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1. (WO2019000102) SYSTÈMES, PROCÉDÉS ET APPAREILS POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE L'EAU
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

CLAIMS:

1 . A system for treating an effluent stream from a food production facility, the system comprising:

a) a first reactor unit including a first reactor tank having a tank inlet for receiving an incoming stream of effluent containing at least base organic molecules, and an interior for holding a volume of effluent, and an electrical treatment reactor that is fluidly connected to the first reactor tank, whereby when the reactor assembly is in use the effluent travels along a reactor circulation flow path in which effluent is drawn from the first tank, flows through the electrical treatment reactor and is subjected to an electrical charge to breakdown the base organic molecules into intermediate organic molecules and then returns to the first tank, whereby a reaction initiated in the effluent by the electrical charge within the electrical treatment reactor continues when the effluent is returned to the first tank, wherein a partially treated effluent stream containing the intermediate organic molecules exits the first reactor unit; and

b) a second processing unit downstream from the first reactor unit to receive the partially treated effluent stream and configured to further process the partially treated effluent to eliminate at least a portion of the intermediate organic molecules thereby producing a treated output stream.

2. The system of claim 1 , wherein the effluent travels through the reactor circulation flow path at least twice before exiting the first reactor unit.

3. The system of claim 1 or 2, wherein the effluent is circulated through the reactor circulation flow path for at least 15 minutes before exiting the first reactor unit.

4. The system of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the reactor circulation flow path is free from physical filter media.

5. The system of claim 1 , wherein the second processing unit comprises a biological treatment unit configured to process the partially treated effluent stream via at least one of aerobic and anaerobic digestion to produce the treated output stream.

6. The system of claim 2, wherein the biological treatment unit comprises:

i. at least a second holding tank for receiving the partially treated stream; and

ii. at least a first biological reactor in fluid communication with the second holding tank via a bio flow path whereby the partially treated stream can circulate between the second holding tank and the first biological reactor.

7. The system of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the second processing unit comprises a reverse osmosis apparatus.

8. The system of any one of claims 1 to 7, further comprising at least a first mechanical separator configured to separate solid particles from the incoming stream of effluent flowing through the mechanical separator before the effluent flows into the electrical treatment unit.

9. The system of claim 8, wherein the first mechanical separator is fluidly connected to the first reactor tank via a mechanical flow path whereby the effluent can circulate between the first holding tank and the first mechanical separator along the mechanical flow path.

10. The system of claim 9, wherein effluent circulates through the mechanical flow path, and the first mechanical separator therein, at least twice before flowing into the electrical treatment unit.

1 1 . The system of any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein the first mechanical separator comprises a hydrocyclone apparatus.

12. The system of any one of claims 9 to 1 1 , whereby effluent circulating through the mechanical flow path travels between the first reactor tank and the first mechanical separator without passing through the electrical treatment reactor, and effluent circulating through the reactor circulation flow path travels between the first reactor tank and the electrical treatment reactor without passing through the first mechanical separator.

13. The system of claim 12, further comprising a changeover apparatus operable to selectably direct the effluent through the mechanical flow path or the reactor circulation flow path.

14. The system of any one of claims 1 to 13, further including a balancing tank located upstream from the first reactor unit and having a balancing inlet configured to receive the effluent from the food production facility and a balancing outlet fluidly connected to the first reactor tank to transfer the effluent from the balancing tank to the first reactor tank.

15. The system of any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the first reactor unit further comprises a sludge removal apparatus fluidly connected to a lower end of the first reactor tank to extract sludge from the lower end of the first reactor tank.

16. The system of any one of claims 1 to 15, further comprising a second electrical treatment reactor provided in the reactor circulation flow path and operable to apply an electric charge to the effluent flowing through the second electrical treatment reactor.

17. The system of any one of claim 16, wherein the second electrical treatment reactor is fluidly connected in parallel with the first electrical treatment reactor.

18. The system of any one of claims 1 to 1 7, wherein the electrical treatment reactor comprises:

a) a housing having a lower end, an upper end spaced apart from the lower end along a reactor axis, and a sidewall extending therebetween;

b) a reactor inlet provided toward the lower end and through which effluent can enter the housing, the reactor inlet being in fluid communication with the first tank interior to receive effluent from the first tank;

c) a reactor outlet provided toward the upper end through which effluent can exit the housing, whereby the effluent flows generally axially through the housing from the lower end to the upper end, the reactor outlet being in fluid communication with the tank to return effluent to the first tank; and

d) a galvanic cell positionable at least partially axially between the reactor inlet and the reactor outlet within the housing to subject the liquid within the housing to the electrical charge, the galvanic cell comprising an elongate, axially extending cathode assembly and an anode assembly including at least one elongate, axially extending anode rod that is positioned generally parallel to and laterally spaced apart from the cathode assembly, wherein the anode assembly is at least partially consumed when the reactor is in use

19. The system of any one of claims 1 to 18, wherein the incoming effluent stream comprises at least one of organic molecules and inorganic molecules and polymers and wherein the first reactor unit is configured to convert these molecules via at least one of: electro-oxidation, electro-reduction, electro-flotation, electrocoagulation, electro-crystalization, or electrolysis.

20. The system of any one of claims 1 to 19, wherein the system is configured to process at least 10m3/d of effluent and covers an area of less than 9m2.

21 . The system of any of claims 1 8 to 20, wherein the liquid circulates through the reactor circulation flow path at least twice during an electrical treatment sub-cycle.

22. The system of any of claims 18 to 21 , wherein the electrical treatment sub-cycle has a duration of about 1 5 minutes.

23. The system of any of claims 18 to 22, wherein the reaction initiated by exposure to the electrical charge within the water treatment reactor continues to completion while the liquid is in the tank.

24. The system of any of claims 18 to 23, wherein the reaction initiated by exposure to the electrical charge within the water treatment reactor comprises an electrocoagulation reaction configured to induce coagulation of particles within the liquid and wherein coagulated particles settle within the tank.

25. The system of any of claims 18 to 24, further comprising a first mechanical separator configured to separate solid particles from the liquid flowing through the mechanical separator, the first mechanical separator being fluidly connected to the tank wherein when the reactor assembly is in use liquid selectably travels through a mechanical separation flow path in which liquid is drawn from the tank, flows through the first mechanical separator and then returns to the tank.

26. The system of claim 25, wherein the first mechanical separator comprises at least one hydrocyclone configured to separate solid particles from the liquid.

27. The system of claim 25, wherein the liquid circulates through the mechanical separation flow path at least twice during a mechanical separation sub-cycle.

28. The system of any one of claims 18 to 27, wherein the electrical charge is applied to the liquid while it is flowing through the housing.

29. The system of any one of claims 18 to 28, wherein the tank further comprises a sludge removal apparatus fluidly connected to a lower end of the tank to selectably extract sludge from the lower end of the tank.

30. The system of any one of claims 1 8 to 29, wherein the reactor circulation flow path is free from physical filter media.

31 . The system of any one of claims 18 to 30, wherein the reactor assembly covers an area of less than about 1 square meters and is operable to treat at least 10m3/d of liquid from the source.

32. The system of any of claims 18 to 31 , wherein the liquid is subjected to the electrical charge while flowing from the liquid inlet to the liquid outlet.

33. The system of any of claims 18 to 32, wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

34. The system of any of claims 18 to 33, wherein the reactor outlet is provided in the sidewalk

35. The system of any of claims 1 8 to 34, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor axis is inclined relative to a vertical direction by a reactor angle that is between about 20 degrees and about 70 degrees, and may be between about 30 and 60 degrees and may be 45 degrees.

36. The system of any of claims 1 8 to 35, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor outlet is provided on a generally upwardly facing portion of the reactor.

37. The system of any of claims 18 to 36, wherein the reactor axis intersects the reactor inlet and is spaced apart from the reactor outlet.

38. The system of any of claims 18 to 37, further comprising a lid removably mounted to the upper end of the housing, and wherein the galvanic cell has a proximate end mounted to an inner surface of the lid and an axially opposing distal end, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and the distal end is spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing.

39. The system of any of claims 1 8 to 38, wherein the galvanic cell is removable from the housing while preserving fluid communication between the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

40. The system of any of claims 18 to 39, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve.

41 . The system of claim 40, wherein anode rods have an anode length in the axial direction, and wherein the central cathode rod has a cathode length that is greater than the anode length.

42. The system of any one of claims 40 or 41 , wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet to and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

43. The system of claim 42, wherein the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

44. The system of claims 42 or 43, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

45. The system of any of claims 18 to 44, wherein the galvanic cell is configured so that liquid flowing through the housing travels substantially axially from the reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

46. The system of any one of claims 1 8 to 45, wherein the at least one elongate, axially extending anode rod is solid.

47. The system of any of claims 18 to 46, wherein the sidewall comprises an upper

portion having a generally constant cross-sectional area and a tapered portion disposed toward the lower end and generally expanding from the reactor inlet toward the upper portion.

48. The system of claim 47, wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

49. The system of any one of claims 47 or 48, further comprising a lid removably mounted to the upper end of the housing, and wherein the galvanic cell has a proximate end mounted to an inner surface of the lid and an axially opposing distal end, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and the distal end is spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing.

50. The system of any one of claims 47 to 49, wherein the galvanic cell is removable from the housing while maintaining fluid connections at the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

51 . The system of any one of claims 18 to 50, wherein the flow directing surface is removable from the housing with the lid and galvanic cell.

52. The system of any one of claims 18 to 51 , wherein the lid and galvanic cell are removable by translating in the axial direction.

53. The system of any one of claims 18 to 52, further comprising a second galvanic cell connected to an inner surface of a second lid that is configured to replace the lid and galvanic cell and is mountable to seal the upper end of the housing.

54. The system of any one of claims 1 8 to 53, wherein the housing is configured to retain a quantity of liquid while the lid and galvanic cell are removed from the housing.

55. A reactor assembly for use in a system for treating a liquid from a source, the reactor assembly, comprising:

a) a tank having a tank inlet for receiving an incoming stream of liquid and a tank interior for holding a volume of the liquid;

b) an electrical water treatment reactor having:

i. a housing having a lower end, an upper end spaced apart from the lower end along a reactor axis, and a sidewall extending therebetween ;

ii. a reactor inlet provided toward the lower end and through which liquid can enter the housing, the reactor inlet being in fluid communication with the tank interior to receive liquid from the tank;

iii. a reactor outlet provided toward the upper end through which liquid can exit the housing, whereby the liquid flows generally axially through the housing from the lower end to the upper end, the reactor outlet being in fluid communication with the tank to return liquid to the tank; and iv. a galvanic cell positionable at least partially axially between the reactor inlet and the reactor outlet within the housing to subject the liquid within the housing to an electrical charge, the galvanic cell comprising an elongate, axially extending cathode assembly and an anode assembly including at least one elongate, axially extending anode rod that is positioned generally parallel to and laterally spaced apart from the cathode assembly, wherein the anode assembly is at least partially consumed when the reactor is in use;

wherein when the reactor assembly is in use liquid travels through a reactor circulation flow path in which liquid is drawn from the tank, flows through the water treatment reactor and then returns to the tank, whereby an electrocoagulation reaction initiated in the liquid by exposure to the electrical charge within the water treatment reactor continues while the liquid is in the tank.

56. The reactor assembly of claim 55, wherein the liquid circulates through the reactor circulation flow path at least twice during an electrical treatment sub-cycle.

57. The reactor assembly of claim 56, wherein the electrical treatment sub-cycle has a duration of about 1 5 minutes.

58. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 or 57, wherein the reaction initiated by exposure to the electrical charge within the water treatment reactor continues to completion while the liquid is in the tank.

59. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 to 58, wherein the reaction initiated by exposure to the electrical charge within the water treatment reactor comprises an electrocoagulation reaction configured to induce coagulation of particles within the liquid and wherein coagulated particles settle within the tank.

60. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 to 59, further comprising a first mechanical separator configured to separate solid particles from the liquid flowing through the mechanical separator, the first mechanical separator being fluidly connected to the tank wherein when the reactor assembly is in use liquid selectably travels through a mechanical separation flow path in which liquid is drawn from the tank, flows through the first mechanical separator and then returns to the tank.

61 . The reactor assembly of claim 60, wherein the first mechanical separator comprises at least one hydrocyclone configured to separate solid particles from the liquid.

62. The reactor assembly of claim 60, wherein the liquid circulates through the mechanical separation flow path at least twice during a mechanical separation sub-cycle.

63. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 to 61 , wherein the electrical charge is applied to the liquid while it is flowing through the housing.

64. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 to 63, wherein the tank further comprises a sludge removal apparatus fluidly connected to a lower end of the tank to selectably extract sludge from the lower end of the tank.

65. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 to 64, wherein the reactor circulation flow path is free from physical filter media.

66. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 55 to 65, wherein the reactor assembly covers an area of less than about 1 square meters and is operable to treat at least 10m3/d of liquid from the source.

67. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 66 wherein the effluent travels through the reactor circulation flow path at least twice before exiting the first reactor unit.

68. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 67, wherein the effluent is circulated through the reactor circulation flow path for at least 15 minutes before exiting the first reactor unit.

69. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 68, wherein the reactor circulation flow path is free from physical filter media.

70. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 69, further comprising at least a first mechanical separator configured to separate solid particles from the incoming stream of effluent flowing through the mechanical separator before the effluent flows into the electrical treatment unit.

71 . The reactor assembly of claim 70, wherein the first mechanical separator is fluidly connected to the first reactor tank via a mechanical flow path whereby the effluent can circulate between the first holding tank and the first mechanical separator along the mechanical flow path.

72. The reactor assembly of claim 71 , wherein effluent circulates through the mechanical flow path, and the first mechanical separator therein, at least twice before flowing into the electrical treatment unit.

73. The reactor assembly of any of claims 70 to 72, wherein the first mechanical separator comprises a hydrocyclone apparatus.

74. The reactor assembly of any one of claims 71 to 73, whereby effluent circulating through the mechanical flow path travels between the first reactor tank and the first mechanical separator without passing through the electrical treatment reactor, and effluent circulating through the reactor circulation flow path travels between the first reactor tank and the electrical treatment reactor without passing through the first mechanical separator.

75. The reactor assembly of claim 74, further comprising a changeover apparatus operable to selectably direct the effluent through the mechanical flow path or the reactor circulation flow path.

76. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 75, further including a balancing tank located upstream from the first reactor unit and having a balancing inlet configured to receive the effluent from the food production facility and a balancing outlet fluidly connected to the first reactor tank to transfer the effluent from the balancing tank to the first reactor tank.

77. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 76, further comprising a second electrical treatment reactor provided in the reactor circulation flow path and operable to apply an electric charge to the effluent flowing through the second electrical treatment reactor.

78. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 77 wherein the second electrical treatment reactor is fluidly connected in parallel with the first electrical treatment reactor.

79. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 78, wherein the incoming effluent stream comprises at least one of organic and inorganic molecules and polymers, and wherein the first reactor unit is configured to convert these molecules via at least one of: electro-oxidation, electro-reduction, electro-flotation, electrocoagulation, electro- crystalization, and electrolysis.

80. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 79, wherein the reactor assembly is configured to process at least 10m3/d of effluent and covers an area of less than 9m2.

81 . The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 80, wherein the liquid is subjected to the electrical charge while flowing from the liquid inlet to the liquid outlet.

82. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 81 , wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

83. The reactor of claim 82, wherein the reactor outlet is provided in the sidewalk

84. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 83, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor axis is inclined relative to a vertical direction by a reactor angle that is between about 20 degrees and about 70 degrees, and may be between about 30 and 60 degrees and may be 45 degrees.

85. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 84, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor outlet is provided on a generally upward facing portion of the reactor.

86. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 85, wherein the reactor axis intersects the reactor inlet and is spaced apart from the reactor outlet.

87. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 86, further comprising a lid removably mounted to the upper end of the housing, and wherein the galvanic cell has a proximate end mounted to an inner surface of the lid and an axially opposing distal end, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and the distal end is spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing.

88. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 87, wherein the galvanic cell is removable from the housing while preserving fluid communication between the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

89. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 88, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve.

90. The reactor of claim 89, wherein anode rods have an anode length in the axial direction, and wherein the central cathode rod has a cathode length that is greater than the anode length.

91 . The reactor of any one of claims 89 or 90, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet to and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

92. The reactor of claim 91 , wherein the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

93. The reactor of claim 91 or 92, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

94. The reactor of any one of claims 55 to 93, wherein the galvanic cell is configured so that liquid flowing through the housing travels substantially axially from the reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

95. The reactor of any one of claims 55 to 94, wherein the at least one elongate, axially extending anode rod is solid.

96. The reactor of any one of claims 55 to 95, wherein the sidewall comprises an upper portion having a generally constant cross-sectional area and a tapered portion disposed toward the lower end and generally expanding from the reactor inlet toward the upper portion.

97. The reactor of any one of claims 55 to 96, wherein the reactor angle is between

about 30 and 60 degrees and may be 45 degrees.

98. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 97, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet to and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

99. The reactor assembly of any of claims 98, wherein the flow directing surface is removable from the housing with the lid and galvanic cell.

100. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 99, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve, and the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

101 . The reactor of any one of claims 98 to 100, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

102. The reactor of any one of claims 87 to 101 , wherein the lid and galvanic cell are removable by translating in the axial direction.

103. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 102, further comprising a second galvanic cell connected to an inner surface of a second lid that is configured to replace the lid and galvanic cell and is mountable to seal the upper end of the housing.

104. The reactor assembly of any of claims 55 to 103, wherein the housing is configured to retain a quantity of liquid while the lid and galvanic cell are removed from the housing.

A liquid treatment reactor, comprising

a) a housing having a lower end, an upper end spaced apart from the lower end along a reactor axis, and a sidewall extending therebetween;

b) a reactor inlet provided toward the lower end through which a liquid can enter the housing ;

c) a reactor outlet provided toward the upper end through which the liquid can exit the housing, whereby the liquid flows generally axially through the housing from the lower end to the upper end; and

d) a galvanic cell positionable at least partially axially between the reactor inlet and the reactor outlet within the housing to subject the liquid within the housing to an electrical charge, the galvanic cell comprising an elongate, axially extending cathode assembly and an anode assembly including at least one elongate, axially extending anode rod that is positioned generally parallel to and laterally spaced apart from the cathode assembly, wherein the anode assembly is at least partially consumed when the reactor is in use.

106. The reactor of claim 105, wherein the liquid is subjected to the electrical

charge while flowing from the liquid inlet to the liquid outlet.

107. The reactor of claim 105 or 106, wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

108. The reactor of claim 107, wherein the reactor outlet is provided in the sidewall.

109. The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 1 08, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor axis is inclined relative to a vertical direction by a reactor angle that is between about 20 degrees and about 70 degrees, and may be between about 30 and 60 degrees and may be 45 degrees.

1 1 0. The reactor of claim 109, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor outlet is provided on a generally upward facing portion of the reactor.

1 1 1 . The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 1 10, wherein the reactor axis intersects the reactor inlet and is spaced apart from the reactor outlet.

1 1 2. The reactor of any one of claims 1 05 to 1 1 1 , further comprising a lid removably mounted to the upper end of the housing, and wherein the galvanic cell has a proximate end mounted to an inner surface of the lid and an axially opposing distal end, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and the distal end is spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing.

1 1 3. The reactor of any one of claims 1 05 to 1 1 2, wherein the galvanic cell is removable from the housing while preserving fluid communication between the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

1 1 4. The reactor of any one of claims 1 05 to 1 13, wherein the anode assembly comprises a plurality of axially extending anode rods laterally spaced apart from each other and wherein the cathode assembly comprises an axially extending cathode sleeve laterally surrounding the anode rods, the cathode sleeve having an open lower end comprising a sleeve liquid inlet that is in fluid communication with the reactor inlet and an upper end having a sleeve liquid outlet that it is in fluid communication with the reactor outlet, whereby the liquid flows through the cathode sleeve and along the length of the anode rods when the reactor is in use.

1 1 5. The reactor of claim 1 14, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve.

1 1 6. The reactor of claim 1 15, wherein anode rods have an anode length in the axial direction, and wherein the central cathode rod has a cathode length that is greater than the anode length.

1 1 7. The reactor of any one of claims 1 15 or 1 1 6, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet to and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

1 1 8. The reactor of claim 1 17, wherein the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

1 1 9. The reactor of claim 1 1 7 or 1 18, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

120. The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 1 19, wherein the galvanic cell is

configured so that liquid flowing through the housing travels substantially axially from the reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

121 . The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 1 20, wherein the at least one

elongate, axially extending anode rod is solid.

122. The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 1 21 , wherein the sidewall comprises an upper portion having a generally constant cross-sectional area and a tapered portion disposed toward the lower end and generally expanding from the reactor inlet toward the upper portion.

123. A liquid treatment reactor, comprising:

a) a housing having a lower end, an upper end spaced apart from the lower end along a reactor axis, and a sidewall extending therebetween, and when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor axis is inclined relative to a vertical

direction by a reactor angle that is between about 20 degrees and about 70 degrees;

b) a reactor inlet through which a liquid can enter the housing in a first flow direction, the reactor inlet being provided at the lower end and being intersected by the reactor axis;

c) a reactor outlet through which the liquid can exit the housing in a second flow direction that is different than the first flow direction, the reactor outlet provided toward the upper end and in a portion of the sidewall that is, when the treatment reactor is in use, generally upwardly facing; and

d) a galvanic cell positionable at least partially axially between the reactor inlet and the reactor outlet within the housing to subject the liquid within the housing to an electrical charge.

124. The reactor of claim 123, wherein the liquid is subjected to the electrical

charge while flowing from the liquid inlet to the liquid outlet.

125. The reactor of claim 123 or 1 24, wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

126. The reactor of any one of claims 1 23 to 125, further comprising a lid removably mounted to the upper end of the housing, and wherein the galvanic cell has a proximate end mounted to an inner surface of the lid and an axially opposing distal end, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and the distal end is spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing.

127. The reactor of any one of claims 1 23 to 126, wherein the galvanic cell is removable from the housing while maintaining fluid connections at the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

128. The reactor of any one of claims 123 to 127, wherein the anode assembly comprises a plurality of axially extending anode rods laterally spaced apart from each other and wherein the cathode assembly comprises an axially extending cathode sleeve laterally surrounding the anode rods, the cathode sleeve having an open lower end comprising a sleeve liquid inlet that is in fluid communication with the reactor inlet and an upper end having a sleeve liquid outlet that it is in fluid communication with the reactor outlet, whereby the liquid flows through the cathode sleeve and along the length of the anode rods when the reactor is in use.

129. The reactor of claim 1 28, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve.

130. The reactor of claim 129, wherein anode rods have an anode length in the axial direction, and wherein the central cathode rod has a cathode length that is greater than the anode length.

131 . The reactor of any one of claims 129 or 130, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

132. The reactor of claim 131 , wherein the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

133. The reactor of claim 131 or 1 32, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

134. The reactor of any one of claims 123 to 1 33, wherein the galvanic cell is

configured so that liquid flowing through the housing travels substantially axially from the reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

135. The reactor of any one of claims 123 to 1 34, wherein the at least one

elongate, axially extending anode rod is solid.

136. The reactor of any one of claims 123 to 1 35, wherein the sidewall comprises an upper portion having a generally constant cross-sectional area and a tapered portion disposed toward the lower end and generally expanding from the reactor inlet toward the upper portion.

137. The reactor of any one of claims 123 to 1 36, wherein the reactor angle is

between about 30 and 60 degrees and may be 45 degrees.

A liquid treatment reactor, comprising:

a) a housing having a closed lower end, an open upper end spaced apart from the lower end along a reactor axis, and a sidewall extending therebetween b) a reactor inlet through which a liquid can enter the housing in a first flow direction, the reactor inlet being provided toward the lower end;

c) a reactor outlet through which the liquid can exit the housing in a second flow direction that is different than the first flow direction, the reactor outlet provided in a portion of the sidewall that is, when the treatment reactor is in use, generally upwardly facing ;

d) a lid removably mounted to the housing and having an inner surface such that, when the lid is mounted to the housing, the lid seals the upper end and the inner surface faces the reactor inlet; and

e) a galvanic cell positionable at least partially axially between the reactor inlet and the reactor outlet within the housing to subject the liquid within the

housing to an electrical charge, the galvanic cell comprising a plurality of elongate anode rods that extend generally axially from the inner surface of the lid and are laterally spaced apart from each other, and a cathode sleeve extending axially from the inner surface and laterally surrounding the anode rods, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and cathode sleeve and anode rods are spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing, and wherein the lid and galvanic cell are removable from the housing while maintaining fluid connections at the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

139. The reactor of claim 138, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet to and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

140. The reactor of claim 1 39, wherein the flow directing surface is removable from the housing with the lid and galvanic cell.

141 . The reactor of claim 139 or 140, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve, and the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

142. The reactor of any one of claims 139 to 141 , wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

143. The reactor of any one of claims 1 38 to 1 42, wherein the lid and galvanic cell are removable by translating in the axial direction.

144. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 43, further comprising a second galvanic cell connected to an inner surface of a second lid that is configured to replace the lid and galvanic cell and is mountable to seal the upper end of the housing.

145. The reactor of any one of claims 1 38 to 144, wherein the housing is configured to retain a quantity of liquid while the lid and galvanic cell are removed from the housing.

146. The reactor of any one of claims 1 38 to 145, further comprising a sludge removal apparatus fluidly connected to a lower end of the first reactor tank to extract sludge from the lower end of the first reactor tank.

147. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 46, wherein the incoming effluent stream comprises at least one of organic molecules and inorganic molecules and polymers and wherein the first reactor unit is configured to convert these molecules via at least one of : electro-oxidation, electro-reduction, electro-flotation, electrocoagulation, electro-crystalization, and electrolysis.

148. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 147, wherein the reactor is configured to process at least 10m3/d of effluent and covers an area of less than 9m2.

149. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 148, wherein the electrical treatment cycle has a duration of about 1 5 minutes.

150. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 49, further comprising a first mechanical separator configured to separate solid particles from the liquid flowing through the mechanical separator, the first mechanical separator being fluidly connected to the tank wherein when the reactor assembly is in use liquid selectably travels through a mechanical separation flow path in which liquid is drawn from the tank, flows through the first mechanical separator and then returns to the tank.

151 . The reactor assembly of claim 150, wherein the first mechanical separator comprises at least one hydrocyclone configured to separate solid particles from the liquid.

152. The reactor assembly of claim 150, wherein the liquid circulates through the mechanical separation flow path at least twice.

153. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 152, wherein the electrical charge is applied to the liquid while it is flowing through the housing.

154. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 153, wherein the reactor assembly covers an area of less than about 1 square meters and is operable to treat at least 10m3/d of liquid from the source.

155. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 54, wherein the liquid is subjected to the electrical charge while flowing from the liquid inlet to the liquid outlet.

156. The reactor of any one of claims 1 38 to 155, wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

157. The reactor of claim 156, wherein the reactor outlet is provided in the sidewalk

158. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 57, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor axis is inclined relative to a vertical direction by a reactor angle that is between about 20 degrees and about 70 degrees, and may be between about 30 and 60 degrees and may be 45 degrees.

159. The reactor of claim 158, wherein when the treatment reactor is in use the reactor outlet is provided on a generally upwardly facing portion of the reactor.

160. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 159, wherein the reactor axis intersects the reactor inlet and is spaced apart from the reactor outlet.

161 . The reactor of any one of claims 1 05 to 160, further comprising a lid removably mounted to the upper end of the housing, and wherein the galvanic cell has a proximate end mounted to an inner surface of the lid and an axially opposing distal end, whereby when the lid is mounted to the upper end the galvanic cell is suspended within the housing and the distal end is spaced apart from the lower end of the housing, and when the lid is removed from the housing the galvanic cell is removed from the housing.

162. The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 161 , wherein the galvanic cell is removable from the housing while preserving fluid communication between the reactor inlet and reactor outlet.

163. The reactor of any one of claims 105 to 162, wherein the anode assembly comprises a plurality of axially extending anode rods laterally spaced apart from each other and wherein the cathode assembly comprises an axially extending cathode sleeve laterally surrounding the anode rods, the cathode sleeve having an open lower end comprising a sleeve liquid inlet that is in fluid communication with the reactor inlet and an upper end having a sleeve liquid outlet that it is in fluid communication with the reactor outlet, whereby the liquid flows through the cathode sleeve and along the length of the anode rods when the reactor is in use.

164. The reactor of claim 1 63, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve.

165. The reactor of claim 164, wherein anode rods have an anode length in the axial direction, and wherein the central cathode rod has a cathode length that is greater than the anode length.

166. The reactor of any one of claims 164 or 165, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet to and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

167. The reactor of claim 166, wherein the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

168. The reactor of claim 166 or 1 67, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

169. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 68, wherein the galvanic cell is

configured so that liquid flowing through the housing travels substantially axially from the reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

170. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 69, wherein the at least one

elongate, axially extending anode rod is solid.

171 . The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 70, wherein the sidewall comprises an upper portion having a generally constant cross-sectional area and a tapered portion disposed toward the lower end and generally expanding from the reactor inlet toward the upper portion.

172. The reactor of claim 171 , wherein the liquid is subjected to the electrical

charge while flowing from the liquid inlet to the liquid outlet.

173. The reactor of claim 171 or 1 72, wherein liquid entering the reactor inlet travels in the axial direction and liquid exiting via the reactor outlet travels in a generally radial direction that is orthogonal to the reactor axis.

174. The reactor of any one of claims 1 38 to 1 73, wherein the cathode assembly further comprises an axially extending central cathode rod positioned within the cathode sleeve, wherein the anode rods are disposed laterally between the central cathode rod and the cathode sleeve.

175. The reactor of claim 174, wherein anode rods have an anode length in the axial direction, and wherein the central cathode rod has a cathode length that is greater than the anode length.

176. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 175, wherein the galvanic cell comprises a flow directing surface which, when the galvanic cell is mounted to the housing, faces the reactor inlet and is configured to direct the flow of liquid entering the reactor inlet into cathode sleeve.

177. The reactor of claim 176, wherein the flow directing surface comprises a generally convex, dome-shaped tip of the central cathode rod.

178. The reactor of claim 176 or 1 77, wherein the flow directing surface is axially spaced between the anode rods and a lower end of the cathode sleeve.

179. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 78, wherein the galvanic cell is

configured so that liquid flowing through the housing travels substantially axially from the reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

180. The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 79, wherein the at least one elongate, axially extending anode rod is solid.

181 . The reactor of any one of claims 138 to 1 80, wherein the sidewall comprises an upper portion having a generally constant cross-sectional area and a tapered portion disposed toward the lower end and generally expanding from the reactor inlet toward the upper portion.

182. A process for treating a liquid, the process including :

a) receiving an incoming stream of liquid from a source in a reactor tank;

b) performing an electrical treatment sub-cycle including circulating the liquid between the reactor tank and an electrical treatment reactor at least twice, the electrical treatment reactor configured to subject the liquid to a first treatment process in which an electrical charge is applied to the liquid the convert the incoming stream of liquid into a partially treated stream;

c) receiving the partially treated stream in a second processing unit and

subjecting the partially treated stream to a different, second treatment process to convert the partially treated stream to a treated outlet stream.

183. The process of claim 182, wherein step b) comprises passing the liquid

generally upwardly through the electrical treatment reactor whereby reaction products created by exposure to the electrical charge are carried from the electrical treatment reactor into the reactor tank.

184. The process of claim 182, wherein the electrical treatment reactor has an axially extending housing extending in a direction of liquid flow through the electrical treatment reactor, at least one elongate axially extending cathode and at least one elongate axially extending anode rod positioned adjacent the cathode, and wherein the at anode rod is at least partially consumed during the electrical treatment sub- cycle.

185. The process of claim 182, wherein the electrical treatment sub-cycle lasts at least 10 minutes, and/or includes at least 2 circulations through the electrical treatment reactor.

186. The process of any one of claims 182 to 1 85, further comprising extracting sludge that has accumulated during the electrical treatment sub-cycle from the reactor tank.

187. The process of any one of claims 182 to 1 86, further comprising performing a mechanical separation sub-cycle prior to performing the electrical treatment sub- cycle, the mechanical separation sub-cycle including circulating the incoming stream of liquid through at least a first mechanical separation unit that is configured to extract physical particles from the liquid at least twice.

188. The process of claim 187, further comprising performing the mechanical

separation sub-cycle after performing the electrical treatment sub-cycle and before the partially treated stream is received by the second processing unit.

189. The process of claim 188, wherein the partially treated stream is re-circulated through the first mechanical separation unit at least twice before being received by the second processing unit

190. The process of any one of claims 182 to 1 89, wherein the second treatment process comprises subjecting the partially treated stream to at least one of aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

191 . The process of claim 1 90, further comprising circulating the partially treated stream between a second holding tank and at least a first biological reactor in fluid communication with the second holding tank via a bio flow path.

192. The process of claim 191 , wherein the partially treated stream is circulated through the bio flow path at least twice before being discharged as the treated output stream.

193. A process for removing phosphorus from surface water, the process

including:

a) receiving an incoming stream of liquid from a source in a reactor tank;

b) performing an electrical treatment sub-cycle lasting at least 5 minutes which includes circulating the liquid between the reactor tank and an electrical treatment reactor at least twice, the electrical treatment reactor configured to subject the liquid to a first treatment process in which an electrical charge is applied to the liquid to convert the incoming stream of liquid into a partially treated stream ;

c) receiving the partially treated stream in a second processing unit and

subjecting the partially treated stream to a different, second treatment process to convert the partially treated stream to a treated outlet stream.

194. The process of claim 193, wherein step b) comprises passing the liquid

generally upwardly through the electrical treatment reactor whereby reaction products created by exposure to the electrical charge are carried from the electrical treatment reactor into the reactor tank.

195. The process of claim 193 or 194, wherein the electrical treatment reactor has an axially extending housing extending in a direction of liquid flow through the electrical treatment reactor, at least one elongate axially extending cathode and at least one elongate axially extending anode rod positioned adjacent the cathode, and wherein the anode rod is at least partially consumed during the electrical treatment sub-cycle.

196. The process of any one of claims 193 to 1 95, further comprising extracting sludge that has accumulated during the electrical treatment sub-cycle from the reactor tank.

197. The process of any one of claims 193 to 1 96, further comprising performing a mechanical separation sub-cycle prior to or after performing the electrical treatment sub-cycle, the mechanical separation sub-cycle including circulating the incoming stream of liquid through at least a first mechanical separation unit that is configured to extract physical particles from the liquid.

198. The process of any one of claims 193 to 1 97, wherein the second treatment process comprises subjecting the partially treated stream to at least one of a sterilization and a pH correction process.