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1. (WO2019006111) ORGANOÏDES DÉRIVÉS D'UNE CELLULE MAMMAIRE UNIQUE
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WE CLAIM:

1. A method of making an organoid from a mammalian breast tissue in vitro comprising: isolating cells from a mammalian breast tissue to provide isolated cells; and amplifying one or more of the cells by culturing in an extracellular matrix in an organoid medium for a time sufficient to produce organoids that exhibit endogenous three-dimensional organ architecture.

2. The method of Claim 1 wherein the organoid medium comprises basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone.

3. The method of Claim 2 wherein the organoid medium further comprises one or more of Insulin, Transferrin, IGF-1, and Sodium Selenite.

4. The method of Claim 1 wherein the mammalian tissue is a human tissue.

5. The method of Claim 4 wherein the human tissue is human breast tissue.

6. The method of Claim 5 wherein the human breast tissue is primary human normal breast tissue, or primary human breast cancer tissue.

7. The method of Claim 1 wherein the organoids comprise epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells.

8. The method of Claim 1 wherein the time sufficient to produce organoids is about fourteen days.

9. The method of Claim 1 wherein the organoid medium is changed every other day.

10. The method of Claim 2 wherein the bFGF is present at a concentration of about 1-50 mg/mL.

11. The method of Claim 2 wherein the bFGF is present at a concentration of about 1-50 mg/mL, the EGF is present at a concentration of about 1-50 mg/ML, and the hydrocortisone is present at a concentration of about 0.1-10 mM.

12. The method of Claim 3 wherein the medium comprises Insulin at a concentration of about 1-100 mg/mL, Transferrin at a concentration of about 0.5-25 ng/mL, IGF-1 at a concentration of about 1.0-50 ng/mL, and Sodium Selenite at a concentration of about 0.5-25 ng/mL.

13. The method of Claim 1 wherein the isolated cells are sorted for the presence of at least one marker selected from the group consisting of CK18, CK14, GCDFP15"1" and mammoglobin.

14. A breast organoid comprising epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells, the organoid exhibiting endogenous three-dimensional organ architecture.

15. A breast organoid derived in vitro from primary breast normal tissue, wherein the organoid comprises epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells and exhibits endogenous three-dimensional organ architecture.

16. A breast organoid derived in vitro from primary breast cancer tissue, wherein the organoid comprises epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells and exhibits endogenous three-dimensional organ architecture.

17. A cell culture medium supplemented with bFGF, EGF and hydrocortisone.

18. A cell culture medium supplemented with Insulin, IGF-1, Transferrin and Sodium Selenite.

19. The cell culture medium of Claim 17 further comprising Insulin, IGF-1, Transferrin and Sodium Selenite.

20. A kit comprising the cell culture medium of claim 19.

21. A method for identifying an agent having anticancer activity against breast cancer cells from a patient comprising selecting at least one test agent, contacting a plurality of breast organoids derived from breast cancer cells from the patient with the test agent, determining the number of breast organoids in the presence of the test agent and the absence of the test agent, and identifying an agent having anticancer activity if the number or growth of the organoids derived from breast cancer cells from the patient is less in the presence of the agent than in the absence of the agent.

22. A method of personalized treatment for breast cancer in a subject comprising: selecting at least one form of treatment, contacting a plurality of breast organoids with the form of treatment, wherein the organoids are derived from breast cancer cells from the subject, determining the number of breast organoids in the presence of the treatment and the absence of the treatment, and selecting the treatment if the number or growth of the breast organoids is less in the presence of the treatment than in the absence of the treatment.

23. The method of Claim 22 further comprising treating the subject with the selected treatment.

24. A method of personalized treatment for breast disorders in a subject comprising: selecting normal breast cells to generate organoids, wherein the organoids are derived from breast normal cells from the subject, or HLA-matched donors, generating normal patient- specific or HLA-matched breast organoids, and using such organoids for personalized therapies for breast tissue replacement after mastectomy and in mammoplasty applications.

25. A humanized mouse engrafted with components of a patient's immune system and comprising a breast organoid derived from the patient's breast cell grafted into the mouse.

26. The method of claim 21, further comprising providing a mouse engrafted with breast cancer cells from the patient and containing a tumor formed from the breast cancer cells; administering the identified agent having anticancer activity to the mouse; and determining if the tumor size is reduced in the presence of the identified agent.

27. The method of claim 21, further comprising providing a humanized mouse engrafted with components of a patient's immune system and breast cancer cells from the patient and containing a tumor formed from the breast cancer cells; administering the identified agent to the humanized mouse; and comparing the size of the tumor in the humanized mouse with components

of a patient's immune system to the size of the tumor in the mouse in which the identified agent was administered; and determining if the size of the tumor in the humanized mouse with components of a patient's immune system is reduced relative to the size of the tumor in the mouse in which the identified agent was administered.

28. The method of claim 21 or 27, further comprising providing a humanized mouse engrafted with breast cancer cells from the patient and containing a tumor formed from the breast cancer cells; administering a control agent to the humanized mouse engrafted with breast cancer cells from the patient; and comparing the size of the tumor in the humanized mouse engrafted with breast cancer cells from the patient to the size of the tumor in the mouse in which the identified agent was administered; and determining if the size of the tumor in the mouse in which the identified agent was administered is reduced relative to the size of the tumor in the humanized mouse engrafted with breast cancer cells from the patient.

29. The method of any one of claims 21-24 and 26-28, wherein the organoids exhibit endogenous three-dimensional organ architecture.