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1. (WO2018227190) PROCÉDÉS ET DISPOSITIFS POUR MANIPULER UN FLUIDE ET ADMINISTRER LE FLUIDE À L'ŒIL
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

What is claimed:

1. A device for delivering a volume of fluid to an eye, comprising:

a housing;

a fluid ejector coupled to the housing, the fluid ejector having a vibrating element with a plurality of openings, the vibrating element having a fluid side and a delivery side with the plurality of openings extending from the fluid side to the delivery side, the fluid ejector ejecting fluid from the fluid side through the plurality of openings to the delivery side when the vibrating element is vibrated.

2. The device of claim 1, further comprising:

an enclosure positioned adjacent the fluid side the vibrating element, the enclosure and the vibrating element forming a chamber,

wherein the enclosure includes a wall having a lip positioned adjacent the fluid side of the vibrating element, the lip extending around the plurality of openings, the enclosure and the vibrating element together defining the chamber which holds a volume of the fluid to be dispensed.

3. The device of claim 2, further comprising:

a pump having an outlet fluidly coupled to the chamber formed by the enclosure and the vibrating element; and

a first actuator operably coupled to the pump, wherein actuation of the first actuator activates the pump to deliver the volume of fluid to the chamber.

4. The device of claim 1, further comprising a second actuator operably coupled to the vibrating element, wherein actuation of the second actuator causes the vibrating element to vibrate and eject the fluid through the plurality of openings.

5. The device of claim 2, wherein the chamber defined by the enclosure is substantially empty before actuation of the vibrating element and substantially empty after actuation of the vibrating element when the volume of fluid is delivered in a single dose.

6. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure is configured to have no more than 5% of the volume after a single actuation of the vibrating element.

7. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure is configured to have no more than 2% of the volume so that the chamber is substantially empty after the single actuation.

8. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure is configured to have no more than 1 microliter of the volume of fluid as residual fluid so that the chamber is substantially empty prior when the single actuation is completed.

9. The device of claim 2, wherein the chamber defined by the enclosure has a volume of 10-14 microliters.

10. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip is spaced apart from the fluid side of the vibrating element by less than 150 microns.

11. The device of claim 1 , wherein the vibrating element defines a central axis at a central orientation of the plurality of openings.

12. The device of claim 1, wherein the vibrating element defines a central axis as a center of a spray pattern created by the plurality of openings.

13. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip is spaced apart from the fluid side of the vibrating element by less than 250 microns about an angle of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

14. The device of claim 1, wherein the enclosure is spaced apart from the vibrating element by at least 0.014 inches opposite of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

15. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface in contact with the fluid which forms the chamber, the internal surface being shaped so that at least 75% of the internal surface in contact with the volume of fluid is no more than 0.040 inch from a nearest of the plurality of openings.

16. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface in contact with the fluid and which defines the chamber, the internal surface being shaped so that at least 95% of the internal surface is no more than 0.040 inch from a nearest of the plurality of openings.

17. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure is shaped so that all of the fluid in fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch to a nearest of the plurality of openings.

18. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface in contact with the fluid and which defines the chamber, the internal surface is shaped so that at least 75% of the plurality of openings are at least 0.014 inch from a nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure.

19. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface in contact with the fluid and which defines the chamber, the internal surface is shaped so that at least 95 % of the plurality of openings are at least 0.014 inch from a nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure.

20. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface in contact with the fluid is shaped so that the chamber is formed with the entire internal surface being no more than 0.040 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

21. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 95% of the internal surface in contact with the fluid has direct line of sight to at least one of the plurality of openings.

22. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface which is shaped so that the chamber is free of obstruction for the fluid along at least 75%, of the plurality of openings for a distance of at least 0.014 inch measured in the direction of the central axis of the vibrating element.

23. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface which is shaped so that the chamber is free of obstruction for the fluid along at least 95 % of the plurality of openings for a distance of at least 0.014 inch measured in the direction of the central axis.

24. The device of claim 1 , further comprising a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element, the piezoelectric element being driven at a frequency which is randomized at least 20 times during delivery of the fluid.

25. The device of claim 1, further comprising a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element which is operated at a frequency which is randomized and centered about a drive frequency ranging from 100kHz to 160kHz.

26. The device of claim 2, wherein the vibrating element has a maximum amplitude which is less than an average separation distance between the lip and the vibrating element.

27. The device of claim 1, wherein the vibrating element has a maximum amplitude of 0.5-1.5 microns during vibration and delivery of the fluid through the openings.

28. The device of claim 1, wherein the vibrating element has a maximum amplitude of 0.8-1.2 microns during vibration and delivery of the fluid through the openings.

29. The device of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of openings in the vibrating element have an average cross-sectional area at the delivery side which is perpendicular to an ejection orientation at the opening, the cross-sectional area defining an effective diameter of the opening at the delivery side of the vibrating element, the vibrating element having a maximum amplitude which is no more than 5.0% of the effective diameter of the plurality of openings at the delivery side.

30. The device of claim 1, wherein the maximum amplitude of the vibrating element is no more than 5.0% of a thickness of the vibrating element, the thickness being measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of the vibrating element.

31. The device of claim 1, wherein the vibrating element has a thickness measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of 100-180 microns.

32. The device of claim 1, wherein the vibrating element has a thickness measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of 120-160 microns.

33. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip is in contact with the vibrating element to hold the fluid in the enclosure around at least 270 degrees of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

34. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip has no attachments to the vibrating element.

35. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip is made of a resilient material having a durometer of less than Shore 60 a.

36. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip is biased against the vibrating element in the direction of a central axis.

37. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip of the enclosure exerts a force of no more than 3 gram-f on the vibrating element measured in the direction of a central axis of the vibrating element.

38. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip of the enclosure exerts a force of no more than 2 gram-f on the vibrating element measured in the direction of a central axis of the vibrating element.

39. The device of claim 2, further comprising a mechanism for biasing the lip against the vibrating element.

40. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip exerts a spring load on the vibrating element with an average spring constant of no more than 60 gram-f/mm for displacements up to 0.050 mm in the direction of the central axis of the enclosure.

41. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip exerts a spring load on the vibrating element with an average spring constant of no more than 40 gram-f/mm for displacements up to 0.050 mm in the direction of the central axis of the vibrating element.

42. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure is resilient in a direction of the central axis so that the lip exerts a spring load on the vibrating element.

43. The device of claim 2, wherein the wall of the enclosure includes a lip and a sidewall having a tapered portion which reduces in size from a large end to a small end, the large end positioned nearer to the vibrating element than the small end and surrounding a larger area than the small end when viewed along the central axis.

44. The device of claim 43, wherein the sidewall has a radial extension which extends radially inward with respect to a central axis of the open end defined by the lip of the enclosure, the radial extension extending radially inward at least 20% of an equivalent radius of the open end of the enclosure when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extends for a total angular extent of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

45. The device of claim 44, wherein the radial extension has a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement relative to the central axis of the enclosure of at least 3 to 1 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extends for a total angular extent of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

46. The device of claim 44, wherein the sidewall is tapered and has a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement of at least 1 to 3 from the lip to a proximal end of the chamber formed by the enclosure when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extends for a total angular extent of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

47. The device of claim 44, wherein the sidewall has a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement of at least 2 to 3 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

48. The device of claim 44, wherein the sidewall has a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement of at least 1 to 1 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

49. The device of claim 44, wherein the sidewall has a tapered portion which tapers for a radial distance which is at least half of an effective radius of the open end of the enclosure when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

50. The device of claim 44, wherein the sidewall has a tapered portion which includes a frustoconical portion, the frustoconical portion extending for at least half of a total longitudinal distance of the tapered portion measured along the central axis when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

51. The device of claim 50, wherein the tapered portion of the sidewall is resilient in the direction of the central axis of the enclosure so that the lip resiliently contacts the vibrating element.

52. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip and the vibrating element are adjacent one another to prevent fluid from passing therebetween along a closed loop which encircles the plurality of openings.

53. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip is spaced apart from the vibrating element by a separation distance of at least 125 microns around at least 270 degrees of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

54. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure does not include a vent opening to vent air into the enclosure when the fluid is ejected through the openings other than between the lip and the vibrating element and through at least some of the plurality of openings.

55. The device of claim 2, wherein at least some of the plurality of openings admit air into the chamber during vibration.

56. The device of claim 2, wherein the lip and the vibrating element permit air to pass therebetween to vent the enclosure as fluid is ejected through the plurality of openings.

57. The device of claim 1, further comprising a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element; the vibrating element being vibrated for a first period of time and a second period of time separated by a first pause in driving vibration of the vibrating element.

58. The device of claim 1, further comprising a piezoelectric element activated and deactivated with a plurality of pauses in which the piezoelectric element is deactivated, each pause being a continuous time which is at least 2% of the total delivery time and a total time for the plurality of pauses being at least 6% of the total delivery time.

59. The device of claim 57, wherein

the vibrating element is vibrated with a second pause in driving vibration after the second period of time followed by driving vibration for a third period of time; and

the piezoelectric element is operated during the second period of time and the third period of time to include alternating periods of activation and periods of deactivation, each period of deactivation being 2.0 to 2.5% of each of the second and third periods of time, a total of the periods of deactivation during the second and third periods of time being at least 30% of each of the second and third periods of time, respectively.

60. The device of claim 57, wherein the vibrating element is vibrated with the pause in driving vibration being 0.5 to 4.0 ms.

61. The device of claim 57, wherein the vibrating element is vibrated with the first period of time and the second period of time each being 20-40 ms and a total delivery time of less than 100 ms.

62. The device of claim 1 , wherein the vibrating element is vibrated so that an average ejection velocity at the delivery side of the opening is 2.5 m/s to 12 m/s.

63. The device of claim 2, further comprising:

a fluid container fluidly coupled to the chamber of the enclosure, the fluid container having a fluid carrying capacity which is at least 150 times the volume of the enclosure; and a pump which delivers one dose size only.

64. The device of claim 2, wherein the vibrating element defines an enclosed border positioned adjacent to the surface of the lip, the enclosed border defining an enclosed feed area bounded by the enclosed border, the openings in the vibrating element encompassing and defining a delivery area of the vibrating element.

65. The device of claim 64, wherein the delivery area is no more than 75% of the enclosed feed area.

66. The device of claim 64, wherein the enclosed feed area is at least 30% larger than the delivery area.

67. The device of claim 64, wherein the enclosed feed area has an excess feed area which is not coextensive with the delivery area when viewed in the direction of a central axis of the vibrating element.

68. The device of claim 64, wherein the excess feed area is positioned so that at least 90% of the excess feed area is positioned above a geometric center of the delivery area in use.

69. The device of claim 64, wherein the excess feed area is at least 30% of the delivery area.

70. The device of claim 64, wherein the delivery area of the vibrating element defines a geometric center and has an effective radius, the enclosed feed area of the lip also defining a geometric center and an effective radius.

71. The device of claim 70, wherein the geometric center of the enclosed feed area is above the geometric center of the delivery area in use.

72. The device of claim 70, wherein the geometric center of the enclosed feed area is offset from the geometric center of the delivery area by at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the delivery area.

73. The device of claim 2, wherein the chamber formed by the enclosure is free of obstruction to fluid flow so that at least 95% of the fluid in the chamber and any fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber has direct line of sight to at least one of the plurality of openings.

74. The device of claim 2, wherein the chamber formed by the enclosure is free of obstruction to fluid flow so that all of the fluid in the chamber and any fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber has direct line of sight to at least one of the plurality of openings.

75. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface shaped so that a minimum spacing between at least 75% of the plurality of openings to the nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure is at least 0.014 inch.

76. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an internal surface shaped so that a minimum spacing between at least 95% of the plurality of openings to the nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure is at least 0.014 inch.

77. The device of claim 2, wherein the internal surface of the enclosure is shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 75% of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch from a nearest opening in the vibrating element.

78. The device of claim 2, wherein the internal surface of the enclosure is shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 95% of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.040 inch from a nearest opening in the vibrating element.

79. The device of claim 2, wherein the internal surface of the enclosure is shaped so that the chamber is formed with all of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber being no more than 0.060 inch from a nearest opening in the vibrating element.

80. The device of claim 64, wherein the excess feed area extends radially outwardly at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the enclosed feed area along at least 270 degrees of the enclosed feed area when viewed relative to a central axis of the vibrating element.

81. The device of claim 64, wherein the excess feed area extends completely around the enclosed feed area at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the enclosed feed area.

82. The device of claim 64, wherein the excess feed area is bounded by a tapered portion of the sidewall of the enclosure when viewed along the central axis, the tapered portion of the sidewall having a larger end positioned nearer to the vibrating element.

83. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has a sidewall and a main inlet which receives the fluid, the enclosure also having a first inlet and a second inlet through which fluid enters the chamber, the first inlet and the second inlet leading to the chamber and both oriented to direct the fluid at a sidewall of the enclosure before being directed at the plurality of openings.

84. The device of claim 83, wherein the first inlet and the second inlet direct at least 90% of the fluid at the enclosure and less than 10% of the fluid is directed at the vibrating element before being directed at the enclosure.

85. The device of claim 1, further comprising:

a tube having a lumen; and

the enclosure having a main inlet fluidly coupled to the lumen in the tube, the main inlet being oriented to direct the fluid at an inner wall of the enclosure which forms a flow splitting chamber, the flow splitting chamber having at least two separate inlets leading to the chamber and each inlet to the chamber directing the fluid at a sidewall of the enclosure.

87. The device of claim 86, wherein the flow splitting chamber has a third inlet and a fourth inlet corresponding to a third flow path and a fourth flow path, respectively.

88. The device of claim 2, wherein

the vibrating element has a central axis defined by a central orientation of the spray pattern emitted by the plurality of openings; and

the enclosure has a main inlet which directs the flow in a direction within 30 degrees of the central axis, the enclosure having a sidewall and a flow splitting chamber fluidly coupled to the main inlet to receive the fluid, the flow splitting chamber having a shape which redirects and splits the fluid flow from the main inlet to at least a first inlet and a second inlet oriented 60-90 degrees from the central axis, the first inlet and the second inlet being directed at the sidewall of the enclosure before the fluid is directed to the plurality of openings.

89. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a fourth inlet which are all oriented at a sidewall of the enclosure and oriented 60- 120 degrees from adjacent inlets when viewed along a central axis of the enclosure.

90. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has a fluid splitting chamber which receives fluid from a main inlet of a tube, the flow splitting chamber being formed by a wall extending from a side of the sidewall to an opposite side of the sidewall when viewed along a central axis defined by the lip of the enclosure.

91. The device of claim 2, wherein the enclosure has an integrally formed structure which defines at least the chamber.

92. The device of claim 2, further comprising:

a tube having a lumen with a volume of less than 2 microliters;

a valve having an open position which permits fluid flow through the lumen and a closed position which prevents fluid flow through the lumen; and

the enclosure having a main inlet fluidly coupled to the lumen in the tube.

93. The device of claim 92, wherein the valve is also a pump.

94. The device of claim 1 , further comprising a pump having a first part and a second part, the first part reciprocates between a stored position to a forward stroke position at a greatest displacement and back from the forward stroke position to the stored position each cycle, the pump also having a second pump part which also reciprocates between a stored position to a forward stroke position at a greatest displacement and back to the stored position each cycle.

95. The device of claim 94, wherein the first part of the pump has an extension which extends toward the second part, the second part also having an extension which extends toward the first part and interlocks with the extension of the first part, the first part driving the second part through the cycle.

96. The device of claim 94, further comprising a first actuator operably coupled to the first part, the actuator driving the first part through the forward stroke and also loading a pump return spring during the forward stroke, the loaded pump spring moving the first pump part and the second pump part back to the stored position from the forward stroke position.

97. The device of claim 94, wherein the fluid is drawn into a cavity formed between the first and second parts during the forward stroke of the first part.

98. The device of claim 94, wherein the fluid is drawn into a cavity during the forward stroke, the cavity being formed between the first part and the second part, a size of the cavity changing as the first and second parts move toward and away from one another.

99. The device of claim 94, wherein the pump having a cavity which holds a volume of fluid of 7-12 microliters which is delivered to the enclosure.

100. The device of claim 1, further comprising:

a tube having a lumen fluidly coupled to the chamber; and

a valve which is opened to permit fluid flow through the lumen and closed to block fluid flow through the lumen, a total downstream volume is defined by a total volume including at least the lumen and the chamber tube which is downstream of the valve, the volume of fluid delivered to the chamber may be 40%-70% of the total downstream volume.

101. The device of claim 1, further comprising an air make-up chamber coupled to a pump, the pump forcing air from the make-up chamber into a fluid container during each cycle.

102. The device of claim 101, wherein the pump draws air into the air make-up chamber during the forward stroke of the first part and forces air into the fluid container during the return stroke of the first part.

103. The device of claim 1, further comprising:

a shutter having an aperture, the shutter being movable from a stored position, which covers the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis, to a delivery position in which the plurality of openings are exposed when viewed along the central axis through the aperture of the shutter; and

a shutter spring coupled to the shutter, the shutter spring being loaded when the first actuator moves the first part of the pump during the forward stroke, the shutter spring being coupled to the shutter which is moved from the delivery position back to the stored position by the shutter spring.

104. The device of claim 1, further comprising a control system mounted to the housing, the control system being coupled to a first actuator and being operably coupled to the vibrating element to control the vibrating element.

105. The device of claim 1, wherein the housing includes a first housing part and a second housing part, the first housing part being removably coupled to the second housing part; the control system being mounted to the first housing part.

106. The device of claim 105, further comprising:

an enclosure mounted to the second part of the housing; and

the vibrating element is mounted to the second part of the housing.

107. The device of claim 105, further comprising a fluid container coupled to the second part of the housing, the fluid container being mounted to the second part of the housing without being replaceable so that the second part of the housing is discarded with the fluid container.

108. The device of claim 1, further comprising:

a tube having a lumen fluidly coupled to the chamber;

a valve positioned in communication with the lumen, the valve opened to permit fluid flow through the lumen and closed to block fluid flow through the lumen.

109. The device of claim 108, wherein a total downstream volume is defined by a total volume downstream of the valve and including at least the lumen and the chamber, the volume of fluid delivered through the lumen in the tube to the chamber being 40%-70% of the total downstream volume.

110. The device of claim 108, wherein the valve is a pump.

111. The device of claim 1 , further comprising a pump delivers the fluid at a pressure of at least 200 psi.

112. The device of claim 1 , further comprising a pump delivers the fluid at a velocity of at least 1.0 m/s to the chamber.

113. The device of claim 1 , wherein the enclosure includes a main inlet which is fluidly coupled to a flow splitting chamber having a cup-shaped wall with a concave side facing away from the vibrating element.

114. The device of claim 113, wherein the cup-shaped wall has a first inlet and a second inlet formed in cup-shaped wall, the cup-shaped wall extending radially outward from a central axis of the enclosure for at least 25% of an effective radius defined by the lip.

115. The device of claim 113, wherein the first inlet and the second inlet each having a radial dimension and a longitudinal dimension relative to the central axis, a ratio of the radial dimension to the longitudinal dimension being 0.5 to 1.5.

116. The device of claim 113, wherein the first inlet and the second inlet each exposing some of the main inlet when viewed in the direction of the central axis of the enclosure.

117. The device of claims 2, wherein the enclosure has a lip which has a degree of freedom with respect to the vibrating element in the direction of a central axis of the vibrating element.

118. A fluid handling device for use with a device which delivers the fluid to an eye, comprising:

an enclosure including a sidewall having a lip which circumscribes and defines an open end of the enclosure, the lip being positioned adjacent to a vibrating element in use, the enclosure having an internal surface that defines a chamber together with the open end when the lip is positioned adjacent the vibrating element in use, the open end being positioned adjacent to the vibrating element to surround a plurality of openings in the vibrating element through which fluid in the chamber is dispensed as the vibrating element vibrates, the vibrating element having a fluid side and a delivery side with the plurality of openings extending from the fluid side to the delivery side, the vibrating element ejecting fluid from the fluid side through the plurality of openings to the delivery side when the vibrating element is vibrated, the lip extending around the plurality of openings in use.

119. The device of claim 118, further comprising: a tube having a lumen fluidly coupled to the chamber of the enclosure to deliver the fluid through the lumen to the chamber.

120. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber holds a single application of the fluid to the eye, wherein the chamber is substantially emptied in a single actuation of the vibrating element in use and holds less than 14 microliters of the fluid.

121. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber formed by the enclosure has a volume of lO-14 microliters .

122. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber formed between the enclosure and the vibrating element is 70-95% full with the volume of the fluid.

123. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber holds a volume of 7-12 microliters of the fluid in use.

124. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is spaced apart from the fluid side of the vibrating element in use by an average separation distance of less than 250 microns.

125. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is spaced apart from the fluid side of the vibrating element by less than 250 microns around at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

126. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure is spaced apart from the vibrating element by at least 0.014 inch opposite the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

127. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element has a maximum amplitude during vibration which is less than an average separation distance between the surface of the lip and the vibrating element.

128. The device of claim 118, further comprising a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element.

129. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element has a maximum amplitude of 0.5-1.5 microns during vibration and delivery of the fluid through the openings.

130. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element has a maximum amplitude of 0.8-1.2 microns during vibration and delivery of the fluid through the openings.

131. The device of claim 118, wherein: the plurality of openings having a cross-sectional area at the delivery side which is perpendicular to an ejection orientation of the opening, the cross-sectional area defining an effective diameter of the opening at the delivery side, the maximum amplitude of the vibrating element being no more than 5.0% of the effective diameter of the plurality of openings at the delivery side.

132. The device of claim 118, wherein: the maximum amplitude of the vibrating element being no more than 3.0% of a thickness of the vibrating element, the thickness being measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of the vibrating element.

133. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element has a thickness measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of 100-180 microns.

134. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element has a thickness measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of 120-160 microns.

135. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is in contact with the vibrating element to hold the fluid in the enclosure.

136. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip has no attachments to the vibrating element.

137. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is made of a resilient material.

138. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is biased against the vibrating element to hold the fluid in the chamber.

139. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is biased against the vibrating element with a force of less than 3 gram-f measured along the central axis.

140. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip exerts a force of less than 2 gram-f on the vibrating element when in contact with the vibrating element in the direction of the central axis.

141. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip exerts a spring load to the vibrating element with an average spring constant of no more than 60 gram-f/mm for displacements up to 0.005 inch in the direction of the central axis.

142. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a sidewall which is resilient and which applies a spring load to the vibrating element in the direction of the central axis.

143. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element defines a central axis at a central orientation of the plurality of openings and oriented in an ejection direction.

144. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element defines a central axis at a center of a spray pattern created by the plurality of openings.

145. The device of claim 118, wherein: the open end of the enclosure has a geometric center, the open end defining a central axis which extends through the geometric center perpendicular to an area enclosed by the lip.

146. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a sidewall which reduces in size from a large end to a small end, the large end positioned nearer to the vibrating element and surrounding a larger area than the small end.

147. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall of the enclosure includes a frustoconical portion and a radial extension extending radially inward from a small end of the frustoconical portion.

148. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall includes a radial extension which extends radially inward with respect to the central axis of the opening defined by the lip, the radial extension extending radially inward at least 20% of an equivalent radius of the open end of the enclosure defined by the lip when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

149. The device of claim 148, wherein: the radial extension has a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement relative to the central axis defined by the open end of the enclosure of at least 3 to 1 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

150. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall is tapered and has ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement ratio of at least 1 to 3 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis of the enclosure lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

151. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall has a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement of at least 2 to 3 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis of the enclosure lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

152. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall has a radial to longitudinal displacement ratio of at least 1 to 1 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis of the enclosure lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

153. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall has a first frustoconical portion.

154. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall has a thickness of less than 0.005 inch along a tapered portion of the sidewall.

155. The device of claim 146, wherein: the sidewall has a ratio of radial displacement to an effective radius of an area enclosed by the lip of at least 1 to 8 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis of the enclosure lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

156. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip has a surface positioned adjacent to the vibrating element, the surface of the lip being in contact with the vibrating element and having a degree of freedom relative to the vibrating element in the direction of a central axis.

157. The device of claim 118, wherein:

the vibrating element defines a central axis at a geometric center of the plurality of openings and oriented in an ejection direction of the openings; and

the lip has a surface spaced apart from the vibrating element less than 125 microns around at least 270 degrees of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

158. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip is spaced apart from the vibrating element by a separation distance of at least 125 microns around at least 270 degrees of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

159. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure does not include vent openings to vent air into the enclosure when the fluid is ejected through the openings other than between the lip and the vibrating element and through at least some of the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

160. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip and the vibrating element permit air to be drawn into some of the plurality of openings during vibration of the vibrating element.

161. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip and the vibrating element vent the enclosure as fluid is ejected through the plurality of openings.

162. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element defines an enclosed border positioned adjacent to the surface of the lip which together prevent fluid from escaping therebetween, the enclosed border defining an enclosed feed area which is the area bounded by the enclosed border, the openings in the vibrating element encompassing a delivery area of the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

163. The device of claim 162, wherein: the delivery area of the vibrating element being no more than 75% of the enclosed feed area.

164. The device of claim 162, wherein: the enclosed feed area being at least 30% larger than the delivery area.

165. The device of claim 162, wherein: the enclosed feed area defines an excess feed area which is not coextensive with the delivery area when viewed in the direction of the central axis.

166. The device of claim 165, wherein: at least 90% of the excess feed area is positioned above a geometric center of the delivery area in use.

167. The device of claim 165, wherein: the excess feed area has a size which is at least 30% of the delivery area.

168. The device of claim 162, wherein: the delivery area of the vibrating element defines a geometric center and an effective radius, the enclosed feed area of the surface of the lip also defining a geometric center and an effective radius.

169. The device of claim 168, wherein: the geometric center of the enclosed feed area being above the geometric center of the delivery area in use.

170. The device of claim 168, wherein: the geometric center of the enclosed feed area being offset from the geometric center of the delivery area by at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the delivery area.

171. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber formed between the enclosure and the vibrating element defines a geometric center, the geometric center of the fluid in the chamber being positioned no more than 0.015 inch from the vibrating element when measured in the direction of the central axis, the vibrating being carried out to evacuate the fluid in the chamber.

172. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber formed by the enclosure is free of obstruction to fluid flow so that at least 95% of the fluid in the chamber has direct line of sight to a nearest opening in the vibrating element.

173. The device of claim 118, wherein: the chamber formed by the enclosure is free of obstruction to fluid flow so that all of the fluid in the chamber and fluid in communication with the fluid in the chamber has direct line of sight to a nearest opening in the vibrating element.

174. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has an internal surface shaped so that a minimum spacing between at least 75% of the plurality of openings to the nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure is at least 0.014 inch.

175. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has an internal surface shaped so that a minimum spacing between at least 95% of the plurality of openings to the nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure is at least 0.014 inch.

176. The device of claim 118, wherein: the internal surface of the enclosure is shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 75 % of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.040 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

177. The device of claim 118, wherein: the internal surface of the enclosure is shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 95 % of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

178. The device of claim 118, wherein: the internal surface of the enclosure is shaped so that the chamber is formed with all of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber being no more than 0.060 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

179. The device of claim 165, wherein: the excess feed area extends outwardly from the enclosed feed area at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the enclosed feed area along at least 270 degrees of the enclosed feed area when viewed along the central axis.

180. The device of claim 165, wherein: the excess feed area extends completely around the enclosed feed area.

181. The device of claim 165, wherein: the excess feed area is bounded by a tapered portion of the sidewall of the enclosure when viewed along the central axis.

182. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a main inlet which receives the fluid, the main inlet directing fluid to a first inlet and a second inlet through which fluid enters the chamber, the first inlet directs the fluid at a first surface of the enclosure before the fluid is directed at the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

183. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a main inlet through which the volume of the fluid is introduced, the enclosure also having at least a first inlet and a second inlet leading to the chamber, the first inlet and the second inlet both being oriented to direct the fluid at a surface of the enclosure before being directed to the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

184. The device of claim 118, wherein: the at least first inlet and the second inlet direct at least 90% of the fluid at the enclosure so that less than 10% of the fluid is directed at the vibrating element before being directed at the enclosure.

185. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a main inlet which directs the fluid at a first surface of the enclosure which splits the flow into at least three separate inlets which each direct the fluid at a sidewall of the enclosure as the fluid enters the chamber.

186. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a flow splitting chamber which receives the fluid from a main inlet of the enclosure, the flow splitting chamber having the first fluid inlet and the second fluid inlet which splits the flow into a first flow along a first flow path and a second flow along a second flow path.

187. The device of claim 186, wherein: the flow splitting chamber having a third inlet and a fourth inlet corresponding to a third flow path and a fourth flow path, respectively, which both direct fluid at the sidewall of the enclosure before being directed to the openings.

188. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a main inlet directing the flow in a direction within 30 degrees of a central axis of the enclosure, the enclosure having a sidewall and a flow splitter fluidly coupled to the main inlet to receive the fluid, the flow splitter redirects the flow from the main inlet into at least a first inlet and a second inlet oriented 60-90 degrees from the central axis, the first inlet and the second inlet being directed at the sidewall of the enclosure before the fluid is directed to the plurality of openings.

189. The device of claim 188, wherein: the enclosure having a third inlet and a fourth inlet which receive fluid from the flow splitting chamber, the third inlet and the fourth inlet to the chamber being oriented at the sidewall of the enclosure.

190. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure has a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a fourth inlet which are all oriented at a sidewall of the enclosure and oriented 60-120 degrees from the adjacent inlet when viewed along the central axis.

191. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure includes an inner wall extending from a first part of the sidewall to an opposing part of the sidewall, the inner wall extending substantially perpendicular to the central axis, the inner wall extending from a central axis radially outward for a distance at least 20% of an effective radius of an area enclosed by the lip and positioned 0.014 to 0.030 inch from the vibrating element measured along a central axis.

192. The device of claim 118, wherein: an inner wall of the enclosure forms a fluid splitting chamber together with a proximal end of the sidewall of the enclosure, the fluid splitting chamber having four inlets to the chamber which each direct the fluid at the sidewall.

193. The device of claim 192, wherein: the four inlets formed by the inner wall of the fluid splitting chamber are oriented 60-90 degrees from the central axis.

194. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure is an integrally formed structure which defines the chamber together with an area of the open end which is enclosed by the lip.

195. The device of claim 118, further comprising:

a tube having a lumen with a volume of less than 2 microliters; and

a valve fluidly coupled to the lumen which permits and prevents fluid flow through the lumen; and

the enclosure having a main inlet through which fluid is introduced into the enclosure, the main inlet being fluidly coupled to the lumen of the tube.

196. The device of claim 195, wherein: the valve is a pump which pumps fluid through the tube and toward the chamber.

197. The device of claim 196, wherein: a total downstream volume is defined by a total volume downstream of the valve and including at least the lumen and the chamber, the volume of fluid delivered through the lumen in the tube to the chamber being 40%-70% of the total downstream volume.

198. The device of claim 118, wherein: the enclosure includes a main inlet which is fluidly coupled to a flow splitting chamber having a cup-shaped wall with a concave side facing away from the vibrating element.

199. The device of claim 118, wherein: the cup-shaped wall has a first inlet and a second inlet formed in cup-shaped wall, the cup-shaped wall extending radially outward from a central axis of the enclosure for at least 25% of an effective radius defined by the lip.

200. The device of claim 199, wherein: the first inlet and the second inlet each having a radial dimension and a longitudinal dimension relative to the central axis, a ratio of the radial dimension to the longitudinal dimension being 0.5 to 1.5.

201. The device of claim 199, wherein: the first inlet and the second inlet each exposing some of the main inlet when viewed in the direction of the central axis of the enclosure.

202. The device of claims 118, wherein: the enclosure has a lip which has a degree of freedom with respect to the vibrating element in the direction of a central axis of the vibrating element.

203. The device of claim 118, further comprising:

a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element;

the vibrating element being vibrated for a first period of time and a second period of time separated by a first pause in driving vibration of the vibrating element.

204. The device of claim 118, further comprising: a piezoelectric element activated and deactivated with a plurality of pauses in which the piezoelectric element is deactivated, each pause being a continuous time which is at least 2% of the total delivery time and a total time for the plurality of pauses being at least 6% of the total delivery time.

205. The device of claim 118, further comprising:

a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element;

the vibrating element is vibrated with a second pause in driving vibration after the second period of time followed by driving vibration for a third period of time;

the piezoelectric element is operated during the second period of time and the third period of time to include alternating periods of activation and periods of deactivation, each period of deactivation being 2.0 to 2.5% of each of the second and third periods of time, a total of the periods of deactivation during the second and third periods of time being at least 30% of each of the second and third periods of time, respectively.

206. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element is vibrated with the pause in driving vibration being 0.5 to 4.0 ms.

207. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element is vibrated with the first period of time and the second period of time each being 20-40 ms and a total delivery time of less than 100 ms.

208. A method of delivering a volume of fluid to an eye, comprising:

providing a device having a fluid ejector and an enclosure, the fluid ejector having a vibrating element with a plurality of openings, the vibrating element having a fluid side and a delivery side with the plurality of openings extending from the fluid side to the delivery side, the fluid ejector ejecting fluid from the fluid side through the plurality of openings to the delivery side when the vibrating element is vibrated, the enclosure forming a chamber which holds the fluid in contact with the fluid side of the vibrating element;

delivering a volume of a fluid to the chamber; and

vibrating the vibrating element so that the fluid in the chamber is ejected through the plurality of openings toward an eye.

209. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having a wall with a lip positioned adjacent the fluid side of the vibrating element, the lip extending around the plurality of openings, the enclosure and the vibrating element together defining the chamber.

210. The method of claim 208, wherein:

the delivering is carried out upon a first actuation of the device by the user to deliver the fluid to the chamber; and

the vibrating is carried out upon a second actuation of the device by the user after the first actuation.

211. The method of claim 208 , wherein:

the delivering is carried out with the first actuation of the device being manipulation of a first actuator; and

the vibrating is carried out with the second actuation of the device being with a second actuator separate from the first actuator.

212. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the chamber being substantially empty prior to the delivering.

213. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the chamber being substantially empty when the vibrating is completed.

214. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is initiated with the enclosure having no more than 5% of a total volume occupied by a residual fluid from a previous delivery of the fluid so that the chamber is substantially empty prior to the delivering.

215. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is initiated with the enclosure having no more than 2% of a total volume occupied by residual fluid from a previous delivery of the fluid.

216. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is initiated with the enclosure having no more than 1 microliter of residual fluid from a previous delivery of the fluid.

217. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out to fill the chamber of the enclosure 70-95% full with the volume of the fluid.

218. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the volume of the fluid being 7-12 microliters.

219. The method of claim 209, wherein: the positioning is carried out with the lip being spaced apart from the fluid side of the vibrating element by less than 250 microns.

220. The method of claim 209, wherein: the positioning is carried out with the lip being spaced apart from the fluid side of the vibrating element by less than 250 microns about an angle of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

221. The method of claim 209, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the enclosure having an internal surface spaced apart from the vibrating element by at least 0.014 inch from the plurality of openings in the direction of the central axis.

222. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out at a frequency of 100 to 160 kHz.

223. The method of claim 209, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element having a maximum amplitude which is less than an average separation distance between the surface of the lip and the vibrating element.

224. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element having a maximum amplitude of 0.5-1.5 microns during vibration and delivery of the fluid through the openings.

225. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element having a maximum amplitude of 0.8-1.2 microns during vibration and delivery of the fluid through the openings.

226. The method of claim 208, wherein:

the providing is carried out with the plurality of openings having a cross-sectional area at the delivery side which is perpendicular to an ejection orientation, the cross-sectional area defining an effective diameter of the opening at the delivery side;

the vibrating is carried out with the maximum amplitude of the vibrating element being no more than 5.0% of the effective diameter of the plurality of openings at the delivery side.

227. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the maximum amplitude of the vibrating element being no more than 3.0% of a thickness of the vibrating element, the thickness being measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of the vibrating element.

228. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element having a thickness measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of 100-180 microns.

229. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element having a thickness measured from the fluid side to the delivery side of 120-160 microns.

230. The method of claim 209, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the enclosure having a lip in contact with the vibrating element to hold the fluid in the enclosure.

231. The method of claim 209, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the lip having no attachments to the vibrating element.

232. The method of claim 209, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the lip being made of a resilient material.

233. The method of claim 209, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the lip biased against the vibrating element in a direction of the central axis to hold the fluid in the chamber.

234. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out so that the lip of the enclosure exerts a force of no more than 3 gram-f on the vibrating element measured in the direction of a central axis.

235. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out so that the lip of the enclosure exerts a force of no more than 2 gram-f on the vibrating element measured in the direction of a central axis.

236. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out so that the lip exerts a spring load on the vibrating element with a spring constant of no more than 60 gram-f/mm in the direction of a central axis for displacement up to 0.050 mm.

237. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out so that the lip exerts a spring load to the vibrating element with an average spring constant of no more than 40 gram-f/mm in the direction of a central axis for displacement up to 0.050 mm.

238. The method of claim 209, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the enclosure having a wall which is resilient to apply a spring load to the vibrating element.

239. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the vibrating element defining a central axis at a central orientation of the plurality of openings.

240. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the vibrating element defining a central axis as a center of a spray pattern created by the plurality of openings.

241. The method of claim 208, wherein: the open end of the enclosure has a geometric center, the open end defining a central axis which extends through the geometric center perpendicular to the area defined by the open end.

242. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the wall of the enclosure including a sidewall which reduces in size from a large end to a small end, the large end positioned nearer to the vibrating element and surrounding a larger area than the small end.

243. The method of claim 242, wherein: the providing is carried out with the sidewall having a frustoconical portion extending from the lip and a radial extension extending radially inward from a small end of the frustoconical portion.

244. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with a radial extension extending radially inward with respect to the central axis of the opening for at least 20% of an equivalent radius of the open end defined by the lip when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

245. The method of claim 244, wherein: the providing is carried out with the radial extension having a ratio of radial displacement to longitudinal displacement relative to the central axis of the enclosure of at least 3 to 1 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

246. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a sidewall being tapered and having a radial to longitudinal displacement ratio of at least 1 to 3 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

247. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a sidewall having a radial to longitudinal displacement ratio of at least 2 to 3 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

248. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a sidewall having a radial to longitudinal displacement ratio of at least 1 to 1 when viewed in a cross-sectional plane on which the central axis lies and extending for a total of at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

249. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a sidewall being tapered and having a frustoconical portion.

250. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with the lip and the vibrating element being adjacent one another to prevent fluid from passing therebetween along a closed loop which encircles the plurality of openings.

251. The method of claim 209, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the lip having a surface positioned adjacent to the vibrating element, the surface of the lip being in contact with the vibrating element but not attached to the vibrating element along at least 270 degrees when viewed along a central axis defined by the open end.

252. The method of claim 209, wherein:

the providing is carried out with the vibrating element defining a central axis at a geometric center of the plurality of openings and oriented in an ejection direction of the openings;

the vibrating is carried out with the lip having a surface spaced apart from the vibrating element by less than 250 microns around at least 270 degrees of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

253. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the surface spaced apart by a separation distance of at least 125 microns around at least 270 degrees of the plurality of openings when viewed along the central axis.

254. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure not including vent openings to vent air into the enclosure when the fluid is ejected through the openings other than between the lip and the vibrating element and the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

255. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out so that air is drawn into some of the plurality of openings during the vibrating step.

256. The method of claim 209, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with air being admitted between the lip and the vibrating element to vent the enclosure as fluid is ejected through the plurality of openings.

257. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out for a first period of time and a second period of time separated by a first pause in driving vibration of the vibrating element.

258. The method of claim 257, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the first pause in driving vibration being 0.5 ms to 4.0 ms.

259. The method of claim 257, wherein: the vibrating step is carried out with a second pause in driving vibration after the second period of time followed by driving vibration for a third period of time.

260. The method of claim 259, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the second pause in driving vibration being 0.5 ms to 4.0 ms.

261. The method of claim 257, wherein: the vibrating step is carried out with the first period of time and the second period of time being 20-40 ms.

262. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out after the delivering is complete.

263. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out during the delivering.

264. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out so that an average ejection velocity at the delivery side of the opening is 2.5 m/s to 12 m/s.

265. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering step is carried out with the volume of fluid being delivered from a fluid container which has a fluid carrying capacity which is at least 150 times the volume of the enclosure.

266. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element defining an enclosed border positioned adjacent to the surface of the lip which together prevent fluid from escaping therebetween, the enclosed border defining an enclosed feed area which is the area bounded by the enclosed border, the openings in the vibrating element encompassing a delivery area of the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

267. The method of claim 266, wherein: the providing is carried out with the delivery area being no more than 75% of the enclosed feed area.

268. The method of claim 266, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosed feed area being at least 30% larger than the delivery area.

269. The method of claim 266, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosed feed area having an excess feed area which is not coextensive with the delivery area when viewed in the direction of the central axis.

270. The method of claim 266, wherein: the providing is carried out with at least 90% of the excess feed area being positioned above a geometric center of the delivery area.

271. The method of claim 266, wherein: the providing is carried out with the excess area being at least 30% of the delivery area.

272. The method of claim 266, wherein: the providing is carried out with the delivery area of the vibrating element defining a geometric center and an effective radius, the enclosed feed area of the surface of the lip also defining a geometric center and an effective radius.

273. The method of claim 272, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the geometric center of the enclosed feed area being above the geometric center of the delivery area.

274. The method of claim 272, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the geometric center of the enclosed feed area being offset from the geometric center of the delivery area by at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the delivery area

275. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the fluid held in the chamber formed between the enclosure and the vibrating element having a geometric center, the geometric center of the fluid in the chamber being positioned no more than 0.015 from the vibrating element when measured in the direction of the central axis.

276. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with at least 95% of the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch from a nearest of the plurality of openings in the vibrating element.

277. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with a geometric center of the fluid being at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the delivery area above the geometric center of the delivery area.

278. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the chamber being free of obstruction along at least 95% of the plurality of openings for a distance of at least 0.014 inch when viewed and measured along the central axis.

279. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure positioned between 0.014-0.040 inch from at least 95% of the plurality of openings when viewed and measured in the direction of the central axis.

280. The method of claim 208, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element defining an enclosed border positioned adjacent to the surface of the lip which

together prevent fluid from escaping therebetween, the enclosed border defining an enclosed feed area which is the area bounded by the enclosed border, the plurality of openings in the vibrating element encompassing a delivery area in the vibrating element, the delivery area of the vibrating element defining a geometric center and an effective radius, the enclosed feed area of the surface of the lip also defining a geometric center and an effective radius, the enclosed feed area having an excess feed area which is not coextensive with the delivery area when viewed in the direction of the central axis.

281. The method of claim 280, wherein: the providing is carried out with the excess feed area extending outwardly at least 0.3 times the effective radius of the enclosed feed area along at least 270 degrees of the enclosed feed area when viewed along the central axis.

282. The method of claim 280, wherein: the providing is carried out with the excess feed area extending completely around the enclosed feed area.

283. The method of claim 280, wherein: the providing is carried out with the excess feed area being contained by a tapered portion of the sidewall of the enclosure when viewed along the central axis.

284. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the enclosure having a main inlet which receives the fluid, the main inlet being fluidly coupled to a first inlet and a second inlet through which fluid enters the chamber, the first inlet and the second inlet both directing the fluid at a sidewall of the enclosure before being directed at the openings in the vibrating element.

285. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the enclosure having at least a first inlet and a second inlet leading to the chamber, the first inlet and the second inlet both being oriented to direct the fluid at a surface of the enclosure before being directed to the openings in the vibrating element.

286. The method of claim 285, wherein: the delivering is carried out so that the at least first inlet and the second inlet direct at least 90% of the fluid at the enclosure and less than 10% of the fluid is directed at the vibrating element before being directed at the enclosure.

287. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having a main inlet which directs the fluid at a first surface of the enclosure which splits the flow into to at least three separate inlets which each direct the fluid at a sidewall of the enclosure.

288. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having a flow splitting chamber which receives the fluid from a main inlet, the flow splitting chamber having the first fluid inlet and the second fluid inlet which splits the flow into a first flow along a first flow path and a second flow along a second flow path.

289. The method of claim 288, wherein: the providing is carried out with the flow splitting chamber having a third inlet and a fourth inlet corresponding to a third flow path and a fourth flow path, respectively.

290. The method of claim 288, wherein: the providing is carried out with the flow splitting chamber having a cup-shaped wall with a concave side facing away from the vibrating element.

291. The method of claim 290, wherein: the providing is carried out with the cup-shaped wall having the first inlet and the second inlet formed in cut-shaped wall, the cup-shaped wall extending radially outward from a central axis of the enclosure for at least 25% of an effective radius defined by the lip for an angular extent of at least 240 degrees relative to the central axis defined by the lip.

292. The method of claim 288, wherein: the providing is carried out with the first inlet and the second inlet each having a radial dimension and a longitudinal dimension relative to the central axis, a ratio of the radial dimension to the longitudinal dimension being between 0.5 to 1.5.

293. The method of claim 288, wherein: the providing is carried out with the first inlet and the second inlet each exposing some of the main inlet when viewed in the direction of the central axis of the enclosure.

294. The method of claim 208, wherein:

the vibrating is carried out with the vibrating element having a central axis defined by a central orientation of the spray pattern emitted by the plurality of openings;

the providing is carried out with a main inlet directing the flow in a direction within 30 degrees of the central axis, the enclosure having a sidewall and a flow splitter fluidly coupled to the main inlet to receive the fluid, the flow splitter redirects the flow from the main inlet into at least a first inlet and a second inlet oriented 60-90 degrees from the central axis, the first inlet and the second inlet being directed at the sidewall of the enclosure before the fluid is directed to the plurality of openings.

295. The method of claim 294, wherein: the providing is carried out with a third inlet and a fourth inlet which receive fluid from the flow splitting chamber, the third inlet and the fourth inlet to the chamber being oriented at the sidewall of the enclosure.

296. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a fourth inlet which are all oriented at a sidewall of the enclosure and oriented 60-120 degrees from adjacent inlets when viewed along the central axis.

297. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having an integrally formed structure which defines the chamber together with the vibrating element.

298. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a tube having a lumen fluidly coupled to the main inlet of the enclosure, the tube having a volume of less than 2 microliters, the main inlet being fluidly coupled to the chamber.

299. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the pump delivering a volume of air together with the fluid.

300. The method of claim 298, further comprising: purging the tube of any residual fluid after the delivering step.

301. The method of claim 300, wherein: the delivering is carried out using a pump to deliver the volume of the fluid; and the purging is carried out using the pump.

302. The method of claim 300, wherein: the purging is carried out with the pump drawing a volume of displacing medium and delivering the displacing medium into the tube to displace fluid in the tube into the enclosure.

303. The method of claim 300, wherein: the purging is carried out with the pump drawing fluid in the tube back into the pump after the delivering step.

304. The method of claim 303, further comprising: pumping the fluid drawn into the pump back through the tube and into the enclosure.

305. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with a pump having a first part and a second part, the first part reciprocates between a stored position to a forward stroke position at a greatest displacement and back from the forward stroke position to the stored position each cycle, the pump also having a second pump part which also reciprocates between a stored position to a forward stroke position at a greatest displacement and back to the stored position each cycle.

306. The method of claim 305, wherein:

the delivering is carried out with the first part having an extension which extends toward the second part, the second part also having an extension which extends toward the first part and interlocks with the extension of the first part; and

the delivering is carried out with the first part driving the second part through the cycle.

307. The method of claim 305, wherein: the delivering is carried out with an actuator operably coupled to the first part, the actuator driving the first part through the forward stroke and also loading a pump return spring during the forward stroke, the loaded pump spring moving the first pump part and the second pump part back to the stored position from the forward stroke position.

308. The method of claim 305, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the fluid being drawn into a cavity during the forward stroke of the first part.

309. The method of claim 305, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the cavity being formed between the first part and the second part, a size of the cavity changing as the first and second parts move toward and away from one another.

310. The method of claim 305 , wherein: the providing carried out with the pump also being a valve which opens and closes a lumen of a tube leading to the chamber.

311. The method of claim 305 , wherein: the delivering is carried out with a volume of fluid of 7-12 microliters.

312. The method of claim 305 , further comprising:

drawing air into a make-up chamber with the pump; and

forcing air from the make-up chamber toward the fluid container with the pump during the cycle to introduce air into the fluid container.

313. The method of claim 305, wherein: the drawing is carried out during the forward stroke of the first part; and the forcing step is carried out during the return stroke of the first part.

314. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a shutter spring coupled to at least one of the actuator and the pump, the shutter spring being loaded during the forward stroke, the shutter spring being coupled to a shutter which is movable from a stored position which covers the plurality of openings to a delivery position in which the plurality of openings are exposed through an aperture of the shutter for delivery of the fluid.

315. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the chamber formed by the enclosure being free of obstruction to fluid flow so that at least 95% of the fluid in the chamber has direct line of sight to a nearest opening.

316. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the chamber formed by the enclosure being free of obstruction to fluid flow so that all of the fluid in the chamber has direct line of sight to a nearest opening in the vibrating element.

317. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having an internal surface shaped so that a minimum spacing between at least 75% of the plurality of openings to the nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure is at least 0.014 inch.

318. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having an internal surface shaped so that a minimum spacing between at least 95% of the plurality of openings to the nearest part of the internal surface of the enclosure is at least 0.014 inch.

319. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with an internal surface of the enclosure shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 75% of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

320. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with an internal surface of the enclosure shaped so that the chamber is formed with at least 95% of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

321. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with an internal surface of the enclosure shaped so that the chamber is formed with all of the fluid in direct fluid communication with the fluid in the chamber is no more than 0.060 inch from the nearest opening in the vibrating element.

322. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the fluid delivered at pressure of at least 200 psi from a pump.

323. The method of claim 208, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the fluid delivered through the lumen to the enclosure at a velocity of at least 0.5 m/s.

324. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a tube having a lumen fluidly coupled to the chamber, a valve is positioned in communication with the lumen, the valve opened to permit fluid flow through the lumen and closed to block fluid

flow through the lumen, a total downstream volume is defined by a total volume downstream of the valve and including at least the lumen and the chamber, the volume of fluid delivered through the lumen in the tube to the chamber being 40%-70% of the total downstream volume.

325. The method of claim 324, wherein: the providing is carried out with the valve being part of a pump.

326. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure includes a main inlet which is fluidly coupled to a flow splitting chamber having a cup-shaped wall with a concave side facing away from the vibrating element.

327. The method of claim 326, wherein: the providing is carried out with the cup-shaped wall having a first inlet and a second inlet formed in cup-shaped wall, the cup-shaped wall extending radially outward from a central axis of the enclosure for at least 25% of an effective radius defined by the lip.

328. The method of claim 327, wherein: the providing is carried out with the first inlet and the second inlet each having a radial dimension and a longitudinal dimension relative to the central axis, a ratio of the radial dimension to the longitudinal dimension being 0.5 to 1.5.

329. The method of claim 327, wherein: the providing is carried out with the first inlet and the second inlet each exposing some of the main inlet when viewed in the direction of the central axis of the enclosure.

330. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having a lip which has a degree of freedom with respect to the vibrating element in the direction of a central axis of the vibrating element.

331. The method of claim 208, further comprising: the providing is carried out with a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element, the vibrating element being vibrated for a first period of time and a second period of time separated by a first pause in driving vibration of the vibrating element.

332. The method of claim 208, wherein: the providing is carried out with a piezoelectric element activated and deactivated with a plurality of pauses in which the piezoelectric element is deactivated, each pause being a continuous time which is at least 2% of the total delivery time and a total time for the plurality of pauses being at least 6% of the total delivery time.

333. The method of claim 208, wherein:

the providing is carried out with a piezoelectric element coupled to the vibrating element; and

the delivering is carried out with the vibrating element being vibrated with a second pause in driving vibration after the second period of time followed by driving vibration for a third period of time, the piezoelectric element being operated during the second period of time and the third period of time to include alternating periods of activation and periods of deactivation, each period of deactivation being 2.0 to 2.5% of each of the second and third periods of time, a total of the periods of deactivation during the second and third periods of time being at least 30% of each of the second and third periods of time, respectively.

334. The method of claim 331, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the vibrating element is vibrated with the first pause in driving vibration being 0.5 to 4.0 ms.

335. The method of claim 331, wherein: the delivering is carried out with the vibrating element is vibrated with the first period of time and the second period of time each being 20-40 ms and a total delivery time of less than 100 ms.

336. The device of claim 2, wherein: the lip has a PTFE coating adjacent to the vibrating element to reduce friction therebetween, the coating extending around at least 270 degrees of the lip when viewed along the central axis.

337. The device of claim 1, wherein: the vibrating element has a PTFE coating adjacent to the lip to reduce friction therebetween, the coating extending around at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

338. The device of claim 2, wherein: an inner surface of the enclosure is hydrophobic over at least 70% of the inner surface in contact with fluid.

339. The device of claim 2, further comprising: a wall opening extending through the wall to expose the chamber.

340. The device of claim 339, wherein: the wall opening forms a gap in the lip.

341. The device of claim 339, wherein: the wall opening has a longitudinal dimension measured from the lip in the direction of the central axis and a radial dimension measured in a radial direction relative to the central axis, the enclosure having an internal wall with a side facing the openings in the vibrating element and which is spaced apart from the openings by a separation.

342. The device of claim 339, wherein: the wall opening is positioned along a frustoconical portion, the wall opening extending proximally from the lip for at least 80% of the length of the frustoconical portion.

343. The device of claim 341, wherein: the longitudinal dimension of the wall opening is at least 80% of the separation between the vibrating element and the side of the enclosure facing the openings.

344. The device of claim 341, wherein: the radial dimension of the wall opening is no more than 10% of the equivalent circumference of the lip.

345. The device of claim 341, wherein: the radial dimension of the wall opening is no more than 5% of the equivalent circumference of the lip.

346. The device of claim 339, wherein: the wall opening extends from the lip proximally, a circumferential dimension of the wall opening tapering down as the wall opening extends proximally from the lip.

347. The device of claim 346, wherein: the wall opening tapers so that a tapered shape of the opening is oriented in the direction of an inlet to the chamber when viewed along the central axis.

348. The device of claim 339, wherein: the wall opening vents the enclosure by permitting air to enter the chamber when fluid is ejected, the wall opening being small enough to prevent the fluid from passing therethrough.

349. The device of claim 118, wherein: the lip has a PTFE coating adjacent to the vibrating element to reduce friction therebetween, the coating extending around at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

350. The device of claim 118, wherein: the vibrating element has a PTFE coating adjacent to the lip to reduce friction therebetween, the coating extending around at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

351. The device of claim 118, wherein: an inner surface of the enclosure is hydrophobic over at least 70% of the inner surface in contact with fluid.

352. The device of claim 118, further comprising: a wall opening extending through the wall to expose the chamber.

353. The device of claim 352, wherein: the wall opening forms a gap in the lip.

354. The device of claim 352, wherein: the wall opening has a longitudinal dimension measured from the lip in the direction of the central axis and a radial dimension measured in a radial direction relative to the central axis, the enclosure having an internal wall with a side facing the openings in the vibrating element which is spaced apart from the openings by a separation.

357. The device of claim 352, wherein: the wall includes a frustoconical portion, the wall opening extending proximally from the lip for at least 80% of the length of the frustoconical portion

356. The device of claim 354, wherein: the longitudinal dimension of the wall opening is at least 80% of the separation between the vibrating element and the side of the enclosure facing the openings.

357. The device of claim 354, wherein: the radial dimension of the wall opening is no more than 10% of the equivalent circumference of the lip.

358. The device of claim 354, wherein: the radial dimension of the wall opening is no more than 5% of the equivalent circumference of the lip.

359. The device of claim 352, wherein: the wall opening extends from the lip proximally, a circumferential dimension of the wall opening tapering down as the wall opening extends proximally from the lip.

360. The device of claim 352, wherein: the wall opening tapers so that a tapered shape of the opening is oriented in the direction of an inlet to the chamber when viewed along the central axis.

361. The device of claim 352, wherein: the wall opening vents the enclosure by permitting air to enter the chamber when fluid is ejected.

362. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with the lip having a PTFE coating adjacent to the vibrating element to reduce friction therebetween, the coating extending around at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

363. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with the vibrating element having a PTFE coating adjacent to the lip to reduce friction therebetween, the coating extending around at least 270 degrees when viewed along the central axis.

364. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with the inner surface of the enclosure is hydrophobic over at least 70% of the inner surface in contact with fluid.

365. The method of claim 209, wherein: the providing is carried out with a wall opening extending through the wall to expose the chamber through the wall without permitting fluid to escape.

366. The method of claim 365, wherein: the providing is carried out with the wall opening forming a gap in the lip.

367. The method of claim 365, wherein: the providing is carried out with the wall opening having a longitudinal dimension measured from the lip in the direction of the central axis and a radial dimension measured in a radial direction relative to the central axis.

368. The method of claim 365, wherein: the providing is carried out with the enclosure having an internal wall with a side facing the openings in the vibrating element, the longitudinal dimension of the wall opening is at least 80% of a separation distance between the vibrating element and the side of the enclosure facing the openings.

369. The method of claim 367, wherein: the providing is carried out with the radial dimension of the wall opening being no more than 10% of an equivalent circumference of the lip.

370. The method of claim 367, wherein: the providing is carried out with the radial dimension of the wall opening is no more than 5% of the equivalent circumference of the lip.

371. The method of claim 365, wherein: the providing is carried out with: the wall opening extending from the lip proximally, a circumferential dimension of the wall opening tapering down as the wall opening extends proximally from the lip.

372. The method of claim 365, wherein: the providing is carried out with the wall opening tapering so that a tapered shape of the opening is oriented in the direction of an inlet to the chamber when viewed along the central axis.

373. The method of claim 365, wherein: the vibrating is carried out with the wall opening venting the enclosure by permitting air to enter the chamber when fluid is ejected.

374. The method of claim 365, wherein: the providing is carried out with the wall including a frustoconical portion, the wall opening extending proximally from the lip for at least 80% of the length of the frustoconical portion.

375. The device of claim 2, wherein: the wall of the enclosure surrounding the chamber has a thickness of 0.003 to 0.007 inch.

376. The device of claim 118, wherein: the wall of the enclosure surrounding the chamber has a thickness of 0.003 to 0.007 inch.

377. The device of claim 347, wherein: the wall opening tapers so that a tapered shape of the opening is oriented in the direction of at least two separate inlets to the chamber when viewed along the central axis