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1. (WO2019032554) CONVERSION NON THERMIQUE PAR PLASMA D'HYDROCARBURES
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A system for plasma based synthesis of graphitic materials, the system comprising:

a plasma forming zone configured to generate a plasma from radio-frequency radiation;

an interface element configured to transmit the plasma from the plasma forming zone to a reaction zone; and

the reaction zone configured to receive the plasma, wherein the reaction zone is further configured to:

receive feedstock material comprising a carbon containing species, and

convert the feedstock material to a product comprising the graphitic materials in presence of the plasma.

2. The system of claim 1, wherein the plasma forming zone comprises:

a radiation source; and

a discharge tube coupled to the radiation source configured to receive a plasma forming material, wherein the discharge tube is made from a material that is transparent to the radio-frequency radiation.

3. The system of claim 2, wherein the plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water.

4. The system of claim 3, further comprising a waveguide configured to couple the radiation source to the discharge tube.

5. The system of claim 1, wherein the reaction zone comprises a reaction vessel

including a resonant cavity, and wherein the reaction vessel is formed from material that is opaque to the radio-frequency radiation.

6. The system of claim 1, wherein the plasma transmitted from the plasma forming zone to the reaction zone forms a dense plasma head that is configured to transmit the radio-frequency radiation from the plasma forming zone to the reaction zone.

7. The system of claim 2, further comprising a reaction tube configured to surround the discharge tube and form an annulus, wherein the feedstock material flows in the annulus through the plasma forming zone before entering the reaction zone.

8. The system of claim 7, wherein a dielectric strength of the plasma forming material is less than a dielectric strength of the feedstock material.

9. The system of claim 1, wherein the feedstock material is introduced directly into the reaction zone without being exposed to the radio-frequency radiation in the plasma forming zone.

10. The system of claim 1, wherein the reaction zone is further configured to receive a process gas.

11. The system of claim 1, wherein the feedstock material further comprises molecular hydrogen.

12. The system of claim 11, wherein a molar ratio of the carbon containing species to the molecular hydrogen in the feedstock material is about 5 : 1 to about 1 : 1.

13. The system of claim 1, wherein the feedstock material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: aromatic, alkylated aromatic, paraffinic, olefinic, cycloolefin, napthenic, alkane, alkene, alkyl cycloalkane, alkylated cycoalkane, alkyne, alcohol, and heteroatom hydrocarbons.

14. The system of claim 1, wherein the feedstock material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: methane, ethane, propane, butane, syngas, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, carbon dioxide, hexane, benzene, paraffins, polyaromatics and naphthalene.

15. The system of claim 1, wherein the plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water.

16. The system of claim 1, wherein the graphitic material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: nano-graphene sheets, semi- graphitic particles, and amorphous particles.

17. The system of claim 16, wherein a lateral dimension of the nano-graphene sheets is about 50 nm to about 500 nm.

18. The system of claim 16, wherein a concentration of the nano-graphene sheets in the product is proportional to a concentration of molecular hydrogen in the feedstock material.

19. The system of claim 1, wherein the radio-frequency radiation is microwave

radiation.

20. The system of claim 1, wherein the plasma is non-thermal plasma comprising a

plurality of streamers.

21. A method for plasma based synthesis of graphitic materials, the method comprising :

delivering, into a plasma forming zone, a plasma forming material; exposing the plasma forming material to radio-frequency radiation to generate a plasma;

transmitting the plasma from the plasma forming zone to a reaction zone; delivering, to the reaction zone, feedstock material comprising a carbon containing species; and

converting the feedstock material to a product comprising graphitic materials in presence of the plasma.

22. The method of claim 21, wherein the plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water.

23. The method of claim 21, wherein the plasma transmitted from the plasma forming zone to the reaction zone forms a dense plasma head that is configured to transmit the radio-frequency radiation from the plasma forming zone to a reaction zone.

24. The method of claim 21, wherein a dielectric strength of the plasma forming

material is less than a dielectric strength of the feedstock material.

25. The method of claim 21, further comprising delivering a process gas to the reaction zone.

26. The method of claim 21, wherein the feedstock material further comprises molecular hydrogen.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein a molar ratio of the carbon containing species to the molecular hydrogen in the feedstock material is about 5 : 1 to about 1 : 1.

28. The method of claim 21, wherein the feedstock material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: aromatic, alkylated aromatic, paraffinic, olefinic, cycloolefin, napthenic, alkane, alkene, alkyl cycloalkane, alkylated cycoalkane, alkyne, alcohol, and heteroatom hydrocarbons.

29. The method of claim 21, wherein the feedstock material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: methane, ethane, propane, butane, syngas, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, carbon dioxide, hexane, benzene, paraffins, polyaromatics and naphthalene.

30. The method of claim 21, wherein the plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water.

31. The method of claim 21, wherein the graphitic material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: nano-graphene sheets, semi- graphitic particles, and amorphous particles.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein a lateral dimension of the nano-graphene sheets is about 50 nm to about 500 nm.

33. The method of claim 31, wherein a concentration of the nano-graphene sheets in the product is proportional to a concentration of molecular hydrogen in the feedstock material.

34. The method of claim 21, wherein the radio-frequency radiation is microwave

radiation.

35. The method of claim 21, wherein the plasma is non-thermal plasma comprising a plurality of streamers.

36. A system comprising:

a first conduit;

a second conduit configured to receive a second flow of a plasma forming material and positioned within the first conduit to form an annulus between a first surface on the first conduit and a second surface on the second conduit, wherein the annulus is configured to receive a first flow of a hydrocarbon precursor material; a vessel in communication with the first and second conduits, the vessel is configured to receive the first and second flows; and

a radiation source configured to generate microwave radiation and in communication with the vessel, wherein the vessel is configured to:

expose the second flow to the microwave radiation within the vessel, the exposure to selectively convert the plasma forming material into a nonthermal plasma comprising one or more streamers,

expose the first flow to the microwave radiation within the vessel, and

expose the first flow to the one or more streamers, the exposure of the first flow to the microwave radiation and the one or more streamers selectively converting the hydrocarbon precursor material to a product including one or more carbon enriched materials and one or more hydrogen enriched materials.

37. The system of claim 36, wherein the hydrocarbon precursor material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: aromatic, alkylated aromatic, paraffinic, olefinic, cycloolefin, napthenic, alkane, alkene, alkyl cycloalkane, alkylated cycoalkane, alkyne, alcohol, and heteroatom.

38. The system of claim 36, wherein the hydrocarbon precursor material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: methane, ethane, propane, butane, syngas, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexane, benzene, paraffin, and naphthalene.

39. The system of claim 36, wherein the plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water.

40. The system of claim 36, wherein at least one of the first and second flows includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: carbon black, coal, coke, biochar, biomass, graphite, structured carbon, amorphous carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen.

41. The system of claim 40, further comprising the one or more first materials

accelerating the conversion of the hydrocarbon precursor material to the product.

42. The system of claim 40, further comprising:

the radiation source configured to expose the one or more first materials to the one or more streamers and the microwave radiation, the exposure of the one or more first materials selectively converting the one or more first materials to an upgraded second material.

43. The system of claim 36, wherein the carbon enriched materials have a hydrogen atom to carbon atom ratio of less than or equal to 1.

44. The system of claim 36, wherein the carbon enriched materials include one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: graphitic material, amorphous carbon, structured carbon, and ordered carbon.

45. The system of claim 36, wherein the carbon enriched materials include one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: graphene and graphite.

46. The system of claim 36, wherein the hydrogen enriched materials have a hydrogen atom to carbon atom ratio of greater than 1.

47. The system of claim 36, wherein the hydrogen enriched materials include one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene, butadiene, and butane.

48. The system of claim 36, further comprising:

a third conduit configured to receive an output of the vessel, the third conduit configured to selectively return at least one of an unconverted hydrocarbon precursor material and the plasma forming material to the vessel.

49. The system of claim 36, wherein the first conduit is comprised of a microwave

transparent material.

50. The system of claim 49, further comprising:

the first conduit configured to extend a first distance into the vessel, the extension forming a first area that is both within the first conduit and within the vessel;

the radiation source configured to expose the hydrocarbon precursor material within the first area to the microwave radiation.

51. The system of claim 36, wherein the second conduit is comprised of a microwave transparent material.

52. The system of claim 51, further comprising:

the second conduit configured to extend a first distance into the vessel, the extension forming a first area that is both within the second conduit and within the vessel;

the radiation source configured to expose the plasma forming material within the first area to the microwave radiation.

53. The system of claim 36, wherein the vessel is oriented wherein solid particles free- fall through an outlet in communication with the vessel.

54. The system of claim 36, wherein the microwave radiation is less than 30 kilowatts per liter within the vessel.

55. The system of claim 36, wherein the non-thermal plasma has a non-uniform

radiation intensity within the vessel.

56. The system of claim 36, wherein the non-thermal plasma is less than about 5,500 degrees Kelvin.

57. The system of claim 36, wherein:

the vessel is also configured to initiate conversion of the plasma forming material to the non-thermal plasma prior to mixing the plasma forming material with the hydrocarbon precursor material.

58. The system of claim 36, wherein:

the vessel is also configured to initiate exposure of the hydrocarbon precursor material to the microwave radiation prior to exposure of the hydrocarbon precursor material to the non-thermal plasma; and

the vessel is also configured to maintain the hydrocarbon precursor material separate from the plasma forming material during the initiation of the exposure.

59. The system of claim 58, wherein:

the vessel is also configured to initiate exposure of the plasma forming material to the microwave radiation during maintenance of the separation.

60. The system of claim 36, wherein the microwave radiation is between 36 megahertz and 300 gigahertz.

61. The system of claim 36, wherein each the one or more streamers has a longitudinal size that exceeds its transverse radius.

62. A method comprising:

providing a plasma forming material to a reaction zone;

exposing the plasma forming material to microwave radiation, the exposure selectively converting the plasma forming material to a non-thermal plasma, the non-thermal plasma forming one or more streamers;

providing a hydrocarbon precursor material to the reaction zone; and exposing the hydrocarbon precursor material to the one or more streamers and the microwave radiation, wherein the exposure of the hydrocarbon precursor material selectively converts the hydrocarbon precursor material to a product including one or more carbon enriched materials and one or more hydrogen enriched materials.

63. The method of claim 62, wherein the hydrocarbon precursor material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: aromatic, alkylated aromatic, paraffinic, olefinic, cycloolefin, napthenic, alkane, alkene, alkyl cycloalkane, alkylated cycoalkane, alkyne, alcohol, and heteroatom.

64. The method of claim 62, wherein the hydrocarbon precursor material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: methane, ethane, propane, butane, syngas, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexane, benzene, paraffin, and naphthalene.

65. The method of claim 62, wherein the plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water.

66. The method of claim 62, wherein at least one of the hydrocarbon precursor material and plasma forming material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: carbon black, coal, coke, biochar, biomass, graphite, structured carbon, amorphous carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen.

67. The method of claim 66, further comprising the one or more first materials

accelerate the conversion of the hydrocarbon precursor material to the product.

68. The method of claim 67, further comprising:

exposing the one or more first materials to the one or more streamers and the microwave radiation, the exposure of the one or more first materials selectively converting the one or more first materials to an upgraded second material.

69. The method of claim 62, wherein the carbon enriched materials have a hydrogen atom to carbon atom ratio of less than or equal to 1.

70. The method of claim 62, wherein the carbon enriched materials include one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: graphitic material, amorphous carbon, structured carbon, and ordered carbon.

71. The method of claim 62, wherein the carbon enriched materials include one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: graphene and graphite.

72. The method of claim 62, wherein the hydrogen enriched materials have a hydrogen atom to carbon atom ratio of greater than 1.

73. The method of claim 62, wherein the hydrogen enriched materials include one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene, butadiene, and butane.

74. The method of claim 62, further comprising recycling an output of the reaction zone, including selectively returning at least one of an unconverted hydrocarbon precursor material and the plasma forming material to the reaction zone.

75. The method of claim 62, further comprising:

positioning a first conduit and a second conduit proximal to the reaction zone, wherein the first conduit channels the plasma forming material; and

positioning the first conduit within the second conduit, the positioning includes forming an annulus between a first surface of the first conduit and a second surface of the second conduit, wherein the annulus channels the hydrocarbon precursor material.

76. The method of claim 62, further comprising:

orienting the reaction zone with respect to an outlet, wherein one or more solid particles free-fall through the outlet.

77. The method of claim 62, wherein the microwave radiation is less than about 30 kilowatts per liter within the reaction zone.

78. The method of claim 62, wherein the non-thermal plasma has a non-uniform

radiation intensity within the reaction zone.

79. The method of claim 62, wherein the non-thermal plasma is less than 5,500 degrees Kelvin.

80. The method of claim 62, further comprising initiating the conversion of the plasma forming material to the non-thermal plasma prior to mixing the plasma forming material with the hydrocarbon precursor material.

81. The method of claim 62, further comprising:

initiating exposure of the hydrocarbon precursor material to the microwave radiation prior to exposing the hydrocarbon precursor material to the non-thermal plasma; and

maintaining the hydrocarbon precursor material separate from the plasma forming material during the initiation of the exposure.

82. The method of claim 81, further comprising initiating exposure of the plasma

forming material to the microwave radiation during the maintenance of the separation.

83. The method of claim 82, wherein the microwave radiation is between 36 megahertz and 300 gigahertz.

84. The method of claim 62, further comprising providing a plasma promoter material to the reaction zone, and exposing the plasma promoter material to microwave radiation, wherein:

exposure of the plasma promoter material to microwave radiation causes initiation of a non-thermal micro-plasma proximal to the plasma promoter material, and

exposing the hydrocarbon precursor material to the one or more streamers and the microwave radiation further comprises exposing the hydrocarbon precursor material to the non-thermal micro-plasma.

85. The method of claim 84, wherein the plasma promoter material includes one or more first materials selected from the group consisting of: carbon black, coal, biochar, biomass, graphite, activated carbon, a transition metal, a supported transition metal, and structured carbon.

86. The method of claim 84, further comprising:

positioning a first conduit and a second conduit proximal to the reaction zone, wherein the first conduit channels the plasma forming material; and

positioning the first conduit within the second conduit, the positioning includes forming an annulus between a first surface of the first conduit and a second surface of the second conduit, wherein the annulus channels the hydrocarbon precursor material

wherein at least one of the first conduit and the annulus channels the promoter material.

87. The method of claim 84, wherein the micro-plasma extends between two particles of the plasma promoter material.