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1. (WO2019005298) ÉLECTROLYTE ININFLAMMABLE CONTENANT UN GAZ LIQUÉFIE ET BATTERIES SECONDAIRES AU LITHIUM CONTENANT CE DERNIER
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

Claims:

1. A rechargeable lithium cell comprising a cathode having a cathode active material, an anode having an anode active material, an optional ion-permeable membrane disposed between said anode and said cathode, a non-flammable electrolyte containing lithium salt-retained liquefied gas in contact with said cathode and said anode, wherein said electrolyte contains a lithium salt dissolved in or mixed with a liquefied gas solvent having a lithium salt concentration greater than 1.0 M so that said electrolyte exhibits a vapor pressure less than 1 kPa when measured at 20°C, a vapor pressure less than 60% of the vapor pressure of said liquefied gas solvent alone, a flash point at least 20 degrees Celsius higher than a flash point of said liquefied gas solvent alone, a flash point higher than 150°C, or no flash point, wherein said liquefied gas solvent is selected from methane, fluoromethane, difluoromethane, chloromethane, dichloromethane, ethane, fluoroethane, difluoroethane, tetrafluoroethane, chloroethane, dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, propane, fluoropropane, chloropropane, ethylene, fluoroethylene, chloroethylene, or a combination thereof.

2. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said vapor pressure is less than 0.1 kPa when measured at 20°C.

3. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said vapor pressure is less than 0.01 kPa when measured at 20°C.

4. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said lithium salt concentration is from 1.5 M to 14 M.

5. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said concentration is from 2.0 M to 10 M.

6. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, which is a lithium metal secondary cell, a lithium- ion cell, a lithium-sulfur cell, a lithium-ion sulfur cell, a lithium-selenium cell, or a lithium- air cell.

7. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said electrolyte has a lithium ion

transference number greater than 0.4.

8. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said electrolyte has a lithium ion

transference number greater than 0.6.

9. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said electrolyte has a lithium ion transference number greater than 0.75.

10. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said electrolyte further contains a liquid solvent mixed with said liquefied gas solvent wherein said liquid solvent is selected from the group consisting of 1,3-dioxolane (DOL), 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME), tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME), poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (DEGDBE), 2-ethoxyethyl ether (EEE), sulfone, sulfolane, ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), methylethyl carbonate (MEC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), ethyl propionate, methyl propionate, propylene carbonate (PC), gamma.- butyrolactone (y-BL), acetonitrile (AN), ethyl acetate (EA), propyl formate (PF), methyl formate (MF), toluene, xylene, methyl acetate (MA), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), vinylene carbonate (VC), allyl ethyl carbonate (AEC), hydrofluoro ether (FIFE), and combinations thereof.

11. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said electrolyte further contains a liquid solvent mixed with said liquefied gas solvent wherein said liquid solvent is selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoro ether (HFE), trifluoro propylene carbonate (FPC), methyl nonafluorobutyl ether (MFE), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphite (TTSPi), triallyl phosphate (TAP), ethylene sulfate (DTD), 1,3-propane sultone (PS), propene sultone (PES), diethyl carbonate (DEC), alkylsiloxane (Si-O), alkyylsilane (Si-C), liquid oligomeric silaxane (-Si-O-Si-), ttetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME), and combinations thereof.

12. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said lithium salt is selected from lithium perchlorate (LiC104), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium borofluoride (LiBF4), lithium hexafluoroarsenide (LiAsF6), lithium trifluoro-metasulfonate (LiCF3S03), bis- trifluoromethyl sulfonylimide lithium (LiN(CF3S02)2), lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiBF2C204), lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiBF2C204), lithium nitrate (LiN03), Li-Fluoroalkyl-Phosphates (LiPF3(CF2CF3)3), lithium bisperfluoro- ethysulfonylimide (LiBETI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulphonyl)imide, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (LiTFSI), an ionic liquid lithium salt, or a combination thereof.

13. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein a molar fraction or molecular fraction of said lithium salt in said electrolyte is greater than 0.2.

14. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein a molar fraction or molecular fraction of said lithium salt in said electrolyte is greater than 0.3.

15. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein a molar fraction or molecular fraction of said lithium salt in said electrolyte is greater than 0.4.

16. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material is selected from a metal oxide, a metal oxide-free inorganic material, an organic material, a polymeric material, sulfur, lithium polysulfide, selenium, or a combination thereof.

17. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 16, wherein said inorganic material is selected from a transition metal fluoride, a transition metal chloride, a transition metal dichalcogenide, a transition metal trichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

18. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material is selected from FeF3, FeCl3, CuCl2, TiS2, TaS2, MoS2, NbSe3, Mn02, Co02, an iron oxide, a vanadium oxide , or a combination thereof.

19. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material contains a vanadium oxide selected from the group consisting of V02, LixV02, V205, LixV205, V308, LixV308, LixV307, V4O9, LixV40 , V60i3, LixV60i3, their doped versions, their derivatives, and combinations thereof, wherein 0.1 < x < 5.

20. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material contains a layered compound LiM02, spinel compound LiM204, olivine compound L1MPO4, silicate compound Li2MSi04, Tavorite compound L1MPO4F, borate compound LiMB03, or a combination thereof, wherein M is a transition metal or a mixture of multiple transition metals.

21. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material contains an inorganic material selected from: (a) bismuth selenide or bismuth telluride, (b) transition metal dichalcogenide or trichalcogenide, (c) sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium, cobalt, manganese, iron,

nickel, or a transition metal; (d) boron nitride, or (e) a combination thereof.

22. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 16, wherein said organic material or polymeric

material is selected from Poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS), a lithium oxocarbon, 3,4,9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide), pyrene-4,5,9, 10-tetraone (PYT), polymer-bound PYT, Quino(triazene), redox-active organic material, Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyanoethylene (TC E), 2,3,6,7,10, 11- hexamethoxytriphenylene (HMTP), poly(5 -amino- 1,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone) (PADAQ), phosphazene disulfide polymer ([( PS2)3]«), lithiated 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetraol

formaldehyde polymer, Hexaazatrinaphtylene (HATN), Hexaazatriphenylene

hexacarbonitrile (HAT(CN)6), 5-Benzylidene hydantoin, Isatine lithium salt, Pyromellitic diimide lithium salt, tetrahydroxy-p-benzoquinone derivatives (THQLi4), N,N'-diphenyl- 2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (PHP), N,N'-diallyl-2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (AP), Ν,Ν'- dipropyl-2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (PPvP), a thioether polymer, a quinone compound, 1,4- benzoquinone, 5,7, 12,14-pentacenetetrone (PT), 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-l,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADDAQ), 5-amino-l,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADAQ), calixquinone,

Li4C606, Li2C606, Li6C606, or a combination thereof.

23. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 22, wherein said thioether polymer is selected from Poly[methanetetryl-tetra(thiomethylene)] (PMTTM), Poly(2,4-dithiopentanylene) (PDTP), a polymer containing Poly(ethene-l,l,2,2-tetrathiol) (PETT) as a main-chain thioether polymers, a side-chain thioether polymer having a main-chain consisting of conjugating aromatic moieties, and having a thioether side chain as a pendant, Poly(2-phenyl-l,3- dithiolane) (PPDT), Poly(l,4-di(l,3-dithiolan-2-yl)benzene) (PDDTB),

poly(tetrahydrobenzodithiophene) (PTHBDT), poly[l,2,4,5-tetrakis(propylthio)benzene] (PTKPTB, or poly[3,4(ethylenedithio)thiophene] (PEDTT).

24. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material contains a phthalocyanine compound selected from copper phthalocyanine, zinc phthalocyanine, tin phthalocyanine, iron phthalocyanine, lead phthalocyanine, nickel phthalocyanine, vanadyl phthalocyanine, fluorochromium phthalocyanine, magnesium phthalocyanine, manganous phthalocyanine, dilithium phthalocyanine, aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, cadmium phthalocyanine, chlorogallium phthalocyanine, cobalt phthalocyanine, silver phthalocyanine, a metal-free phthalocyanine, a chemical derivative thereof, or a combination thereof.

25. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, wherein said electrolyte further contains an ionic liquid solvent.

26. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 25, wherein said ionic liquid solvent is selected from a room temperature ionic liquid having a cation selected from tetraalkylammonium, di-, tri-, or tetra-alkylimidazolium, alkylpyridinium, dialkyl-pyrrolidinium, dialkylpiperidinium, tetraalkylphosphonium, trialkylsulfonium, or a combination thereof.

27. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 25, wherein said ionic liquid solvent is selected from a room temperature ionic liquid having an anion selected from BF4", B(CN)4", CH3BF3", CH2CHBF3", CF3BF3", C2F5BF3", «-C3F7BF3", 77-C4F9BF3", PF6", CF3CO2", CF3SO3",

N(S02CF3)2", N(COCF3)(S02CF3)-, N(S02F)2", N(CN)2", C(CN)3; SCN", SeCN", CuCl2", AICI4", F(FIF)2 3", or a combination thereof.

28. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1 wherein said anode contains an anode active

material selected from lithium metal, a lithium metal alloy, a mixture of lithium metal or lithium alloy with a lithium intercalation compound, a lithiated compound, lithiated titanium dioxide, lithium titanate, lithium manganate, a lithium transition metal oxide, Li4Ti50i2, or a combination thereof.

29. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1 wherein said anode contains an anode active

material selected from the group consisting of:

(a) silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe^ and cadmium (Cd), and lithiated versions thereof;

(b) alloys or intermetallic compounds of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, or Cd with other elements, and lithiated versions thereof, wherein said alloys or compounds are stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric;

(c) oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides, phosphides, selenides, and tellurides of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, Mn, or Cd, and their mixtures or composites, and lithiated versions thereof;

(d) salts and hydroxides of Sn and lithiated versions thereof;

(e) carbon or graphite materials and prelithiated versions thereof; and

combinations thereof.

30. The rechargeable lithium cell of claim 1, which is a Lithium-air cell having a higher round- trip efficiency or higher resistance to capacity decay as compared to a corresponding

Lithium-air cell that has an electrolyte salt concentration lower than a molecular fraction of

0.2.

31. A non-flammable electrolyte for a lithium battery, said electrolyte containing lithium salt- retained liquefied gas having a lithium salt dissolved in or mixed with a liquefied gas solvent having a lithium salt concentration greater than 1.0 M so that said electrolyte exhibits a vapor pressure less than 1 kPa when measured at 20°C, a vapor pressure less than 60% of the vapor pressure of said liquefied gas solvent alone, a flash point at least 20 degrees Celsius higher than a flash point of said liquefied gas solvent alone, a flash point higher than 150°C, or no flash point, wherein said liquefied gas solvent is selected from methane, fluoromethane, difluoromethane, chloromethane, dichloromethane, ethane, fluoroethane, difluoroethane, tetrafluoroethane, chloroethane, dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, propane, fluoropropane, chloropropane, ethylene, fluoroethylene, chloroethylene, or a combination thereof.

32. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said vapor pressure is less than 0.1 kPa when measured at 20°C.

33. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said vapor pressure is less than 0.01 kPa when measured at 20°C.

34. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said lithium salt concentration is from 1.5 M to 14 M.

35. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said concentration is from 2.0 M to 10 M.

36. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said electrolyte has a lithium ion

transference number greater than 0.4.

37. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said electrolyte has a lithium ion

transference number greater than 0.6.

38. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said electrolyte has a lithium ion transference number greater than 0.75.

39. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said electrolyte further contains a liquid solvent mixed with said liquefied gas solvent wherein said liquid solvent is selected from the group consisting of 1,3-dioxolane (DOL), 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME), tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME), poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (DEGDBE), 2-ethoxyethyl ether (EEE), sulfone, sulfolane, ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), methylethyl carbonate (MEC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), ethyl propionate, methyl propionate, propylene carbonate (PC), gamma. - butyrolactone (y-BL), acetonitrile (AN), ethyl acetate (EA), propyl formate (PF), methyl formate (MF), toluene, xylene, methyl acetate (MA), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), vinylene carbonate (VC), allyl ethyl carbonate (AEC), hydrofluoro ether (FIFE), and combinations thereof.

40. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said electrolyte further contains a liquid solvent mixed with said liquefied gas solvent wherein said liquid solvent is selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoro ether (HFE), trifluoro propylene carbonate (FPC), methyl nonafluorobutyl ether (MFE), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphite (TTSPi), triallyl phosphate (TAP), ethylene sulfate (DTD), 1,3-propane sultone (PS), propene sultone (PES), diethyl carbonate (DEC), alkylsiloxane (Si-O), alkyylsilane (Si-C), liquid oligomeric silaxane (-Si-O-Si-), ttetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME), and combinations thereof.

41. The non-flammable electrolyte of claim 31, wherein said lithium salt is selected from lithium perchlorate (LiC104), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium borofluoride (LiBF4), lithium hexafluoroarsenide (LiAsF6), lithium trifluoro-metasulfonate (LiCF3S03), bis- trifluoromethyl sulfonylimide lithium (LiN(CF3S02)2), lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiBF2C204), lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiBF2C204), lithium nitrate (LiN03), Li-Fluoroalkyl-Phosphates (LiPF3(CF2CF3)3), lithium bisperfluoro- ethysulfonylimide (LiBETI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulphonyl)imide, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (LiTFSI), an ionic liquid lithium salt, or a combination thereof.