includes a step of spray-drying the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), or (vi).

Furthermore, it is preferred according to the present invention that the inventive process further comprises

(ix) subjecting the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), or (viii) to one or more ion exchange procedures with H+ and/or NH +, preferably with NH4+.

Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the process further comprises

(x) subjecting the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), or (ix) to one or more ion exchange procedures with one or more cations and/or cationic elements selected from the group consisting of Sr, Zr, Cr, Mg, Mo, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Sr, Cr, Mo,

Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Cr, Mg, Mo, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more prefera bly from the group consisting of Mg, Mo, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and mixtures of two or more there of, wherein more preferably the one or more cation and/or cationic elements comprise Cu and/or Fe, preferably Cu, wherein even more preferably the one or more cation and/or cationic elements consist of Cu and/or Fe, preferably of Cu.

According to the present invention, Y may stand for any conceivable tetravalent element where in it is preferred that Y is selected from the group consisting of Si, Sn, Ti, Zr, Ge, and mixtures of two or more thereof, Y preferably being Si.

As regards the one or more sources for YO2, any conceivable source may be employed wherein it is preferred that the one or more sources for YO2 are one or more solid sources for YO2, wherein preferably the one or more sources for YO2 comprises one or more compounds select ed from the group consisting of silicas, silicates, silicic acid and combinations of two or more thereof, preferably selected from the group consisting of silicas, alkali metal silicates, silicic acid, and combinations of two or more thereof, more preferably selected from the group consisting of fumed silica, colloidal silica, reactive amorphous solid silica, silica gel, pyrogenic silica, lithium silicates, sodium silicates, potassium silicates, silicic acid, and combinations of two or more thereof, more preferably selected from the group consisting of colloidal silica, fumed silica, silica gel, pyrogenic silica, and combinations of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for YO2 comprises colloidal silica and/or silica gel, preferably colloidal silica, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for YO2 is colloidal silica.

As an alternative to the above, it is preferred that the one or more sources for YO2 are one or more solid sources for YO2, wherein preferably the one or more sources for YO2 comprises a zeolitic material having an FAU-, FER-, TON-, MTT-, BEA-, and/or MFI-type framework struc ture, preferably a FAU-, BEA- and/or MFI-type framework structure, more preferably a FAU-type framework structure.

In the case where the one or more sources for YO2 comprises a zeolitic material having an FAU-, FER-, TON-, MTT-, BEA-, and/or MFI-type framework structure, it is preferred that the zeolitic material has an FAU-type framework structure and wherein the zeolitic material is se lected from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, [AI-Ge-Oj-FAU, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, SAPO-37, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, [Ga-Ge-0]-FAU, Li-LSX, [Ga-AI-Si-

0]-FAU, and [Ga-Si-0]-FAU, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, and Li-LSX, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, Na-X, US-Y, and Na-Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, and Zeolite Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure comprises zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure is zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y.

According to the present invention, X may stand for any conceivable trivalent element wherein it is preferred that X is selected from the group consisting of Al, B, In, Ga, and combinations of two or more thereof, X preferably being Al and/or B, preferably Al.

As regards the one or more sources for X2O3, any conceivable source may be employed wherein it is preferred that the one or more sources for X2O3 are one or more solid sources for X2O3, wherein preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises one or more compounds se lected from the group consisting of aluminum sulfates, sodium aluminates, aluminum hydroxide, and boehmite, wherein preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises AI(OH)3 and/or NaAI02, preferably AI(OH)3, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 is AI(OH)3 and/or NaAIC>2, preferably AI(OH)3, wherein more preferably crystalline and/or amorphous AI(OH)3 is employed as the the one or more sources for X203.

Regarding the YO2 : X2O3 molar ratio of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, to the one or more sources for X2O3, calculated as X2O3, in the mixture prepared in (i), it is preferred that it is in the range of from 1 to 200, preferably of from 2 to 150, more preferably of from 5 to 100, more preferably of from 10 to 70, more preferably of from 15 to 50, more preferably of from 20 to 40, more preferably of from 23 to 35, more preferably of from 25 to 32, and more preferably of from 27 to 29.

As an alternative to the above, it is preferred that the one or more sources for X2O3 are one or more solid sources for X2O3, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises a zeolitic material having an FAU-, FER-, TON-, MTT-, BEA-, and/or MFI-type framework structure, preferably a FAU-, BEA- and/or MFI-type framework structure, more preferably a FAU-type framework structure.

In the case where the one or more sources for X203 comprises a zeolitic material having an FAU-, FER-, TON-, MTT-, BEA-, and/or MFI-type framework structure, it is preferred that the zeolitic material has an FAU-type framework structure and that the zeolitic material is selected from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, [AI-Ge-Oj-FAU, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeo-

lite Y, LZ-210, SAPO-37, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, [Ga-Ge-0]-FAU, Li-LSX, [Ga-AI-Si-O]-FAU, and [Ga-Si-0]-FAU, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, and Li-LSX, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, Na-X, US-Y, and Na-Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, and Zeolite Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure compris es zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure is zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y.

According to the present invention, it is further preferred that the mixture prepared in (i) further contains one or more structure directing agents, wherein preferably one or more organotem-plates are employed as the one or more structure directing agents.

As regards the molar ratio SDA : YO2 of the one or more structure directing agents (SDA) to the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii), it is preferred that it ranges from 0.01 to 0.5, wherein the one or more structure directing agents do not include structure directing agents optionally contained in seed crystals optionally contained in the mixture prepared in (i), and more preferably from 0.05 to 0.3, more preferably from 0.1 to 0.25, more preferably from 0.12 to 0.2, and more preferably from 0.15 to 0.17. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds, wherein R1, R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for alkyl, and wherein R4 stands for ada-mantyl and/or benzyl, preferably for 1 -adamantyl. In this respect, it is further preferred that R1 , R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-C6)alkyl, preferably (CrCsjalkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 , R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 , R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that R4 stands for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted adamantyl and/or benzyl, preferably for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted 1-adamantyl, more preferably for optionally substituted ada mantyl and/or benzyl, more preferably for optionally substituted 1-adamantyl, more preferably for unsubstituted adamantyl and/or benzyl, and more preferably for unsubstituted 1-adamantyl. According to said particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process it is preferred that the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C4)alkyl-1-adamantylammonium compounds, preferably one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C3)alkyl-1 -adamantylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more N,N,N-

tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-1-adamantylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more L/,L/,LA tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-1-adamantylammonium and/or one or more A/, V,/V-tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-1-adamantylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more compounds selected from L/,L/,/V-triethyl-l-adamantylammonium, /V,/V-diethyl-/V-methyl-1 -adamantylammonium, N,N-dimethyl-/V-ethyl-1-adamantylammonium, N,N,N -trimethyl-1 -adamantylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammo-nium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more L/,L/, /V-trimethyl-1 -adamantylammonium compounds. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are salts, preferably one or more salts selected from the group consisting of halides, sulfate, nitrate, phos phate, acetate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of bromide, chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are tetraalkylammonium hydroxides and/or bromides, and more preferably tetraalkylammonium hydroxides.

Alternatively, it is preferred that the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds, wherein R1, R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for alkyl, and wherein R4 stands for cycloalkyl. In this respect, it is further preferred that R1 and R2 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-C6)alkyl, preferably (Ci-Cs)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 and R2 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 and R2 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl, preferably un substituted methyl. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that R3 stands for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-Cs)alkyl, preferably (Ci-Cs)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R3 stands for optionally substituted ethyl, preferably unsubstituted ethyl. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that R4 stands for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted 5- to 8-membered cycloalkyl, preferably for 5- to 7-membered cycloalkyl, more preferably for 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl, wherein more preferably R4 stands for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted 6-membered cycloalkyl, preferably optionally substituted cyclohexyl, and more preferably unsubstituted cyclohexyl. According to said particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process it is preferred that the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C4)alkyl-(C5-C7)cycloalkylammonium compounds, preferably one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C3)alkyl-(C5-C6)cycloalkylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-(C5-C6)cycloalkylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more /V,/V, V-tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-cyclopentylammonium and/or one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more compounds selected from L ,L/, V-triethyl-cyclohexylammonium, /V,/V-diethyl-/V-methyl-cyclohexylammonium, N,N-dimethyl-/V-ethyl-cyclohexylammonium, L/,L/,/V-trimethyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds,

and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammo-nium cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more /V,A -dimethyl-/V-ethyl-cyclohexylammonium and/or /V,/V,/V-trimethyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more L/,L/,/V-trimethyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are salts, preferably one or more salts selected from the group consisting of halides, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of bromide, chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are tetraalkylammonium hydroxides and/or bromides, and more preferably tetraalkylammonium hydroxides.

According to the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process wherein the mixture prepared in (i) further contains one or more structure directing agents, wherein preferably one or more organotemplates are employed as the one or more structure directing agents, it is further preferred that in addition thereto, the mixture prepared in (i) further contains one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds, wherein R5, R6, R7, and R8, independently from one another stand for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-C6)alkyl, preferably (Ci-C5)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-Cs)alkyl, and even more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein even more prefera bly R5, R6, R7, and R8 stand for optionally substituted methyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl. According to said particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process it is preferred that the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds comprise one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of tetra(Ci-C6)alkylammonium compounds, preferably tetra(Ci-C5)alkylammonium compounds, more preferably tetra(Cr C^alkylammonium compounds, and more preferably tetra(Ci-C3)alkylammonium compounds, wherein independently from one another the alkyl substituents are optionally branched, and wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds are selected from the group consisting of optionally branched tetrapropylammonium compounds, ethyltripropylammonium compounds, diethyldipropylammonium compounds, tri-ethylpropylammonium compounds, methyltripropylammonium compounds, dimethyldiprop-ylammonium compounds, trimethylpropylammonium compounds, tetraethylammonium com pounds, triethylmethylammonium compounds, diethyldimethylammonium compounds, ethyltri-methylammonium compounds, tetramethylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of optionally branched tetraethylammonium compounds, triethylmethylammonium compounds, diethyldimethylammonium compounds, ethyltri-methylammonium compounds, tetramethylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of tetramethylammonium compounds, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds consists of one or more tetramethylammonium compounds. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds are salts, preferably one or more salts selected from the group consist ing of halides, preferably chloride and/or bromide, more preferably chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds are tetraalkylammonium hydroxides and/or chlorides, and even more preferably tetraalkylammonium hydroxides.

According to the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process wherein the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation

R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds and one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds, it is preferred that the molar ratio R5RSR7R8N+ : R1R2R3R4N+ of the one or more tetraalkylammonium cations R5R6R7R8N+ to the one or more tetraalkylammonium cations R1 R2R3R4N+ in the mixture provided according to step (1) ranges from 0.01 to 5, preferably from 0.05 to 2, more preferably from 0.1 to 1 .5, more preferably from 0.2 to 1.2, more preferably from 0.3 to 1 .1 , more preferably from 0.4 to 0.1 , more preferably from 0.45 to 0.65, and even more preferably from 0.5 to 0.9.

According to the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process wherein the mixture prepared in (i) further contains one or more structure directing agents, wherein preferably one or more organotemplates are employed as the one or more structure directing agents, it is further preferred that the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation selected from the group consisting of /V,/\Adi(Ci-C4)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C4)alkylpyrrolidinium , /V,/V-di(Ci-C4)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C4)alkylpiperidinium, /V,/\Adi(Ci-C4)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C4)alkylhexahydroazepinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of /V,/V-di(Ci-C3)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C3)alkylpyrrolidinium , /V,AAdi(CrC3)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C3)alkylpiperidinium, A/,AAdi(Ci-C3)alkyl-3,5-di(Cr

C3)alkylhexahydroazepinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of /V,/V-di(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C2)alkylpyrrolidinium , /V,AAdi(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C2)alkylpiperidinium, A/,/V-di(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C2)alkylhexahydroazepinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of /V,/V-di(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C2)alkylpiperidinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more cationic structure directing agents comprises /V,A/-dimethyl-3,5-dimethylpiperidinium, wherein more preferably the one or more cationic structure directing agents consists of A/,/V-dimethyl-3,5-dimethylpiperidinium.

According to the present invention, it is preferred that the crystallinity of the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) is in the range of from 75 to 100%, preferably from 80 to 100%, more preferably from 85 to 100%, more preferably from 88 to 100%, more preferably from 90 to 100%, more preferably from 95 to 100%, more preferably from 98 to 100%, and more preferably from 99 to 100% .

As regards the components which may be contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii), no particular restrictions apply. Nevertheless, it is preferred according to the present inven- tion that the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii) contains 5 wt.-% or less of fluoride calculated as the element based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, preferably 3 wt.-% or less, more preferably 2 wt.-% or less, more preferably 1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.5 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.05 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.01 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.005 wt.-% or less, and more pref erably 0.001 wt.-% or less of fluoride calculated as the element and based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2. Furthermore and independently thereof it is preferred that the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii) contains 5 wt.-% or less of a metal M calculated as the element and based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as Y02, preferably 3 wt.-% or less, more preferably 2 wt.-% or less, more preferably 1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.5 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.05 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.01 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.005 wt.-% or less, and more preferably 0.001 wt.-% or less of a metal M calculated as the element and based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, wherein M stands for Na, preferably from Na and K, more preferably for Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs, and more preferably for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

According to the inventive process it is preferred that the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) further comprises seed crystals, wherein the amount of the seed crystals contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) preferably ranges from 1 to 30 wt.-% based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, preferably from 2 to 25 wt.-%, more preferably from 4 to 20 wt.-%, more preferably from 6 to 15 wt.-%, more preferably from 8 to 12 wt.-%, and more preferably from 9 to 1 1 wt.-%. In this respect, it is further preferred that the seed crystals contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) comprise one or more zeolitic materials, wherein the one or more zeolitic materials preferably have a framework struc ture type selected from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, BEC, CHA, EUO, FAU, FER, HEU, ITH, ITW, LEV, MEL, MFI, MOR, MTN, MWW, and TON, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, CHA, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more zeolitic materials have an AEI- and/or CHA-type framework structure, preferably a CHA-type framework structure. Furthermore, according to particular and preferred embodiments wherein one or more zeolitic materials having a CHA-type framework structure are comprised in the seed crystals , it is preferred that the one or more zeolitic materials having a CHA-type framework structure comprised in the seed crystals is selected from the group consisting of Willhendersonite, ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, MeAPSO-47, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , |Li-Na| [AI-Si-0]-CHA, (Ni(deta)2)-UT-6, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including

mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or three thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more zeolitic materials having a CHA-type framework structure comprised in the seed crystals is chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably SSZ-13. As an alternative to the above, it is preferred that the one or more zeolitic materials having an AEI-type framework structure comprised in the seed crystals is selected from the group consisting of SSZ-39, SAPO-18, SIZ-8, including mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is SSZ-39.

As regards the seed crystal preferably contained in the mixture prepared in (i), these may be obtained according to any suitable procedure. It is preferred according to the inventive process that the seed crystals contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) comprise one or more zeolitic materials having the framework structure of the zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure obtained according to any of the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process as described in the present application, wherein prefera bly the one or more zeolitic materials of the seed crystals is obtainable and/or obtained according to any of the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process as described in the present application.

According to the inventive process it is further preferred that the mixture prepared in (ii) and constituting the feed crystallized in (iii) consists of a single liquid phase and a solid phase comprising the seed crystals. Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the mixture constituting the feed crystallized in (iii) consists of two liquid phases and a solid phase comprising the seed crystals, wherein the first liquid phase comprises H2O, and the second liquid phase comprises a lubricating agent. As regards the lubricating agent, it is preferred that it comprises one or more fluorinated compounds, preferably one or more fluorinated polymers, more preferably one or more fluorinated polyethers, and more preferably one or more perfluorinated polyethers.

In addition to the inventive process, the present invention further relates to a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure obtainable and/or obtained according to any of the particular and preferred embodiments of the inventive process as described in the pre sent application.

Furthermore it is preferred that the zeolitic material of the present invention has a CHA-type framework structure, wherein it is further preferred that the zeolitic material having a CHA-type framework structure is selected from the group consisting of Willhendersonite, ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, MeAPSO-47, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , |Li-Na| [AI-Si-0]-CHA, (Ni(deta)2)-UT-6, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, SSZ-13,

and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consist ing of Chabazite, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or three thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material comprises chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably SSZ-13, and wherein more preferably the zeolitic material is chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably SSZ-13.

As an alternative to the above, it is preferred that the zeolitic material of the present invention has an AEI-type framework structure, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material is selected from the group consisting of SSZ-39, SAPO-18, SIZ-8, including mixtures of two or more there of, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is SSZ-39.

Furthermore and independently thereof, it is preferred that the mean particle size D50 by vol ume of the zeolitic material as determined according to ISO 13320:2009 is in the range of from 0.1 to 10 pm, and is preferably in the range of from 0.3 to 6.0 pm, more preferably in the range of from 1.5 to 4.5 pm, and more preferably in the range of from 2.5 to 3.6 pm.

When preparing specific catalytic compositions or compositions for different purposes, it is also conceivable to blend the zeolitic materials obtained according to the inventive process with at least one other catalytically active material or a material being active with respect to the intend ed purpose. It is also possible to blend at least two different inventive materials which may differ in their YO2 : X2O3 molar ratio, and in particular in their S1O2 : AI2O3 molar ratio, and/or in the presence or absence of one or more further metals such as one or more transition metals and/or in the specific amounts of a further metal such as a transition metal, wherein according to particularly preferred embodiments, the one or more transition metal comprises Cu and/or Fe, more preferably Cu. It is also possible to blend at least two different inventive materials with at least one other catalytically active material or a material being active with respect to the intend ed purpose.

Also, the catalyst may be disposed on a substrate. The substrate may be any of those materials typically used for preparing catalysts, and will usually comprise a ceramic or metal honeycomb structure. Any suitable substrate may be employed, such as a monolithic substrate of the type having fine, parallel gas flow passages extending there through from an inlet or an outlet face of the substrate, such that passages are open to fluid flow there through (referred to as honey comb flow through substrates). The passages, which are essentially straight paths from their fluid inlet to their fluid outlet, are defined by walls on which the catalytic material is disposed as a washcoat so that the gases flowing through the passages contact the catalytic material. The flow passages of the monolithic substrate are thin-walled channels, which can be of any suitable cross-sectional shape and size such as trapezoidal, rectangular, square, sinusoidal, hexagonal, oval, circular, etc. Such structures may contain from about 60 to about 400 or more gas inlet openings (i.e., cells) per square inch (2.54 cm x 2.54 cm) of cross section.

The substrate can also be a wall-flow filter substrate, where the channels are alternately blocked, allowing a gaseous stream entering the channels from one direction (inlet direction), to flow through the channel walls and exit from the channels from the other direction (outlet direc tion). The catalyst composition can be coated on the flow through or wall-flow filter. If a wall flow substrate is utilized, the resulting system will be able to remove particulate matter along with gaseous pollutants. The wall-flow filter substrate can be made from materials commonly known in the art, such as cordierite, aluminum titanate or silicon carbide. It will be understood that the loading of the catalytic composition on a wall flow substrate will depend on substrate properties such as porosity and wall thickness, and typically will be lower than loading on a flow through substrate.

The ceramic substrate may be made of any suitable refractory material, e.g., cordierite, cordier-ite-alumina, silicon nitride, zircon mullite, spodumene, alumina-silica magnesia, zircon silicate, sillimanite, a magnesium silicate, zircon, petalite, alpha-alumina, an aluminosilicate, and the like.

The substrates useful for the catalysts may also be metallic in nature and be composed of one or more metals or metal alloys. The metallic substrates may be employed in various shapes such as corrugated sheet or monolithic form. Suitable metallic supports include the heat re sistant metals and metal alloys such as titanium and stainless steel as well as other alloys in which iron is a substantial or major component. Such alloys may contain one or more of nickel, chromium and/or aluminum, and the total amount of these metals may advantageously com prise at least 15 wt. % of the alloy, e.g., 10-25 wt. % of chromium, 3-8 wt. % of aluminum and up to 20 wt. % of nickel. The alloys may also contain small or trace amounts of one or more other metals such as manganese, copper, vanadium, titanium, and the like. The surface or the metal substrates may be oxidized at high temperatures, e.g., 1000 °C and higher, to improve the resistance to corrosion of the alloys by forming an oxide layer on the surfaces of the sub strates. Such high temperature-induced oxidation may enhance the adherence of the refractory metal oxide support and catalytically promoting metal components to the substrate.

In alternative embodiments, zeolitic material obtained according to the inventive process may be deposited on an open cell foam substrate. Such substrates are well known in the art, and are typically formed of refractory ceramic or metallic materials.

Especially preferred is the use of a catalyst containing the zeolitic material obtained according to the inventive process for removal of nitrogen oxides NOx from exhaust gases of internal com bustion engines, in particular diesel engines, which operate at combustion conditions with air in excess of that required for stoichiometric combustion, i.e., lean.

In addition to the inventive process and to the inventive zeolitic material, the present invention further relates to the use of the inventive zeolitic material according to any of the particular and preferred embodiments as described in the present application as a molecular sieve, as an ad sorbent, for ion-exchange, as a catalyst or a precursor thereof, and/or as a catalyst support or a precursor thereof, preferably as a catalyst or a precursor thereof and/or as a catalyst support or a precursor thereof, more preferably as a catalyst or a precursor thereof, more preferably as a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides NOx; for the storage and/or adsorption of CO2; for the oxidation of NH3, in particular for the oxidation of NH3 slip in diesel systems; for the decomposition of N2O; as an additive in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes; and/or as a catalyst in organic conversion reactions, preferably in the conversion of alcohols to olefins, and more preferably in methanol to olefin (MTO) catalysis; more preferably for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides NOx, and more preferably for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides NOx in exhaust gas from a combustion engine, preferably from a diesel engine or from a lean burn gasoline engine.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following embodiments and combinations of embodiments as indicated by the respective dependencies and back-references. In particular, it is noted that in each instance where a range of embodiments is mentioned, for example in the context of a term such as "The ... of any of embodiments 1 to 4", every embodiment in this range is meant to be explicitly disclosed for the skilled person, i.e. the wording of this term is to be understood by the skilled person as being synonymous to "The ... of any of embodiments 1 , 2, 3, and 4". Further, it is explicitly noted that the following set of embodiments is not the set of claims determining the extent of protection, but represents a suitably structured part of the description directed to general and preferred aspects of the present invention.

1. A process for the preparation of a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its frame work structure, wherein Y stands for a tetravalent element and X stands for a trivalent element, wherein said process comprises:

(i) preparing a mixture comprising one or more sources of YO2, one or more sources of X2O3, and H2O;

(ii) grinding and/or mixing the mixture prepared in (i), wherein the energy intake of the mix ture during the grinding and/or mixing procedure is in the range of from 5 to 2,000 kJ/kg of the mixture;

(iii) heating the mixture obtained in (ii) at a temperature in the range of from 80 to 300 °C for crystallizing a zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure from the mixture;

wherein the mixture prepared in (i) contains from 100 to 1 ,500 wt.-% of H2O based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, contained in the mixture pre pared in (i) and heated in (iii);

wherein the energy intake is preferably determined as described in reference example 1.

2. The process of embodiment 1 , wherein the 27AI MAS NMR of the mixture obtained in (ii), after drying thereof at 110°C, comprises:

a first peak (P1 ) in the range of from 25 to 75 ppm, preferably of from 40 to 65 ppm, preferably of from 45 to 60 ppm, more preferably of from 50 to 55 ppm, more preferably of from 51.0 to 54.5 ppm, and more preferably of from 51.0 to 53.5 ppm; and

one or more peaks (PX) in the range of from -20 to 25 ppm, preferably of from -10 to 15 ppm, more preferably of from 0 to 13 ppm, more preferably of from 4 to 1 1 ppm, and more preferably of from 6 to 10 ppm;

wherein the relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm (h) and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm (l2) of the zeolitic material offer a ratio of the integration values l2 : (h + ) comprised in the range of from 5 to 75%, preferably of from 10 to 70%, more preferably of from 20 to 65%, more preferably of from 30 to 63%, more preferably of from 40 to 61 %, more preferably of from 45 to 59%, more preferably of from 50 to 57%, and more preferably of from 52 to 55%,

wherein preferably the relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral ratio is measured at 9.4 Tesla and 10 kHz Magic Angle Spinning,

wherein preferably the one or more peaks (PX) consists of one or two peaks (PX), more preferably of one peak (PX), and

wherein drying of the mixture is preferably conducted by evaporating a portion of the mixture obtained in (ii) to dryness at a temperature of not greater than 1 10°C and subsequently further drying the mixture at 1 10°C under air for a period in the range of from 0.5 to 72 h, preferably of from 1 to 36 h, more preferably of from 3 to 30 h, more preferably of from 6 to 24 h, more preferably of from 12 to 20 h, and more preferably of from 14 to 18 h, wherein more preferably the mixture is subsequently dried at 110°C under air for 16 h.

The process of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein in (ii) the energy intake of the mixture during the grinding and/or mixing procedure is in the range of from 10 to 1 ,000 kJ/kg of the mixture, preferably of from 30 to 500 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 50 to 300 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 80 to 250 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 100 to 200 kJ/kg of the mixture, more preferably of from 120 to 180 kJ/kg of the mixture, and more preferably of from 140 to 160 kJ/kg.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 3, wherein in (iii) the mixture obtained in (ii) is heated at a temperature in the range of from 100 to 280 °C, preferably of from 120 to 260 °C, more preferably of from 140 to 250 °C, more preferably of from 160 to 245 °C, more preferably of from 180 to 240 °C, more preferably of from 200 to 235 °C, and more preferably of from 210 to 230 °C.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein in (iii) the mixture obtained in (ii) is heated for a period in the range of from 0.1 to 24 h, more preferably of from 1 to 12 h, more preferably of from 1.5 to 9 h, more preferably of from 0.3 to 6 h, more preferably of from 0.5 to 4 h, more preferably of from 0.7 to 3 h, more preferably of from 0.8 to 2.5 h, more preferably of from 0.9 to 2 h, and more preferably of from 1 to 1.5 h.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii) contains from 150 to 1 ,100 wt.-% of H20 based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of Y02, calculated as YO2, contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii), preferably of from 180 to 800 wt.-%, more preferably of from 220 to 600 wt.-%, more preferably of from 250 to 500 wt.-%, more preferably of from 280 to 450 wt.-%, more pref- erably of from 310 to 420 wt.-%, more preferably of from 330 to 400 wt.-%, more preferably of from 350 to 390 wt.-%, more preferably of from 360 to 380 wt.-%, and more preferably of from 365 to 375 wt.-%.

7. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out for a duration in the range of from 0.05 to 120 min, preferably of from 0.1 to 60 min, more preferably of from 0.5 to 30 min, more preferably of from 1 to 20 min, more preferably of from 2 to 15 min, more preferably of from 3 to 10 min, more preferably of from 4 to 9 min, more preferably of from 5 to 8 min, and more preferably of from 6 to 7 min.

8. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the rate of energy transfer to the mixture in (ii) is in the range of from 500 to 2,500 kJ/(kg*h), preferably from 800 to 2,000 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,000 to 1 ,750 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,150 to 1 ,600 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,250 to 1 ,500 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,310 to 1 ,460 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1340 to 1430 kJ/(kg*h), more preferably from 1 ,360 to 1 ,410 kJ/(kg*h), and more preferably from 1 ,380 to 1 ,390 kJ/(kg*h).

9. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) has an initial temperature in the range of from 10 to 50°C when subject to grinding and/or mixing in (ii), preferably in the range of from 15 to 40°C, and more preferably in the range of from 20 to 30°C.

10. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a mill selected from the group consisting of a stirred media mill, a planetary ball mill, a ball mill, a roller mill, a kneader, a high shear mixer, and a mix muller,

preferably from the group consisting of a stirred media mill, a ball mill, a roller mill, a plan etary mill, and a high shear mixer,

and more preferably from the group consisting of a ball mill, a planetary ball mill, a high shear mixer, and a mix muller,

wherein more preferably grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a ball mill and/or a planetary ball mill, preferably in a planetary ball mill.

1 1. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a ball mill and/or in a planetary ball mill, preferably in a planetary ball mill, using balls made of a material selected from the group consisting of stainless steel, ceramic, and rubber, preferably from the group consisting of chrome steel, flint, zirconia, silicon nitride, and lead antimony alloy, wherein more preferably the balls of the ball mill are made of zirconia and/or silicon nitride, preferably of silicon nitride.

12. The process of embodiment 11 , wherein grinding and/or mixing in (ii) is carried out in a ball mill using grinding media, preferably grinding balls, having a diameter in the range of from 0.5 to 25 mm, preferably of from 1 to 15 mm, preferably of from 1.5 to 10 mm, preferably of from 2 to 8 mm, more preferably of from 2.5 to 6 mm, more preferably of from 3 to 5 mm, and more preferably of from 3.5 to 4.5 mm.

13. The process of embodiment 11 or 12, wherein the filling degree of the grinding media in the ball mill is in the range of from 10 to 75%, preferably of from 20 to 70%, more preferably of from 30 to 65%, more preferably of from 40 to 60%, and more preferably of from 45 to 55%.

14. The process of any of embodiments 1 1 to 13, wherein the ball mill is operated at a speed in the range of from 50 to 4,000 rpm, preferably of from 100 to 3,000 rpm, more preferably of from 300 to 2,500 rpm, more preferably of from 500 to 2,000 rpm, more preferably of from 600 to 1 ,800 rpm, more preferably of from 700 to 1 ,500 rpm, more preferably of from 800 to 1 ,200 rpm, and more preferably of from 900 to 1 ,000 rpm.

15. The process of any of embodiments 1 1 to 14, wherein the ball mill is operated at a tip speed in the range of from 1 to 20 m/s, preferably of from 2 to 15 m/s, more preferably of from 4 to 14 m/s, more preferably of from 5 to 10 m/s.

16. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 15, wherein in (iii) the mixture is heated under autogenous pressure, wherein preferably heating in (ii) is performed in a pressure tight vessel, preferably in an autoclave.

17. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 16, wherein the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has a framework structure type selected from the group consisting of AEI, AFX, ANA,

BEA, BEC, CAN, CHA, CDO, EMT, ERI, EUO, FAU, FER, GME, HEU, ITH, ITW, KFI, LEV, MEI, MEL, MFI, MOR, MTN, MWW, OFF, RRO, RTH, SAV, SFW, SZR, and TON, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of CAN, AEI, EMT, SAV, SZR, KFI, ERI, OFF, RTH, GME, AFX, SFW, BEA, CHA, FAU, FER, HEU, LEV, MEI, MEL, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, FAU, FER, GME, LEV, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, GME, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, CHA, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has an AEI- and/or CHA-type framework structure, preferably a CHA-type framework structure.

18. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 17, wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of Si, Sn, Ti, Zr, Ge, and mixtures of two or more thereof, Y preferably being Si.

19. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 18, wherein the one or more sources for YO2 are one or more solid sources for YO2, wherein preferably the one or more sources for YO2 comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of silicas, silicates, silicic acid and combinations of two or more thereof, preferably selected from the group consisting of silicas, alkali metal silicates, silicic acid, and combinations of two or more thereof, more preferably selected from the group consisting of fumed silica, colloidal silica, reactive amorphous solid silica, silica gel, pyrogenic silica, lithium silicates, sodium silicates, potassium silicates, silicic acid, and combinations of two or more thereof, more preferably selected from the group consisting of colloidal silica, fumed silica, silica gel, pyrogenic silica, and combinations of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for YO2 comprises colloidal silica and/or silica gel, preferably colloidal silica, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for YO2 is colloidal silica.

20. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 18, wherein the one or more sources for YO2 are one or more solid sources for YO2, wherein preferably the one or more sources for YO2 comprises a zeolitic material having an FAU-, FER-, TON-, MTT-, BEA-, and/or MFI-type framework structure, preferably a FAU-, BEA- and/or MFI-type framework structure, more preferably a FAU-type framework structure.

21. The process of embodiment 20, wherein the zeolitic material has an FAU-type framework structure and wherein the zeolitic material is selected from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, [AI-Ge-0]-FAU, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, SAPO-37, ZSM- 20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, [Ga-Ge-0]-FAU, Li-LSX, [Ga-AI-Si-0]-FAU, and [Ga-Si-0]-FAU, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

preferably from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, and Li-LSX, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, Na-X, US-Y, and Na-Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, and Zeolite Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure comprises zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure is zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 21 , wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Al, B, In, Ga, and combinations of two or more thereof, X preferably being Al and/or B, preferably Al.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the one or more sources for X2O3 are one or more solid sources for X2O3, wherein preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of aluminum sulfates, sodium aluminates, aluminum hydroxide, and boehmite, wherein preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises AI(OH)3 and/or NaAIC>2, preferably AI(OH)3, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 is AI(OH)3 and/or NaAI02, preferably AI(OH)3, wherein more preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises crystalline and/or amorphous AI(OH)3.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein the molar ratio YO2 : X2O3 of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, to the one or more sources for X2O3, calculated as X2O3, in the mixture prepared in (i) is in the range of from 1 to 200, preferably of from 2 to 150, more preferably of from 5 to 100, more preferably of from 10 to 70, more preferably of from 15 to 50, more preferably of from 20 to 40, more preferably of from 23 to 35, more preferably of from 25 to 32, and more preferably of from 27 to 29.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the one or more sources for X2O3 are one or more solid sources for X2O3, wherein preferably the one or more sources for X2O3 comprises a zeolitic material having an FAU-, FER-, TON-, MTT-, BEA-, and/or MFI-type framework structure, preferably a FAU-, BEA- and/or MFI-type framework structure, more preferably a FAU-type framework structure.

The process of embodiment 25, wherein the zeolitic material has an FAU-type framework structure and wherein the zeolitic material is selected from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, [AI-Ge-0]-FAU, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, SAPO-37, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, [Ga-Ge-0]-FAU, Li-LSX, [Ga-AI-Si-0]-FAU, and [Ga-Si-0]-FAU, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

preferably from the group consisting of ZSM-3, Faujasite, CSZ-1 , ECR-30, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, LZ-210, ZSM-20, Na-X, US-Y, Na-Y, and Li-LSX, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, Zeolite Y, Na-X, US-Y, and Na-Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Faujasite, Zeolite X, and Zeolite Y, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure comprises zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an FAU-type framework structure is zeolite X and/or zeolite Y, preferably zeolite Y.

27. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) further contains one or more structure directing agents, wherein preferably one or more organo- templates are employed as the one or more structure directing agents.

28. The process of embodiment 27, wherein the molar ratio SDA : YO2 of the one or more structure directing agents (SDA) to the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) ranges from 0.01 to 0.5, wherein the one or more structure directing agents do not include structure directing agents optionally contained in seed crystals optionally contained in the mixture prepared in (i), preferably from 0.05 to 0.3, more preferably from 0.1 to 0.25, more preferably from 0.12 to 0.2, and more preferably from 0.15 to 0.17.

29. The process of embodiment 27 or 28, wherein the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds, wherein R1, R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for alkyl, and wherein R4 stands for adamantyl and/or benzyl, preferably for 1-adamantyl.

30. The process of embodiment 29, wherein R1 , R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-C6)alkyl, preferably (Ci- C5)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 , R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 , R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl.

31. The process of embodiment 29 or 30, wherein R4 stands for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted adamantyl and/or benzyl, preferably for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted 1-adamantyl, more preferably for optionally substituted adamantyl and/or benzyl, more preferably for optionally substituted 1-adamantyl, more prefer ably for unsubstituted adamantyl and/or benzyl, and more preferably for unsubstituted 1- adamantyl.

32. The process of any of embodiments 29 to 31 , wherein the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more A/,/V,/V-tri(Ci- C4)alkyl-1 -adamantylammonium compounds, preferably one or more /V,A/,/V-tri(Ci- C3)alkyl-1 -adamantylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more N,N,N- tri(Ci- C2)alkyl-1 -adamantylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more /V,/V,/\Atri(Ci-

C2)alkyl-1 -adamantylammonium and/or one or more /V, V,/V-tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-1- adamantylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more compounds selected from /V,/V,/V-triethyl-1 -adamantylammonium, N, /V-diethyl-/V -methyl-1 - adamantylammonium, /V, /\Adimethyl-/V -ethyl-1 -adamantylammonium, N,N,N -trimethyl-1 - adamantylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more /V,/V,/V-trimethyl-1-adamantylammonium compounds.

33. The process of any of embodiments 29 to 32, wherein the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are salts, preferably one or more salts selected from the group consisting of halides, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, and mix tures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of bromide, chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are tetraalkylammonium hydroxides and/or bromides, and more preferably tetraalkylammonium hydroxides.

34. The process of embodiment 27 or 28, wherein the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds, wherein R1, R2, and R3 independently from one another stand for alkyl, and wherein R4 stands for cycloalkyl.

35. The process of embodiment 34, wherein R1 and R2 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-Ce)alkyl, preferably (Ci-C5)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and more preferably for option ally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 and R2 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R1 and R2 independently from one another stand for optionally substituted methyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl.

36. The process of embodiment 34 or 35, wherein R3 stands for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-Cs)alkyl, preferably (Ci-C5)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein more preferably R3 stands for optionally substituted ethyl, preferably unsubstituted ethyl.

37. The process of any of embodiments 34 to 36, wherein R4 stands for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted 5- to 8-membered cycloalkyl, preferably for 5- to 7-membered cycloalkyl, more preferably for 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl, wherein more preferably R4 stands for optionally heterocyclic and/or optionally substituted 6-membered cycloalkyl, preferably optionally substituted cyclohexyl, and more preferably unsubstituted cyclohexyl. 38. The process of any of embodiments 34 to 37, wherein the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more A/,/V,/V-tri(Ci- C4)alkyl-(C5-C7)cycloalkylammonium compounds, preferably one or more N,N,N- tri(Cr C3)alkyl-(C5-C6)cycloalkylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more N,N,N- tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-(C5-C6)cycloalkylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more /V,/V,/V-tri(Ci-C2)alkyl-cyclopentylammonium and/or one or more /V, /V, /V-tri (Ci -C2) al kyl- cyclohexylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more compounds selected from L ,L/,/V-triethyl-cyclohexylammonium, /V,/V-diethyl-/V-methyl-cyclohexylammonium, /V,/V-dimethyl-/V-ethyl-cyclohexylammonium, /V,/V,A/-trimethyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds comprise one or more /V,/\Adimethyl-/V-ethyl-cyclohexylammonium and/or L/,L/,/V-trimethyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds, more preferably one or more /V,/V,/V-trimethyl-cyclohexylammonium compounds.

39. The process of any of embodiments 34 to 38, wherein the one or more tetraalkylammoni- um cation R1 R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are salts, preferably one or more salts selected from the group consisting of halides, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of bromide, chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+-containing compounds are tetraalkylammonium hydroxides and/or bromides, and more preferably tetraalkylammonium hydroxides.

40. The process of any of embodiments 34 to 39, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) further contains one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds, wherein R5, R6, R7, and R8, independently from one another stand for optionally substituted and/or optionally branched (Ci-C6)alkyl, preferably (Ci-C5)alkyl, more preferably (Ci- C4)alkyl, more preferably (Ci-C3)alkyl, and even more preferably for optionally substituted methyl or ethyl, wherein even more preferably R5, R6, R7, and R8 stand for optionally substituted methyl, preferably unsubstituted methyl.

41. The process of embodiment 40, wherein the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation

R5RsR7R8N+-containing compounds comprise one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of tetra(Ci-C6)alkylammonium compounds, preferably tetra(Ci- C5)alkylammonium compounds, more preferably tetra(Ci-C4)alkylammonium compounds, and more preferably tetra(Ci-C3)alkylammonium compounds, wherein independently from one another the alkyl substituents are optionally branched, and wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds are selected from the group consisting of optionally branched tetrapropylammonium compounds, ethyltripropylammonium compounds, diethyldipropylammonium compounds, triethylprop- ylammonium compounds, methyltripropylammonium compounds, dimethyldipropylammo-

nium compounds, trimethylpropylammonium compounds, tetraethylammonium compounds, triethylmethylammonium compounds, diethyldimethylammonium compounds, ethyltrimethylammonium compounds, tetramethylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of optionally branched tetraethylammonium compounds, triethylmethylammonium compounds, diethyldimethylammo nium compounds, ethyltrimethylammonium compounds, tetramethylammonium compounds, and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of tetramethylammonium compounds, wherein more preferably the one or more

tetraalkylammonium cation R5R6R7R8N+-containing compounds consists of one or more tetramethylammonium compounds.

42. The process of embodiment 40 or 41 , wherein the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5RsR7R8N+-containing compounds are salts, preferably one or more salts selected from the group consisting of halides, preferably chloride and/or bromide, more preferably chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of chloride, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more tetraalkylammonium cation R5RsR7R8N+-containing compounds are tetraalkylammonium hydroxides and/or chlorides, and even more preferably tetraalkylammonium hydroxides.

43. The process of any of embodiments 40 to 42, wherein the molar ratio R5R6R7R8N+ :

R1R2R3R4N+ of the one or more tetraalkylammonium cations R5R6R7R8N+ to the one or more tetraalkylammonium cations R1R2R3R4N+ in the mixture provided according to step (1 ) ranges from 0.01 to 5, preferably from 0.05 to 2, more preferably from 0.1 to 1.5, more preferably from 0.2 to 1.2, more preferably from 0.3 to 1.1 , more preferably from 0.4 to 0.1 , more preferably from 0.45 to 0.65, and even more preferably from 0.5 to 0.9.

44. The process of embodiment 27 or 28, wherein the one or more structure directing agents comprises one or more tetraalkylammonium cation selected from the group consisting of /V,/V-di(Ci-C4)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C4)alkylpyrrolidinium , A/,/V-di(Ci-C4)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci- C4)alkylpiperidinium, /V,/V-di(Ci-C4)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C4)alkylhexahydroazepinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof,

preferably from the group consisting of /V,/V-di(Ci-C3)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C3)alkylpyrrolidinium , /V,AAdi(Ci-C3)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C3)alkylpiperidinium, /V, V-di(Ci-C3)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci- C3)alkylhexahydroazepinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of V,/V-di(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci- C2)alkylpyrrolidinium , /V,/V-di(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C2)alkylpiperidinium, /V,/V-di(Ci- C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci-C2)alkylhexahydroazepinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of V,/V-di(Ci-C2)alkyl-3,5-di(Ci- C2)alkylpiperidinium, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more cationic structure directing agents comprises /V,/V-dimethyl-3,5-

dimethylpiperidinium, wherein more preferably the one or more cationic structure directing agents consists of /V,/\Adimethyl-3,5-dimethylpiperidinium.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 44, wherein the crystallinity of the zeolitic materi al obtained in (iii) is in the range of from 75 to 100%, preferably from 80 to 100%, more preferably from 85 to 100%, more preferably from 88 to 100%, more preferably from 90 to 100%, more preferably from 95 to 100%, more preferably from 98 to 100%, and more preferably from 99 to 100%.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 45, wherein the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has a CHA-type framework structure, wherein preferably the zeolitic material having a CHA-type framework structure is selected from the group consisting of Willhendersonite, ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, MeAPSO-47, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , |Li-Na| [AI-Si-0]-CHA, (Ni(deta)2)-UT-6, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or three thereof,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) comprises chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably chabazite, and wherein more preferably the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) is chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably SSZ-13.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 46, wherein the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) has an AEI-type framework structure, wherein preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is selected from the group consisting of SSZ-39, SAPO-18, SIZ-8, including mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic ma terial having an AEI-type framework structure is SSZ-39.

The process of any of embodiments 1 to 47, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii) contains 5 wt.-% or less of fluoride calculated as the element based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, preferably 3 wt.-% or less, more preferably 2 wt.-% or less, more preferably 1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.5 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.05 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.01 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.005 wt.-% or less, and more preferably 0.001 wt.-% or less of fluoride calculated as the element and based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2.

49. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 48, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) and ground in (ii) contains 5 wt.-% or less of a metal M calculated as the element and based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, preferably 3 wt.-% or less, more preferably 2 wt.-% or less, more preferably 1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.5 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.1 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.05 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.01 wt.-% or less, more preferably 0.005 wt.-% or less, and more preferably 0.001 wt.-% or less of a metal M calculated as the element and based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, wherein M stands for Na, preferably from Na and K, more preferably for Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs, and more preferably for Li, Na, K,

Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

50. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 49, wherein heating in (iii) is conducted as a continuous process.

51. The process of embodiment 50, wherein heating in (iii) comprises continuously feeding the mixture obtained in (ii) into a continuous flow reactor at a liquid hourly space velocity in the range of from 0.3 to 20 hr1 for a duration of at least 1 h, and crystallizing the zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure from the mixture in the continuous flow reactor, wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature in the range of from 80 to 300°C.

52. The process of embodiment 50 or 51 , wherein the volume of the continuous flow reactor is in the range of from 50 cm3 to 75 m3, preferably from 50 cm3 to 3 m3, preferably from 55 cm3 to 1 m3, more preferably from 60 cm3 to 0.7 m3, more preferably from 65 cm3 to 0.3 m3, more preferably from 70 cm3 to 0.1 m3, more preferably from 75 to 70,000 cm3, more preferably from 80 to 50,000 cm3, more preferably from 85 to 30,000 cm3, more preferably from 90 to 10,000 cm3, more preferably from 95 to 7,000 cm3, more preferably from 100 to 5,000 cm3, more preferably from 105 to 3,000 cm3, more preferably from 1 10 to 1 ,000 cm3, more preferably from 1 15 to 700 cm3, more preferably from 120 to 500 cm3, more preferably from 125 to 350 cm3, more preferably from 130 to 250 cm3, more preferably from 135 to 200 cm3, more preferably from 140 to 180 cm3, and more preferably from 145 to 160 cm3.

53. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 52, wherein the continuous feeding is performed such that the liquid hourly space velocity is in the range of from 0.05 to 10 IT1 , more preferably from 0.1 to 5 h 1, more preferably from 0.2 to 3 h 1, more preferably from 0.4 to 2 IT1 , more preferably from 0.6 to 1.5 tv1, more preferably from 0.8 to 1.2 tv1, and more preferably from 0.9 to 1 h-1.

54. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 53, wherein in (iii) the mixture obtained in (ii) is continuously fed into the continuous flow reactor for a duration ranging from 3 h to 360 d, more preferably from 6 h to 120 d, more preferably from 12 h to 90 d, more preferably from 18 h to 60 d, more preferably from 1 to 30 d, more preferably from 1 .5 to 25 d, more preferably from 2 to 20 d, more preferably from 2.5 to 15 d, more preferably from 3 to 12 d, more preferably from 3.5 to 8 d, and more preferably from 4 to 6 d.

55. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 54, wherein the continuous flow reactor is se lected among a tubular reactor, a ring reactor, and a continuously oscillating reactor, preferably among a plain tubular reactor, a tubular membrane reactor, a tubular reactor with Coanda effect, a ring reactor, and a continuously oscillating baffled reactor, wherein more preferably the continuous flow reactor is a plain tubular reactor and/or a ring reactor, wherein more preferably the continuous flow reactor is a plain tubular reactor.

56. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 55, wherein at least a portion of the tubular reactor is of a regular cylindrical form having a constant inner diameter perpendicular to the direction of flow, wherein the inner diameter is preferably in the range of from 2 to 1200 mm, more preferably from 3 to 800 mm, more preferably from 3 to 500 mm, more preferably from 4 to 200 mm, more preferably from 4 to 100 mm, more preferably from 4.5 to 50 mm, more preferably from 4.5 to 30 mm, more preferably from 5 to 15 mm, more preferably from 5 to 10 mm, more preferably from 5.5 to 8 mm, and more preferably from 5.5 to 6.5 mm.

57. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 56, wherein the continuous flow reactor has a length in the range of from 0.2 to 5,000 m, preferably from 0.5 to 3,000 m, more preferably from 1 to 1 ,000 m more preferably from 3 to 500 m more preferably from 3.5 to 200 m, more preferably from 3.5 to 100 m, more preferably from 4 to 50 m, more preferably from 4 to 30 m, more preferably from 4.5 to 20 m, more preferably from 4.5 to 15 m, more preferably from 5 to 10 m, and more preferably from 5 to 7 m.

58. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 57, wherein the wall of the continuous flow reactor is made of a metallic material, wherein the metallic material comprises one or more metals selected from the group consisting of Ta, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Mo, and combinations and/or alloys of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of Ta, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, and combinations and/or alloys of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, and combinations and/or alloys of two or more thereof wherein preferably the metallic material comprises a nickel alloy, a nickel-molybdenum alloy, and more preferably a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy.

59. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 58, wherein the surface of the inner wall of the continuous flow reactor is lined with an organic polymer material, wherein the organic polymer material preferably comprises one or more polymers selected from the group consisting of fluorinated polyalkylenes and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of (C2-C3)polyalkylenes and mixtures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of fluorinated polyethylenes and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the polymer material comprises

poly(tetrafluoroethylene), wherein more preferably the inner wall of the continuous flow reactor is lined with poly(tetrafluoroethylene).

60. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 59, wherein the continuous flow reactor is

straight and/or comprises one or more curves with respect to the direction of flow, wherein preferably the continuous flow reactor is straight and/or has a coiled form with respect to the direction of flow.

61. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 60, wherein the walls of the continuous flow reactor are subject to vibration during crystallization in (iii).

62. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 61 , wherein the continuous flow reactor consists of a single stage.

63. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 62, wherein no matter is added to and/or removed from the reaction mixture during its passage through the continuous flow reactor in

(iii), wherein preferably no matter is added, wherein more preferably no matter is added and no matter is removed from the reaction mixture during its passage through the continuous flow reactor in (iii).

64. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 63, wherein the mixture prepared in (ii) is directly fed to the continuous flow reactor in (iii), wherein while being fed to the continuous flow reactor in (iii), the mixture prepared in (ii) is pre-heated, preferably to a temperature in the range of from 100 to 300°C, more preferably of from 100 to 280°C, more preferably of from 140 to 260°C, more preferably of from 160 to 250°C, more preferably of from 180 to 240°C, more preferably of from 190 to 230°C, and more preferably of from 200 to 220°C.

65. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 64, wherein the mixture crystallized in (iii) in the continuous flow reactor is mechanically agitated, wherein preferably mechanical agitation is achieved by movable parts contained in the continuous flow reactor, wherein more preferably the movable parts are provided such as to continually or periodically, preferably to continually free the walls of the continuous flow reactor from zeolitic materials and/or solid residue attached thereto, wherein more preferably the movable parts comprise a scraper, more preferably a screw, and more preferably a rotating screw.

66. The process of any of embodiments 50 to 65, wherein the process further comprises

(iv) quenching the reaction product effluent continuously exiting the reactor in (iii) with a liquid comprising one or more solvents and/or via expansion of the reaction product effluent;

and/or, preferably and,

(v) isolating the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) or (iv);

and/or, preferably and,

(vi) washing the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv) or (v), preferably with distilled water;

and/or, preferably and,

(vii) drying the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), or (vi);

and/or, preferably and,

(viii) calcining the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), or (vii).

67. The process of embodiment 66, wherein in (iv) the liquid comprises one or more solvents selected from the group consisting of polar protic solvents and mixtures thereof, preferably from the group consisting of n-butanol, isopropanol, propanol, ethanol, methanol, water, and mixtures thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of ethanol, methanol, water, and mixtures thereof,

wherein more preferably the liquid comprises water, and wherein more preferably water is used as the liquid, preferably deionized water.

68. The process of embodiment 66 or 67, wherein in (iv) the weight ratio of the liquid comprising one or more solvents to the reaction product effluent continuously exiting the reactor in the range of from 0.5 to 30, preferably from 1 to 25, more preferably from 2 to 20, more preferably from 3 to 18, more preferably from 4 to 15, more preferably from 5 to 12, more preferably from 6 to 10, more preferably from 6.5 to 9, more preferably from 7 to 8.5, and more preferably from 7.5 to 8.

69. The process of any of embodiments 66 to 68, wherein drying in (vii) is effected at a temperature in the range from 50 to 220°C, preferably from 70 to 180°C, more preferably from 80 to 150°C, more preferably from 90 to 130°C, more preferably from 100 to 125°C, and more preferably from 110 to 120°C.

70. The process of any of embodiments 66 to 69, wherein the calcining in (viii) is effected at a temperature in the range from 300 to 900 °C, preferably of from 400 to 700 °C, more preferably of from 450 to 650 °C, and more preferably of from 500 to 600 °C.

71. The process of embodiment 66 to 70, wherein the calcining in (viii) is effected for a duration in the range of from 0.5 to 12 h, preferably in the range of from 1 to 9 h, more preferably in the range of from 2 to 6 h.

72. The process of any of embodiments 66 to 71 , wherein the supernatant obtained from the isolation of the zeolitic material in (v), and/or a feed having the same composition as said supernatant, is not at any point recycled to the reaction mixture during its passage through the continuous flow reactor.

73. The process of any of embodiments 66 to 72, wherein in (v) isolating the zeolitic material includes a step of spray-drying the zeolitic material obtained in (iii) or (iv),

and/or

wherein in (vii) drying of the zeolitic material includes a step of spray-drying the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), or (vi).

74. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 73, wherein the process further comprises

(ix) subjecting the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), or (viii) to one or more ion exchange procedures with H+ and/or NhV, preferably with NhV.

75. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 74, wherein the process further comprises

(x) subjecting the zeolitic material obtained in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), or (ix) to one or more ion exchange procedures with one or more cations and/or cationic elements selected from the group consisting of Sr, Zr, Cr, Mg, Mo, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Sr, Cr, Mo, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Cr, Mg, Mo, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and mixtures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of Mg, Mo, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more cation and/or cationic elements comprise Cu and/or Fe, preferably Cu, wherein even more pref erably the one or more cation and/or cationic elements consist of Cu and/or Fe, preferably of Cu.

76. The process of any of embodiments 1 to 75, wherein the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) further comprises seed crystals, wherein the amount of the seed crystals contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) preferably ranges from 1 to 30 wt.-% based on 100 wt.-% of the one or more sources of YO2, calculated as YO2, preferably from 2 to 25 wt.-%, more preferably from 4 to 20 wt.-%, more preferably from 6 to 15 wt.- %, more preferably from 8 to 12 wt.-%, and more preferably from 9 to 1 1 wt.-%.

77. The process of embodiment 76, wherein the seed crystals contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) comprise one or more zeolitic materials, wherein the one or more zeolitic materials preferably have a framework structure type selected from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, BEC, CHA, EUO, FAU, FER, HEU, ITH, ITW, LEV, MEL, MFI, MOR, MTN, MWW, and TON, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, and

MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, BEA, CHA, MFI, MOR, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, more preferably from the group consisting of AEI, CHA, and MWW, including mixed structures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the one or more zeolitic materials have an AEI- and/or CHA-type framework structure, preferably a CHA-type framework structure.

78. The process of embodiment 77, wherein the one or more zeolitic materials having a CHA- type framework structure comprised in the seed crystals is selected from the group consisting of Willhendersonite, ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, MeAPSO-47, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , |Li-Na| [Al-Si- 0]-CHA, (Ni(deta)2)-UT-6, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

preferably from the group consisting of ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ- 218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or three thereof,

wherein more preferably the one or more zeolitic materials having a CHA-type framework structure comprised in the seed crystals is chabazite and/or SSZ-13, preferably SSZ-13.

79. The process of embodiment 77, wherein the one or more zeolitic materials having an AEI- type framework structure comprised in the seed crystals is selected from the group consisting of SSZ-39, SAPO-18, SIZ-8, including mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is SSZ-39.

80. The process of any of embodiments 76 to 79, wherein the seed crystals contained in the mixture prepared in (i) and heated in (iii) comprise one or more zeolitic materials having the framework structure of the zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure obtained according to the process of any of embodiments 1 to 73, wherein preferably the one or more zeolitic materials of the seed crystals is obtainable and/or obtained according to the process of any of embodiments 1 to 73.

81. The process of any of embodiments 76 to 80, wherein the mixture prepared in (ii) and constituting the feed crystallized in (iii) consists of a single liquid phase and a solid phase comprising the seed crystals.

82. The process of any of embodiments 76 to 81 , wherein the mixture constituting the feed crystallized in (iii) consists of two liquid phases and a solid phase comprising the seed crystals, wherein the first liquid phase comprises H2O, and the second liquid phase comprises a lubricating agent.

83. The process of embodiment 82, wherein the lubricating agent comprises one or more fluorinated compounds, preferably one or more fluorinated polymers, more preferably one or more fluorinated polyethers, and more preferably one or more perfluorinated polyeth ers.

84. A zeolitic material comprising YO2 and X2O3 in its framework structure obtainable and/or obtained according to the process of any of embodiments 1 to 83.

85. The zeolitic material of embodiment 84, wherein the zeolitic material has a CHA-type framework structure, wherein preferably the zeolitic material is selected from the group consisting of Willhendersonite, ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, MeAPSO-47, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , |Li-Na| [Al- Si-0]-CHA, (Ni(deta)2)-UT-6, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of ZYT-6, SAPO-47, Na-Chabazite, Chabazite, LZ-218, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, ZK-14, K-Chabazite, Phi, DAF-5, UiO-21 , SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, Linde D, Linde R, SAPO-34, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or more thereof,

more preferably from the group consisting of Chabazite, SSZ-13, and SSZ-62, including mixtures of two or three thereof,

wherein more preferably the zeolitic material comprises chabazite and/or SSZ-13, prefer ably SSZ-13, and wherein more preferably the zeolitic material is chabazite and/or SSZ- 13, preferably SSZ-13.

86. The zeolitic material of embodiment 84, wherein the zeolitic material has an AEI-type framework structure, wherein preferably the zeolitic material is selected from the group consisting of SSZ-39, SAPO-18, SIZ-8, including mixtures of two or more thereof, wherein more preferably the zeolitic material having an AEI-type framework structure is SSZ-39.

87. The zeolitic material of any one of embodiments 84 to 86, wherein the mean particle size D50 by volume of the zeolitic material as determined according to ISO 13320:2009 is in the range of from 0.1 to 10 pm, and is preferably in the range of from 0.3 to 6.0 pm, more preferably in the range of from 1.5 to 4.5 pm, and more preferably in the range of from 2.5 to 3.6 pm.

88. Use of the zeolitic material according to any of embodiments 84 to 87 as a molecular sieve, as an adsorbent, for ion-exchange, as a catalyst or a precursor thereof, and/or as a catalyst support or a precursor thereof, preferably as a catalyst or a precursor thereof and/or as a catalyst support or a precursor thereof, more preferably as a catalyst or a precursor thereof, more preferably as a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides NOx; for the storage and/or adsorption of CO2; for the oxidation of NH3, in particular for the oxidation of NH3 slip in diesel systems; for the decomposition of N2O; as an additive in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes; and/or as a catalyst in organic conversion reactions, preferably in the conversion of alcohols to olefins, and more preferably in methanol to olefin (MTO) catalysis; more preferably for the selective catalytic re duction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides NOx, and more preferably for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides NOx in exhaust gas from a combustion engine, preferably from a diesel engine or from a lean burn gasoline engine.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 displays the SEM images of the product obtained in example 1 after 6 steps of milling for 1 min and crystallized for a duration of 3 h having a crystallinity of 101.3%, wherein the SEM is shown at different degrees of magnification (clockwise from upper left: x100,000, cdO,OOO, x10,000, and x30,000).

Figure 2 shows the X-ray diffraction pattern (measured using Cu K alpha-1 radiation) of the crystalline material obtained according to example 1 1 , wherein the line pattern of the CHA-type framework (dark grey line pattern) as well as of a further phase (light grey line pattern) has been further included in the figure for comparison. In the figures, the angle 2 theta in ° is shown along the abscissa and the intensities are plotted along the ordinate.

Figure 3 displays two SEM images of a portion of a sample of the product obtained from example 1 1 at different magnifications, wherein the scale in the images in pm are indicated by the legend at the bottom right of the respective image.

Figure 4 displays the 27 Al MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture of example 4, wherein the chemical shift in ppm is plotted along the abscissa and the relative intensity in arbitrary units is shown along the ordinate. Furthermore, the integration values for the relative intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm as well as the position of the peak maxima within those ranges are respectively indicated along the ordinate.

Figure 5 displays the 27 Al MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture of comparative example 10, wherein the chemical shift in ppm is plotted along the abscissa and the relative intensity in arbitrary units is shown along the ordinate.

Furthermore, the integration values for the relative intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm as well as the position of the peak maxima within those ranges are respectively indicated along the ordinate.

Figure 6 displays the 27 Al MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture of example 2, wherein the chemical shift in ppm is plotted along the abscissa and the relative intensity in arbitrary units is shown along the ordinate. Furthermore, the integration values for the relative intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm as well as the position of the peak maxima within those ranges are respectively indicated along the ordinate.

Figure 7 displays the 27 Al MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture of example 5, wherein the chemical shift in ppm is plotted along the abscissa and the relative intensity in arbitrary units is shown along the ordinate. Furthermore, the integration values for the relative intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm as well as the position of the peak maxima within those ranges are respectively indicated along the ordinate..

EXAMPLES

Reference Example 1 : Determination of the energy intake of the mixture during the grinding procedure

The energy intake can be determined via determination of the torque with the stirred media mill. The torque has to be determined, first without the material of which the energy intake is to be determined and, second, with said material. The torque determined for the experiment without the material of which the energy intake is to be determined is subtracted from the torque determined for the experiment with said material. Based on the result from said calculation, the specific energy input in kJ/kg can be calculated. It is also possible to determine the torque with other devices. Thus, either the torque with and without material load is determined and the energy intake is calculated as described above or the power input with material (load value) and without material (no-load value) is determined. With regards to the latter, the no-load value is subtracted from the load value und the energy intake as introduced into the product can be calculated.

Presently, the energy intake was determined via determination of the torque using a torque-determination apparatus IC3001-Ex (German:“Drehmoment-Messeinrichtung IC3001 -Ex”; Dr. Staiger, Mohilo & Co. GmbH, Schorndorf) and a torque-rotation speed determination apparatus IC3001-Ex-n (German:“Drehmoment-Drehzahl-Messeinrichtung IC3001-Ex-n”; Dr. Staiger, Mohilo & Co. GmbH, Schorndorf), whereby manual no. 1294 dated May 13, 1993 (German:

“Prufanleitung Nr. 1294”) was used. The torque-determination apparatus was used according to the suggested installation under item 5.1 in manual no. 1234 (German:“Bedienungsanleitung

Nr. 1234”), the mechanical installation (German:“3.1 Mechanischer Aufbau”) was done according to the suggested installation under item 3.1 of said manual, and the electrical installation (German:“3.2 Elektrischer Aufbau”) according to the suggested installation under item 3.2 of said manual.

Reference Example 2: X-ray diffraction analysis

Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data for example 1 was collected using using a diffractometer (Rigaku Ultima IV) equipped with a D/Tex Ultra detector operated with Cu Ka monochromatized radiation at 40 kV and 40 mA. A scan step was 0.02° at a scan speed of 20°/min. Crystallinity was calculated using integrated peak areas of the peaks in 2theta rage of 20°-35°.

Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data for examples 2-1 1 was collected using a diffractometer (D8 Advance Series II, Bruker AXS GmbH) equipped with a LYNXEYE detector operated with a Copper anode X-ray tube running at 40kV and 40mA. The geometry was Bragg-Brentano, and air scattering was reduced using an air scatter shield. The crystallinity was determined using DIFFRAC.EVA software (User Manual for DIFFRAC.EVA, Bruker AXS GmbH, Karlsruhe).

Reference Example 3: 27AI MAS solid-state NMR analysis

27AI solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed using the following devices, procedures and parameters: Storage of samples at 62% relative humidity for at least 60 hours prior to packing, packing of samples into 4mm ZrC>2 rotors with Kel-F caps, Bruker Avance III spectrometer with 9.4 Tesla magnet, 10 kHz (w/2tt) magic angle spinning, one-pulse radiofrequency excitation corresponding to a 0.83ps 15°-pulse on AICI3-solution (1 % in H20), 10 ms acquisition of the free induction decay, no heteronuclear 1H radiofrequency decoupling, averaging of at least 5120 scans with a recycle delay of 0.5s, Fourier transform with 10 Hz exponential line broadening for noise suppression, manual phasing and baseline correction in Bruker Top-spin 3.0. Spectra were referenced relative to AI(N03)3 in D20, 1.1 mol/kg at a frequency ratio of 0.26056859 on the absolute chemical shift scale, according to Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 80, No. 1 , pp. 59-84, 2008, using adamantane with a 13C methylene resonance at 37.77ppm as a secondary standard. For each spectrum, two integral ranges were defined, integral h ranging from 75 ppm to 25 ppm, and Integral l2 ranging from 25 to -20 ppm. A relative integral lr defined as lr = l2 / (h + l2) was calculated.

Reference Example 4: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

For Example 1 , field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images were observed on a JSM-7500FA (JEOL) after Os coating over the powder samples on the carbon tape.

For Example 1 1 , the SEM images were measured with secondary electrons at 5 kV for providing topographic images. The samples were mounted for measurement using Leit-C Plast and

were coated with around 6-9 nm Pt. The SEM measurements were performed with an instrument from Zeiss, Model Ultra55.

Example 1 : Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

15.1 g (20 wt%) of cyclohexyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (CHTMAOH) solution (BASF) and 4.97 g (25 wt%) of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH; Wako) were first mixed. 0.674 g of aluminum hydroxide was added slowly under stirring. After dispersion of aluminum hydroxide for 30 min at 500 rpm, 18.0 g of colloidal silica (40 wt.-% aqueous solution; Ludox AS-40) was added. The mixture was further stirred for 10 min before the addition of 0.720 g CHA seed crystals and 5 min after seed addition, thus affording molar ratios of S1O2 : 0.036 AI2O3 : 0.158 CHTMAOH : 0.1 13 TMAOH : 12.291 H20.

A first part of the mixture was subject to milling in a first type of planetary ball mill (THINKY Planetary Centrifugal Mixer ARE-310). More specifically, 39.4 g of reactant mixture and 45 g of 5 mm Si3N4 balls were charged into the vessel with PFA (perfluoroalkoxy alkanes)-liner and milled therein at 2000 rpm for 1 minute, wherein the milling step was repeated twice for a first sample and 5 times for a second sample. Approximately 1.6 g samples of the aforementioned samples were respectively charged into stain-less tubular reactors and heated in an oil bath for crystallization of the reaction mixture, wherein different durations of crystallization were chosen for different samples. For comparison corresponding samples of the reaction mixture was directly subject to crystallization for different durations, i.e. without having been subject to any mech- anochemical activation. The results of the crystallization are displayed in the table below.



Thus, as may be taken from the results displayed in the table above, a highly crystalline product may be obtained after short reaction times thanks to mechanochemical activation of the reaction mixture by milling, wherein the crystallinity obtained is a function of the duration of the milling step.

In figure 1 , the SEM images of the product obtained after 6 steps of milling for 1 min and crystal lized for a duration of 3 h is shown at different degrees of magnification.

A second part of the mixture was subject to milling in a second type of planetary ball mill

(Fritsch Planetary Mills Classic line P-6). More specifically, 49.3 g of reactant mixture and 158 g of 5 mm S13N4 balls were charged into the S13N4 pot and milled therein at 500 rpm for 15 minutes, wherein the milling step was repeated once for a second sample. Approximately 1.6 g samples of the aforementioned samples were again respectively charged into stain-less tubular reactors and heated in an oil bath for crystallization of the reaction mixture, wherein different durations of crystallization were chosen for different samples. For comparison corresponding samples of the reaction mixture was directly subject to crystallization for different durations, i.e. without having been subject to any mechanochemical activation. The results of the crystalliza tion are displayed in the table below.



As may again be taken from the results displayed in the table above, a highly crystalline product may be obtained after short reaction times thanks to mechanochemical activation of the reaction mixture by milling, wherein again the crystallinity obtained is a function of the duration of the milling step.

Example 2: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 2.03 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25 wt% aqueous solution): 35.71 g

AI(OH)3, amorphous (obtained from Bernd Kraft): 1.32 g

H20: 21.56 g

Stirred media ball mill specifications: Peripheral speed of rotor: 6 m/s; size of milling balls: 2.8 - 3.3 mm; Volume of milling vial: 940 ml_; Volume of balls: 470 ml_.

2.03 g of NaOH solution, 35.71 g of TMAdAOH solution, and 1.32 g of AI(OH)3 were mixed in a beaker and filled into a milling vial. The H20 was filled into the beaker and also added to the milling vial. The mixture was then milled in the stirred media ball mill for 10 min at 6m/s. The mill was cooled during the procedure using a coolant. 38.1 1 g of colloidal silica (30 wt.-% aqueous solution; Ludox AS 30) were then added to the mixture, which was milled again for a total of 10 min (6 m/s). 1.27 g of chabasite seeds were then added to the mixture, which was milled again for 5 min (6 m/s). The total energy intake of the mixture during the milling steps was 133.6 J/g, determined as described in Reference Example 1.

The content of the mill was then filled into a sieve and the reaction mixture separated from the balls using a mechanical shaker for affording 33.0 g of a dark grey liquid. A portion of the mech- anochemically activated reaction mixture was analyzed by 27AI MAS NMR. To this effect, the sample was allowed to dry at 1 10°C for 16h. As may be taken from figure 6, the 27AI MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture showed a relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm (h) of 51.9 and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm (l2) of 48.1 such as to afford a ratio of the integration values l2 : (h + l2) of 48.1.

Samples of the reaction mixture were then subject to crystallization in a reactor tube (12mm x 1 5mm x 15cm) at 230°C for different durations, after which the solid products were filtered off, washed with distilled water, and calcined at 550°C. The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.



Thus, as may be taken from the table, a highly crystalline product may be obtained after short reaction times thanks to mechanochemical activation of the reaction mixture by milling, wherein the optimal reaction time lies around 1 h.

Example 3: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

The procedure of example 2 was repeated, wherein the reaction mixture was crystallized for durations of 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.


Thus, as may be taken from the table, the results of example 2 are confirmed, wherein in partic ular the optimal reaction time lies around 1 h.

Example 4: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 4.06 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25wt% aqueous solution): 71.42 g

AI(OH)3, amorphous (obtained from Bernd Kraft): 2.64 g

H20: 43.12 g

4.06 g of NaOH solution, 71.42 g of TMAdAOH solution, and 2.64 g of AI(OH)3 were mixed in a beaker and filled into a milling vial. The H20 was filled into the beaker and also added to the milling vial. The mixture was then milled in the stirred media ball mill for 10 min at 6m/s. The mill was cooled during the procedure using a coolant. 76.22 g of colloidal silica (30 wt.-% aqueous solution; Ludox AS 30) were then added to the mixture, which was milled again for a total of 10 min (6m/s). 2.54 g of chabasite seeds were then added to the mixture, which was milled again for 5 min (6m/s). The total energy intake of the mixture during the milling steps was 267.3 J/g, determined as described in Reference Example 1.

The content of the mill was then filled into a sieve and the reaction mixture separated from the balls using a mechanical shaker. A portion of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture was analyzed by 27AI MAS NMR. To this effect, the sample was allowed to dry at 1 10°C for 16h. As may be taken from figure 4, the 27AI MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture showed a relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm (h) of 42.5 and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm (l2) of 57.5 such as to afford a ratio of the integration values I2 : (h + I2) of 57.5.

Samples of the reaction mixture were then subject to crystallization at 230°C in a reactor tube (12mm x 1 5mm x 15cm) for different durations, after which the solid products were filtered off, washed with distilled water, and calcined at 550°C. The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.


Thus, as may be taken from the table, a highly crystalline product may be obtained after short reaction times thanks to mechanochemical activation of the reaction mixture by milling, wherein the optimal reaction time lies around 1 h.

Example 5: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

The procedure of example 4 was repeated, wherein the reaction mixture was crystallized for durations of 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Again, after milling and prior to crystallization a portion of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture was analyzed by 27AI MAS NMR. To this effect, the sample was allowed to dry at 110°C for 16h. As may be taken from figure 7, the 27AI MAS NMR of the mechanochemically activated reaction mixture showed a relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm (h) of 44.7 and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm (I2) of 55.3 such as to afford a ratio of the integration values I2 : (h + I2) of 55.3.

The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.


Thus, as may be taken from the table, the results of example 4 are confirmed, wherein in particular the optimal reaction time lies around 1 h.

Example 6: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 4.06 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25wt% aqueous solution): 71.42 g

AI(OH)3, amorphous (obtained from Bernd Kraft): 2.64 g

H20: 43.12 g

Stirred media ball mill specifications: Peripheral speed of rotor: 6 m/s; size of milling balls: 2.8 - 3.3 mm; Volume of milling vial: 940 ml_; Volume of balls: 470 ml_.

4.06 g of NaOH solution, 71.42 g of TMAdAOH solution, 2.64 g of AI(OH)3, and 43.12 g of H20 were mixed in a beaker and stirred for 1 min. 76.22 g of colloidal silica (30 wt.-% aqueous solu tion; Ludox AS 30) were then added to the mixture, which was stirred again for 1 min, after which the mixture was filled into a milling vial. 2.54 g of chabasite seeds were then added to the mixture, which was then milled in the stirred media ball mill for 10 min (6m/s). The total energy intake of the mixture during the milling steps was 127.7 J/g, determined as described in Reference Example 1.

The content of the mill was then filled into a sieve and the reaction mixture separated from the balls using a mechanical shaker. A sample of the reaction mixture was then subject to crystallization in a reactor tube (12mm x 1.5mm x 15cm) at 230°C for 1 h, after which the solid product was filtered off, washed with distilled water, and calcined at 550°C. The result of the synthesis is shown in the table below.



Thus, as may be taken from the results, compared to the results obtained in examples 4 and 5 for reaction durations of 30 and 60 min, the shorter duration of milling in the present examples allows for a faster crystallization and leads to an optimum in crystallinity and content of zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure in the product which is already reached in less than 60 min with regard to the duration of the reaction. Nevertheless, better absolute val ues in crystallinity and content of zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure in the product may be achieved in examples 4 and 5, albeit after longer reaction times. Accordingly, comparison of examples 4 and 5 with the present example demonstrate that a fine tuning of the desired results with regard to duration of the reaction, crystallinity, and content of zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure in the product may be achieved by varying the duration of the milling procedure.

Example 7: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 101.5 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25wt% aqueous solution): 1785.5 g AI(OH)3, amorphous (obtained from Bernd Kraft): 66.0 g

H20: 1078.0 g

Stirred media ball mill specifications: Peripheral speed of rotor: 6 m/s; size of milling balls: 2.8 - 3.3 mm; Volume of milling vial: 940 ml_; Volume of balls: 470 ml_.

101 .5 g of NaOH solution, 1785.5 g of TMAdAOH solution, 66.0 g of AI(OH)3, and 1078.0 g of H2O were mixed in a beaker and stirred for 30 min. 1905.5 g of colloidal silica (30 wt.-% aqueous solution; Ludox AS 30) were then added to the mixture, which was further stirred for 10 min.

63.5 g of chabazite seeds were then added to the mixture, which was further stirred for 1 min. The mixture was then continuously fed into a milling vial at a rate from 12-20 l/h, wherein the milling in the stirred media ball mill was conducted for a total duration of 125 min with a retention time in the mill of 5 min. The energy intake of the mixture during the milling steps was 81 .2 J/g, determined as described in Reference Example 1. The remaining content of the mill was then filled into a sieve and the last portion of the reaction mixture separated from the balls using a mechanical shaker. A sample of the reaction mixture was then subject to crystallization in a reactor tube (12mm x 1 5mm x 15cm) at 230°C for 1 h, after which the solid product was filtered off, washed with distilled water, and calcined at 550 °C. The result of the synthesis is shown in the table below.



Thus, as may be taken from the results, compared to the result obtained in example 6, the yet shorter duration of milling in the present examples is compensated by the longer duration of the mixing steps, thus leading to a slightly higher crystallinity of the reaction product, as well as to a substantially higher content of zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure in the product. Consequently, the higher the homogeneity of the mixture to be milled, the better the crystallinity, and the higher the content of zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure in the product.

Comparative Example 8: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework struc ture via conventional synthesis

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 2.03 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25wt% aqueous solution): 35.71 g

AI(OH)3, amorphous (obtained from Bernd Kraft): 1.32 g

H20: 21.56 g

2.03 g of NaOH solution, 35.71 g of TMAdAOH solution, 1 .32 g of AI(OH)3, and 21.56 g of distilled water were mixed in a beaker. 38.1 1 g of colloidal silica (30 wt.-% aqueous solution; Ludox AS 30) were then added to the mixture under stirring, and the resulting mixture further stirred for 5 min.

Samples of the reaction mixture were then subject to crystallization in a reactor tube (12mm x 1.5mm x 15cm) at 230 °C for different durations, after which the solid products were filtered off, washed with distilled water, and calcined at 550 °C. The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.


Thus, as opposed to the results obtained according to examples 2-7 with mechanochemical activation, a comparable crystallinity of the product is obtained only at the considerable expense of the amount of CHA in the crystalline phase. In particular, for obtaining a product with a comparatively high crystallinity, the reaction must be conducted for durations leading to entirely in- acceptable levels of the CHA-phase in the resulting material.

These results, however, are also the consequence of using amorphous aluminum hydroxide as the aluminum source. In particular, amorphous AI(OH)3 leads to faster crystallization than crystalline AI(OH)3 because it is dissolves better in the synthesis gel. However, that leads to more side phases, and thus to a lower proportion of the CHA-phase. It has, however, surprisingly been found that mechanochemical activation of the gel with the amorphous AI(OH)3 slows down the side phase formation with respect to the present comparative sample.

Example 9: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mech- anochemical activation

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 4.06 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25wt% aqueous solution): 71.42 g

AI(OH)3, crystalline (obtained from Wako): 2.64 g

H20: 43.12 g

The procedure of example 6 was repeated with the chemicals indicated above, wherein the reaction mixture was crystallized for durations of 15, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively.

The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.


Thus, as may be taken from the table, the results of examples 4 and 5 are confirmed, wherein in particular the optimal reaction time lies around 1 h.

Comparative Example 10: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via conventional synthesis

NaOH, 50% aqueous solution: 2.03 g

Adamantyltrimethyammoniumhydroxid; TMAdAOH (25wt% aqueous solution): 35.71 g

AI(OH)3, crystalline (obtained from Wako): 1.32 g

H20: 21.56 g

2.03 g of NaOH solution, 35.71 g of TMdAOH solution, 1.32 g of AI(OH)3, and 21.56 g of H2O were mixed in a beaker under stirring. 38.1 1 g of colloidal silica (30 wt.-% aqueous solution; Ludox AS 30) were then added to the mixture, which was stirred for 10 min. 1.27 g of chabasite seeds were then added to the mixture under stirring, and the final mixture was further stirred for 5 min.

A portion of the mixture was analyzed by 27 Al MAS NMR. To this effect, the sample was allowed to dry at 110°C for 16h. As may be taken from figure 5, the 27AI MAS NMR of the reaction mixture showed a relative 27AI solid-state NMR intensity integral within the range of 75 to 25 ppm (h) of 16.5 and within the range of 25 to -20 ppm (l2) of 83.5 such as to afford a ratio of the inte gration values : (h + I2) of 83.5.

Samples of the reaction mixture were then subject to crystallization in a reactor tube (12mm x 1 5mm x 15cm) at 230°C for different durations, after which the solid products were filtered off, washed with distilled water, and calcined at 550°C. The results of the respective synthesis are shown in the table below.


Thus, as may be taken from the table, although a product of a high purity may be obtained after 1 h of reaction time, compared to the results in example 9, the product obtained after a reaction duration of 1 h displays a lower crystallinity than the products previously subject to mechano chemical activation as obtained in the same time according to example 9.

Despite the fact that a higher phase purity is obtained using crystalline AI(OH)3 as the aluminum source, the results for both the use of amorphous and crystalline AI(OH)3 as the aluminum source demonstrate that overall, mechanochemical activation decreases the crystallization time.

Example 1 1 : Continuous synthesis of a zeolitic material having the CHA-type framework structure via mechanochemical activation

A teflon-lined tubular reactor having an inner diameter of 6.4 mm and a reactor volume of 160 ml was filled with 250 ml of a perfluoropolyether (Fomblin). The synthesis gel obtained from example 7 was then fed into the reactor and continuously crystallized in the reactor which was heated to a temperature of 240 °C and at a pressure of 55 bars wherein the retention time was set to 1 h. High pressure ball valves were installed after the outlet of the reactor connected by a short steel tube of 2.5 ml_ (d = 6 mm). The reaction mixture was continuously guided through the reactor by introducing the synthesis gel under high pressure. The first high pressure ball valve was opened to allow synthesis gel to flow into the short steel tube and then closed again to maintain the pressure on the reactor. After closing of the first high pressure ball valve, the second opened immediately, allowing the reaction mixture to exit the tube. The frequency of the subsequent opening and closing of the high pressure ball valves was set to allow a retention time of 60 min in the reactor. The suspension obtained at the exit of the reactor was continuous ly collected, wherein the peril uoropolyether was removed from the reaction product via phase separation. The aqueous phase was then centrifuged, and the solid washed with water and dried at 80°C over night. The product was then calcined at 550 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis of the product afforded a crystallinity of 94 %, wherein the product consisted of a substantially pure chabazite phase (see figure 2).

Figure 3 displays two SEM images of a portion of the sample of the product at different magnifications.

Elemental analysis of the product afforded: F: 0.23%, C: 0.3%, Al: 3.1 %, Na: 1.1 %, Si: 38%.

Example 12: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the AEI-type framework structure including mechanochemical activation

8.03 g of a 20 weight-% 1 , 1 ,3,5-tetramethylpiperidinium hydroxide (TMPOH) solution in deionized water and 1 .08 g of zeolite Y (HSZ-320HOA) were mixed. 20.1 g of water glass (Wako;

25 weight-% S1O2 and 6.5 weight-% Na2<0 in water) and 0.620 g of AEI seed crystals were added slowly under stirring to obtain a reaction mixture. Mechanochemical activation was performed in a planetary ball mill (THI NKY Planetary Centrifugal Mixer ARE-310), whereby 29.8 g of the reaction mixture and 90 g of S13N4 balls each having a diameter of 5 mm were charged into the vessel equipped with a PFA (perfluoroalkoxy alkanes)-liner. The reaction mixture was treated at 2000 rpm for 1 min. Said treatment was repeated 5 times. The resulting mixture had molar ratios of 43.0 S1O2 : 1.0 AI2O3 : 4.2 OSDA : 10.0 Na20 : 455 H2O.

Approximately 4.5 g of the resulting mixture were charged into a stain-less tubular reactor. The reactor was heated to a temperature of 210 °C using an oil bath and stirred with 20 rpm.

The reaction mixture crystallized after a reaction time of 40 min. X-ray diffraction analysis of the product afforded a crystallinity of 94.4 %, wherein the product consisted of a substantially pure AEI-type zeolite.

Example 13: Synthesis of a zeolitic material having the AEI-type framework structure including mechanochemical activation

Example 12 was repeated whereby the treatment of the reaction mixture at 2000 rpm for 1 min was repeated 1 1 times. The reaction mixture crystallized after a reaction time of 40 min. X-ray diffraction analysis of the product afforded a crystallinity of 96.4 %, wherein the product consist ed of a substantially pure AEI-type zeolite.

Accordingly, it has surprisingly been found that the mechanochemical activation may also be applied to a continuous methodology for affording a material of high quality and purity in a brief reaction time.

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