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1. WO2020016556 - DÉTECTION DISTRIBUÉE PAR FIBRE OPTIQUE

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]

CLAIMS

1. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus, comprising:

an optical source;

a local oscillator path configured to generate a local oscillator signal from the optical source;

an optical modulator configured to, in use, modulate radiation from the optical source to provide a first interrogation pulse at a first frequency and a second interrogation pulse at a second, different, frequency in each of a plurality of repeated interrogation periods, where each of the first and second frequencies is different to the frequency of the local oscillator signal;

a mixer configured to receive a backscatter signal comprising radiation from the first and second interrogation pulses which is backscattered from within a sensing optical fibre and to mix the backscatter signal with the local oscillator signal to provide a first mixed signal;

a detector arrangement configured to receive the first mixed signal and provide a corresponding first digital signal;

a processor configured to process the first digital signal, wherein the processor is configured to:

process the first digital signal in a first processing channel to demodulate a first phase signal based on a first carrier frequency corresponding to the frequency difference between the first frequency and the frequency of the local oscillator signal;

process the first digital signal in a second processing channel to demodulate a second phase signal based on a second carrier frequency corresponding to the frequency difference between the second frequency and the frequency of the local oscillator signal; and determine a temporal difference between the first phase signal and the second phase signal.

2. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the frequency difference between the first frequency and the second frequency is at least 80MHz.

3. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein the frequency difference between the first frequency and the second frequency is at least 100MHz.

4. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the first frequency and the second frequency each differ from the frequency of the local oscillator signal by at least 200MHz.

5. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein the first launch frequency and the second launch frequency each differ from the frequency of the local oscillator signal by a frequency difference in the range 200MHz to 400MHz.

6. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the first and second phase signals each comprise spatial-differential phase signals indicative of a differential change in phase over a defined gauge length of the sensing optical fibre at each of a plurality of locations along the sensing optical fibre as determined from the first and second interrogation pulses respectively.

7. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the processor is further configured to integrate the determined temporal difference between the first phase signal and the second phase signal over time with a scaling factor based on the time delay between the first and second interrogation pulses as a fraction of the interrogation period to provide a scaled phase signal.

8. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 7 wherein the processor is further configured to output a measurement signal based on the scaled phase signal.

9. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the processor is configured such that the processing of the first digital signal comprises:

down-converting and subsequently low-pass filtering a version of the first digital signal based on the first carrier frequency to provide a first baseband signal in the first processing channel; and

down-converting and subsequently low-pass filtering a version of the first digital signal based on the second carrier frequency to provide a second baseband signal in the second processing channel.

10. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 9 wherein the processor is configured such that the low-pass filtering has a cut-off frequency of 40MHz or higher.

11. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 9 or claim 10 wherein the detector arrangement is configured such that the first digital signal has a sample rate which is at least twice the frequency of the highest of the first carrier frequency and the second carrier frequency and the processor is configured to process the first and second baseband signals in the respective first and second processing channels to reduce the sample rate.

12. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 11 wherein processing the first and second baseband signals further comprises summing each of the first and second baseband signals over a distance corresponding to half a length of the first and second interrogation pulses in the sensing optical fibre.

13. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in any of claims 9 to 12 wherein the processor is configured such that the processing of the first digital signal comprises, for each of the first and second processing channels, determining a value of phase angle of a phasor of the respective first or second baseband signal for each of a plurality of locations along the sensing optical fibre.

14. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 13 wherein the processor is configured such that the processing of the first digital signal comprises, for each of the first and second processing channels, generating the respective first or second phase signals by determining a differential change in said phase angle over a defined gauge length of the sensing optical fibre at each of a plurality of locations along the sensing optical fibre.

15. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim wherein:

the mixer is further configured to mix the backscatter signal with the local oscillator signal in a different polarisation state to provide a second mixed signal;

the detector arrangement is also configured to receive the second mixed signal and provide a corresponding second digital signal; and

the processor is configured to process the second digital signal in the same way as the first digital signal.

16. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus as claimed in claim 15 wherein the processor is configured to combine data generated from processing the first digital signal and data generated from processing the first digital signal according to a quality metric.

17. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus according to any preceding claim wherein the optical modulator comprises an acousto-optic modulator.

18. A distributed fibre optic sensing apparatus according to any preceding claim further comprising a sensing optical fibre coupled to receive the interrogating pulses from the optical modulator and to provide the backscatter signal to the mixer.

19. A method of distributed fibre optic sensing comprising:

generating a local oscillator signal;

repeatedly interrogating a sensing optical fibre with optical radiation, wherein each interrogation comprises, over an interrogation period, launching a first interrogation pulse at a first frequency and a second interrogation pulse at a second, different, frequency into the sensing optical fibre, wherein the each of the first and second frequencies is different to the frequency of the local oscillator signal;

receiving a backscatter signal from the sensing optical fibre;

mixing the backscatter signal with the local oscillator signal to provide a first mixed signal;

generating a first digital signal corresponding to the first mixed signal;

processing the first digital signal in a first processing channel to demodulate a first phase signal based on a first carrier frequency corresponding to the frequency difference between the first frequency and the frequency of the local oscillator signal;

processing the first digital signal in a second processing channel to demodulate a second phase signal based on a second carrier frequency corresponding to the frequency difference between the second frequency and the frequency of the local oscillator signal; and

determining a temporal difference between the first phase signal and the second phase signal.