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1. (WO2018226685) PROCÉDÉS DE SENSIBILISATION DE CELLULES CANCÉREUSES À UNE DESTRUCTION MÉDIÉE PAR DES LYMPHOCYTES T PAR MODULATION DE VOIES MOLÉCULAIRES
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METHODS FOR SENSITIZING CANCER CELLS TO T CELL-MEDIATED KILLING BY MODULATING MOLECULAR PATHWAYS

Cross-Refrence to Related Applications

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/515,738, filed on 6 June 2017; the entire contents of said application are incorporated herein in their entirety by this reference.

Statement of Rights

This invention was made with government support under grant number

1T32CA207021-01 and ROl CA173750 awarded by The National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

Background of the Invention

Cancer immunotherapies that target inhibitory receptors on T cells including the

PD-1 receptor can induce durable responses, but the majority of patients do not respond (Sharma et al. (2017) Cell 168:707-723). The mechanisms that determine resistance to these immunotherapies remain poorly understood. Cytotoxic T cells are central effector cells of a protective anti-tumor immune response. It is well understood that this process requires recognition of MHC -bound peptides by the T cell receptor (Zhang et al. (2011) Immunity 35: 161-168). This recognition event leads to release of cytotoxic granules, resulting in perforin-mediated pore formation in the target cell membrane, allowing granzymes to access the cytosol of target cells where they initiate apoptosis. T cell-mediated cytotoxicity can be remarkably efficient, but it is diminished when MHC class I expression by tumor cells is reduced. It is known that PD-Ll expression by tumor cells can inhibit T cell-mediated killing through PD-1 receptor signaling, and this interaction has become a major target for cancer immunotherapy (Iwai et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99: 12293-12297). However, many of the genes whose products inhibit T cell mediated cytotoxicity remain unknown. Accordingly, there remains a great need in the art to identify molecular targets that enable sensitization of tumor cells to T cell mediated killing in order to better treat cancer of subjects in need thereof.

Summary of the Invention

The present invention is based, at least in part, on the discovery that alterations in many genes and pathways sensitize tumor cells to T cell-mediated killing. The genes and pathways can be divided into two groups. Members of the first group confer resistance to T cell-mediated killing of tumor cells and members of the second group promote efficient T cell-mediated killing. Top genes in the first group determined as described herein include negative immune regulators such as CD274IPD-L1, Ptpn2, and Serpinb9. The first group also encompasses three major signaling pathways: the F-kB pathway (including Otulin, Rela, Ikbkg, Ikbkb, Rnf31, Cflar and Sharpin), the mTORCl pathway (including Rraga, Rragc and Lamtorl), and the RIG-I like receptor signaling pathway (including Tbkl, Fadd, Atg5 and multiple components overlapped with NF-kB pathway). Moreover, the first group encompasses two major metabolic pathways: glycolysis {including Nsdhl, Gne, Gale, Eroll and Cd44) and nicotinate/ nicotinamide metabolism (including Nadk and Nampt). In particular, all three unique components of a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex referred to as the PBAF complex (Arid2, Pbrml and Brd7) belong to this group, providing strong evidence that the presence of this complex conferred resistance to T cell-mediated killing. Sox4, Hdac5, and Ptpnll are also included in this group. Inactivation of the first group of genes and pathways sensitizes tumor cells to T cell mediated killing. The second group includes key components of the MHC class I pathway required for presentation of tumor-derived peptides to T cells (including H2-D1, B2m, Tapl, Tap2 and Nlrc5), key components required for IFNy and IFNa/β recognition and signaling (including Jakl, Jak2, Statl, Ifiigrl and Ifhgr2), and negative regulators of Ras/MAPK pathways (including Nfl, Dusp6, Spredl, Rasa2 and SPOP). Inactivation of the second group of genes and pathways increases resistance to T cell mediated cytotoxicity. Biomarkers of the present invention are provided, such as in Tables 1-9 or any combination thereof {e.g., Tables 1, 5, 7, and 9; and/or Tables 2, 4, 6, and 8), and can be used alone or in combination for any aspect and/or embodiment described herein.

For example, in one aspect, a method of sensitizing cancer cells in a subject afflicted with a cancer to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of an agent that modulates the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 in the cancer cells, thereby sensitizing the cancer cells in the subject to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing, is provided.

Numerous embodiments are further provided that can be applied to any aspect of the present invention and/or combined with any other embodiment described herein. For example, in one embodiment, the agent downregulates the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9. In another embodiment, the agent comprises or is a small molecule inhibitor, CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), RNA interfering agent, antisense oligonucleotide, peptide or peptidomimetic inhibitor, aptamer, or intrabody. The RNA interfering agent, described herein, may comprise or be, e.g., a small interfering RNA (siRNA), CRISPR RNA (crRNA), a small hairpin RNA (shRNA), a microRNA (miRNA), or a piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). For example, the RNA interfering agent comprises or is a CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA). In still another embodiment, the agent described herein comprises an antibody and/or intrabody, or an antigen binding fragment thereof, which specifically binds to the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9. In yet another embodiment, the intrabody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, is murine, chimeric, humanized, composite, or human. In another embodiment, the intrabody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, is detectably labeled, comprises an effector domain, comprises an Fc domain, and/or is selected from the group consisting of Fv, Fav, F(ab')2, Fab', dsFv, scFv, sc(Fv)2, and diabodies fragments. In still another embodiment, the intrabody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, is conjugated to a cytotoxic agent. Such cytotoxic agent may be selected from the group consisting of a chemotherapeutic agent, a biologic agent, a toxin, and a radioactive isotope. In another embodiment, the agent described herein upregulates the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8. In still another embodiment, the agent comprises or is a nucleic acid molecule encoding the one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8 or fragment thereof, a polypeptide of the one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8 or fragment(s) thereof, or a small molecule that binds to the one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8.

In one embodiment, the method further comprises treating the cancer in the subject by administering to the subject at least one immunotherapy. In another one embodiment, the immunotherapy is cell-based. In still another embodiment, the immunotherapy comprises an cancer vaccine adoptive T cell therapies, and/or virus. In yet another embodiment, the immunotherapy inhibits an immune checkpoint and/or inhibits TNF alpha. For example, the immune checkpoint described in the instant disclosure may be any checkpoint proteins known in the art, such as one selected from the group consisting of

CTLA-4, PD-1, VISTA, B7-H2, B7-H3, PD-Ll, B7-H4, B7-H6, ICOS, HVEM, PD-L2, CD160, gp49B, PIR-B, KIR family receptors, TIM-1, TIM-3, TIM-4, LAG-3, GITR, 4-IBB, OX-40, BTLA, SIRPalpha (CD47), CD48, 2B4 (CD244), B7.1, B7.2, ILT-2, ILT-4, TIGIT, HHLA2, butyrophilins, and A2aR. In another embodiment, the immune checkpoint is selected from the group consisting of PD-1, PD-Ll, PD-L2, and CTLA-4. In still another embodiment, the immune checkpoint is PD-1 or CTLA-4. In yet another embodiment, the agent reduces the number of proliferating cells in the cancer and/or reduces the volume or size of a tumor comprising the cancer cells. In another embodiment, the agent increases the amount of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, granzyme B+CD8+ T cells, and/or CD45+ immune cells in a tumor comprising the cancer cells. The CD45+ immune cells may express higher levels of genes (e.g., genes related to IFN-γ response, IFN-a response, and/or tumor necrosis factor a signaling via F-κΒ) associated with productive antitumor immunity. In still another embodiment, the agent increases the percentage of dendritic cells within the CD45+ immune cells. In yet another embodiment, the agent increases the ratio of tumor-inhibitory Ml -like macropahges to tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages within the CD45+immune cells. In another embodiment, the agent increases the responsiveness of cancer cells to IFN-γ and/or IFN-a. In still another embodiment, the agent increases the production of chemokines (e.g., CXCL9 and/or CXCL10) in response to IFN-γ in cancer cells. In yet another embodiment, the agent increases cancer cell surface levels of H2-Kb and/or PD-Ll in response to IFN-γ. In another embodiment, the agent increases chromatin accessibility for IFN-y-responsive genes in cancer cells. In still another embodiment, the agent downregulates genes associated with mTORC l pathway and/or cholesterol homeostasis in cancer cells. In yet another embodiment, the agent sensitizes cancer cells to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. In another embodiment, the immune checkpoint is PD-1 and/or CTLA-4. In still another embodiment, the agent is administered in a pharmaceutically acceptable formulation. In yet another embodiment, the method further comprises administering to the subject at least one additional therapeutic agent or regimen for treating the cancer.

In another aspect, a method of sensitizing cancer cells to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing comprising contacting the cancer cells with 1) an agent that modulates the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 in the cancer cells and 2) cytotoxic T cells, thereby sensitizing the cancer cells to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing, is provided.

As described above, numerous embodiments are further provided that can be applied to any aspect of the present invention and/or combined with any other embodiment described herein. For example, in one embodiment, the agent described herein

downregulates the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9. In another embodiment, the agent comprises or is a small molecule inhibitor, CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), RNA interfering agent, antisense oligonucleotide, peptide or peptidomimetic inhibitor, aptamer, or intrabody. The RNA interfering agent may comprise or be, e.g., a small interfering RNA (siRNA), CRISPR RNA (crRNA), a small hairpin RNA (shRNA), a microRNA (miRNA), or a piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). For example, the RNA interfering agent comprises or is a CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA). In still another embodiment, the agent described herein comprises an antibody and/or intrabody, or an antigen binding fragment thereof, which specifically binds to the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9. In yet another embodiment, the intrabody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, is murine, chimeric, humanized, composite, or human. In another embodiment, the intrabody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, is detectably labeled, comprises an effector domain, comprises an Fc domain, and/or is selected from the group consisting of Fv, Fav, F(ab')2, Fab', dsFv, scFv, sc(Fv)2, and diabodies fragments. In still another embodiment, the intrabody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, is conjugated to a cytotoxic agent. Such cytotoxic agent may be selected from the group consisting of a chemotherapeutic agent, a biologic agent, a toxin, and a radioactive isotope. In yet another embodiment, the agent upregulates the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8. In another embodiment, the agent comprises or is a nucleic acid molecule encoding the one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8 or fragment thereof, a polypeptide of the one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8 or fragment(s) thereof, or a small molecule that binds to the one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8.

In one embodiment, the method further comprises contacting the cancer cells with at least one immunotherapy. In one embodiment, the immunotherapy is cell-based. In another embodiment, the immunotherapy comprises an cancer vaccine and/or virus. In still another embodiment, the immunotherapy inhibits an immune checkpoint and/or inhibits TNF alpha. For example, the immune checkpoint described in the instant disclosure may be any checkpoint proteins known in the art, such as one selected from the group consisting of CTLA-4, PD-1, VISTA, B7-H2, B7-H3, PD-L1, B7-H4, B7-H6, ICOS, HVEM, PD-L2,

CD160, gp49B, PIR-B, KIR family receptors, TIM-1, TIM-3, TIM-4, LAG-3, GITR, 4-IBB, OX-40, BTLA, SIRPalpha (CD47), CD48, 2B4 (CD244), B7.1, B7.2, ILT-2, ILT-4, TIGIT, HHLA2, butyrophilins, and A2aR. In one embodiment, the immune checkpoint is selected from the group consisting of PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, and CTLA-4. In another embodiment, the immune checkpoint is PD-1 or CTLA-4. In another embodiment, the agent reduces the number of proliferating cells in the cancer and/or reduces the volume or size of a tumor comprising the cancer cells. In still another embodiment, the agent increases the amount of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, granzyme B+CD8+ T cells, and/or CD45+ immune cells in a tumor comprising the cancer cells. The CD45+ immune cells may express higher levels of genes (e.g., genes related to IFN-γ response, IFN-a response, and/or tumor necrosis factor a signaling via F-κΒ) associated with productive antitumor immunity. In still another embodiment, the agent increases the percentage of dendritic cells within the CD45+ immune cells. In yet another embodiment, the agent increases the ratio of tumor-inhibitory Ml -like macropahges to tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages within the CD45+immune cells. In another embodiment, the agent increases the responsiveness of cancer cells to IFN-γ and/or IFN-a. In still another embodiment, the agent increases the production of chemokines (e.g., CXCL9 and/or CXCL10) in response to IFN-γ in cancer cells. In yet another embodiment, the agent increases cancer cell surface levels of H2-Kb and/or PD-L1 in response to IFN-γ. In another embodiment, the agent increases chromatin accessibility for IFN-y-responsive genes in cancer cells. In still another embodiment, the agent downregulates genes associated with mTORC l pathway and/or cholesterol homeostasis in cancer cells. In yet another embodiment, the agent sensitizes cancer cells to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. In another embodiment, the immune checkpoint is PD-1 and/or CTLA-4. In yet another embodiment, the agent is administered in a pharmaceutically acceptable formulation. In another embodiment, a method further comprises contacting the cancer cells with at least one additional cancer therapeutic agent or regimen.

In still another aspect, a method of determining whether a subject afflicted with a cancer or at risk for developing a cancer would benefit from increasing sensitivity of the cancer cells to cytotoxic T cell-mediate killing by modulating the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9, the method comprising: a) obtaining a biological sample from the subject; b) determining the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9; c) determining the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker in a control; and d) comparing the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker detected in steps b) and c), wherein the presence of, or a significant increase in, the copy number, amount, and/or activity of, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9 and/or the absence of, or a significant decrease in, the copy number, amount, and/or activity of, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8, in the subject sample relative to the control copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker indicates that the subject afflicted with the cancer or at risk for developing the cancer would benefit from increasing sensitivity of the cancer cells to cytotoxic T cell-mediate killing by modulating the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9, is provided.

In one embodiment, the method further comprises recommending, prescribing, or administering an agent that modulates the at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 if the cancer is determined to benefit from the agent, optionally further administering at least one additional cancer therapeutic agent or regimen. In another embodiment, the method further comprises recommending, prescribing, or administering cancer therapy other than an agent that modulates the at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 if the cancer is determined to not benefit from the agent. In still another embodiment, the cancer therapy is selected from the group consisting of targeted therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or hormonal therapy. In yet another embodiment, the control sample is determined from a cancerous or non-cancerous sample from either the patient or a member of the same species to which the patient belongs. In another embodiment, the control sample comprises cells.

In yet another aspect, a method for predicting the clinical outcome of a subject afflicted with a cancer, the method comprising: a) determining the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9; b) determining the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker in a sample from a control having a good clinical outcome; and d) comparing the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker in the subject sample and in the sample from the control subject, wherein the presence of, or a significant increase in, the copy number, amount, and/or activity of, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9 and/or the absence of, or a significant decrease in, the copy number, amount, and/or activity of, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8, in the subject sample as compared to the copy number, amount and/or activity in the sample from the control subject, is an indication that the subject has a poor clinical outcome, is provided.

In another aspect, a method for monitoring the progression of a cancer in a subject, the method comprising: a) detecting in a subject sample at a first point in time the amount or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9; b) repeating step a) at a subsequent point in time; and c) comparing the amount or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 detected in steps a) and b) to monitor the progression of the cancer in the subject, is provided.

In still another aspect, a method of assessing the efficacy of an agent for treating a cancer in a subject, comprising: a) detecting in a subject sample at a first point in time the copy number, amount, and/or or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9; b) repeating step a) during at least one subsequent point in time after administration of the agent; and c) comparing the copy number, amount, and/or activity detected in steps a) and b), wherein the absence of, or a significant decrease in, the copy number, amount, and/or activity of, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9 and/or the presence of, or a significant increase in, the copy number, amount, and/or activity of, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8, in the subsequent sample as compared to the copy number, amount, and/or activity in the sample at the first point in time, indicates that the agent treats the cancer in the subject, is provided.

As described above, numerous embodiments are further provided that can be applied to any aspect of the present invention and/or combined with any other embodiment described herein. For example, in one embodiment, the subject has undergone treatment, completed treatment, and/or is in remission for the cancer between the first point in time and the subsequent point in time. In another embodiment, the first and/or at least one subsequent sample is selected from the group consisting of ex vivo and in vivo samples. In still another embodiment, the first and/or at least one subsequent sample is obtained from an animal model of the cancer. In yet another embodiment, the first and/or at least one subsequent sample is a portion of a single sample or pooled samples obtained from the subject. In another embodiment, the sample comprises cells, serum, peritumoral tissue, and/or intratumoral tissue obtained from the subject.

In yet another aspect, a cell-based assay for screening for agents that sensitize a cancer cell to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing comprising contacting the cancer cell with cytotoxic T cells and a test agent, and determining the ability of the test agent to decrease the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9 and/or increase the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8. In one embodiment, the step of contacting occurs in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro, is provided.

As described above, numerous embodiments are further provided that can be applied to any aspect of the present invention and/or combined with any other embodiment described herein. For example, in one embodiment, the method or assay further comprises determining a reduction in the number of proliferating cells in the cancer and/or a reduction in the volume or size of a tumor comprising the cancer cells. In another embodiment, the method or assay further comprises determining an increased number of CD8+ T cells,

CD4+ T cells, granzyme B+CD8+ T cells, and/or CD45+ immune cells infiltrating a tumor comprising the cancer cells. In still another embodiment, the method or assay further comprises determining an increased responsiveness of cancer cells to IFN-γ and/or IFN-a. In yet another embodiment, the method or assay further comprises determining decreased expression levels of genes related to mTORCl pathway and/or cholesterol hoeostasis. In another embodiment, the method or assay further comprises determining responsiveness to the agent that modulates the at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 measured by at least one criteria selected from the group consisting of clinical benefit rate, survival until mortality, pathological complete response, semi-quantitative measures of pathologic response, clinical complete remission, clinical partial remission, clinical stable disease, recurrence-free survival, metastasis free survival, disease free survival, circulating tumor cell decrease, circulating marker response, and RECIST criteria. In still another embodiment, the method or assay further comprises contacting the cancer cells with at least one additional cancer therapeutic agent or regimen. In yet another embodiment, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9 is selected from the group consisting of PD-L1, Ptpn2, Serpinb9, Otulin, Rela, Ikbkg, Ikbkb, Rnf31, Sharpin, Rraga, Rragc, Lamtorl, Tbkl, Fadd, Atg5, Nsdhl, Gne, Gale, Eroll, Cd44, Nadk, Nampt, Arid2, Pbrml, Brd7, Sox4, Hdac5, Cflar, or Ptpnl 1, or a fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9 is Arid 2, Pbrml, or Brd7, or a fragment thereof. In still another embodiment, the at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8 is selected from the group consisting of human H2-D1, B2m, Tapl, Tap2, Nlrc5, Jakl, Jak2, Statl, Ifngrl, Ifngr2, Nfl, Dusp6, Spredl, Rasa2, or SPOP, or a fragment thereof. In yet another embodiment, the cancer is selected from the group consisting of melanoma, head and neck

squamous carcinoma, kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, gliomas, neuroblastoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic ductal carcinoma, epithelial ovarian cancer, B-CLL, leukemia, B cell lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. In another embodiment, the cancer is resistant to blockade of at least one immune checkpoint. In still another embodiment, the subject to be treated is an animal model of the cancer, such as a mouse model. In yet another embodiment, the subject is a mammal, such as a mouse or a human. In another embodiment, the mammal is a human.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Figure 1 includes 3 panels, identified as panels A, B, and C, which show the positive controls for discovery of positive and negative immune regulators expressed by tumor cells. Panel A shows representative FACS plots of B 16F10 cell populations before and after co-culture with T cells. B2m deficient (GFP+) and Cd274 (PD-Ll) deficient (mCherry+) B16F10 cells were mixed with unmodified B16F10 cells (targeting a composition of -1% GFP+ and 10% mCherry+ cells prior to co-culture with T cells).

Tumor cells were pulsed with lng/ml of SIINFEKL peptide for two hours. These tumor cell populations were then co-cultured with OT-I T cells at different tumor to T cell ratios for one day or three days. Panels B and C show summary of results (fold change) for B2m~ ~ (Panel B) and Cd274-f- (Panel C) B16F10 tumor cells after selection by OT-1 T cells depending on the following experimental variables: (1) B16F10 tumor to OT-1 T cell ratio; (2) time period of co-culture, and (3) pretreatment of B16F10 cells with or without 10 ng/ml of IFNy prior to co-culturing with T cells to increase H2-Kb expression by tumor cells. Data are representative of at least two independent experiments.

Figure 2 shows the selection of B16F10 clones with high Cas9 editing activity. B16F10 cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector driving Cas9 expression and individual cells were sorted into 96 well plates based on co-expression of a GFP marker. Each of the B 16F10 clones was independently transduced with a lentivirus encoding a gRNA targeting PD-Ll . Ten days post-transduction, Cas9 efficiency was determined based on the percentage of PD-Ll -negative cells after treatment with IFNy (10 ng/ml) for 24 hours. Clone 4, which shows an efficiency of >95%, was selected for the screen to enable sensitive detection of depleted gRNAs in the screen. High editing efficiency is important in such a screen because non-edited tumor cells would mask detection of depleted gRNAs.

Figure 3 includes 3 panels, identified as panels A, B and C which show the systematic discovery of genes and pathways regulating sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to T cell-mediated killing. Panel A shows the screening strategy for identification of novel regulators of T cell-mediated killing. Cas9-expressing B16F10 cells were transduced with genomic gRNA library (four gRNAs/gene) consisting of -80,000 gRNA targeting 20,000 genes. Edited B16F10 cells were co-cultured with activated cytotoxic T cells followed by Illumina sequencing of gRNA representation. Specific selection was performed with Pmel-1 T cells (specific for gplOO melanoma antigen) or OT-I T cells (specific for Ova peptide). Control selection was performed with T cells of irrelevant specificity. Panel B shows immune selection with antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in which the mutant pool of B16 cells was co-cultured and selected by CD8+ T cells isolated from two TCR transgenic strains: 1. Pmell T cells, which recognize endogenous antigen gplOO, or 2. OT-1 T cells, which recognize exogenously pulsed antigen SINFEKLL with higher TCR-peptide-MHC affinity. The representation of gRNA is determined using Illumina sequencing from the remaining cells in post-immune selection. After selection by T cells, cells with enriched gRNA were expected to be more resistant to T cell-mediated killing. Cells with depleted gRNA were expected to be more sensitive to T cell-mediated killing. Panel B shows the top positively selected candidate genes in the Pmell screen using MaGeCK analysis. Candidate genes were plotted based on mean log2 fold change of gRNA counts compared to control selection and P values computed by MaGeCK (Model-based Analysis of Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout). Dashed line indicates a FDR (False Discovery Rate) = 0.05. Annotated genes represent MHC class I (red), interferon (yellow) and Ras/MAPK (blue) pathways. Genes involved in the MHC/antigen presentation pathway, type I/II interferon pathway and Ras/MAPK pathway were annotated. Panel C shows the top negatively selected candidate genes in the Pmell screen. Genes involved in the NF-kB pathway (blue), mTOR pathway (yellow), and PBAF form of SWI/SNF complex (red), and known negative immune regulators (green) were annotated.

Figure 4 shows the top candidate genes selected by OT-I T cells. The top positively selected (left) and negatively selected (right) candidate genes were identified using

MaGeCK analysis.

Figure 5 includes 4 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, and D, which show pathways identified and correlated with clinical data. Panel A provides a heat map showing the most significant pathways and corresponding genes identified in the Pmell screen by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using a molecular signature data base. Color scale represents log2 fold change of average gRNA representation. Panel B shows the impact of discovered gene sets on survival of melanoma patients. For each patient in the TCGA melanoma study, the Pearson correlation value is computed between gene expression values in melanomas for all genes identified in the OT-I or Pmel-1 screens and log2 fold enrichment/depletion of gRNAs for genes identified in CRISPR/Cas9 screen. The overall survival (OS) durations were shown for patients with positive and negative correlations. Comparison of survival between groups were done through two-sided Ward test in CoxPH. Panel C shows the correlation of CRISPR screening data with estimated CD8 T cell infiltration in TCGA melanoma data. For each patient in TCGA melanoma study, the average value of CD8A+CD8B mRNA level (X-axis, marker of CD8 T cell infiltration) was plotted against correlation value (Y-axis) determined in (Panel A) for CRISPR screening data (log2 fold ratios). Panel D shows the correlation of ARID2 expression level with survival of melanoma patients depending on calculated level of CD8 T cell infiltration. All patients in TCGA melanoma study were divided according to the expression level of ARID2 (higher or lower than mean expression value of all patients). The impact of ARID2 expression level on survival is shown for patients whose tumors had higher (>1 SD) or lower (< 1 SD) expression of CD8 [(CD8A+CD8B)/2].

Figure 6 includes 2 panels, identified as panels A and B which show the analysis of discovered genes in TCGA datasets of human cancer. Panel A shows correlation values between CD8 expression and CRISPR screen signatures shown in Figure 5C computed for all cancer types studied in TCGA. For each patient in TCGA, a correlation signature between gene expression profile and log2 fold change of top CRISPR gene hits was computed. This patient signature was related to average value of CD8A+CD8B mRNA level across patients in each cancer type through Pearson correlation. Panel B shows correlation of expression level of each of the top hits to GZMB or PRFl expression level. For each of the top hits identified in the screen, Spearman's correlation of its expression level to GZMB or PRFl expression level in TCGA melanoma patients were computed and plotted. Examples with positive (red) and negative (blue) correlations were annotated.

Figure 7 includes 9 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I, which show that knocking out the PBAF complex sensitizes tumor cell to T cell-mediated killing and synergizes with checkpoint blockade therapy in vivo. Panel A is a schematic showing the composition of the BAF and PBAF versions of SWI/SNF complex distinguished by

Aridla/b or Arid2, Brd7 and Pbrml . Panel B shows protein expression level of Arid2, Brd7, Pbrml, and Gapdh (loading control) in control and knockout cell lines by Western blot. Panel C shows the depletion of GFP-expressing Arid2-, Pbrml-, or Brd7-deficient B16F10 cells after co-culture with wild-type cells in the presence of Pmell CD8+ T cells. Panel D shows that control or Pbrm 1 -deficient B16F 10 cells were transplanted into wild-type B6 mice and were administrated with either anti-CD8, isotype control, or anti-PD-l/CTLA-4 antibodies. Panel E shows the tumor growth curve from each individual mouse treated with checkpoint blockade. Panel F shows the depletion of GFP-positive Arid2-, Pbrml- or i?r<i7-deficient B16F10 cells after co-culture with Pmel-1 T cells. GFP-positive Arid2-, Pbrml- or i?r<i7-deficient B 16F10 cells were mixed with GFP-negative control

B16F10 cells at approximately 1 : 1 ratio. Tumor cells were co-cultured with Pmel-1 T cells at indicated effector to target ratios for 3 days in triplicates; the fold change of % GFP+ tumor cells was determined by FACS. Two-way ANOVA was used for determine statistical significance (**** p<0.0001). Values represents mean +/- SD. Panel G shows the tumor size after treatment with a-PD-1 plus a-CTLA-4 antibodies. Mice bearing control (n=10) or Pbrm 1 -deficient B16F 10 tumors (n=10) were treated with anti-PD-1 (a-PD-1, 200μg/mouse) plus anti-CTLA-4 (a-CTLA-4, 100μg/mouse) and tumor size was measured. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance for time points when all mice were viable for tumor measurement. Panel H shows the survival of mice after tumor implantation. Survival of mice inoculated with control (n=10) or Pbrml-deficient B 16F10 cells (n=10) and treated with a-PD-1 plus a-CTLA-4 antibodies. Log-rank (Mantel -Cox) test was used to determine statistical significance. Panel I shows flow cytometric analysis of immune cell infiltration in Pbrml deficient and control B16F10 tumors. The number of CD45+, CD4+, CD8+ and Granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells was determined per gram of tumor. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine significance (* p<0.05, ** p<0.01). Values represents mean +/- SD. Data in Panel F to Panel I are representative of two independent experiments.

Figure 8 includes 8 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H, which show that expression of Arid2 and Pbrml are correlated with T cell cytotoxicity markers across many cancer types. Panels A and C show correlation of ARID2 and PBRMl mRNA levels with GZMB mRNA levels in indicated cancers, respectively. Volcano plots show the Spearman's correlation and estimated significance of ARID2 (Panel A) or PBRMl (Panel C), with GZMB mRNA levels from RNA-seq data across TCGA cancer types

calculated by TIMER (Tumor Immune Estimation Resource) and adjusted for tumor purity (Li et al. (2016) Genome Biol 17: 174). Each dot represents a cancer type in the TCGA and red dots, including all those labeled, indicate significant correlations (p < 0.01). Panels B and D show volcano plots showing the Spearman's correlation and estimated significance (loglO p-value) of ARID2 (Panel B) or PBRM1 (Panel D) expression with PRF1 (perforin) expression across all TCGA cancer types using Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) (tumor purity adjusted) (Li et al. (2016) Genome Biol 17: 174). Each dot represents a cancer type in TCGA, with red dots indicating a significant correlation (p<0.01). Panels E and F show analysis of ARID2 and PBRM1 mRNA levels in relationship to GZMB and CD8A as cytotoxicity and CD8 T cell infiltration markers, respectively. Spearman's correlation of ARID2 (Panel E) and PBRMl (Panel F) mRNA levels to GZMB/CD8A mRNA ratio in TCGA melanoma dataset was shown. Panels G and H show the relative contribution of CD8 T cells and NK cells to the immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Panel G shows the correlation between the estimated CD8 T cell or NK cell infiltration and immune cytotoxicity markers. Panel H shows the comparison of relative contribution to immune cytotoxicity between CD8 T and NK cells, with the line of equal contribution on the diagonal. In each cancer type, the CD8 T cell level was estimated through the expression sum of CD8A and CD8B. The NK cell level was estimated through expression of NCRl (NKp46). Immune cytotoxicity was estimated through expression sum of GZMA, GZMB and PRFl . In each cancer, a linear regression was fitted with CD8 T, NK cell levels as the covariates and immune cytotoxicity as the outcome. The t-values of T cells and NK cells, representing their relative contribution to the immune cytotoxicity, were plotted across all TCGA cancer types. This analysis indicates that cytotoxicity markers are more closely associated with estimated T cell than NK cell infiltration.

Figure 9 includes 3 panels, identified as panels A, B and C, which show the analysis of gRNA representation in experimental and control screening conditions. gRNA frequencies were analyzed for key genes identified in the screen for which gRNAs were either depleted (Panels A, B) or enriched (Panel C) in the presence of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. These genes included all three unique members of the PBAF complex (Pbrml, Arid2 and Brd ) (Panel A), and two representative members of major pathways presented in Fig.5 A (Panels B, C). For each gene, the frequencies of all four gRNAs in the primary screen were plotted for three conditions: Input tumor library (Input), control selection with T cells of irrelevant TCR specificity (Control) and experimental selection with tumor-specific Pmel-1 T cells (Specific); y-axis: Log normalized count for each condition.

Figure 10 includes 2 panels, identified as panels A and B, which show the frequency histograms of enriched and depleted gRNAs. In Pmell primary screen, Log2 fold change of enriched (Panel A) or depleted (Panel B) gRNAs for each gene presented in Figure 5 A are labelled with red lines. Distribution of 1,000 non-targeting control gRNAs is also indicated in both histograms (grey scale).

Figure 11 includes 3 panels, identified as panels A, B, and C, which show testing of the cell death threshold for Otulin, Dups6 and Nfl deficient B 16F 10 cells. Panel A shows the sensitivity to doxorubicin induced cell death of Otulin, Dusp6 and Nfl deficient B 16F 10 cells (two gRNAs for each gene). GFP expressing Otulin, Dusp6 and Nfl deficient B16F 10 cells were mixed with GFP-negative control B16 cells at a 1 : 1 ratio. Cells were treated with different concentrations of doxorubicin or vehicle control for 24 (left) or 48 (right) hours. Fold change of the percentage of GFP+ cells following doxorubicin treatment was measured by FACS. The total % killing of tumor cells in response to doxorubicin is indicated below the graphs. Panel B shows the protein levels of Dusp6, Otulin and Nfl in control and indicated knockout cell lines by Western blot. Panel C shows the amount of total protein in each sample by loading the same cell lysates as in panel B on a TGX stain-free gel (Bio-Rad). Data shown in panel A are representative of two independent experiments.

Figure 12 includes 5 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, D, and E, which show the validation of candidate genes by screening of a mini-pool gRNA library. Panel A illustrates the mini-pool library design. The most significant hits (LFC>2 and FDR<0.05) from Pmel-1 and OT-I screens (total of 313 genes) were included in the mini -pool gRNA library. The library contained 6 gRNAs for each candidate gene (total 1,878 targeting gRNAs) and

2,000 non-targeting control gRNAs. Panel B shows the normalized counts for each gRNA with Pmel-1 selection (Y-axis) or control T cell selection (X-axis). Examples of enriched and depleted gRNAs were annotated. Panel C shows a summary of validation screen. Venn diagram illustrating validated genes for enriched gRNAs (n=15 genes) and depleted gRNAs (n=128 genes) that were positive in both Pmel-1 and OT-I screens (FDR<0.05 in MaGeCK analysis). Panel D shows the correlation between different screening results. The log-fold change (logFC) ratios of primary screens are plotted on the X-axis, while the logFC of the validation screen is on the Y-axis. The OT1 and Pmel-1 conditions are shown separately. Panel E shos the correlation between OT-I and Pmell validation screens. The log-fold change (logFC) ratios of OT1 screens are plotted on the X-axis, with the Pmell screen logFC on the Y-axis.

Figure 13 includes 4 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, and D, which show the genes validated in screens with Pmel-1 and OT-I T cells. Panels A and B show the validation data for genes with enriched gRNAs in screens with Pmel-1 (Panel A) and OT-I (Panel B) T cells analyzed using MaGeCK software. Candidate genes were plotted based on mean log2 fold change of gRNA counts and p values. Genes involved in MHC/antigen presentation pathway (red), type I/II interferon pathways (yellow) and Ras/MAPK pathway (blue) were annotated. Panels C and D show the validation data for top genes with depleted gRNAs in screens with Pmel-1 (Panel C) and OT-I (Panel D) T cells. Selected genes involved in NF-kB (blue), mTORCl pathway (yellow), PBAF form of SWI/SNF complex (red), NAD metabolism (black), and glycolysis (green) were highlighted.

Figure 14 includes 4 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, and D, which show the characterization of Pbrml deficient B 16F 10 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Panel A shows the ratio of GFP-positive vs. GFP-negative cells at different time points to determine if inactivation of the PBAF complex had an impact on tumor cell growth or survival in vitro. GFP-expressing Arid2, Pbrml or Brd7 deficient B 16F 10 cells were mixed with GFP-negative control B16F10 cells at a 1 : 1 ratio and grown in vitro for 2 weeks. Values represents mean +/- SD. Panels B and C show the tumor size in the mice. Related to

Fig.7G, mice bearing control or Pbrm 1 -deficient B16F 10 tumors (n=5-8) were treated with CD8 depleting mAb (B) or isotype control antibody (2A3 and polyclonal Syrian hamster IgG) (C), and tumor size was measured. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance for time points when all mice were viable for tumor measurement. "ns" indicates not significant. Panel D shows flow cytometry plots. Related to Fig. 71, flow cytometric analysis of granzyme B expression by tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells in Pbrml deficient and control B16F10 tumors. All data shown in this figure are

representative of two independent experiments.

Figure 15 includes 4 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, and D, which show the changes in tumor microenvironment in Pbrml deficient tumors. Panel A shows the tSNE projections of CD45+ cells (combined for Pbrml deficient and control B 16F10 tumors). CD45+ cells were sorted and pooled (n=5) from either Pbrml deficient or control B16F10 tumors for single-cell RNA-seq. Cells are colored by k-means clusters, and the

corresponding cell types are annotated based on expression of lineage-specific markers as illustrated in (Panel B). Panel B shows the heatmap that shows the gene expression level of markers for each cluster of cells separated by k-means clusters. Panel C shows the GSEA analysis (hallmark gene sets) performed on genes that were significantly overexpressed in Pbrml deficient compared to control B16F10 tumors for each k-means cluster shown in (Panel A), -logio (FDR) for "IFNa response", "IFNy response" and "TNFa signaling via F-KB" gene sets are shown. Panel D shows the percentage of indicated cell clusters in total CD45+ cells in Pbrml deficient versus control B16F10 tumors.

Figure 16 includes 4 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, and D, which show the gene expression profiles of Arid2, Pbrml and Brd7 deficient B 16F 10 tumor cells. RNA-seq was performed on Aridl, Brd7 or Pbrml deficient cells as well as control B 16F10 cells. Panel A shows a heat map and clustering that shows the overall log2 fold change in gene expression in Aridl ', Pbrml and Brd7 deficient B16F 10 cells compared to control B16F10 cells (transduced with non-targeting gRNA). Panel B shows venn diagrams that show the number of genes that were upregulated or downregulated in Arid2 and/or Pbrml deficient B16F10 cells compared to control B16F10 cells in RNA-seq data. Panel C shows FDR q-values for top-ranked mTORCl and several other metabolic genes sets. Hypergeometric overlap statistics were used to test which Hallmark and KEGG gene sets were enriched among genes that were significantly downregulated in both Arid2 and Pbrml deficient cells compared to control B 16F10 cells. Panel D shows heat maps that show the expression value (z-score based on cufflink count) for genes in mTORCl and cholesterol homeostasis gene sets for control, Aridl ox Pbrml deficient B16F 10 cells.

Figure 17 includes 2 panels, identified as panels A and B, which show the GSEA analysis on Arid2 and Pbrml deficient cells. Panel A shows the GSEA analysis of differentially expressed genes (RNA-seq datasets) in Arid2 deficient cells versus control B16F10 cells. Panel B shows the GSEA analysis of differentially expressed genes (RNA-seq datasets) in Pbrml deficient cells versus control B16F10 cells. Gene sets for mTORCl and several other metabolic pathways negatively enriched in Arid2 and Pbrml deficient cells are shown.

Figure 18 includes 6 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, D, E and F, which show the enhanced responsiveness to IFNy stimulation by Arid2 and Pbrml deficient tumor cells. Panels A to C show the RNA-seq analysis oiArid2 or Pbrml deficient cells and control B16F10 cells treated with IFNy (lOng/ml) for 24 hours. Panel A are venn diagrams that show differentially regulated mRNAs in the presence of IFNy. Panel B shows the hallmark gene sets enriched for commonly up- or down-regulated mRNAs in both Arid! and Pbrml deficient cells compared to control B16F10 cells in the presence of IFNy treatment (as shown in Panel A). Panel C is a heat map which shows expression value (z-score based on cufflink count) of interferon-responsive genes in control, Arid! and Pbrml deficient

B16F10 cells following IFNy treatment. Panels D and E show Cxcl9 mRNA level (Panel D) and Cxcl9 protein secretion (Panel E) comparing Pbrm 1 -deficient and control B 16F10 tumor cells stimulated with IFNy (lOng/ml) for 24 hours. Values represents mean +/- SD. Panel F shows the CxcllO secretion by ^rwy-deficient and control B 16F10 tumor cells stimulated with IFNy (0, 0.5 and 1 ng/ml) for 24 hours. Values represents mean +/- SD. One-way ANOVA (Panels D and E) and two-way ANOVA were used to determine significance (Panel F). ** p<0.01, **** p<0.0001. Data in Panel D and Panel F are representative of two independent experiments.

Figure 19 shows the effect of PBAF complex on IFNy induced expression of H2-Kb and PD-L1 induction. Arid2, Pbrml and Brd7 deficient cells and control B16F10 cells were treated with different doses of IFNy and surface expression of H2-Kb and PD-L1 (geometric mean fluorescence intensity, gMFI) was determined by FACS after 24 hours. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance (**** p<0.0001). Data shown are representative of two independent experiments.

Figure 20 includes 3 panels, identified as panels A, B and C, which show the enhanced chromatin accessibility for IFNy responsive genes in Pbrml -deficient tumor cells. ATAC-seq was performed on Pbrml -deficient and control B16F10 cells with or without IFNy stimulation (10 ng/ml) for 24 hours. Panel A shows the genome-wide analysis of differentially accessible chromatin sites (|log2 fold change] >0.5) following

IFNy stimulation in control versus ^rwy-deficient B 16F10 tumor cells. Panel B is a venn diagram which illustrates accessible sites gained following IFNy treatment in control (blue) and Pbrm 1 -deficient (red) cells. Panel C are chromatin accessibility heat maps for all sites in clusters I (top panel) and III (bottom panel). Aggregated reads within 2kb of center of differentially accessible regions are shown above heat maps.

Figure 21 includes 5 panels, identified as panels A, B, C, D and E, which show the analysis of chromatin accessibility in Pbrml deficient and control cells. Panel A shows accessible sites near Trim21 as example of interferon-responsive sites that were more accessible in Pbrml deficient cells prior to IFNy stimulation (arrows). Panel B shows an example of a cluster III site (as defined in Fig. 20B), which became more accessible in Pbrml deficient cells compared to control B 16F10 cells following IFNy treatment (arrow). Panel C shows IFNy and IFNy response gene sets. Hypergeometric overlap statistics were used to define Hallmark gene sets enriched in nearby genes for cluster I, II and III sites. Panel D shows the IRF2 and IRSE motifs. IRF2 and IRSE were the most significant motifs (computed by HOMER (Heinz et al. (2010) Mol Cell 38:576-589) enriched in clusters I, II and III (p<le-37). Panel E shows the direct target prediction and statistical significance analysis performed using BETA (Binding and Expression Target Analysis) based on ATAC-seq sites from clusters I and III and differentially expressed genes following IFNy treatment in Pbrml deficient cells. Significant predicted targets for genes in Fig.18C are shown.

For any figure showing a bar histogram, curve, or other data associated with a legend, the bars, curve, or other data are generally presented from left to right for each indication correspond directly and in order to the boxes from top to bottom of the legend, except for Figure 15C where the boxes for IFN-alpha appear before the boxes for IFN-gamma.

Detailed Description of the Invention

It has been determined herein that multiple genes and pathways described herein, including components of NF-kB pathway, mTORCl pathway, RIG-I like receptor signaling pathway, glycolysis and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism pathways, as well as components of a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex (PBAF complex), such as those listed in the Tables and Examples, are regulators of T cell-mediated killing of cancer cells. Accordingly, the present invention relates, in part, to methods for sensitizing the cancer cells in a subject afflicted with a cancer to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing by modulating the copy number, amount, and/or activity of these genes and pathways in the cancer cells.

I. Definitions

The articles "a" and "an" are used herein to refer to one or to more than one {i.e. to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. By way of example, "an element" means one element or more than one element.

The term "administering" is intended to include routes of administration which allow an agent to perform its intended function. Examples of routes of administration for treatment of a body which can be used include injection (subcutaneous, intravenous, parenterally, intraperitoneally, intrathecal, etc.), oral, inhalation, and transdermal routes. The injection can be bolus injections or can be continuous infusion. Depending on the route of administration, the agent can be coated with or disposed in a selected material to protect it from natural conditions which may detrimentally affect its ability to perform its intended function. The agent may be administered alone, or in conjunction with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The agent also may be administered as a prodrug, which is converted to its active form in vivo.

The term "altered amount" or "altered level" refers to increased or decreased copy number {e.g., germline and/or somatic) of a biomarker nucleic acid, e.g., increased or decreased expression level in a cancer sample, as compared to the expression level or copy number of the biomarker nucleic acid in a control sample. The term "altered amount" of a biomarker also includes an increased or decreased protein level of a biomarker protein in a sample, e.g., a cancer sample, as compared to the corresponding protein level in a normal, control sample. Furthermore, an altered amount of a biomarker protein may be determined by detecting posttranslational modification such as methylation status of the marker, which may affect the expression or activity of the biomarker protein.

The amount of a biomarker in a subject is "significantly" higher or lower than the normal amount of the biomarker, if the amount of the biomarker is greater or less, respectively, than the normal level by an amount greater than the standard error of the assay employed to assess amount, and preferably at least 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, 350%, 400%, 500%, 600%, 700%, 800%, 900%, 1000% or than that amount. Alternately, the amount of the biomarker in the subject can be considered "significantly" higher or lower than the normal amount if the amount is at least about two, and preferably at least about three, four, or five times, higher or lower, respectively, than the normal amount of the biomarker. Such "significance" can also be applied to any other measured parameter described herein, such as for expression, inhibition, cytotoxicity, cell growth, and the like.

The term "altered level of expression" of a biomarker refers to an expression level or copy number of the biomarker in a test sample, e.g., a sample derived from a patient suffering from cancer, that is greater or less than the standard error of the assay employed to assess expression or copy number, and is preferably at least twice, and more preferably three, four, five or ten or more times the expression level or copy number of the biomarker in a control sample (e.g., sample from a healthy subjects not having the associated disease) and preferably, the average expression level or copy number of the biomarker in several control samples. The altered level of expression is greater or less than the standard error of the assay employed to assess expression or copy number, and is preferably at least 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, 350%, 400%, 500%, 600%, 700%, 800%, 900%, 1000% or more times the expression level or copy number of the biomarker in a control sample (e.g., sample from a healthy subjects not having the associated disease) and preferably, the average expression level or copy number of the biomarker in several control samples. In some embodiments, the level of the biomarker refers to the level of the biomarker itself, the level of a modified biomarker (e.g., phosphorylated biomarker), or to the level of a biomarker relative to another measured variable, such as a control (e.g., phosphorylated biomarker relative to an unphosphorylated biomarker).

The term "altered activity" of a biomarker refers to an activity of the biomarker which is increased or decreased in a disease state, e.g., in a cancer sample, as compared to the activity of the biomarker in a normal, control sample. Altered activity of the biomarker may be the result of, for example, altered expression of the biomarker, altered protein level of the biomarker, altered structure of the biomarker, or, e.g., an altered interaction with other proteins involved in the same or different pathway as the biomarker or altered interaction with transcriptional activators or inhibitors.

The term "altered structure" of a biomarker refers to the presence of mutations or allelic variants within a biomarker nucleic acid or protein, e.g., mutations which affect expression or activity of the biomarker nucleic acid or protein, as compared to the normal or wild-type gene or protein. For example, mutations include, but are not limited to substitutions, deletions, or addition mutations. Mutations may be present in the coding or non-coding region of the biomarker nucleic acid.

The term "SWI/SNF complex" refers to SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable, a nucleosome remodeling complex found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes (Neigeborn Carlson (1984) Genetics 108:845-858; Stern et al. (1984) J. Mol. Biol. 178:853-868). The SWI/SNF complex was first discovered in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, named after yeast mating types switching (SWI) and sucrose nonfermenting (SNF) pathways (Workman and Kingston (1998) Annu Rev Biochem. 67:545-579; Sudarsanam and Winston (2000) Trends Genet. 16:345-351). It is a group of proteins comprising, at least, SWI1,

SWI2/S F2, SWI3, SWI5, and SWI6, as well as other polypeptides (Pazin and Kadonaga (1997) Cell 88:737-740). A genetic screening for suppressive mutations of the SWI/SNF phenotypes identified different histones and chromatin components, suggesting that these proteins were possibly involved in histone binding and chromatin organization (Winston and Carlson (1992) Trends Genet. 8:387-391). Biochemical purification of the SWI/SNF2p in S. cerevisiae demonstrated that this protein was part of a complex containing an additional 11 polypeptides, with a combined molecular weight over 1.5 MDa. The

SWI/SNF complex contains the ATPase Swi2/Snf2p, two actin-related proteins (Arp7p and Arp9) and other subunits involved in DNA and protein-protein interactions. The purified SWI/SNF complex was able to alter the nucleosome structure in an ATP-dependent manner (Workman and Kingston (1998), supra; Vignali et al. (2000) Mol Cell Biol. 20: 1899-1910). The structures of the SWI/SNF and RSC complexes are highly conserved but not identical, reflecting an increasing complexity of chromatin (e.g., an increased genome size, the presence of DNA methylation, and more complex genetic organization) through evolution. For this reason, the SWI/SNF complex in higher eukaryotes maintains core components, but also substitute or add on other components with more specialized or tissue-specific domains. Yeast contains two distinct and similar remodeling complexes, SWI/SNF and RSC (Remodeling the Structure of Chromatin). In Drosophila, the two complexes are called BAP (Brahma Associated Protein) and PBAP (Polybromo-associated BAP) complexes. The human analogs are BAF (Brgl Associated Factors, or SWI/SNF-A) and PBAF (Polybromo-associated BAF, or SWI/SNF-B). As shown in Figure 9, the BAF complex comprises, at least, BAF250A (ARID 1 A), BAF250B (ARID IB), BAF57

(SMARCEl), BAF190/BRM (SMARCA2), BAF47 (SMARCB l), BAF53A (ACTL6A), BRG1/BAF190 (SMARCA4), BAF155 (SMARCCl), and BAF170 (SMARCC2). The PBAF complex comprises, at last, BAF200 (ARID2), BAF 180 (PBRMl), BRD7, BAF45A (PHF10), BRG1/BAF190 (SMARCA4), BAF155 (SMARCCl), and BAF170

(SMARCC2). As in Drosophila, human BAF and PBAF share the different core components BAF47, BAF57, BAF60, BAF155, BAF170, BAF45 and the two actins b-Actin and BAF53 (Mohrmann and Verrijzer (2005) Biochim Biophys Acta. 1681 : 59-73). The central core of the BAF and PBAF is the ATPase catalytic subunit BRGl/hBRM, which contains multiple domains to bind to other protein subunits and acetylated histones. For a summary of different complex subunits and their domain structure, see Tang et al. (2010) Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 102: 122-128 {e.g., Figure 3), Hohmann and Vakoc (2014) Trends Genet. 30:356-363 {e.g., Figure 1), and Kadoch and Crabtree (2015) Sci. Adv.

1 :el 500447. For chromatin remodeling, the SWI/S F complex use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to slide the DNA around the nucleosome. The first step consists in the binding between the remodeler and the nucleosome. This binding occurs with nanomolar affinity and reduces the digestion of nucleosomal DNA by nucleases. The 3-D structure of the yeast RSC complex was first solved and imaged using negative stain electron microscopy (Asturias et al. (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 13477-13480). The first Cryo-EM structure of the yeast SWI/SNF complex was published in 2008 (Dechassa et al. 2008). DNA footprinting data showed that the SWI/SNF complex makes close contacts with only one gyre of nucleosomal DNA. Protein crosslinking showed that the ATPase SWI2/SNF2p and Swi5p (the homologue of Ini lp in human), Snf6, Swi29, Snfl l and Sw82p (not conserved in human) make close contact with the histones. Several individual SWI/SNF subunits are encoded by gene families, whose protein products are mutually exclusive in the complex (Wu et al. (2009) Cell 136:200-206). Thus, only one paralog is incorporated in a given SWI/SNF assembly. The only exceptions are BAF155 and BAF170, which are always present in the complex as homo- or hetero-dimers.

Combinatorial association of SWI/SNF subunits could in principle give rise to hundreds of distinct complexes, although the exact number has yet to be determined (Wu et al. (2009), supra). Genetic evidence suggests that distinct subunit configurations of SWI/SNF are equipped to perform specialized functions. As an example, SWI/SNF contains one of two ATPase subunits, BRGl or BRM/SMARCA2, which share 75% amino acid sequence identity (Khavari et al. (1993) Nature 366: 170-174). While in certain cell types BRGl and BRM can compensate for loss of the other subunit, in other contexts these two ATPases perform divergent functions (Strobeck et al. (2002) J Biol Chem. 277:4782-4789; Hoffman et al. (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111 :3128-3133). In some cell types, BRGl and BRM can even functionally oppose one another to regulate differentiation (Flowers et al. (2009) J Biol Chem. 284: 10067-10075). The functional specificity of BRGl and BRM has been linked to sequence variations near their N-terminus, which have different interaction specificities for transcription factors (Kadam and Emerson (2003) Mol Cell. 11 :377-389). Another example of paralogous subunits that form mutually exclusive SWI/SNF complexes are ARID1A/BAF250A, ARID1B/BAF250B, and ARID2/BAF200. ARID 1 A and ARID IB share 60% sequence identity, but yet can perform opposing functions in regulating the cell cycle, with MYC being an important downstream target of each paralog (Nagl et al. (2007) EMBO J. 26:752-763). ARID2 has diverged considerably from ARID 1 A/ ARID 1 B and exists in a unique SWI/SNF assembly known as PBAF (or SWI/SNF -B), which contains several unique subunits not found in ARIDlA/B-containing complexes. The composition of SWI/SNF can also be dynamically reconfigured during cell fate transitions through cell type-specific expression patterns of certain subunits. For example, BAF53A/ACTL6A is repressed and replaced by BAF53B/ACTL6B during neuronal differentiation, a switch that is essential for proper neuronal functions in vivo (Lessard et al. (2007) Neuron 55:201-215). These studies stress that SWI/SNF in fact represents a collection of multi-subunit complexes whose integrated functions control diverse cellular processes, which is also incorporated in the scope of definitions of the instant disclosure. Two recently published meta-analyses of cancer genome sequencing data estimate that nearly 20% of human cancers harbor mutations in one (or more) of the genes encoding SWI/SNF (Kadoch et al. (2013) Nat Genet. 45:592-601; Shain and Pollack (2013) PLoS One. 8:e55119). Such mutations are generally loss-of-function, implicating SWI/SNF as a major tumor suppressor in diverse cancers. Specific SWI/SNF gene mutations are generally linked to a specific subset of cancer lineages: SNF5 is mutated in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT), PBRM1/BAF180 is frequently inactivated in renal carcinoma, and BRG1 is mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and several other cancers. In the instant disclosure, the scope of "SWI/SNF complex" may cover at least one fraction or the whole complex (e.g., some or all subunit proteins/other components), either in the human BAF/PBAF forms or their homologs/orthologs in other species (e.g., the yeast and drosophila forms described herein). Preferably, a "SWI/SNF complex" described herein contains at least part of the full complex bio-functionality, such as binding to other subunits/components, binding to DN A/hi stone, catalyzing ATP, promoting chromatin remodeling, etc.

The term "BAF complex" refers to at least one type of mammalian SWI/SNF complexes. Its nucleosome remodeling activity can be reconstituted with a set of four core subunits (BRG1/SMARCA4, SNF 5/SMARCB 1 , BAF155/SMARCC1, and

BAF170/SMARCC2), which have orthologs in the yeast complex (Phelan et al. (1999) Mol Cell. 3 :247-253). However, mammalian SWI/SNF contains several subunits not found in the yeast counterpart, which can provide interaction surfaces for chromatin (e.g. acetyl-lysine recognition by bromodomains) or transcription factors and thus contribute to the genomic targeting of the complex (Wang et al. (1996) EMBO J. 15:5370-5382; Wang et al.

(1996) Genes Dev. 10:2117-2130; Nie et al. (2000) ). A key attribute of mammalian SWI/S F is the heterogeneity of subunit configurations that can exist in different tissues and even in a single cell type (e.g., as BAF, PBAF, neural progenitor BAF (npBAF), neuron BAF (nBAF), embryonic stem cell BAF (esBAF), etc.). In some embodiments, the BAF complex described herein refers to one type of mammalian SWI/SNF complexes, which is different from PBAF complexes.

The term "PBAF complex" refers to one type of mammalian SWI/SNF complexes originally known as SWI/SNF-B. It is highly related to the BAF complex and can be separated with conventional chromatographic approaches. For example, human BAF and PBAF complexes share multiple identical subunits (such as BRG, BAF170, BAF155,

BAF60, BAF57, BAF53, BAF45, actin, SS18, and hSNF5/INIl, as illustrated in Figure 9). However, while BAF contains BAF250 subunit, PBAF contains BAF 180 and BAF200, instead (Lemon et al. (2001) Nature 414:924-998; Yan et al. (2005) Genes Dev. 19: 1662-1667). Moreover, they do have selectivity in regulating interferon-responsive genes (Yan et al. (2005), supra, showing that BAF200, but not BAF 180, is required for PBAF to mediate expression of IFI M1 gene induced by IFN-a, while the IFI M3 gene expression is dependent on BAF but not PBAF). Due to these differences, PBAF, but not BAF, was able to activate vitamin D receptor-dependent transcription on a chromatinzed template in vitro (Lemon et al. (2001), supra). The 3-D structure of human PBAF complex preserved in negative stain was found to be similar to yeast RSC but dramatically different from yeast SWI/SNF (Leschziner et a/. (2005) Structure 13 :267-275).

The term "BAF200" or "ARID2" refers to AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 2, a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, which can be found in PBAF but not BAF complexes. It facilitates ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors. The ARTD2 gene, located on chromosome 12q in humans, consists of 21 exons; orthologs are known from mouse, rat, cattle, chicken, and mosquito (Zhao et al. (2011) Oncotarget 2:886-891). A conditional knockout mouse line, called Arid2tmla(EUC0MM)Wtsl was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program, a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease (Skames et al. (2011) Nature 474:337-342). Human ARID2 protein has 1835 amino acids and a molecular mass of 197391 Da. The ARID2 protein contains two conserved C-terminal C2H2 zinc fingers motifs, a region rich in the amino acid residues proline and glutamine, a RFX (regulatory factor X)-type winged-helix DNA-binding domain {e.g., amino acids 521- 601 of ARID2), and a conserved N-terminal AT -rich DNA interaction domain (e.g., amino acids 19-101 of ARJD2; Zhao et al. (2011), supra). Mutation studies have revealed ARJD2 to be a significant tumor suppressor in many cancer subtypes. ARID2 mutations are prevalent in hepatocellular carcinoma (Li et al. (2011) Nature Genetics. 43 :828-829) and melanoma (Hodis et al. (2012) Cell 150:251-263; Krauthammer et al. (2012) Nature Genetics. 44: 1006-1014). Mutations are present in a smaller but significant fraction in a wide range of other tumors (Shain and Pollack (2013), supra). ARID2 mutations are enriched in hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma in the U.S. and European patient populations compared with the overall mutation frequency (Zhao et al. (2011), supra). The known binding partners for ARID2 include, e.g., Serum Response Factor (SRF) and SRF cofactors MYOCD, NKX2-5 and SRFBP1.

The term "BAF200" or "ARID2" is intended to include fragments, variants {e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human ARID2 cDNA and human ARID2 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For example, two different human ARID2 isoforms are known. Human ARID2 isoform A (NP 689854.2) is encodable by the transcript variant 1 (NM 152641.3), which is the longer transcript. Human ARID2 isoform B (NP_001334768.1) is encodable by the transcript variant 2 (NM_001347839.1), which differs in the 3' UTR and 3' coding region compared to isoform A. The encoded isoform B has a shorter C-terminus compared to isoform A. Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of ARID2 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, chimpanzee ARID2 (XM_016923581.1 and XP_016779070.1, and

XM_016923580.1 and XP_016779069.1), Rhesus monkey ARID2 (XM_015151522.1 and XP_015007008.1), dog ARID2 (XM_003433553.2 and XP_003433601.2; and

XM_014108583.1 and XP_013964058.1), cattle ARID2 (XM_002687323.5 and

XP_002687369.1; and XM_015463314.1 and XP_015318800.1), mouse ARID2

(NM_175251.4 and NP_780460.3), rat ARID2 (XM_345867.8 and XP_345868.4; and XM_008776620.1 and XP_008774842.1), chicken ARID2 (XM_004937552.2 and

XP_004937609.1, XM 004937551.2 and XP 004937608.1, XM_004937554.2 and XP_004937611.1, and XM_416046.5 and XP_416046.2), tropical clawed frog ARID2 (XM_002932805.4 and XP_002932851.1, XM_018092278.1 and XP_017947767.1, and XM_018092279.1 and XP_017947768.1), and zebrafish ARID2 (NM_001077763.1 and

NP_001071231.1, and XM_005164457.3 and XP_005164514.1). Representative sequences of ARID2 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-ARID2 antibodies suitable for detecting ARID2 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies ABE316 and 04-080 (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA), antibodies BP1-26615, BP2-43567, and BP1-26614 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab51019, abl66850, abl 13283, and ab56082 (AbCam,

Cambridge, MA), antibodies Cat #: PA5-35857 and PA5-51258 (ThermoFisher Scinetific, Waltham, MA), antibodies GTX129444, GTX129443, and GTX632011 (GeneTex, Irvine, CA), ARID2 (H-182) Antibody, ARID2 (H-182) X Antibody, ARID2 (S-13) Antibody, ARID2 (S- 13) X Antibody, ARID2 (E-3) Antibody, and ARID2 (E-3) X Antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting ARID2 expression. Multiple clinical tests of PBRMl are available in NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR®) (e.g., GTR Test ID: GTR000541481.2, offered by Fulgent Clinical Diagnostics Lab (Temple City, CA)). Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing ARID2 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as siRNA product #SR316272, shRNA products #TR306601, TR505226, TG306601, SR420583, and CRISPR products #KN212320 and KN30154 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), RNAi product H00196528-R01 (Novus

Biologicals), CRISPR gRNA products from GenScript (Cat. # KN301549 and KN212320, Piscataway, NJ) and from Santa Cruz (sc-401863), and RNAi products from Santa Cruz

(Cat # sc-96225 and sc-77400). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding ARID2 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an ARID2 molecule of the present invention.

The term "BRD7" refers to Bromodomain-containing protein 7, a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, which can be found in PBAF but not BAF complexes. BRD7 is a transcriptional corepressor that binds to target promoters {e.g., the ESR1 promoter) and down-regulates the expression of target genes, leading to increased histone H3 acetylation at Lys-9 (H3K9ac). BRD7 can recruit other proteins such as BRCA1 and POU2F1 to, e.g., the ESR1 promoter for its function. BRD7 activates the Wnt signaling pathway in a DVL1-dependent manner by negatively regulating the GSK3B phosphotransferase activity, while BRD7 induces dephosphorylation of GSK3B at Tyr-216. BRD7 is also a coactivator for

TP53-mediated activation of gene transcription and is required for TP53-mediated cell-cycle arrest in response to oncogene activation. BRD7 promotes acetylation of TP53 at Lys-382, and thereby promotes efficient recruitment of TP53 to target promoters. BRD7 also inhibits cell cycle progression from Gl to S phase. For studies on BRD7 functions, see Zhou et al. (2006) J. Cell. Biochem. 98:920-930; Harte et al. (2010) Cancer Res. 70:2538-2547; Drost et al. (2010) Nat. Cell Biol. 12:380-389. The known binding partners for BRD7 also include, e.g., Tripartite Motif Containing 24 (TRIM24), Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13 (PTPN13), Dishevelled Segment Polarity Protein 1 (DVLl), interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) (Staal et al. (2000) J. Cell. Physiol. US 185:269-279) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like protein 1 (FINRPULl) (Kzhyshkowska et al. (2003) Biochem. J. England. 371 :385-393). Human BRD7 protein has 651 amino acids and a molecular mass of 74139 Da, with a N-terminal nuclear localization signal (e.g., amino acids 65-96 of BRD7), a Bromo-BRD7-like domain (e.g., amino acids 135-232 of BRD7), and a DUF3512 domain (e.g., amino acids 287-533 of BRD7).

The term "BRD7" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human BRD7 cDNA and human BRD7 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For example, two different human BRD7 isoforms are known. Human BRD7 isoform A (NP OOl 167455.1) is encodable by the transcript variant 1 (NM 001173984.2), which is the longer transcript. Human BRD7 isoform B

(NP_037395.2) is encodable by the transcript variant 2 (NM_013263.4), which uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform B lacks one internal residue, compared to isoform A. Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of BRD7 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, chimpanzee BRD7 (XM_009430766.2 and XP_009429041.1,

XM_016929816.1 and XP_016785305.1, XM_016929815.1 and XP_016785304.1, and XM_003315094.4 and XP_003315142.1), Rhesus monkey BRD7 (XM_015126104.1 and XP_014981590.1, XM_015126103.1 and XP_014981589.1, XM_001083389.3 and XP_001083389.2, and XM_015126105.1 and XP 014981591.1), dog BRD7

(XM_014106954.1 and XP_013962429.1), cattle BRD7 (NM_001103260.2 and

NP_001096730.1), mouse BRD7 (NM_012047.2 and NP_036177.1), chicken BRD7 (NM_001005839.1 and NP_001005839.1), tropical clawed frog BRD7 (NM_001008007.1

and P_001008008.1), and zebrafish BRD7 ( M_213366.2 and NP_998531.2).

Representative sequences of BRD7 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-BRD7 antibodies suitable for detecting BRD7 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody TA343710 (Origene), antibody BP1-28727 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab56036, ab46553, ab202324, and abl 14061

(AbCam, Cambridge, MA), antibodies Cat #: 15125 and 14910 (Cell Signaling), antibody GTX118755 (GeneTex, Irvine, CA), BRD7 (P-13) Antibody, BRD7 (T-12) Antibody, BRD7 (H-77) Antibody, BRD7 (H-2) Antibody, and BRD7 (B-8) Antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting BRD7 expression. A clinical test of BRD7 is available in NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR®) with GTR Test ID: GTR000540400.2, offered by Fulgent Clinical Diagnostics Lab (Temple City, CA)). Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing BRD7 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced

companies, such as shRNA product #TR100001 and CRISPR products # KN302255 and KN208734 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), RNAi product H00029117-R01 (Novus Biologicals), and small molecule inhibitors BI 9564 and TP472 (Tocris Bioscience, UK). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding BRD7 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an BRD7 molecule of the present invention.

The term "PBRMl" or "BAF180" refers to protein Polybromo-1, which is a subunit of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. PBRMl functions in the regulation of gene expression as a constituent of the evolutionary-conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes (Euskirchen et al. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287:30897-30905). Beside BRD7 and BAF200, PBRMl is one of the unique components of the SWI/SNF -B complex, also known as polybromo/BRGl -associated factors (or PBAF), absent in the SWI/SNF-A (BAF) complex (Xue et al. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 97: 13015-13020; Brownlee et al. (2012) Biochem Soc Trans. 40:364-369). On that account, and because it contains bromodomains known to mediate binding to acetylated histones, PBRMl has been postulated to target PBAF complex to specific chromatin sites, therefore providing the functional selectivity for the complex (Xue et al. (2000), supra; Lemon et al. (2001) Nature 414:924-928; Brownlee et al. (2012), supra). Although direct evidence for PBRMl involvement is lacking, SWI/SNF complexes have also been shown to play a role in DNA

damage response (Park et al. (2006) EMBO J.25:3986-3997). In vivo studies have shown that PBRMl deletion leads to embryonic lethality in mice, where PBRMl is required for mammalian cardiac chamber maturation and coronary vessel formation (Wang et al. (2004) Genes Dev. 18:3106-3116; Huang et al. (2008) Dev Biol. 319:258-266). PBRMl mutations are most predominant in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and have been detected in over 40% of cases, placing PBRMl second (after VHL) on the list of most frequently mutated genes in this cancer (Varela et al. (2011) Nature 469:539-542; Hakimi et al. (2013) Eur Urol. 63 :848-854; Pena-Llopis et al. (2012) Nat Genet. 44:751-759; Pawlowski et al. (2013) Int J Cancer. 132:E11-E17). PBRMl mutations have also been found in a smaller group of breast and pancreatic cancers (Xia et al. (2008) Cancer Res. 68: 1667-1674; Shain et al.

(2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci i/&4.109:E252-E259; Numata et al. (2013) Int J Oncol. 42:403-410). PBRMl mutations are more common in patients with advance stages (Hakimi et al.

(2013) , supra) and loss of PBRMl protein expression has been associated with advanced tumour stage, low differentiation grade and worse patient outcome (Pawlowski et al.

(2013), supra). In another study, no correlation between PBRMl status and tumor grade was found (Pena-Llopis et al. (2012), supra). Although PBRMl-mutant tumors are associated with better prognosis than BAPl-mutant tumors, tumors mutated for both PBRMl and BAP1 exhibit the greatest aggressiveness (Kapur et al. (2013) Lancet Oncol. 14: 159-167). PBRMl is ubiquitously expressed during mouse embryonic development (Wang et al. (2004), supra) and has been detected in various human tissues including pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lung, placenta, brain, heart, intestine, ovaries, testis, prostate, thymus and spleen (Xue et al. (2000), supra; Horikawa and Barrett (2002) DNA Seq. 13 :211-215).

PBRMl protein localizes to the nucleus of cells (Nicolas and Goodwin (1996) Gene 175:233-240). As a component of the PBAF chromatin-remodeling complex, it associates with chromatin (Thompson (2009) Biochimie. 91 :309-319), and has been reported to confer the localization of PBAF complex to the kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes (Xue et al. (2000), supra). Human PBRMl gene encodes a 1582 amino acid protein, also referred to as BAF180. Six bromodomains (BD1-6), known to recognize acetylated lysine residues and frequently found in chromatin-associated proteins, constitute the N-terminal half of PBRMl (e.g., six BD domains at amino acid residue no. 44-156, 182-284, 383-484, 519-622, 658-762, and 775-882 of PBRMl). The C-terminal half of PBRMl contains two bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domains (BAHl and BAH2, e.g., at amino acid residue

no. 957-1049 and 1 130-1248 of PBRM1), present in some proteins involved in

transcription regulation. High mobility group (HMG) domain is located close to the C-terminus of PBRM1 (e.g., amino acid residue no.1328-1377 of PBRM1). HMG domains are found in a number of factors regulating DNA-dependent processes where HMG domains often mediate interactions with DNA.

The term "PBRM1" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human PBRMl cDNA and human PBRMl protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For example, two different human PBRMl isoforms are known. Human PBRMl transcript variant 2 (NM 181042.4) represents the longest transcript. Human PBRMl transcript variant 1 (NM O 18313.4) differs in the 5' UTR and uses an alternate exon and splice site in the 3' coding region, thus encoding a distinct protein sequence (NP 060783.3) of the same length as the isoform (NP 851385.1) encoded by variant 2. Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of PBRMl orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, mouse PBRMl

(NM_001081251.1 and NP_001074720.1), chicken PBRMl (NM_205165.1 and

NP_990496.1), tropical clawed frog PBRMl (XM_018090224.1 and XP_017945713.1), zebrafish PBRMl (XM_009305786.2 and XP_009304061.1, XM_009305785.2 and XP_009304060.1, and XM_009305787.2 and XP_009304062.1), fruit fly PBRMl

(NM_143031.2 and NP_651288.1), and worm PBRMl (NM_001025837.3 and

NP_001021008.1 and.NM_001025838.2 and NP_001021009.1). Representative sequences of PBRMl orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-PBRMl antibodies suitable for detecting PBRMl protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, ABE70 (rabbit polyclonal antibody, EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA), TA345237 and TA345238 (rabbit polyclonal antibodies, OriGene

Technologies, Rockville, MD), NBP2-30673 (mouse monoclonal) and other polyclonal antibodies (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), ab 196022 (rabiit mAb, AbCam, Cambridge, MA), PAH437Hu01 and PAH437Hu02 (rabbit polyclonal antibodies, Cloud-Clone Corp., Houston, TX), GTX100781 (GeneTex, Irvine, CA), 25-498 (ProSci, Poway, CA), sc-367222 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting PBRMl expression (see, for example, PBRMl Hu-Cy3 or Hu-Cy5

SmartFlare™ RNA Detection Probe (EMD Millipore). Multiple clinical tests of PBRMl are available in NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR®) (e.g., GTR Test ID:

GTR000537378.2 which is offered by Fulgent Clinical Diagnostics Lab (Temple City, CA)). Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing PBRM1 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies. Ribavirin and PFI 3 are known PBRM1 inhibitors. It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding PBRM1 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an PBRM1 molecule of the present invention.

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs or PTPases) are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins (He et al.

(2014) Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 35: 1227-1246; Barr et al. (2009) Cell 136:352-363). Protein tyrosine (pTyr) phosphorylation is a common post-translational modification that can create novel recognition motifs for protein interactions and cellular localization, affect protein stability, and regulate enzyme activity. As a consequence, maintaining an appropriate level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for many cellular functions. Tyrosine-specific protein phosphatases (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48) catalyze the removal of a phosphate group attached to a tyrosine residue, using a cysteinyl-phosphate enzyme intermediate. These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity (Denu and Dixon (1998) Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2:633-641; Lombroso (2003) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60:2465-2482). Together with tyrosine kinases, PTPs regulate the phosphorylation state of many important signaling molecules, such as the MAP kinase family. PTPs are

increasingly viewed as integral components of signal transduction cascades. PTPs have been implicated in regulation of many cellular processes, including, but not limited to: cell growth, cellular differentiation, mitotic cycles, oncogenic transformation, receptor endocytosis, etc. The classification of PTPs can be achieved by mechanism or location. By mechanism, PTP activity can be found in four protein families, including: 1) class I PTPs, which is the largest group of PTPs comprising at least 99 members, such as at least 38 classical PTPs (21 receptor tyrosine phosphatase and 17 non-receptor-type PTPs) and 61 VH-l-like or dual-specific (dTyr and dSer/dThr) phosphatases (DSPs) (e.g., 11 MAPK phosphatases (MPKs), 3 Slingshots, 3 PRLs, 4 CDC14s, 19 atypical DSPs, 5 Phosphatase and tensin homologs (PTENs), and 16 Myotubularins); 2) class II PTP, comprising only

one member low-molecular-weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP); 3) class III PTPs, comprising at least CDC25 A, B, and C proteins; and 4) Class IV PTPs, comprising at least Eya 1-4 proteins, which are pTyr-specific phosphatases and believed to have evolved separately from the other three classes. By cellular location, PTPs can be classified as receptor-like PTPs and non-receptor (intracellular) PTPs. The former are transmembrane receptors that contain PTPase domains. In terms of structure, all known receptor PTPases are made up of a variable-length extracellular domain, followed by a transmembrane region and a C-terminal catalytic cytoplasmic domain. Some of the receptor PTPases contain fibronectin type III (FN-III) repeats, immunoglobulin-like domains, MAM domains, or carbonic anhydrase-like domains in their extracellular region. In general, the cytoplasmic region contains two copies of the PTPase domain. The first has enzymatic activity, whereas the second is inactive (Sun et al. (2003) Curr Top Med Chem. 3 :739-748; Alonso et al. (2004) Cell 117:699-711). All class I, II, and III PTPs carry a highly conserved active site motif C(X)5R (PTP signature motif), employ a common catalytic mechanism, and possess a similar core structure made of a central parallel beta-sheet with flanking alpha-helices containing a beta-loop-alpha-loop that encompasses the PTP signature motif (Barford et al. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 27: 133-164). Functional diversity between PTPases is endowed by regulatory domains and subunits. For most PTPs, the consensus sequence (I/V)HCXAGXXR(S/T)G (i.e., the C(X)5R PTP signature motif) contains the catalytically essential Cys and Arg residues. Intracellular PTPs are often modular molecules containing structural motifs such as Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, PEST sequences, and band 4.1 domains on either the N- or C-terminal side of their catalytic domains.

Among non-receptor PTPs, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN2 gene (Brown-Shimer et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:5148-5152). Epidermal growth factor receptor and the adaptor protein She were reported to be substrates of this PTP, which suggests a role in growth factor-mediated cell signaling. Three alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode isoforms differing at their extreme C-termini, have been described. The different C-termini are thought to determine the substrate specificity, as well as the cellular localization of the isoforms. Two highly related but distinctly processed pseudogenes that localize to distinct human chromosomes have been reported. The human PTPN2 gene localizes to chromosome 18pl 1.2-pl 1.3, whereas pseudogenes (gene symbol PTPN2P1 and

PTPN2P2) are mapped to chromosomes Iq22-q24 and 13ql2-ql3, respectively. A direct comparison of the specificity of genomic and cDNA probes demonstrated that under identical conditions the genomic probes (containing both exon and intron sequences) readily identified a single specific site of hybridization, whereas the cDNA identified sites of both the gene and its pseudogenes (Johnson et al. (1993) Genomics 16:619-629). Human PTPN2 exists as two forms generated by alternative splicing: a 48-kDa endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated form (TC48, 415 amino acid) and a 45-kDa nuclear form

(TC45). The three-dimensional PDB structure of PTPN2 is also well-known and described in at least the OCA database (protein ID: 1L8K) at the Weizmann Institute of Science (Rehovot, Israel) available on the World Wide Web at oca. weizmann. ac.il/oca-bin/ocashort?id=lL8K. PTPN2 has a protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic (PTPc) domain, for example, from amino acid residues 5 to 275 of PTPN2. The PTPc domain comprises different motifs for various functions, such as substrate binding (amino acid residues 216-222 of PTPN2), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) location (amino acid residues 346-415 of PTPN2), and STX17 interaction (amino acid residues 376-415 of PTPN2, also see Muppirala et al. (2012) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1823 :2109-2119).

The nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of a representative human PTPN2 is available to the public at the GenBank database (Gene ID 5771). Human PTPN2 isoforms include the longest isoform 1 (GenBank database numbers M 002828.3 and

P_002819.2), and the shorter isoforms 2 (NM_080422.2 and P_536347.1, which contains an alternate 3' region including a part of the C-terminal coding region, resulting in a shorter and distinct C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1), 3 (NM_080423.2 and

P 536348.1; which contains an alternate 3' region including a part of the C-terminal coding region, resulting in a shorter and distinct C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1), 4 ( M_001207013.1 and P_001193942.1; which contains an additional in-frame exon in the middle coding region and an alternate 3' region including a part of the C-terminal coding region, resulting in an additional internal segment and a shorter and distinct C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1), and 5 (NM_001308287.1 and P_001295216.1; which differs in the 5' UTR by lacking a portion of the 5' coding region and using an alternative start codon to initiates translation, resulting in a shorter and distinct N-terminus, as compared to isoform 1).

Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of PTPN2 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, chimpanzee {Pan troglodytes)

PTPN2 (XM_009433614.2 and XP_009431889.2; XM_009433613.2 and XP_009431888.2; XM_009433615.2 and XP_009431890.2; XM_003953237.2 and XP_003953286.2; XM_001171536.4 and XP_001171536.2; XM_009433617.2 and XP_009431892.1; XM_016933257.1 and XP_016788746.1; XM_009433619.2 and XP_009431894.2; XM_009433618.2 and XP_009431893.2; XM_016933256.1 and XP_016788745.1; XM_016933258.1 and XP_016788747.1; and XM_009433620.2 and XP_009431895.2), dog PTPN2 (XM_014115598.1 and XP_013971073.1;

XM_005623101.2 and XP_005623158.1; XM_005623100.2 and XP_005623157.1; and XM_005623099.2 and XP_005623156.1), mouse PTPN2 ( M_001127177.1 and

P_001120649.1, which represent the longer transcript, and M_008977.3 and

P 033003.1, which differs in the 3' UTR and has multiple coding region differences, resulting in a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than the isoform encoded by the longer transcript), cattle PTPN2 ( M_001035431.2 and P_001030508.1), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) VTVm (NM_053990.1 and NP_446442.1), chicken PTPN2

(NM_001199387.1 and NP_001186316.1), tropical clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) PTPN2 (XM_004915252.3 and XP_004915309.2; and XM_002936076.4 and

XP_002936122.1); zebrafish (Danio rerio) PTPN2 (NM_200466.2 and NP_956760.2; and NM_212654.1 and NP_997819.1); and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaste ) VT i

(NM_167874.2 and NP_728600.1; NM_057340.4 and NP_476688.1; NM_001274324.2 and NP_001261253.1; NM_167875.2 and NP_728601.1; and NM_057339.5 and

NP_476687.1).

Anti-Ptpn2 antibodies suitable for detecting Ptpn2 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody TA327184 (Origene), antibody MABS791 (EMD Millipore), antibodies MAB1930, and AF1930 (R&D systems), antibodies ab 180764, abl29070, abl72266, abl71655, ab85330, abl996, and abl02053 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), antibody PAD585Hu01 (Cloud-Clone Corp, Katy, TX), Cat #: PA5-42722, and Cat #: MA5-17249 (ThermoFisher Scientific), antibody GTX130319, GTX54634, and

GTX56114 (GeneTex, Irvine, CA), TC-PTP (F-8) Antibody, and TC-PTP (D-3) Antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Ptpn2 expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Ptpn2 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product #TR310063, RNAi product SR303886 and CRISPR products # KN202161 and KN314212 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Ptpn2 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence

composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Ptpn2 molecule of the present invention.

The term "Serpinb9" refers to serpin family B member 9, a member of the serine protease inhibitor family which are also known as serpins. Serpinb9 inhibits the activity of the effector molecule granzyme B. Overexpression of this protein may prevent cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from eliminating certain tumor cells. Human Serpinb9 protein has 376 amino acids and a molecular mass of 42404 Da.

The term "Serpinb9" is intended to include fragments, variants {e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Serpinb9 cDNA and human Serpinb9 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For example, one human Serpinb9 isoform is known. Human Serpinb9 isoform A (NP 004146.1) is encodable by the transcript variant 1 (NM_004155.5). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Serpinb9 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Serpinb9 (NM_001266993.1 and NP_001253922.1), dog Serpinb9

(XM_005639979.2 and XP_005640036.1), cattle Serpinb9 (NM_001075859.2 and

NP_001069327.1), mouse Serpinb9 (NM_009256.3 and NP_033282.1), and rat Serpinb9 (NM_001007732.1 and NP_001007733.1). Representative sequences of Serpinb9 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Serpinb9 antibodies suitable for detecting Serpinb9 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies AM01199PU-N, AM05390PU-N, TA318921, TA312970, TA303212, and AP26375PU-N (Origene), antibodies ab60265, abl 12220, ab36624, abl50400, and abl 10455 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), antibody PAD390Hu01

(Cloud-Clone Corp, Katy, TX), Cat #: PA5-18686, Cat #: PA5-51038, Cat #: MA5-17648, Cat #: MAI -35771, and Cat #: MA5- 17705 (ThermoFisher Scientific), antibody

GTX54693, GTX39407, GTX59853, and GTX89125 (GeneTex, Irvine, CA), antibodies PI-9 (PI9-17), PI-9 (7D8), PI-9 (6D700), and PI-9 (C-10) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Serpinb9 expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Serpinb9 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL309527, RNAi product SR303506 and CRISPR products # KN200645 and

KN315595 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Serpinb9 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Serpinb9 molecule of the present invention.

The term "Otulin" refers to OTU deubiquitinase with linear linkage specificity, a member of the peptidase C65 family of ubiquitin isopeptidases. Members of this family remove ubiquitin from proteins. OTULIN specifically recognizes and removes Ml(Metl)-linked, or linear, ubiquitin chains from protein substrates. Linear ubiquitin chains are known to regulate the NF-kappa B signaling pathway in the context of immunity and inflammation. Mutations in Otulin cause a potentially fatal autoinflammatory syndrome in human patients. Human Otulin protein has 352 amino acids and a molecular mass of 40263 Da.

The term "Otulin" is intended to include fragments, variants {e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Otulin cDNA and human Otulin protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For example, one human Otulin isoform is known. Human Otulin isoform A (NP 612357.4) is encodable by the transcript variant 1

(NM 138348.5). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Otulin orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Otulin

(NM_001193800.1 and NP_001180729.1), dog Otulin (XM_014110329.1 and

XP_013965804.1; XM_005639660.2 and XP_005639717.1; XM_005639659.2 and XP_005639716.1; XM_843160.4 and XP_848253.2), cattle Otulin (NM_001100328.1 and NP_001093798.1), mouse Otulin (NM_001013792.2 and NP_001013814.2), and rat Otulin (NM_001302889.1 and NP_001289818.1). Representative sequences of Otulin orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Otulin antibodies suitable for detecting Serpinb9 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody ABC488 (EMD Millipore), antibody TA335406 (OriGene), antibody Cat #: 14127 (Cell Signaling), antibody NBP2- 14722 (Novus

Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies abl51117, abl 14137, and abl82598 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Otulin expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Otulin expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced

companies, such as shRNA product # TR304698, and CRISPR products # KN224840 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), and RNAi product Cat #: 14132 from Cell Signaling. It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Otulin molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Otulin molecule of the present invention.

The term "Rela" refers to RELA Proto-Oncogene, NF-κΒ Subunit. Members of this family remove ubiquitin from proteins. NF-κΒ is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-κΒ moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-κΒ is composed of NFKB 1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-κΒ is NFKB 1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Human RELA protein has 551 amino acids and a molecular mass of 60219 Da.

The term "Rela" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Rela cDNA and human Rela protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Rela isoforms include the longest isoform 1 (NM_021975.3 and NP_068810.3), and the shorter isoforms 2 (NM_001145138.1 and NP OOl 138610.1, which uses an alternate in-frame acceptor splice site at one of the coding exons, resulting in a shorter isoform missing a 3 aa segment compared to isoform 1), 3 (NM_001243984.1 and NP_001230913.1; which uses an alternate in-frame splice site at the 5' end of the last exon, resulting isoform lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 1), and 4 (NM_001243985.1 and NP_001230914.1; which lacks an alternate internal in-frame segment in the last exon, resulting isoform lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Rela orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Rela (XM_015113775.1 and XP_014969261.1), dog Rela (XM_005631473.2 and

XP_005631530.1; XM_540850.5 and XP_540850.2; XM_005631474.2 and

XP_005631531.1; XM_014121307.1 and XP_013976782.1; XM_005631472.2 and XP_005631529.1), cattle Rela (NM_001080242.2 and NP_001073711.1), mouse Rela (NM_009045.4 and NP_033071.1), and rat Rela (NM_199267.2 and NP_954888.1).

Representative sequences of Rela orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Rela antibodies suitable for detecting Rela protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody ABE136 (EMD Millipore), antibody TA890002 (OriGene), antibody Cat #: 8242 (Cell Signaling), antibody NB 100-56712 (Novus

Biologicals, Littleton, CO), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Rela expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Rela expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR302038, and CRISPR products # KN220780 and # KN314656 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), and RNAi products Cat #: 6261 and Cat #: 6534 from Cell Signaling. It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Rela molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Rela molecule of the present invention.

The term "Ikbkg" refers to inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit gamma, the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and several other types of immunodeficiencies. A pseudogene highly similar to this locus is located in an adjacent region of the X

chromosome. Human Ikbkg protein has 419 amino acids and a molecular mass of 48198 Da.

The term "Ikbkg" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Ikbkg cDNA and human Ikbkg protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Ikbkg isoforms include the longest isoform a (NM_001099857.2 and NP_001093327.1; NM_003639.4 and NP_003630.1;

NM_001321396.1 and NP_001308325.1), and the shorter isoforms b (NM_001099856.4 and NP 001093326.2, which uses an alternate promoter and initiates translation from an alternate in-frame upstream start codon, resulting isoform (b) has a longer N-terminus compared to isoform a), c (NM_001145255.2 and NP_001138727.1; which lacks two in-frame exons in the central coding region compared, resulting isoform (c) lacks two internal protein segments compared to isoform a), d (NM_001321397.1 and NP_001308326.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Ikbkg orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Ikbkg (XM 015128564.1 and

XP_014984050.1; XM_002806446.2 and XP_002806492.1; XM_001095498.3 and XP_001095498.2; XM_015128566.1 and XP_014984052.1; XM_015128565.1 and XP_014984051.1), dog Ikbkg (XM_003640238.3 and XP_003640286.2; XM_005642038.2 and XP_005642095.1; XM_005642039.2 and XP_005642096.1; XM_014111627.1 and XP_013967102.1; XM_014111628.1 and XP_013967103.1), cattle Ikbkg ( M_174354.3 and P_776779.1), mouse Ikbkg ( M_001136067.2 and P_001129539.1;

NM 001161421.1 and P_001154893.1; M_001161422.1 and P_001154894.1;

M_001161423.1 and P_001154895.1; M_001161424.1 and P_001154896.1;

M_010547.2 and P_034677.2; M_178590.4 and P_848705.1), and rat Ikbkg (NM_199103.1 and P_954534.1). Representative sequences of Ikbkg orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Ikbkg antibodies suitable for detecting Ikbkg protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody 05-631 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AMI 1080PU-N and AP07310PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 2695 and Cat #: 2685 (Cell Signaling), antibodies B 100-56542 and B 100-56532 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies abl78872, abl37363, and abl88569 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Ikbkg expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Ikbkg expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL312203, RNAi products SR305587, and CRISPR products # KN201743 and # KN308212 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Ikbkg molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Ikbkg molecule of the present invention.

The term "Ikbkb" refers to inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta. Ikbkb phosphorylates the inhibitor in the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex, causing dissociation of the inhibitor and activation of F-kappa-B. The encoded protein itself is found in a complex of proteins. Human Ikbkb protein has 756 amino acids and a molecular mass of 86564 Da.

The term "Ikbkb" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Ikbkb cDNA and human Ikbkb protein

sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Ikbkb isoforms include the longest isoform 1 (NM_001556.2 and NP_001547.1), and the shorter isoforms 2 (NM_001190720.2 and NP_001177649.1, which lacks an exon in the 5' region, resulting in an upstream AUG start codon, as compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is slightly shorter and has a different N-terminus, as compared to isoform 1), and 5 (NM_001242778.1 and

NP_001229707.1; which lacks an alternate exon in the 5' coding region and uses an alternate start codon, resulting isoform (5) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, compared to variant 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Ikbkb orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Ikbkb (NM 001265946.1 and NP_001252875.1), dog Ikbkb (XM_539954.5 and XP_539954.2; XM_014120063.1 and XP_013975538.1; XM_014120062.1 and XP_013975537.1), cattle Ikbkb

(NM_174353.2 and NP_776778.1), mouse Ikbkb (NM_001159774.1 and

NP_001153246.1; NM_010546.2 and NP_034676.1), and rat Ikbkb (NM_053355.2 and NP 445807.2). Representative sequences of Ikbkb orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Ikbkb antibodies suitable for detecting Ikbkb protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies 07-1479 and 05-535 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AM06154SU-N and AM06155SU-N (OriGene), antibody Cat #: 2684 (Cell Signaling), antibodies NB 100-56509 and NB 100-56513 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab32135, and abl24957 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Ikbkb expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Ikbkb expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL320385, and CRISPR products # KN308210 and # KN219154 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), and RNAi products Cat #: 6377 from Cell Signaling. It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Ikbkb molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Ikbkb molecule of the present invention.

The term "Rnf31" refers to ring finger protein 31. RNF31 contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. It is the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase

component of the LUBAC complex (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) which conjugates linear (Met- 1 -linked) polyubiquitin chains to substrates and plays a key role in F-kappa-B activation and regulation of inflammation. LUBAC conjugates linear polyubiquitin to IKBKG and RIPK1 and is involved in activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B and the INK signaling pathways. Linear ubiquitination mediated by the LUBAC complex interferes with T F -induced cell death and thereby prevents inflammation.

LUBAC is proposed to be recruited to the T F-R1 signaling complex (TNF-RSC) following polyubiquitination of TNF-RSC components by BIRC2 and/or BIRC3 and to conjugate linear polyubiquitin to IKBKG and possibly other components contributing to the stability of the complex. Together with otulin, the LUBAC complex regulates the canonical Wnt signaling during angiogenesis. Human Rnf31 protein has 1072 amino acids and a molecular mass of 1 19652 Da.

The term "Rnf31" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Rnf31 cDNA and human Rnf31 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Rnf31 isoforms include the longest isoform 1 (NM_017999.4 and NP_060469.4), and the shorter isoforms 2 (NM_001310332.1 and NP OO 1297261.1 , which uses an alternate first exon and an alternate splice site in a 5' exon, resulting isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Rnf31 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Rnf31 (XM 001 1 12195.3 and

XP_001 1 12195.1 ; XM_015143429.1 and XP_014998915.1), dog Rnf31

(XM_005623255.2 and XP_005623312.1 ; XM_005623256.2 and XP_005623313.1 ;

XM_537383.5 and XP_537383.2; XM_005623257.2 and XP_005623314.1), mouse Rnf31 (NM_194346.2 and NP_919327.2), and rat Rnf31 (NM_001 108868.1 and

NP OOl 102338.2). Representative sequences of Rnf31 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Rnf31 antibodies suitable for detecting Rnf31 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies TA302821 and TA329873 (OriGene), antibodies MAB8039, AF8039, NBP2-27290 and NB lOO-1094 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab46322, ab85294, and ab 187976 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Rnf31 expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Rnf31 expression can be found in the commercial

product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL320708, RNAi products SR310467, and CRISPR products # KN314948 and # KN204117 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Rnf31 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Rnf31 molecule of the present invention.

The term "Sharpin" refers to SHANK associated RH domain interactor, a component of the LUBAC complex which conjugates linear polyubiquitin chains in a head-to-tail manner to substrates and plays a key role in NF-kappa-B activation and regulation of inflammation. Human Sharpin protein has 387 amino acids and a molecular mass of 39949 Da.

The term "Sharpin" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Sharpin cDNA and human Sharpin protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Sharpin has one isoform (NM 030974.3 and NP l 12236.3). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Sharpin orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Sharpin

(XM_015146259.1 and XP_015001745.1; XM_015146260.1 and XP_015001746.1;

XM_015146263.1 and XP_015001749.1; XM_015146261.1 and XP_015001747.1;

XM_015146258.1 and XP_015001744.1), dog Sharpin (XM_005628075.2 and

XP_005628132.1; XM_532352.5 and XP_532352.3; XM_014118748.1 and

XP_013974223.1), cattle Sharpin (NM_001109766.1 and NP_001103236.1), mouse Sharpin (NM_025340.2 and NP_079616.2), and rat Sharpin (NM_031153.2 and

NP_112415.1.

Anti-Sharpin antibodies suitable for detecting Sharpin protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody ABF128 (EMD Millipore), antibody TA342597 (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 12541 (Cell Signaling), antibodies AF8100 and NBPl-92386 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies abl97853, abl25188, and abl74545 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Sharpin expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Sharpin expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced

companies, such as shRNA product # TL317564, RNAi products SR313114, and CRISPR

products # KN315736 and # KN222012 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Sharpin molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Sharpin molecule of the present invention.

The term "Rraga" refers to Ras related GTP binding A, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the cellular response to amino acid availability through regulation of the mTORCl signaling cascade. It forms heterodimeric Rag complexes with RRAGC or RRAGD and cycles between an inactive GDP -bound and an active GTP-bound form. In its active form participates in the relocalization of mTORCl to the lysosomes and its subsequent activation by the GTPase RHEB. Rraga is involved in the RCCl/Ran-GTPase pathway. It may play a direct role in a TNF-alpha signaling pathway leading to induction of cell death, or may alternatively act as a cellular target for adenovirus E3-14.7K, an inhibitor of TNF-alpha functions, thereby affecting cell death. Human Rraga protein has 313 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36566 Da.

The term "Rraga" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Rraga cDNA and human Rraga protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Rraga has one isoform (NM 006570.4 and NP 006561.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Rraga orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Rraga

(NM_001194800.1 and NP_001181729.1), dog Rraga (XM_003639357.3 and

XP_003639405.2), cattle Rraga (NM_001035499.1 and NP_001030576.1), mouse Rraga (NM_178376.3 and NP_848463.1), and rat Rraga (NM_053973.2 and NP_446425.1). Representative sequences of Rraga orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Rraga antibodies suitable for detecting Rraga protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody TA350374 and TA315091 (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 4357 (Cell Signaling), antibody abl28196 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Rraga expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Rraga expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL309705, RNAi products SR307279, and CRISPR products # KN203493 and # KN315129 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used

to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Rraga molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Rraga molecule of the present invention.

The term "Rragb" refers to Ras related GTP binding B, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the cellular response to amino acid availability through regulation of the mTORCl signaling cascade. It forms heterodimeric Rag complexes with RRAGC or RRAGD and cycles between an inactive GDP -bound and an active GTP-bound form. In its active form participates in the relocalization of mTORCl to the lysosomes and its subsequent activation by the GTPase RHEB. Rragb is involved in the RCCl/Ran-GTPase pathway. Human Rragb protein has 374 amino acids and a molecular mass of 43250 Da.

The term "Rragb" is intended to include fragments, variants {e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Rragb cDNA and human Rragb protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Rragb isoforms include the longest isoform a (NM_016656.3 and NP_057740.2), the shorter isoform b (NM_006064.4 and

NP 006055.3, which lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the coding region, resulting isoform (b) is shorter than isoform a), c (NM_001354011.1 and NP_001340940.1), and d (NM_001354013.1 and NP_001340942.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of

Rragb orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, chimpanzee Rragb (XM_003317489.4 and XP_003317537.1; XM_001148126.5 and XP_001148126.2; XM_016943767.2 and XP_016799256.1; XM_016943766.2 and XP_016799255.1), monkey Rragb (NM_001257444.1 and NP_001244373.1), dog Rragb (XM_022415838.1 and XP_022271546.1; XM_022415834.1 and XP_022271542.1;

XM_022415836.1 and XP_022271544.1; XM_846980.5 and XP_852073.1;

XM_005641400.3 and XP_005641457.1; XM_005641401.3 and XP_005641458.1;

XM_022415837.1 and XP_022271545.1), cattle Rragb (NM_001075279.1 and

NP_001068747.1), and mouse Rragb (NM_001004154.2 and NP_001004154.1).

Anti -Rragb antibodies suitable for detecting Rragb protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody TA331223 (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 8150 (Cell Signaling), antibody ab 103671 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Rragb expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR

constructs for reducing Rragb expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA products # TF301903, #TL301903 and #TG301903 (OriGene), RNAi products #SR306997 (OriGene) and #ABIN3346754 (Genomics-online), and CRISPR products #KN201860 (OriGene) and #K6999908

(AbCam, Cambridge, MA). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Rragb molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Rragb molecule of the present invention.

The term "Rragc" refers to Ras related GTP binding C, a member of the GTR/RAG

GTP-binding protein family. Rragc is a monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein which forms a heterodimer with RRAGA and RRAGB and promotes intracellular localization of the mTOR complex. It forms heterodimeric Rag complexes required for the amino acid-induced relocalization of mTORCl to the lysosomes and its subsequent activation by the GTPase RHEB. This is a crucial step in the activation of the TOR signaling cascade by amino acids. Human Rragc protein has 399 amino acids and a molecular mass of 44224 Da.

The term "Rragc" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Rragc cDNA and human Rragc protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Rragc isoforms include a longer isoform 1 (NM_022157.3 and NP_071440.1), and a shorter isoforms 2 (NM_001271851.1 and NP 001258780.1, which uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the coding region and encodes isoform 2 which is shorter than isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Rragc orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Rragc (XM_001113124.3 and XP_001113124.1), dog Rragc

(XM_003431952.3 and XP_003432000.1), cattle Rragc (NM_001076456.1 and

NP_001069924.1), mouse Rragc (NM_017475.2 and NP_059503.2), and rat Rragc (NM_001048184.1 and NP_001041649.1).

Anti -Rragc antibodies suitable for detecting Rragc protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody AP53748PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 3360 (Cell Signaling), antibodies NBPl-83699, NBP2-32202 and NBP2-56218 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab 168819, ab206864, ab 187705, and ab76577 (AbCam,

Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Rragc expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Rragc expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL301902, CRISPR products # KN203834 and # KN315131 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), and RNAi products H00064121-R02 from Novus Biologicals (Littleton, CO). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Rragc molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Rragc molecule of the present invention.

The term "Lamtorl" refers to late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and MTOR activator 1. As a part of the Ragulator complex, it is involved in amino acid sensing and activation of mTORCl, a signaling complex promoting cell growth in response to growth factors, energy levels, and amino acids. Activated by amino acids through a mechanism involving the lysosomal V-ATPase, the Ragulator functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activating the small GTPases Rag. Activated Ragulator and Rag GTPases function as a scaffold recruiting mTORCl to lysosomes where it is in turn activated. LAMTORl is directly responsible for anchoring the Ragulator complex to membranes. Diseases associated with Lamtorl include Bone Benign Neoplasm and

Connective Tissue Benign Neoplasm. Human Lamtorl protein has 161 amino acids and a molecular mass of 17745 Da.

The term "Lamtorl" is intended to include fragments, variants {e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Lamtorl cDNA and human Lamtorl protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Lamtorl has one isoform (NM_017907.2 and NP_060377.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Lamtorl orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Lamtorl (NM_001 194634.2 and NP_001181563.1), dog Lamtorl (XM_542329.5 and XP_542329.2), cattle Lamtorl (NM_001034769.1 and NP_001029941.1), mouse Lamtorl (NM_025605.3 and NP_079881.2), and rat Lamtorl (NM_199102.1 and

NP 954533.1). Representative sequences of Lamtorl orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Lamtorl antibodies suitable for detecting Lamtorl protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies TA309727 and TA326713 (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 8975 (Cell Signaling), antibodies NBP 1-71689 and NBPl-89909 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies abl21157, and abl81017 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Lamtorl expression.

Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Lamtorl expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # SR310417, RNAi products SR310417, and CRISPR products #

KN200159 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Lamtorl molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Lamtorl molecule of the present invention.

The term "Atg5" refers to autophagy related 5. In combination with autophagy protein 12, Atg5 functions as an El-like activating enzyme in an ubiquitin-like conjugating system. Atg5 is involved in several cellular processes, including autophagic vesicle formation, mitochondrial quality control after oxidative damage, negative regulation of the innate antiviral immune response, lymphocyte development and proliferation, MHC II antigen presentation, adipocyte differentiation, and apoptosis. Human Atg5 protein has 275 amino acids and a molecular mass of 32447 Da.

The term "Atg5" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Atg5 cDNA and human Atg5 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Atg5 isoforms include the longest isoform a (NM_004849.3 and NP_004840.1; NM_001286106.1 and NP_001273035.1), and the shorter isoform b (NM_001286107.1 and NP_001273036.1, which lacks an exon in the 5' coding region and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, resulting isoform (b) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform a), c (NM_001286108.1 and

NP_001273037.1, which uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, resulting isoform (c) has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a), and d (NM_001286111.1 and NP_001273040.1, which lacks three alternate exons in the 5' coding region, resulting isoform (d) has the same N-terminus but is otherwise distinct and shorter than isoform a). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Atg5 orthologs in

organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Atg5 (XM 015137011.1 and XP_014992497.1; XM_015137015.1 and XP_014992501.1;

XM_001088300.2 and XP_001088300.1; XM_015137016.1 and XP_014992502.1;

XM_015137017.1 and XP_014992503.1; XM_015137018.1 and XP_014992504.1;

XM_015137012.1 and XP_014992498.1; XM_015137013.1 and XP_014992499.1;

XM_015137014.1 and XP_014992500.1; XM_001088076.2 and XP_001088076.1), dog Atg5 (XM_005627675.2 and XP_005627732.1; XM_005627676.2 and XP_005627733.1; XM_014118180.1 and XP_013973655.1; XM_849201.4 and XP_854294.1), cattle Atg5 ( M_001034579.2 and P_001029751.2), and mouse Atg5 ( M_001314013.1 and NP_001300942.1 ; M_053069.6 and P_444299.1). Representative sequences of Rraga orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Atg5 antibodies suitable for detecting Atg5 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies MAB2605, ABC14 and MABC137 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AM20205PU-N and AM20206PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 2630 (Cell Signaling), antibodies B 110-53818, MAB5294, and BP2-24389 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab 108327, and ab 109490 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Atg5 expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Atg5 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR314610, RNAi products SR306286 and TR314610, and CRISPR products # KN301740 and # KN210563 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Atg5 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Atg5 molecule of the present invention.

The term "Fadd" refers to Fas associated via death domain, an adaptor molecule that interacts with various cell surface receptors and mediates cell apoptotic signals. Through its C-terminal death domain, Fadd can be recruited by TNFRSF6/Fas-receptor, tumor necrosis factor receptor, TNFRSF25, and T FSFlO/TRAIL-receptor, and thus it participates in the death signaling initiated by these receptors. Interaction of Fadd with the receptors unmasks the N-terminal effector domain of Fadd, which allows it to recruit caspase-8, and thereby activate the cysteine protease cascade. Knockout studies in mice also suggest the

importance of Fadd in early T cell development. Human Fadd protein has 208 amino acids and a molecular mass of 23279 Da.

The term "Fadd" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Fadd cDNA and human Fadd protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Fadd has one isoform (NM 003824.3 and NP 003815.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Fadd orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Fadd

(XM_001100468.3 and XP_001100468.2), cattle Fadd (NM_001007816.1 and

NP_001007817.1), mouse Fadd (NM_010175.5 and NP_034305.1), and rat Fadd

(NM_152937.2 and NP_690920.1). Representative sequences of Fadd orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Fadd antibodies suitable for detecting Fadd protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies 05-486, 06-711 and AB3102 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AM00163PU-N and AM08189PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 2782 (Cell Signaling), antibodies NBP 1-81831, AF2938, and NBP2- 16406 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab24533, abl24812 and abl08601 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Fadd expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Fadd expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL320593, RNAi product SR305777, and CRISPR products # KN201805 and # KN305495 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Fadd molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Fadd molecule of the present invention.

The term "Tbkl" refers to TANK binding kinase 1. Tbklplays an essential role in regulating inflammatory responses to foreign agents. Following activation of toll-like receptors by viral or bacterial components, Tbklassociates with TRAF3 and TANK and phosphorylates interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) IRF3 and IRF7 as well as DDX3X. This activity allows subsequent homodimerization and nuclear translocation of the IRFs leading to transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory and antiviral genes including IFNA and IFNB. In order to establish such an antiviral state, TBK1 forms several different complexes whose composition depends on the type of cell and cellular stimuli. Thus, several scaffolding molecules including FADD, TRADD, MAVS, AZI2, TANK or

TBKBPl/SINTBAD can be recruited to the TBKl-containing-complexes. Under particular conditions, Tbklfunctions as a NF-kappa-B effector by phosphorylating NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha/NFKBIA, IKBKB or RELA to translocate NF-Kappa-B to the nucleus. Human Tbkl protein has 729 amino acids and a molecular mass of 83642 Da.

The term "Tbkl" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Tbkl cDNA and human Tbkl protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Tbkl has one isoform (NM O 13254.3 and NP 037386.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Tbkl orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Tbkl

(NM_001261193.1 and NP_001248122.1), dog Tbkl (XM_538266.5 and XP_538266.3), cattle Tbkl (NM_001192755.1 and NP_001179684.1), mouse Tbkl (NM_019786.4 and NP_062760.3), and rat Tbkl (NM_001106786.1 and NP_001100256.1). Representative sequences of Tbkl orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Tbkl antibodies suitable for detecting Tbkl protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies 04-387, and 04-856 (EMD Millipore), antibodies TA336453 and TA334469 (OriGene), antibodies Cat #: 3013 (Cell Signaling), antibodies NBlOO-56705, NB 100-421, and NBP2-13416 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab40676, ab 109735 and ab 186470 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Tbkl expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Tbkl expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL320685, RNAi products SR309210, and CRISPR products # KN205238 and # KN3172714 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Tbkl molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Tbkl molecule of the present invention.

The term "Nsdhl" refers to NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like. Nsdhl is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.

Mutations in Nsdhl are associated with CHILD syndrome, which is a X-linked dominant

disorder of lipid metabolism with disturbed cholesterol biosynthesis, and typically lethal in males. Human Nsdhl protein has 373 amino acids and a molecular mass of 41900 Da.

The term "Nsdhl" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Nsdhl cDNA and human Nsdhl protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Nsdhl has two transcript variants which encode the same protein: the variant 1 NM_015922.2 encodes NP_057006.1, and the variant 2 NM_001129765.1 encodes NP_001123237.1. Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Nsdhl orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Nsdhl (NM_001265710.1 and NP_001252639.1), dog Nsdhl (XM_014111859.1 and XP_013967334.1; XM 014111861.1 and XP_013967336.1;

XM_005641965.2 and XP_005642022.1; XM_014111860.1 and XP_013967335.1), cattle Nsdhl (NM_001035482.2 and NP_001030559.1), mouse Nsdhl (NM_010941.3 and NP_035071.3), and rat Nsdhl (NM_001009399.1 and NP_001009399.1). Representative sequences of Nsdhl orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Nsdhl antibodies suitable for detecting Nsdhl protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody TA341986 (OriGene), antibodies NBPl-83306, NBPl-83307, and H00050814-M01 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies abl90353, abl99730 and abl02805 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Nsdhl expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Nsdhl expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR302882, RNAi products SR324001, and CRISPR products # KN311254 and # KN203225 from Origene

Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Nsdhl molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Nsdhl molecule of the present invention.

The term "Gne" refers to glucosamine (UDP-N-acetyl)-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. Gne is a bifunctional enzyme that initiates and regulates the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. It is a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. Sialic acid modification of cell surface molecules is crucial for their function in many biologic processes, including cell adhesion and signal transduction. Differential sialylation of cell surface molecules is also implicated in the tumorigenicity and metastatic behavior of malignant cells. Mutations in Gne are associated with sialuria, autosomal recessive inclusion body myopathy, and Nonaka myopathy. Human Gne protein has 722 amino acids and a molecular mass of 79275 Da.

The term "Gne" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Gne cDNA and human Gne protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for

Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Gne isoforms include the longest isoform 1 (NM_001 128227.2 and NP_001 121699.1), and the shorter isoform 2 (NM_005476.5 and NP 005467.1, which contains a different 5' terminal exon, resulting in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and a protein (isoform 2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1), 3 (NM_001 190388.1 and NP_001 177317.1, which lacks a 5' coding segment, resulting in the use of an upstream alternate start codon, and a protein (isoform 3) with a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1), 4

(NM_001 190383.1 and NP_001 177312.1, which contains a different 5' terminal exon and lacks a 3' coding region segment, resulting in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG and a shorter protein (isoform 4) compared to isoform 1), and 5

(NM_001 190384.1 and NP_001 177313.1, which contains a different 5' terminal exon and lacks two alternate 5' coding region segments, resulting in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG and a shorter protein (isoform 5) compared to isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Gne orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Gne (XM_0151 17449.1 and XP_014972935.1 ; XM_0151 17448.1 and XP_014972934.1 ; XM_0151 17445.1 and XP_014972931.1 ;

XM_0151 17446.1 and XP_014972932.1 ; XM_0151 17447.1 and XP_014972933.1), dog Gne (XM_003431575.3 and XP_003431623.1 ; XM_005626808.2 and XP_005626865.1 ; XM_005626809.2 and XP_005626866.1), cattle Gne (NM_001 191 143.3 and

NP_001 178072.2), mouse Gne (NM_001 190414.1 and NP_001 177343.1 ; NM_015828.3 and NP_056643.3), and rat Gne (NM_053765.2 and NP_446217.1). Representative sequences of Gne orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Gne antibodies suitable for detecting Gne protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies TA890043, TA315006 and AP51881PU-N (OriGene), antibodies NBP 1-81621, NBP 1-81622, and H00010020-D01P (Novus Biologicals,

Littleton, CO), antibodies ab 189927, ab 184963 and ab 199416 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Gne expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Gne expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL312714, CRISPR products # KN307080 and # KN222626 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD), and RNAi product H00010020-R02 from Novus Biologicals (Littleton, CO). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Gne molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Gne molecule of the present invention.

The term "Gale" refers to UDP-galactose-4-epimerase. Gale catalyzes two distinct but analogous reactions: the reversible epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP -galactose and the reversible epimerization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine. The reaction with UDP-Gal plays a critical role in the Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism in which galactose is converted to the glycolytic intermediate glucose 6-phosphate. Gale contributes to the catabolism of dietary galactose and enables the endogenous biosynthesis of both UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc when exogenous sources are limited. Both UDP-sugar interconversions are important in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mutations in this gene result in epimerase-deficiency galactosemia, also referred to as galactosemia type 3, a disease characterized by liver damage, early-onset cataracts, deafness and mental retardation, with symptoms ranging from mild ('peripheral' form) to severe ('generalized' form). Human Gale protein has 348 amino acids and a molecular mass of 38282 Da.

The term "Gale" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Gale cDNA and human Gale protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Gale has three transcript variants which encode the same protein: the variant 1 NM_000403.3 encodes NP_000394.2, and the variant 2 NM_001008216.1 encodes NP_001008217.1, and the variant 3 NM_001127621.1 encodes NP OOl 121093.1. Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Gale orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Gale (NM_001261703.1 and NP_001248632.1), dog Gale (XM_003638903.3 and

XP_003638951.1), cattle Gale (NM_001206208.1 and NP_001193137.1), mouse Gale

( M_178389.3 and P_848476.1), and rat Gale ( M_080783.2 and NP_542961.2).

Representative sequences of Gale orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Gale antibodies suitable for detecting Gale protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody ABS591 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AP17410PU-N and TA334924 (OriGene), antibodies BP1-87066, BP2-03390, and BP2-59421 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab l 55997, ab210807 and ab l 55277

(AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Gale expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Gale expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL312852, RNAi product SR301721, and CRISPR products # KN306269 and # KN201561 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Gale molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Gale molecule of the present invention.

The term "Eroll" refers to endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase 1 alpha. Eroll is involved in disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It efficiently reoxidizes P4HB/PDI, the enzyme catalyzing protein disulfide formation, in order to allow P4HB to sustain additional rounds of disulfide formation. Following P4HB reoxidation, Eroll passes its electrons to molecular oxygen via FAD, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. Eroll is required for the proper folding of immunoglobulins. Eroll is involved in the release of the unfolded cholera toxin from reduced P4HB/PDI in case of infection by V.cholerae, thereby playing a role in retrotranslocation of the toxin. It also plays an important role in ER stress-induced, CHOP-dependent apoptosis by activating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor IP3R1. Diseases associated with Eroll include Cholera. Human Eroll protein has 468 amino acids and a molecular mass of 54393 Da.

The term "Eroll" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Eroll cDNA and human Eroll protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Eroll has one isoform (NM 014584.2 and NP 055399.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Eroll orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example monkey Eroll

(NM_001266764.1 and NP_001253693.1), dog Eroll (XM_547813.3 and XP_547813.2),

cattle Eroll (NM_001 103348.1 and NP_001096818.1), mouse Eroll (NM_015774.3 and NP_056589.1), and rat Eroll (NM_138528.1 and NP_612537.1). Representative sequences of Eroll orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti -Eroll antibodies suitable for detecting Eroll protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody MABT376 (EMD Millipore), antibodies TA31 1424 and TA309644 (OriGene), Cat # 3264 (Cell Signaling Technology), antibodies NB 100-2525, H00030001-M01, and NBP1-84799 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab 177156, ab 172954 and ab81959 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Eroll expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Eroll expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL313168, RNAi product

SR309340, and CRISPR products # KN203840 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Eroll molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Eroll molecule of the present invention.

The term "Cd44" refers to CD44 molecule (Indian blood group). Cd44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Cd44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis, and tumor metastasis. Altered expression or dysfunction of Cd44 causes numerous pathogenic phenotypes. Human Cd44 protein has 742 amino acids and a molecular mass of 81538 Da.

The term "Cd44" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Cd44 cDNA and human Cd44 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Cd44 isoforms include the longest isoform 1 (NM_000610.3 and NP_000601.3), and the shorter isoform 2 (NM_001001389.1 and NP 001001389.1, which lacks an in-frame coding exon, resulting isoform (2) lacks an internal region, as compared to isoform 1), 3 (NM_001001390.1 and P_001001390.1, which lacks multiple coding-exons but remains in-frame, resulting isoform (3) lacks an internal segment, as compared to isoform 1), 4 (NM_001001391.1 and NP_001001391.1,

which lacks multiple coding-exons but remains in-frame, resulting isoform (3) lacks an internal segment, as compared to isoform 1), 5 (NM_001001392.1 and NP_001001392.1, which lacks multiple coding-exons and leads to frame-shift, resulting isoform (5) has a distinct and shorter C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1), 6 (NM_001202555.1 and NP 001189484.1, which lacks multiple coding-exons and remains in-frame, resulting isoform (6) lacks an internal segment, as compared to isoform 1), 7 (NM_001202556.1 and NP 001189485.1, which lacks multiple coding-exons and remains in-frame, resulting isoform (7) lacks an internal segment, as compared to isoform 1), 8 (NM_001202557.1 and NP 001189486.1, which lacks multiple in-frame coding-exons and differs in the 3' UTR and coding sequence, resulting isoform (8) lacks an internal segment and has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Cd44 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Cd44 (XM_015114538.1 and XP_014970024.1; XM_001115390.3 and

XP_001115390.1; XM 015114531.1 and XP_014970017.1; XM_015114527.1 and XP_014970013.1; XM_015114537.1 and XP_014970023.1; XM_015114536.1 and XP_014970022.1; XM_015114535.1 and XP_014970021.1; XM_015114534.1 and XP_014970020.1; XM_015114530.1 and XP_014970016.1; XM_015114532.1 and XP_014970018.1; XM_015114533.1 and XP_014970019.1; XM_015114529.1 and XP_014970015.1; XM_015114528.1 and XP_014970014.1; XM_001115359.3 and XP_001115359.2); , dog Cd44 (NM_001197022.1 and NP_001183951.1), cattle Cd44

(NM_174013.3 and NP_776438.2), mouse Cd44 (NM_001039150.1 and P_001034239.1; NM 001039151.1 and NP_001034240.1 ; NM_001177785.1 and NP_001171256.1;

NM_001177786.1 and NP_001171257.1; NM_001177787.1 and NP_001171258.1;

NM_009851.2 and NP_033981.2), and rat Cd44 (NM_012924.2 and NP_037056.2).

Representative sequences of Cd44 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Cd44 antibodies suitable for detecting Gale protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody MAB4073 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AM00699FC-N and AM01076FC-T (OriGene), antibody Cat # 3578 (Cell Signaling Technology), antibodies NBPl-47386, BBA10, and AF6127 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab34229, and abl 19365 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Cd44 expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Cd44 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL314080, RNAi product #

SR300683, and CRISPR products # KN302920 and # KN202455 from Origene

Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Cd44 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Cd44 molecule of the present invention.

The term "Nadk" refers to NAD kinase. NADK catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to NAD to generate NADP, which in its reduced form acts as an electron donor for biosynthetic reactions (Lerner et al., 2001 [PubMed 1 1594753]). Human Nadk protein has 446 amino acids and a molecular mass of 49228 Da.

The term "Nadk" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Nadk cDNA and human Nadk protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Nadk isoforms include the longest isoform 1 encoded by two different transcript variants (NM_001 198993.1 , which encodes

NP_001 185922.1, and NM_023018.4, which encodes NP_075394.3), and the shorter isoform 2 (NM_001 198994.1 and NP_001 185923.1, which differs in the 5' UTR and CDS, resulting an isoform with two additional internal segments, as compared to isoform 1), 3 (NM_001 198995.1 and NP_001 185924.1, which lacks three exons from the 5' end and has an alternate 5' exon, resulting an isoform with a shorter and distinct N-terminus, as compared to isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Nadk orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Nadk (XM_015133300.1 and XP_014988786.1 ; XM_015133396.1 and XP_014988882.1 ;

XM_015133361.1 and XP_014988847.1), dog Nadk (XM_005620403.2 and

XP_005620460.1 ; XM_0141 13829.1 and XP_013969304.1), cattle Nadk

(XM_005217071.2 and XP_005217128.1 ; XM_010813336.2 and XP_01081 1638.2;

XM_015475143.1 and XP_015330629.1 ; XM_015475144.1 and XP_015330630.1), mouse Nadk (NM_001 159637.1 and NP_001 153109.1 ; NM_138671.2 and NP_619612.2), and rat Nadk (NM_001 109678.1 and NP_001 103148.1). Representative sequences of Nadk orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Nadk antibodies suitable for detecting Nadk protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies AF8009, H00065220-M01, and NBP2-58769 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab220484, ab l72675 and ab l28604 (AbCam,

Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Nadk expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Nadk expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TL303056, RNAi product SR312226, and CRISPR products #

KN200544 and # KN310701 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Nadk molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Nadk molecule of the present invention.

The term "Nampt" refers to nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. Nampt catalyzes the condensation of nicotinamide with 5 -phosphoribosyl-1 -pyrophosphate to yield nicotinamide mononucleotide, one step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Nampt belongs to the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRTase) family and is thought to be involved in many important biological processes, including metabolism, stress response and aging. Human Nampt protein has 491 amino acids and a molecular mass of 55521 Da.

The term "Nampt" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Nampt cDNA and human Nampt protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Nampt has one isoform (NM 005746.2 and NP_005737.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Nampt orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Nampt

(XM_015134665.1 and XP_014990151.1 ; XM_015134666.1 and XP_014990152.1), dog Nampt (XM_014120762.1 and XP_013976237.1), cattle Nampt (NM_001244141.1 and NP_001231070.1), mouse Nampt (NM_021524.2 and NP_067499.2), and rat Nampt (NM_177928.3 and NP_808789.1). Representative sequences of Nampt orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Nampt antibodies suitable for detecting Nampt protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies AM06217SU-N and AM09041PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat # 61 122 and Cat # 86634 (Cell Signaling Technology), antibodies NB 100-594, NBP2-23795, and NBP2-23667 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab45890, ab24149 and ab58640 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Nampt expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR

constructs for reducing Nampt expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR302662, RNAi product SR306835, and CRISPR products # KN310718 and # KN210707 from Origene

Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Nampt molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Nampt molecule of the present invention.

The term "Sox4" refers to SRY-box 4, a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. Sox4 is believed to act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins, such as syndecan binding protein (syntenin). It is also believed to function in the apoptosis pathway leading to cell death, tumorigenesis, and mediation of downstream effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) in bone development. It binds with high affinity to the T-cell enhancer motif 5-AACAAAG-3 motif. Human Sox4 protein has 474 amino acids and a molecular mass of 47263 Da.

The term "Sox4" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Sox4 cDNA and human Sox4 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Sox4 has one isoform (NM 003107.2 and NP 003098.1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Sox4 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Sox4

(XM_001098923.3 and XP_001098923.1), dog Sox4 (XM 005640161.2 and

XP_005640218.1), cattle Sox4 (NM_001078128.1 and NP_001071596.1), mouse Sox4 (NM_009238.2 and NP_033264.2), and rat Sox4 (NM_001271205.1 and

NP 001258134.1). Representative sequences of Sox4 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Sox4 antibodies suitable for detecting Sox4 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody AB5803 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AP22737PU-N and TA324704 (OriGene), antibodies NBPl-89506, H00006659-A01, and NBPl-50776 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab86809, ab80261 and ab70598 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Sox4 expression.

Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Sox4 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR315513, RNAi product # SR304530, and CRISPR products #

KN209139 and # KN316499 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Sox4 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Sox4 molecule of the present invention.

The term "Hdac5" refers to histone deacetylase 5. Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The Hdac5 protein belongs to the class II histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. It co-immunoprecipitates only with HDAC3 family member and might form multi-complex proteins. It also interacts with myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) proteins, resulting in repression of MEF2-dependent genes. Hdac5 gene is thought to be associated with colon cancer. Hdac5 is also involved in the MTA1 -mediated epigenetic regulation of ESR1 expression in breast cancer. Human Hdac5 protein has 1 122 amino acids and a molecular mass of 121978 Da.

The term "Hdac5" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Hdac5 cDNA and human Hdac5 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Hdac5 isoforms include a longer isoform 3 (NM_001015053.1 and NP_001015053.1), and a shorter isoform 1 (NM_005474.4 and NP_005465.2, which uses an alternate in-frame splice site compared to variant 3, resulting isoform (1) has the same N- and C-termini but is 1 aa shorter compared to isoform 3).

Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Hdac5 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Hdac5 (NM OO 1258098.1 and NP_001245027.1), dog Hdac5 (XM_0141 16523.1 and XP_013971998.1 ;

XM_0141 16525.1 and XP_013972000.1 ; XM_005624409.2 and XP_005624466.1 ;

XM_005624410.2 and XP_005624467.1 ; XM_0141 16524.1 and XP 013971999.1 ;

XM_0141 16521.1 and XP 013971996.1 ; XM_0141 16526.1 and XP_013972001.1), cattle Hdac5 (NM_001038025.2 and NP_0010331 14.2), mouse Hdac5 (NM_001077696.1 and

P_001071 164.1 ; M_001284248.1 and P_001271 177.1 ; M_001284249.1 and P_001271 178.1 ; M_001284250.1 and P_001271 179.1 ; M_010412.3 and

P_034542.3), and rat Hdac5 ( M_053450.1 and P_445902.1). Representative sequences of Hdac5 orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti-Hdac5 antibodies suitable for detecting Hdac5 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibody 07-045 (EMD Millipore), antibodies AP00274PU-N and AP01598PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat # 20458 (Cell Signaling Technology), antibodies BP2-22152, BP2-03988, and BP1-83436 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab l439, ab55403 and ab47283 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Hdac5 expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Hdac5 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR312492, RNAi product SR306740, and CRISPR products # KN208656 and # KN307620 from Origene Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Hdac5 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Hdac5 molecule of the present invention.

The term " Ptpnl 1" refers to protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1 1, a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Ptpnl 1 contains two tandem Src homology -2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. Ptpnl 1 is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in Ptpnl 1 are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Human Ptpnl 1 protein has 597 amino acids and a molecular mass of 68436 Da.

The term "Ptpnl 1" is intended to include fragments, variants (e.g., allelic variants), and derivatives thereof. Representative human Ptpnl 1 cDNA and human Ptpnl 1 protein sequences are well-known in the art and are publicly available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Human Ptpnl 1 isoforms include isoform 1

(NM_002834.4 and NP_002825.3), isoform 2 (NM_080601.2 and NP_542168.1, which

differs in the 3' UTR and coding sequence, resulting an isoform with a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1), and isoform 3 ( M_001330437.1 and

P 001317366.1, which uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, resulting an isoform with the same N- and C-termini but longer than isoform 1). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of Ptpnl 1 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, monkey Ptpnl 1 (NM 001261 109.1 and

NP_001248038.1), dog Ptpnl l (XM_005636250.1 and XP_005636307.1 ;

XM 005636251.1 and XP_005636308.1), cattle Ptpnl l (XM_010814056.2 and

XP_010812358.1 ; XM_002694590.5 and XP_002694636.2; XM_010814055.2 and XP_010812357.1), mouse Ptpnl l (NM_001 109992.1 and P_001 103462.1 ; M_01 1202.3 and NP_035332.1), and rat Ptpnl l (NM_001 177593.1 and P 001 171064.1 ;

NM_013088.2 and NP_037220.2). Representative sequences of Ptpnl l orthologs are presented below in Table 1.

Anti -Ptpnl 1 antibodies suitable for detecting Ptpnl 1 protein are well-known in the art and include, for example, antibodies AM06217SU-N and AM09041PU-N (OriGene), antibodies Cat # 61 122 and Cat # 86634 (Cell Signaling Technology), antibodies NB 100-594, NBP2-23795, and NBP2-23667 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), antibodies ab45890, ab24149 and ab58640 (AbCam, Cambridge, MA), etc. In addition, reagents are well-known for detecting Ptpnl l expression. Moreover, multiple siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR constructs for reducing Ptpnl 1 expression can be found in the commercial product lists of the above-referenced companies, such as shRNA product # TR302662, RNAi product SR306835, and CRISPR products # KN310718 and # KN210707 from Origene

Technologies (Rockville, MD). It is to be noted that the term can further be used to refer to any combination of features described herein regarding Ptpnl 1 molecules. For example, any combination of sequence composition, percentage identify, sequence length, domain structure, functional activity, etc. can be used to describe an Ptpnl 1 molecule of the present invention.

Unless otherwise specified here within, the terms "antibody" and "antibodies" broadly encompass naturally-occurring forms of antibodies (e.g. IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE) and recombinant antibodies, such as single-chain antibodies, chimeric and humanized antibodies and multi-specific antibodies, as well as fragments and derivatives of all of the foregoing, which fragments and derivatives have at least an antigenic binding site.

Antibody derivatives may comprise a protein or chemical moiety conjugated to an antibody.

In addition, intrabodies are well-known antigen-binding molecules having the characteristic of antibodies, but that are capable of being expressed within cells in order to bind and/or inhibit intracellular targets of interest (Chen et al. (1994) Human Gene Ther. 5:595-601). Methods are well-known in the art for adapting antibodies to target (e.g., inhibit) intracellular moieties, such as the use of single-chain antibodies (scFvs), modification of immunoglobulin VL domains for hyperstability, modification of antibodies to resist the reducing intracellular environment, generating fusion proteins that increase intracellular stability and/or modulate intracellular localization, and the like. Intracellular antibodies can also be introduced and expressed in one or more cells, tissues or organs of a multicellular organism, for example for prophylactic and/or therapeutic purposes (e.g., as a gene therapy) (see, at least PCT Pubis. WO 08/020079, WO 94/02610, WO 95/22618, and WO 03/014960; U.S. Pat. No. 7,004,940; Cattaneo and Biocca (1997) Intracellular Antibodies: Development and Applications (Landes and Springer- Verlag pubis.);

Kontermann (2004) Methods 34: 163-170; Cohen et al. (1998) Oncogene 17:2445-2456; Auf der Maur et al. (2001) FEBS Lett. 508:407-412; Shaki-Loewenstein et al. (2005) J. Immunol. Meth. 303 : 19-39).

The term "antibody" as used herein also includes an "antigen-binding portion" of an antibody (or simply "antibody portion"). The term "antigen-binding portion", as used herein, refers to one or more fragments of an antibody that retain the ability to specifically bind to an antigen (e.g., a biomarker polypeptide or fragment thereof). It has been shown that the antigen-binding function of an antibody can be performed by fragments of a full-length antibody. Examples of binding fragments encompassed within the term "antigen-binding portion" of an antibody include (i) a Fab fragment, a monovalent fragment consisting of the VL, VH, CL and CHI domains; (ii) a F(ab')2 fragment, a bivalent fragment comprising two Fab fragments linked by a disulfide bridge at the hinge region; (iii) a Fd fragment consisting of the VH and CHI domains; (iv) a Fv fragment consisting of the VL and VH domains of a single arm of an antibody, (v) a dAb fragment (Ward et al, (1989) Nature 341 :544-546), which consists of a VH domain; and (vi) an isolated complementarity determining region (CDR). Furthermore, although the two domains of the Fv fragment, VL and VH, are coded for by separate genes, they can be joined, using recombinant methods, by a synthetic linker that enables them to be made as a single protein chain in which the VL and VH regions pair to form monovalent polypeptides (known as single chain Fv (scFv); see e.g., Bird et al. (1988) Science 242:423-426; and Huston et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:5879-5883; and Osbourn et al. 1998, Nature

Biotechnology 16: 778). Such single chain antibodies are also intended to be encompassed within the term "antigen-binding portion" of an antibody. Any VH and VL sequences of specific scFv can be linked to human immunoglobulin constant region cDNA or genomic sequences, in order to generate expression vectors encoding complete IgG polypeptides or other isotypes. VH and VL can also be used in the generation of Fab, Fv or other fragments of immunoglobulins using either protein chemistry or recombinant DNA technology. Other forms of single chain antibodies, such as diabodies are also encompassed. Diabodies are bivalent, bispecific antibodies in which VH and VL domains are expressed on a single polypeptide chain, but using a linker that is too short to allow for pairing between the two domains on the same chain, thereby forcing the domains to pair with complementary domains of another chain and creating two antigen binding sites (see e.g. , Holliger et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:6444-6448; Poljak et al. (1994) Structure 2: 1121-1123).

Still further, an antibody or antigen-binding portion thereof may be part of larger immunoadhesion polypeptides, formed by covalent or noncovalent association of the antibody or antibody portion with one or more other proteins or peptides. Examples of such immunoadhesion polypeptides include use of the streptavidin core region to make a tetrameric scFv polypeptide (Kipriyanov et al. (1995) Human Antibodies and Hybridomas 6:93-101) and use of a cysteine residue, biomarker peptide and a C-terminal polyhistidine tag to make bivalent and biotinylated scFv polypeptides (Kipriyanov et al. (1994) Mol. Immunol. 31 : 1047-1058). Antibody portions, such as Fab and F(ab')2 fragments, can be prepared from whole antibodies using conventional techniques, such as papain or pepsin digestion, respectively, of whole antibodies. Moreover, antibodies, antibody portions and immunoadhesion polypeptides can be obtained using standard recombinant DNA techniques, as described herein.

Antibodies may be polyclonal or monoclonal; xenogeneic, allogeneic, or syngeneic; or modified forms thereof {e.g. humanized, chimeric, etc.). Antibodies may also be fully human. Preferably, antibodies of the invention bind specifically or substantially

specifically to a biomarker polypeptide or fragment thereof. The terms "monoclonal antibodies" and "monoclonal antibody composition", as used herein, refer to a population of antibody polypeptides that contain only one species of an antigen binding site capable of immunoreacting with a particular epitope of an antigen, whereas the term "polyclonal antibodies" and "polyclonal antibody composition" refer to a population of antibody polypeptides that contain multiple species of antigen binding sites capable of interacting with a particular antigen. A monoclonal antibody composition typically displays a single binding affinity for a particular antigen with which it immunoreacts.

Antibodies may also be "humanized," which is intended to include antibodies made by a non-human cell having variable and constant regions which have been altered to more closely resemble antibodies that would be made by a human cell. For example, by altering the non-human antibody amino acid sequence to incorporate amino acids found in human germline immunoglobulin sequences. The humanized antibodies of the invention may include amino acid residues not encoded by human germline immunoglobulin sequences (e.g., mutations introduced by random or site-specific mutagenesis in vitro or by somatic mutation in vivo), for example in the CDRs. The term "humanized antibody", as used herein, also includes antibodies in which CDR sequences derived from the germline of another mammalian species, such as a mouse, have been grafted onto human framework sequences.

The term "biomarker" refers to a measurable entity of the present invention that has been determined to be predictive of cancer therapy {e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) effects. Biomarkers can include, without limitation, nucleic acids {e.g., genomic nucleic acids and/or transcribed nucleic acids) and proteins, particularly those involved shown in Tables 1-9. Many biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 are also useful as therapeutic targets. In one embodiment, such targets are negative regulators of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity shown in Table 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, and/or positive regulators of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity shown in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8.

The terms "cancer" or "tumor" or "hyperproliferative" refer to the presence of cells possessing characteristics typical of cancer-causing cells, such as uncontrolled proliferation, immortality, metastatic potential, rapid growth and proliferation rate, and certain

characteristic morphological features. In some embodiments, such cells exhibit such characteristics in part or in full due to the expression and activity of immune checkpoint proteins, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and/or CTLA-4.

Cancer cells are often in the form of a tumor, but such cells may exist alone within an animal, or may be a non-tumorigenic cancer cell, such as a leukemia cell. As used

herein, the term "cancer" includes premalignant as well as malignant cancers. Cancers include, but are not limited to, B cell cancer, e.g., multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, the heavy chain diseases, such as, for example, alpha chain disease, gamma chain disease, and mu chain disease, benign monoclonal gammopathy, and immunocytic amyloidosis, melanomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, bronchus cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, urinary bladder cancer, brain or central nervous system cancer, peripheral nervous system cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, uterine or endometrial cancer, cancer of the oral cavity or pharynx, liver cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, biliary tract cancer, small bowel or appendix cancer, salivary gland cancer, thyroid gland cancer, adrenal gland cancer, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, cancer of hematologic tissues, and the like. Other non-limiting examples of types of cancers applicable to the methods encompassed by the present invention include human sarcomas and carcinomas, e.g., fibrosarcoma,

myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma,

angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, colon carcinoma, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, liver cancer, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, cervical cancer, bone cancer, brain tumor, testicular cancer, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma,

hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma; leukemias, e.g., acute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myelocytic leukemia (myeloblastic, promyelocytic, myelomonocytic, monocytic and erythroleukemia); chronic leukemia (chronic myelocytic (granulocytic) leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia); and polycythemia vera, lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's disease), multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and heavy chain disease. In some embodiments, cancers are epithlelial in nature and include but are not limited to, bladder cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, gynecologic cancers, renal cancer, laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer, head and neck cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, or skin cancer. In other embodiments, the cancer is breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, or colon cancer. In still other embodiments, the epithelial cancer is non-small-cell lung cancer, nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma (e.g., serous ovarian carcinoma), or breast carcinoma. The epithelial cancers may be characterized in various other ways including, but not limited to, serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, Brenner, or undifferentiated.

In certain embodiments, the cancer encompasses melanoma. The term "melanoma" as used herein, is generally meant to include cancers that develop from the pigment-containing cells, known as melanocytes, in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanomas typically occur in the skin but may rarely occur in the mouth, intestines, or eye. In women they most commonly occur on the legs, while in men they are most common on the back. Sometimes they develop from a mole with concerning changes including an increase in size, irregular edges, change in color, itchiness, or skin breakdown. Thus, the term

"melanoma" also includes cancers developing from these cells, tissues, and organs.

Melanomas are among the most dangerous forms of skin cancer and develop when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds) triggers gene mutations that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. The primary cause of melanoma is ultraviolet light (UV) exposure in those with low levels of skin pigment. Melanomas often resemble moles; some develop from moles. Those with many moles, a history of affected family members, and who have poor immune function are at greater risk. A number of rare genetic defects such as xeroderma pigmentosum also increase risk (Azoury and Lange, 2014 Surg Clin North Am. 2014 94:945-962).

Melanoma can be divided into different types, including, at least, lentigo maligna, lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma, mucosal melanoma, nodular melanoma, polypoid melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, amelanotic melanoma, soft-tissue melanoma, melanoma with small nevus-like cells, melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus, uveal melanoma, etc. (see James, et al., 2006 Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier, pp. 694-9).

Diagnosis is by biopsy of any concerning skin lesion, including, at least, shave (tangential) biopsy, punch biopsy, incisional and excisional biopsies, "optical" biopsies (e.g., by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)), fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy,

surgical lymph node biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, etc. In addition, visual inspection may also be used for diagnosis, such as a popular method for the signs and symptoms of melanoma as mnemonic "ABCDE": Asymmetrical skin lesion, Border of the lesion is irregular, Color: melanomas usually have multiple colors, Diameter: moles greater than 6 mm are more likely to be melanomas than smaller moles, and Enlarging: Enlarging or evolving. Another method as the "ugly duckling sign" is also known in the art (Mascaro and Mascaro, 1998 Arch Dermatol. 134: 1484-1485).

Treatment of melanoma includes surgery, chemotherapy (such as temozolomide, dacarbazine (also termed DTIC), etc.), radiation therapy, oncolytic virotherapy {e.g., see Forbes et al., 2013 Front. Genet. 4: 184), and immunotherapy {e.g., interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon, etc.). Targeted therapies {e.g., as in Maverakis et al., 2015 Acta Derm Venereol. 95: 516-524) may include: 1) adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using TILs immune cells (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes) isolated from a person's own melanoma tumor). Cells are grown in large numbers in a laboratory and returned to the patient after a treatment that temporarily reduces normal T cells in the patient's body. TIL therapy following

lymphodepletion can result in durable complete response in a variety of setups (Besser et al., 2010 Clin. Cancer Res. 16:2646-2655); and 2) adoptive transfer of genetically altered (expressing T cell receptors (TCRs)) autologous lymphocytes into patient's lymphocytes, where the altered lymphocytes recognize and bind to the surface of melanoma cells and kill them. Other therapies include, at least, B-Raf inhibitors (such as vemurafenib, see

Chapman et al., 2011 N. Engl. J. Med. 364:2507-2516) and ipilimumab (alone or in combination with dacarbazine, see, e.g., Robert et al. (2011) N. Engl. J. Med. 364:2517-2526).

The term "coding region" refers to regions of a nucleotide sequence comprising codons which are translated into amino acid residues, whereas the term "noncoding region" refers to regions of a nucleotide sequence that are not translated into amino acids {e.g., 5' and 3' untranslated regions).

The term "complementary" refers to the broad concept of sequence

complementarity between regions of two nucleic acid strands or between two regions of the same nucleic acid strand. It is known that an adenine residue of a first nucleic acid region is capable of forming specific hydrogen bonds ("base pairing") with a residue of a second nucleic acid region which is antiparallel to the first region if the residue is thymine or uracil. Similarly, it is known that a cytosine residue of a first nucleic acid strand is capable of base pairing with a residue of a second nucleic acid strand which is antiparallel to the first strand if the residue is guanine. A first region of a nucleic acid is complementary to a second region of the same or a different nucleic acid if, when the two regions are arranged in an antiparallel fashion, at least one nucleotide residue of the first region is capable of base pairing with a residue of the second region. Preferably, the first region comprises a first portion and the second region comprises a second portion, whereby, when the first and second portions are arranged in an antiparallel fashion, at least about 50%, and preferably at least about 75%, at least about 90%, or at least about 95% of the nucleotide residues of the first portion are capable of base pairing with nucleotide residues in the second portion. More preferably, all nucleotide residues of the first portion are capable of base pairing with nucleotide residues in the second portion.

The terms "conjoint therapy" and "combination therapy," as used herein, refer to the administration of two or more therapeutic substances, e.g., combinations of anti-immune checkpoint therapies, multiple inhibitors of an immune checkpoint of interest, combinations of immune checkpoint therapy with an inhibitor of PBRM1 (ARID2, BRD7, PHF10,

KDM6A, ARIDIA, ARIDIB, BRGl, BRM, CRB l, EGFR, and the like), and combinations thereof. The different agents comprising the combination therapy may be administered concomitant with, prior to, or following the administration of one or more therapeutic agents.

The term "control" refers to any reference standard suitable to provide a comparison to the expression products in the test sample. In one embodiment, the control comprises obtaining a "control sample" from which expression product levels are detected and compared to the expression product levels from the test sample. Such a control sample may comprise any suitable sample, including but not limited to a sample from a control cancer patient (can be stored sample or previous sample measurement) with a known outcome; normal tissue or cells isolated from a subject, such as a normal patient or the cancer patient, cultured primary cells/tissues isolated from a subject such as a normal subject or the cancer patient, adjacent normal cells/tissues obtained from the same organ or body location of the cancer patient, a tissue or cell sample isolated from a normal subject, or a primary cells/tissues obtained from a depository. In another preferred embodiment, the control may comprise a reference standard expression product level from any suitable source, including but not limited to housekeeping genes, an expression product level range from normal tissue (or other previously analyzed control sample), a previously determined expression

product level range within a test sample from a group of patients, or a set of patients with a certain outcome (for example, survival for one, two, three, four years, etc.) or receiving a certain treatment (for example, standard of care cancer therapy). It will be understood by those of skill in the art that such control samples and reference standard expression product levels can be used in combination as controls in the methods of the present invention. In one embodiment, the control may comprise normal or non-cancerous cell/tissue sample. In another preferred embodiment, the control may comprise an expression level for a set of patients, such as a set of cancer patients, or for a set of cancer patients receiving a certain treatment, or for a set of patients with one outcome versus another outcome. In the former case, the specific expression product level of each patient can be assigned to a percentile level of expression, or expressed as either higher or lower than the mean or average of the reference standard expression level. In another preferred embodiment, the control may comprise normal cells, cells from patients treated with combination chemotherapy, and cells from patients having benign cancer. In another embodiment, the control may also comprise a measured value for example, average level of expression of a particular gene in a population compared to the level of expression of a housekeeping gene in the same population. Such a population may comprise normal subjects, cancer patients who have not undergone any treatment (i.e., treatment naive), cancer patients undergoing standard of care therapy, or patients having benign cancer. In another preferred embodiment, the control comprises a ratio transformation of expression product levels, including but not limited to determining a ratio of expression product levels of two genes in the test sample and comparing it to any suitable ratio of the same two genes in a reference standard;

determining expression product levels of the two or more genes in the test sample and determining a difference in expression product levels in any suitable control; and determining expression product levels of the two or more genes in the test sample, normalizing their expression to expression of housekeeping genes in the test sample, and comparing to any suitable control. In particularly preferred embodiments, the control comprises a control sample which is of the same lineage and/or type as the test sample. In another embodiment, the control may comprise expression product levels grouped as percentiles within or based on a set of patient samples, such as all patients with cancer. In one embodiment a control expression product level is established wherein higher or lower levels of expression product relative to, for instance, a particular percentile, are used as the basis for predicting outcome. In another preferred embodiment, a control expression

product level is established using expression product levels from cancer control patients with a known outcome, and the expression product levels from the test sample are compared to the control expression product level as the basis for predicting outcome. As demonstrated by the data below, the methods of the invention are not limited to use of a specific cut-point in comparing the level of expression product in the test sample to the control.

The "copy number" of a biomarker nucleic acid refers to the number of DNA sequences in a cell (e.g., germline and/or somatic) encoding a particular gene product. Generally, for a given gene, a mammal has two copies of each gene. The copy number can be increased, however, by gene amplification or duplication, or reduced by deletion. For example, germline copy number changes include changes at one or more genomic loci, wherein said one or more genomic loci are not accounted for by the number of copies in the normal complement of germline copies in a control (e.g., the normal copy number in germline DNA for the same species as that from which the specific germline DNA and corresponding copy number were determined). Somatic copy number changes include changes at one or more genomic loci, wherein said one or more genomic loci are not accounted for by the number of copies in germline DNA of a control (e.g., copy number in germline DNA for the same subject as that from which the somatic DNA and corresponding copy number were determined).

The term "immune cell" refers to cells that play a role in the immune response.

Immune cells are of hematopoietic origin, and include lymphocytes, such as B cells and T cells; natural killer cells; myeloid cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and granulocytes.

Conventional T cells, also known as Tconv or Teffs, have effector functions (e.g., cytokine secretion, cytotoxic activity, anti-self-recognization, and the like) to increase immune responses by virtue of their expression of one or more T cell receptors. Tcons or Teffs are generally defined as any T cell population that is not a Treg and include, for example, naive T cells, activated T cells, memory T cells, resting Tcons, or Tcons that have differentiated toward, for example, the Thl or Th2 lineages. In some embodiments, Teffs are a subset of non-Treg T cells. In some embodiments, Teffs are CD4+ Teffs or CD8+ Teffs, such as CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (e.g., ThO, Thl, Tfh, or Thl 7) and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. As described further herein, cytotoxic T cells are CD8+ T lymphocytes. "Naive Tcons" are CD4+ T cells that have differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully underwent a positive and negative processes of central selection in a thymus, but have not yet been activated by exposure to an antigen. Naive Tcons are commonly characterized by surface expression of L-selectin (CD62L), absence of activation markers such as CD25, CD44 or CD69, and absence of memory markers such as CD45RO. Naive Tcons are therefore believed to be quiescent and non-dividing, requiring interleukin-7 (TL-7) and interleukin-15 (IL- 15) for homeostatic survival (see, at least WO 2010/101870). The presence and activity of such cells are undesired in the context of suppressing immune responses. Unlike Tregs, Tcons are not anergic and can proliferate in response to antigen-based T cell receptor activation (Lechler et al. (2001) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Biol. Sci. 356:625-637). In tumors, exhausted cells can present hallmarks of anergy.

The term "immunotherapy" or "immunotherapies" refer to any treatment that uses certain parts of a subject's immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. The subject's own immune system is stimulated (or suppressed), with or without administration of one or more agent for that purpose. Immunotherapies that are designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are referred to as "activation immunotherapies." Immunotherapies that are designed to reduce or suppress an immune response are referred to as "suppression immunotherapies." Any agent believed to have an immune system effect on the genetically modified transplanted cancer cells can be assayed to determine whether the agent is an immunotherapy and the effect that a given genetic modification has on the modulation of immune response. In some embodiments, the immunotherapy is cancer cell-specific. In some embodiments, immunotherapy can be "untargeted," which refers to administration of agents that do not selectively interact with immune system cells, yet modulates immune system function. Representative examples of untargeted therapies include, without limitation, chemotherapy, gene therapy, and radiation therapy.

Immunotherapy is one form of targeted therapy that may comprise, for example, the use of cancer vaccines and/or sensitized antigen presenting cells. For example, an oncolytic virus is a virus that is able to infect and lyse cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed, making them potentially useful in cancer therapy. Replication of oncolytic viruses both facilitates tumor cell destruction and also produces dose amplification at the tumor site. They may also act as vectors for anticancer genes, allowing them to be specifically delivered to the tumor site. The immunotherapy can involve passive immunity for short-term protection of a host, achieved by the administration of pre-formed antibody directed against a cancer antigen or disease antigen (e.g., administration of a monoclonal antibody, optionally linked to a chemotherapeutic agent or toxin, to a tumor antigen). For example, anti-VEGF and mTOR inhibitors are known to be effective in treating renal cell carcinoma. Immunotherapy can also focus on using the cytotoxic lymphocyte-recognized epitopes of cancer cell lines. Alternatively, antisense polynucleotides, ribozymes, RNA interference molecules, triple helix polynucleotides and the like, can be used to selectively modulate biomolecules that are linked to the initiation, progression, and/or pathology of a tumor or cancer.

Immunotherapy can involve passive immunity for short-term protection of a host, achieved by the administration of pre-formed antibody directed against a cancer antigen or disease antigen (e.g., administration of a monoclonal antibody, optionally linked to a chemotherapeutic agent or toxin, to a tumor antigen). Immunotherapy can also focus on using the cytotoxic lymphocyte-recognized epitopes of cancer cell lines. Alternatively, antisense polynucleotides, ribozymes, RNA interference molecules, triple helix

polynucleotides and the like, can be used to selectively modulate biomolecules that are linked to the initiation, progression, and/or pathology of a tumor or cancer.

In some embodiments, immunotherapy comprises inhibitors of one or more immune checkpoints. The term "immune checkpoint" refers to a group of molecules on the cell surface of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells that fine-tune immune responses by down-modulating or inhibiting an anti-tumor immune response. Immune checkpoint proteins are well-known in the art and include, without limitation, CTLA-4, PD-1, VISTA, B7-H2, B7-H3, PD-L1, B7-H4, B7-H6, ICOS, HVEM, PD-L2, CD160, gp49B, PIR-B, KIR family receptors, TEVI-1, TIM-3, TIM-4, LAG-3, GITR, 4-IBB, OX-40, BTLA, SIRPalpha (CD47), CD48, 2B4 (CD244), B7.1, B7.2, ILT-2, ILT-4, TIGIT, HHLA2, butyrophilins, and A2aR (see, for example, WO 2012/177624). The term further encompasses biologically active protein fragment, as well as nucleic acids encoding full-length immune checkpoint proteins and biologically active protein fragments thereof. In some

embodiment, the term further encompasses any fragment according to homology descriptions provided herein. In one embodiment, the immune checkpoint is PD-1.

Immune checkpoints and their sequences are well-known in the art and

representative embodiments are described below. For example, the term "PD-1" refers to a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily that functions as a coinhibitory receptor having PD-L1 and PD-L2 as known ligands. PD-1 was previously identified using a subtraction cloning based approach to select for genes upregulated during TCR-induced

activated T cell death. PD-1 is a member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family of molecules based on its ability to bind to PD-L1. Like CTLA-4, PD-1 is rapidly induced on the surface of T-cells in response to anti-CD3 (Agata et al. 25 (1996) Int. Immunol. 8:765). In contrast to CTLA-4, however, PD-1 is also induced on the surface of B-cells (in response to anti-IgM). PD-1 is also expressed on a subset of thymocytes and myeloid cells (Agata et al. (1996) supra; Nishimura et al. (1996) Int. Immunol. 8:773).

The nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of a representative human PD-1 biomarker is available to the public at the GenBank database under NM 005018.2 and NP_005009.2 (see also Ishida et al. (1992) 20 EMBO J 11 :3887; Shinohara et al. (1994) Genomics 23 :704; U.S. Patent 5,698,520). PD-1 has an extracellular region containing immunoglobulin superfamily domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular region including an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITEVI) (Ishida et al. (1992) EMBO J. 11 :3887; Shinohara et al. (1994) Genomics 23 :704; and U.S. Patent 5,698,520) and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM). These features also define a larger family of polypeptides, called the immunoinhibitory receptors, which also includes gp49B, PIR-B, and the killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs) (Vivier and Daeron (1997) Immunol. Today 18:286). It is often assumed that the tyrosyl phosphorylated ITIM and ITSM motif of these receptors interacts with SH2-domain containing phosphatases, which leads to inhibitory signals. A subset of these immunoinhibitory receptors bind to MHC polypeptides, for example the KIRs, and CTLA4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2. It has been proposed that there is a phylogenetic relationship between the MHC and B7 genes (Henry et al. (1999) Immunol. Today 20(6):285-8). Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of PD-1 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, mouse PD-1 (NM_008798.2 and NP_032824.1), rat PD-1 (NM_001106927.1 and

NP_001100397.1), dog PD-1 (XM_543338.3 and XP_543338.3), cow PD-1

(NM_001083506.1 and NP_001076975.1), and chicken PD-1 (XM_422723.3 and

XP_422723.2).

PD-1 polypeptides are inhibitory receptors capable of transmitting an inhibitory signal to an immune cell to thereby inhibit immune cell effector function, or are capable of promoting costimulation (e.g., by competitive inhibition) of immune cells, e.g., when present in soluble, monomeric form. Preferred PD-1 family members share sequence identity with PD-1 and bind to one or more B7 family members, e.g., B7-1, B7-2, PD-1 ligand, and/or other polypeptides on antigen presenting cells.

The term "PD-1 activity," includes the ability of a PD-1 polypeptide to modulate an inhibitory signal in an activated immune cell, e.g., by engaging a natural PD-1 ligand on an antigen presenting cell. Modulation of an inhibitory signal in an immune cell results in modulation of proliferation of, and/or cytokine secretion by, an immune cell. Thus, the term "PD-1 activity" includes the ability of a PD-1 polypeptide to bind its natural ligand(s), the ability to modulate immune cell costimulatory or inhibitory signals, and the ability to modulate the immune response.

The term "PD-1 ligand" refers to binding partners of the PD-1 receptor and includes both PD-Ll (Freeman et al. (2000j J. Exp. Med. 192: 1027-1034) and PD-L2 (Latchman et al. (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:261). At least two types of human PD-1 ligand polypeptides exist. PD-1 ligand proteins comprise a signal sequence, and an IgV domain, an IgC domain, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. Both PD-Ll (See Freeman et al. (2000) for sequence data) and PD-L2 (See Latchman et al. (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:261 for sequence data) are members of the B7 family of polypeptides. Both PD-Ll and PD-L2 are expressed in placenta, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and heart. Only PD-L2 is expressed in pancreas, lung and liver, while only PD-Ll is expressed in fetal liver. Both PD-1 ligands are upregulated on activated monocytes and dendritic cells, although PD-Ll expression is broader. For example, PD-Ll is known to be constitutively expressed and upregulated to higher levels on murine hematopoietic cells {e.g., T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and bone marrow-derived mast cells) and non-hematopoietic cells {e.g., endothelial, epithelial, and muscle cells), whereas PD-L2 is inducibly expressed on DCs, macrophages, and bone marrow-derived mast cells (see Butte et al. (2007) Immunity 27: 111).

PD-1 ligands comprise a family of polypeptides having certain conserved structural and functional features. The term "family" when used to refer to proteins or nucleic acid molecules, is intended to mean two or more proteins or nucleic acid molecules having a common structural domain or motif and having sufficient amino acid or nucleotide sequence homology, as defined herein. Such family members can be naturally or non-naturally occurring and can be from either the same or different species. For example, a family can contain a first protein of human origin, as well as other, distinct proteins of human origin or alternatively, can contain homologues of non-human origin. Members of a family may also have common functional characteristics. PD-1 ligands are members of the B7 family of polypeptides. The term "B7 family" or "B7 polypeptides" as used herein

includes costimulatory polypeptides that share sequence homology with B7 polypeptides, e.g., with B7-1, B7-2, B7h (Swallow et al. (1999) Immunity 11 :423), and/or PD-1 ligands {e.g., PD-L1 or PD-L2). For example, human B7-1 and B7-2 share approximately 26% amino acid sequence identity when compared using the BLAST program at NCBI with the default parameters (Blosum62 matrix with gap penalties set at existence 11 and extension 1 (See the NCBI website). The term B7 family also includes variants of these polypeptides which are capable of modulating immune cell function. The B7 family of molecules share a number of conserved regions, including signal domains, IgV domains and the IgC domains. IgV domains and the IgC domains are art-recognized Ig superfamily member domains. These domains correspond to structural units that have distinct folding patterns called Ig folds. Ig folds are comprised of a sandwich of two β sheets, each consisting of anti-parallel β strands of 5-10 amino acids with a conserved disulfide bond between the two sheets in most, but not all, IgC domains of Ig, TCR, and MHC molecules share the same types of sequence patterns and are called the CI -set within the Ig superfamily. Other IgC domains fall within other sets. IgV domains also share sequence patterns and are called V set domains. IgV domains are longer than IgC domains and contain an additional pair of β strands.

Preferred B7 polypeptides are capable of providing costimulatory or inhibitory signals to immune cells to thereby promote or inhibit immune cell responses. For example, B7 family members that bind to costimulatory receptors increase T cell activation and proliferation, while B7 family members that bind to inhibitory receptors reduce

costimulation. Moreover, the same B7 family member may increase or decrease T cell costimulation. For example, when bound to a costimulatory receptor, PD-1 ligand can induce costimulation of immune cells or can inhibit immune cell costimulation, e.g., when present in soluble form. When bound to an inhibitory receptor, PD-1 ligand polypeptides can transmit an inhibitory signal to an immune cell. Preferred B7 family members include B7-1, B7-2, B7h, PD-L1 or PD-L2 and soluble fragments or derivatives thereof. In one embodiment, B7 family members bind to one or more receptors on an immune cell, e.g., CTLA4, CD28, ICOS, PD-1 and/or other receptors, and, depending on the receptor, have the ability to transmit an inhibitory signal or a costimulatory signal to an immune cell, preferably a T cell.

Modulation of a costimulatory signal results in modulation of effector function of an immune cell. Thus, the term "PD-1 ligand activity" includes the ability of a PD-1 ligand polypeptide to bind its natural receptor(s) (e.g. PD-1 or B7-1), the ability to modulate immune cell costimulatory or inhibitory signals, and the ability to modulate the immune response.

The term "PD-Ll" refers to a specific PD-1 ligand. Two forms of human PD-Ll molecules have been identified. One form is a naturally occurring PD-Ll soluble polypeptide, i.e., having a short hydrophilic domain and no transmembrane domain, and is referred to herein as PD-Ll S. The second form is a cell-associated polypeptide, i.e., having a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain, referred to herein as PD-LIM. The nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of representative human PD-Ll biomarkers regarding PD-LIM are also available to the public at the GenBank database under M O 14143.3 and

P 054862.1. PD-Ll proteins comprise a signal sequence, and an IgV domain and an IgC domain. The signal sequence of PD-Ll S is from about amino acid 1 to about amino acid 18. The signal sequence of PD-LIM is from about amino acid 1 to about amino acid 18. The IgV domain of PD-Ll S is from about amino acid 19 to about amino acid 134 and the IgV domain of PD-LIM is from about amino acid 19 to about amino acid 134. The IgC domain of PD-Ll S is from about amino acid 135 to about amino acid 227 and the IgC domain of PD-LIM is from about amino acid 135 to about amino acid 227. The

hydrophilic tail of the PD-Ll exemplified in PD-Ll S comprises a hydrophilic tail shown from about amino acid 228 to about amino acid 245. The PD-Ll polypeptide of PD-LIM comprises a transmembrane domain from about amino acids 239 to about amino acid 259 of PD-LIM and a cytoplasmic domain shown from about amino acid 260 to about amino acid 290 of PD-LIM. In addition, nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of PD-Ll orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, mouse PD-Ll ( M_021893.3 and P_068693.1), rat PD-Ll (NM_001 191954.1 and P_001 178883.1), dog PD-Ll (XM_541302.3 and XP_541302.3), cow PD-Ll ( M_001 163412.1 and

P_001 156884.1), and chicken PD-Ll (XM_42481 1.3 and XP_42481 1.3).

The term "PD-L2" refers to another specific PD-1 ligand. PD-L2 is a B7 family member expressed on various APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages and bone-marrow derived mast cells (Zhong et al. (2007) Eur. J. Immunol. 37:2405). APC-expressed PD-L2 is able to both inhibit T cell activation through ligation of PD-1 and costimulate T cell activation, through a PD-1 independent mechanism (Shin et al. (2005) J. Exp. Med. 201 : 1531). In addition, ligation of dendritic cell-expressed PD-L2 results in enhanced dendritic cell cytokine expression and survival (Radhakrishnan et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 37: 1827; Nguyen et al. (2002) J. Exp. Med. 196: 1393). The nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of representative human PD-L2 biomarkers are well-known in the art and are also available to the public at the GenBank database under NM 025239.3 and

NP 079515.2. PD-L2 proteins are characterized by common structural elements. In some embodiments, PD-L2 proteins include at least one or more of the following domains: a signal peptide domain, a transmembrane domain, an IgV domain, an IgC domain, an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. For example, amino acids 1-19 of PD-L2 comprises a signal sequence. As used herein, a "signal sequence" or "signal peptide" serves to direct a polypeptide containing such a sequence to a lipid bilayer, and is cleaved in secreted and membrane bound polypeptides and includes a peptide containing about 15 or more amino acids which occurs at the N-terminus of secretory and membrane bound polypeptides and which contains a large number of hydrophobic amino acid residues. For example, a signal sequence contains at least about 10-30 amino acid residues, preferably about 15- 25 amino acid residues, more preferably about 18-20 amino acid residues, and even more preferably about 19 amino acid residues, and has at least about 35-65%, preferably about 38-50%, and more preferably about 40-45% hydrophobic amino acid residues (e.g., valine, leucine, isoleucine or phenylalanine). In another embodiment, amino acid residues 220-243 of the native human PD-L2 polypeptide and amino acid residues 201-243 of the mature polypeptide comprise a transmembrane domain. As used herein, the term "transmembrane domain" includes an amino acid sequence of about 15 amino acid residues in length which spans the plasma membrane. More preferably, a transmembrane domain includes about at least 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, or 45 amino acid residues and spans the plasma membrane. Transmembrane domains are rich in hydrophobic residues, and typically have an alpha-helical structure. In a preferred embodiment, at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95% or more of the amino acids of a transmembrane domain are hydrophobic, e.g., leucines, isoleucines, tyrosines, or tryptophans. Transmembrane domains are described in, for example, Zagotta, W. N. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 19: 235-263. In still another embodiment, amino acid residues 20-120 of the native human PD-L2 polypeptide and amino acid residues 1-101 of the mature polypeptide comprise an IgV domain. Amino acid residues 121- 219 of the native human PD-L2 polypeptide and amino acid residues 102-200 of the mature polypeptide comprise an IgC domain. As used herein, IgV and IgC domains are recognized in the art as Ig superfamily member domains. These domains correspond to structural units that have distinct folding patterns called Ig folds. Ig folds are comprised of a sandwich of two β sheets, each consisting of antiparallel (3 strands of 5-10 amino acids with a conserved disulfide bond between the two sheets in most, but not all, domains. IgC domains of Ig, TCR, and MHC molecules share the same types of sequence patterns and are called the CI set within the Ig superfamily. Other IgC domains fall within other sets. IgV domains also share sequence patterns and are called V set domains. IgV domains are longer than C-domains and form an additional pair of strands. In yet another embodiment, amino acid residues 1-219 of the native human PD-L2 polypeptide and amino acid residues 1-200 of the mature polypeptide comprise an extracellular domain. As used herein, the term

"extracellular domain" represents the N-terminal amino acids which extend as a tail from the surface of a cell. An extracellular domain of the present invention includes an IgV domain and an IgC domain, and may include a signal peptide domain. In still another embodiment, amino acid residues 244-273 of the native human PD-L2 polypeptide and amino acid residues 225-273 of the mature polypeptide comprise a cytoplasmic domain. As used herein, the term "cytoplasmic domain" represents the C-terminal amino acids which extend as a tail into the cytoplasm of a cell. In addition, nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of PD-L2 orthologs in organisms other than humans are well-known and include, for example, mouse PD-L2 ( M_021396.2 and P_067371.1), rat PD-L2

( M_001107582.2 and P_001101052.2), dog PD-L2 (XM_847012.2 and XP_852105.2), cow PD-L2 (XM_586846.5 and XP_586846.3), and chimpanzee PD-L2 (XM_001140776.2 and XP_001140776.1).

The term "PD-L2 activity," "biological activity of PD-L2," or "functional activity of PD-L2," refers to an activity exerted by a PD-L2 protein, polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule on a PD-L2-responsive cell or tissue, or on a PD- L2 polypeptide binding partner, as determined in vivo, or in vitro, according to standard techniques. In one embodiment, a PD-L2 activity is a direct activity, such as an association with a PD-L2 binding partner. As used herein, a "target molecule" or "binding partner" is a molecule with which a PD-L2 polypeptide binds or interacts in nature, such that PD-L2-mediated function is achieved. In an exemplary embodiment, a PD-L2 target molecule is the receptor RGMb. Alternatively, a PD-L2 activity is an indirect activity, such as a cellular signaling activity mediated by interaction of the PD- L2 polypeptide with its natural binding partner {i.e., physiologically relevant interacting macromolecule involved in an immune function or other biologically relevant function), e.g., RGMb. The biological activities of PD-L2 are described herein.

For example, the PD-L2 polypeptides of the present invention can have one or more of the following activities: 1) bind to and/or modulate the activity of the receptor RGMb, PD-1, or other PD-L2 natural binding partners, 2) modulate intra-or intercellular signaling, 3) modulate activation of immune cells, e.g. , T lymphocytes, and 4) modulate the immune response of an organism, e.g., a mouse or human organism.

"Anti-immune checkpoint therapy" refers to the use of agents that inhibit immune checkpoint nucleic acids and/or proteins. Inhibition of one or more immune checkpoints can block or otherwise neutralize inhibitory signaling to thereby upregulate an immune response in order to more efficaciously treat cancer. Exemplary agents useful for inhibiting immune checkpoints include antibodies, small molecules, peptides, peptidomimetics, natural ligands, and derivatives of natural ligands, that can either bind and/or inactivate or inhibit immune checkpoint proteins, or fragments thereof; as well as RNA interference, antisense, nucleic acid aptamers, etc. that can downregulate the expression and/or activity of immune checkpoint nucleic acids, or fragments thereof. Exemplary agents for upregulating an immune response include antibodies against one or more immune checkpoint proteins block the interaction between the proteins and its natural receptor(s); a non-activating form of one or more immune checkpoint proteins (e.g. , a dominant negative polypeptide); small molecules or peptides that block the interaction between one or more immune checkpoint proteins and its natural receptor(s); fusion proteins (e.g. the

extracellular portion of an immune checkpoint inhibition protein fused to the Fc portion of an antibody or immunoglobulin) that bind to its natural receptor(s); nucleic acid molecules that block immune checkpoint nucleic acid transcription or translation; and the like. Such agents can directly block the interaction between the one or more immune checkpoints and its natural receptor(s) (e.g., antibodies) to prevent inhibitory signaling and upregulate an immune response. Alternatively, agents can indirectly block the interaction between one or more immune checkpoint proteins and its natural receptor(s) to prevent inhibitory signaling and upregulate an immune response. For example, a soluble version of an immune checkpoint protein ligand such as a stabilized extracellular domain can binding to its receptor to indirectly reduce the effective concentration of the receptor to bind to an appropriate ligand. In one embodiment, anti-PD-1 antibodies, anti-PD-Ll antibodies, and/or anti-PD-L2 antibodies, either alone or in combination, are used to inhibit immune checkpoints. These embodiments are also applicable to specific therapy against particular immune checkpoints, such as the PD-1 pathway (e.g., anti-PD-1 pathway therapy, otherwise known as PD-1 pathway inhibitor therapy).

The term "immune response" includes T cell mediated and/or B cell mediated immune responses. Exemplary immune responses include T cell responses, e.g., cytokine production and cellular cytotoxicity. In addition, the term immune response includes immune responses that are indirectly effected by T cell activation, e.g., antibody production (humoral responses) and activation of cytokine responsive cells, e.g., macrophages.

The term "immunotherapeutic agent" can include any molecule, peptide, antibody or other agent which can stimulate a host immune system to generate an immune response to a tumor or cancer in the subject. Various immunotherapeutic agents are useful in the compositions and methods described herein.

The term "inhibit" includes the decrease, limitation, or blockage, of, for example a particular action, function, or interaction. In some embodiments, cancer is "inhibited" if at least one symptom of the cancer is alleviated, terminated, slowed, or prevented. As used herein, cancer is also "inhibited" if recurrence or metastasis of the cancer is reduced, slowed, delayed, or prevented.

The term "interaction", when referring to an interaction between two molecules, refers to the physical contact (e.g., binding) of the molecules with one another. Generally, such an interaction results in an activity (which produces a biological effect) of one or both of said molecules.

An "isolated protein" refers to a protein that is substantially free of other proteins, cellular material, separation medium, and culture medium when isolated from cells or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. An "isolated" or "purified" protein or biologically active portion thereof is substantially free of cellular material or other contaminating proteins from the cell or tissue source from which the antibody, polypeptide, peptide or fusion protein is derived, or substantially free from chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. The language "substantially free of cellular material" includes preparations of a biomarker polypeptide or fragment thereof, in which the protein is separated from cellular components of the cells from which it is isolated or recombinantly produced. In one embodiment, the language "substantially free of cellular material" includes preparations of a biomarker protein or fragment thereof, having less than about 30% (by dry weight) of non-biomarker protein (also referred to herein as a "contaminating protein"), more

preferably less than about 20% of non-biomarker protein, still more preferably less than about 10%) of non-biomarker protein, and most preferably less than about 5% non-biomarker protein. When antibody, polypeptide, peptide or fusion protein or fragment thereof, e.g., a biologically active fragment thereof, is recombinantly produced, it is also preferably substantially free of culture medium, i.e., culture medium represents less than about 20%, more preferably less than about 10%>, and most preferably less than about 5% of the volume of the protein preparation.

As used herein, the term "isotype" refers to the antibody class (e.g., IgM, IgGl, IgG2C, and the like) that is encoded by heavy chain constant region genes.

The "normal" level of expression of a biomarker is the level of expression of the biomarker in cells of a subject, e.g., a human patient, not afflicted with a cancer. An "over-expression" or "significantly higher level of expression" of a biomarker refers to an expression level in a test sample that is greater than the standard error of the assay employed to assess expression, and is preferably at least 10%>, and more preferably 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 times or more higher than the expression activity or level of the biomarker in a control sample (e.g., sample from a healthy subject not having the biomarker associated disease) and preferably, the average expression level of the biomarker in several control samples. A "significantly lower level of expression" of a biomarker refers to an expression level in a test sample that is at least 10%, and more preferably 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 times or more lower than the expression level of the biomarker in a control sample (e.g., sample from a healthy subject not having the biomarker associated disease) and preferably, the average expression level of the biomarker in several control samples.

An "over-expression" or "significantly higher level of expression" of a biomarker refers to an expression level in a test sample that is greater than the standard error of the assay employed to assess expression, and is preferably at least 10%>, and more preferably 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 times or more higher than the expression activity or level of the biomarker in a control sample (e.g., sample from a healthy subject not having the biomarker associated disease) and

preferably, the average expression level of the biomarker in several control samples. A "significantly lower level of expression" of a biomarker refers to an expression level in a test sample that is at least 10%, and more preferably 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 times or more lower than the expression level of the biomarker in a control sample (e.g., sample from a healthy subject not having the biomarker associated disease) and preferably, the average expression level of the biomarker in several control samples.

The term "predictive" includes the use of a biomarker nucleic acid and/or protein status, e.g., over- or under- activity, emergence, expression, growth, remission, recurrence or resistance of tumors before, during or after therapy, for determining the likelihood of response of a cancer to modulators of T-cell mediated cytotoxicity alone or in combination with immunotherapy (e.g., treatment with a combination of an inhibitor of at least one biomarker described herein and an immunotherapy, such as an immune checkpoint inhibitor). Such predictive use of the biomarker may be confirmed by, e.g., (1) increased or decreased copy number (e.g., by FISH, FISH plus SKY, single-molecule sequencing, e.g., as described in the art at least at J. Biotechnol., 86:289-301, or qPCR), overexpression or underexpression of a biomarker nucleic acid (e.g., by ISH, Northern Blot, or qPCR), increased or decreased biomarker protein (e.g., by IHC), or increased or decreased activity, e.g., in more than about 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 100%, or more of assayed human cancers types or cancer samples; (2) its absolute or relatively modulated presence or absence in a biological sample, e.g., a sample containing tissue, whole blood, serum, plasma, buccal scrape, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, stool, or bone marrow, from a subject, e.g. a human, afflicted with cancer; (3) its absolute or relatively modulated presence or absence in clinical subset of patients with cancer (e.g., those responding to a particular modulator of T-cell mediated cytotoxicity alone or in combination with immunotherapy or those developing resistance thereto).

The terms "prevent," "preventing," "prevention," "prophylactic treatment," and the like refer to reducing the probability of developing a disease, disorder, or condition in a subject, who does not have, but is at risk of or susceptible to developing a disease, disorder, or condition.

The term "cancer response," "response to immunotherapy," or "response to modulators of T-cell mediated cytotoxicity/immunotherapy combination therapy" relates to any response of the hyperproliferative disorder (e.g., cancer) to an cancer agent, such as a modulator of T-cell mediated cytotoxicity, and an immunotherapy, preferably to a change in tumor mass and/or volume after initiation of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy.

Hyperproliferative disorder response may be assessed, for example for efficacy or in a neoadjuvant or adjuvant situation, where the size of a tumor after systemic intervention can be compared to the initial size and dimensions as measured by CT, PET, mammogram, ultrasound or palpation. Responses may also be assessed by caliper measurement or pathological examination of the tumor after biopsy or surgical resection. Response may be recorded in a quantitative fashion like percentage change in tumor volume or in a qualitative fashion like "pathological complete response" (pCR), "clinical complete remission" (cCR), "clinical partial remission" (cPR), "clinical stable disease" (cSD), "clinical progressive disease" (cPD) or other qualitative criteria. Assessment of

hyperproliferative disorder response may be done early after the onset of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy, e.g., after a few hours, days, weeks or preferably after a few months. A typical endpoint for response assessment is upon termination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or upon surgical removal of residual tumor cells and/or the tumor bed. This is typically three months after initiation of neoadjuvant therapy. In some embodiments, clinical efficacy of the therapeutic treatments described herein may be determined by measuring the clinical benefit rate (CBR). The clinical benefit rate is measured by determining the sum of the percentage of patients who are in complete remission (CR), the number of patients who are in partial remission (PR) and the number of patients having stable disease (SD) at a time point at least 6 months out from the end of therapy. The shorthand for this formula is CBR=CR+PR+SD over 6 months. In some embodiments, the CBR for a particular cancer therapeutic regimen is at least 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%), 80%), 85%), or more. Additional criteria for evaluating the response to cancer therapies are related to "survival," which includes all of the following: survival until mortality, also known as overall survival (wherein said mortality may be either irrespective of cause or tumor related); "recurrence-free survival" (wherein the term recurrence shall include both localized and distant recurrence); metastasis free survival; disease free survival (wherein the term disease shall include cancer and diseases associated therewith). The length of said survival may be calculated by reference to a defined start point (e.g., time of diagnosis or start of treatment) and end point (e.g., death, recurrence or metastasis). In addition, criteria for efficacy of treatment can be expanded to include response to chemotherapy, probability of survival, probability of metastasis within a given time period, and probability of tumor recurrence. For example, in order to determine appropriate threshold values, a particular cancer therapeutic regimen can be administered to a population of subjects and the outcome can be correlated to biomarker measurements that were determined prior to administration of any cancer therapy. The outcome measurement may be pathologic response to therapy given in the neoadjuvant setting. Alternatively, outcome measures, such as overall survival and disease-free survival can be monitored over a period of time for subjects following cancer therapy for which biomarker measurement values are known. In certain embodiments, the doses administered are standard doses known in the art for cancer therapeutic agents. The period of time for which subjects are monitored can vary. For example, subjects may be monitored for at least 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 months. Biomarker measurement threshold values that correlate to outcome of a cancer therapy can be determined using well-known methods in the art, such as those described in the Examples section.

The term "resistance" refers to an acquired or natural resistance of a cancer sample or a mammal to a cancer therapy ( i.e., being nonresponsive to or having reduced or limited response to the therapeutic treatment), such as having a reduced response to a therapeutic treatment by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100%, or more, such 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 15-fold, 20-fold or more, or any range in between, inclusive. The reduction in response can be measured by comparing with the same cancer sample or mammal before the resistance is acquired, or by comparing with a different cancer sample or a mammal that is known to have no resistance to the therapeutic treatment. A typical acquired resistance to chemotherapy is called "multidrug resistance." The multidrug resistance can be mediated by P-glycoprotein or can be mediated by other mechanisms, or it can occur when a mammal is infected with a multi-drug-resistant microorganism or a combination of microorganisms. The determination of resistance to a therapeutic treatment is routine in the art and within the skill of an ordinarily skilled clinician, for example, can be measured by cell proliferative assays and cell death assays as described herein as "sensitizing." In some embodiments, the term "reverses resistance" means that the use of a second agent in combination with a primary cancer therapy (e.g., chemotherapeutic or radiation therapy) is able to produce a significant decrease in tumor volume at a level of statistical significance (e.g., p<0.05) when compared to tumor volume of untreated tumor in the circumstance where the primary cancer therapy (e.g., chemotherapeutic or radiation therapy) alone is unable to produce a statistically significant decrease in tumor volume compared to tumor volume of untreated tumor. This generally applies to tumor volume measurements made at a time when the untreated tumor is growing log rhythmically.

The terms "response" or "responsiveness" refers to an cancer response, e.g. in the sense of reduction of tumor size or inhibiting tumor growth. The terms can also refer to an improved prognosis, for example, as reflected by an increased time to recurrence, which is the period to first recurrence censoring for second primary cancer as a first event or death without evidence of recurrence, or an increased overall survival, which is the period from treatment to death from any cause. To respond or to have a response means there is a beneficial endpoint attained when exposed to a stimulus. Alternatively, a negative or detrimental symptom is minimized, mitigated or attenuated on exposure to a stimulus. It will be appreciated that evaluating the likelihood that a tumor or subject will exhibit a favorable response is equivalent to evaluating the likelihood that the tumor or subject will not exhibit favorable response (i.e., will exhibit a lack of response or be non-responsive).

An "RNA interfering agent" as used herein, is defined as any agent which interferes with or inhibits expression of a target biomarker gene by RNA interference (RNAi). Such RNA interfering agents include, but are not limited to, nucleic acid molecules including RNA molecules which are homologous to the target biomarker gene of the present invention, or a fragment thereof, short interfering RNA (siRNA), and small molecules which interfere with or inhibit expression of a target biomarker nucleic acid by RNA interference (RNAi).

"RNA interference (RNAi)" is an evolutionally conserved process whereby the expression or introduction of RNA of a sequence that is identical or highly similar to a target biomarker nucleic acid results in the sequence specific degradation or specific post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcribed from that targeted gene (see Coburn and Cullen (2002) J. Virol. 76:9225), thereby inhibiting expression of the target biomarker nucleic acid. In one embodiment, the RNA is double stranded RNA (dsRNA). This process has been described in plants, invertebrates, and mammalian cells. In nature, RNAi is initiated by the dsRNA-specific endonuclease Dicer, which promotes processive cleavage of long dsRNA into double-stranded fragments termed siRNAs. siRNAs are incorporated into a protein complex that recognizes and cleaves target mRNAs. RNAi can also be initiated by introducing nucleic acid molecules, e.g., synthetic siRNAs or RNA interfering agents, to inhibit or silence the expression of target biomarker nucleic acids. As used herein, "inhibition of target biomarker nucleic acid expression" or "inhibition of marker gene expression" includes any decrease in expression or protein activity or level of the target biomarker nucleic acid or protein encoded by the target biomarker nucleic acid. The decrease may be of at least 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%), 95%) or 99%) or more as compared to the expression of a target biomarker nucleic acid or the activity or level of the protein encoded by a target biomarker nucleic acid which has not been targeted by an RNA interfering agent.

In addition to RNAi, genome editing can be used to modulate the copy number or genetic sequence of a biomarker of interest, such as constitutive or induced knockout or mutation of a biomarker of interest. For example, the CRISPR-Cas system can be used for precise editing of genomic nucleic acids (e.g., for creating non-functional or null mutations). In such embodiments, the CRISPR guide RNA and/or the Cas enzyme may be expressed. For example, a vector containing only the guide RNA can be administered to an animal or cells transgenic for the Cas9 enzyme. Similar strategies may be used (e.g., designer zinc finger, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) or homing

meganucleases). Such systems are well-known in the art (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 8,697,359; Sander and Joung (2014) Nat. Biotech. 32:347-355; Hale et al. (2009) Cell

139:945-956; Karginov and Hannon (2010) Mol. Cell 37:7; U.S. Pat. Publ. 2014/0087426 and 2012/0178169; Boch et al. (2011) Nat. Biotech. 29: 135-136; Boch et al. (2009) Science 326: 1509-1512; Moscou and Bogdanove (2009) Science 326: 1501; Weber et al. (2011) PLoS One 6:el9722; Li et al. (2011) Nucl. Acids Res. 39:6315-6325; Zhang et al. (2011) Nat. Biotech. 29: 149-153; Miller et al. (2011) Nat. Biotech. 29: 143-148; Lin et al. (2014) Nucl. Acids Res. 42:e47). Such genetic strategies can use constitutive expression systems or inducible expression systems according to well-known methods in the art.

The term "sample" used for detecting or determining the presence or level of at least one biomarker is typically brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, whole blood, plasma, serum, saliva, urine, stool (e.g., feces), tears, and any other bodily fluid (e.g., as described above under the definition of "body fluids"), or a tissue sample (e.g., biopsy) such as a small intestine, colon sample, or surgical resection tissue. In certain instances, the method of the present invention further comprises obtaining the sample from the individual prior to detecting or determining the presence or level of at least one marker in the sample.

The term "sensitize" means to alter cancer cells or tumor cells in a way that allows for more effective treatment of the associated cancer with a cancer therapy (e.g., anti-immune checkpoint, chemotherapeutic, and/or radiation therapy). In some embodiments, normal cells are not affected to an extent that causes the normal cells to be unduly injured by the therapies. An increased sensitivity or a reduced sensitivity to a therapeutic treatment is measured according to a known method in the art for the particular treatment and methods described herein below, including, but not limited to, cell proliferative assays (Tanigawa N, Kern D H, Kikasa Y, Morton D L, Cancer Res 1982; 42: 2159-2164), cell death assays (Weisenthal L M, Shoemaker R H, Marsden J A, Dill P L, Baker J A, Moran E M, Cancer Res 1984; 94: 161-173; Weisenthal L M, Lippman M E, Cancer Treat Rep 1985; 69: 615-632; Weisenthal L M, In: Kaspers G J L, Pieters R, Twentyman P R, Weisenthal L M, Veerman A J P, eds. Drug Resistance in Leukemia and Lymphoma. Langhorne, P A: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993 : 415-432; Weisenthal L M, Contrib Gynecol Obstet 1994; 19: 82-90). The sensitivity or resistance may also be measured in animal by measuring the tumor size reduction over a period of time, for example, 6 month for human and 4-6 weeks for mouse. A composition or a method sensitizes response to a therapeutic treatment if the increase in treatment sensitivity or the reduction in resistance is 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%,

90%, 95%, 100%, or more, such 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 15-fold, 20-fold or more, or any range in between, inclusive, compared to treatment sensitivity or resistance in the absence of such composition or method. The determination of sensitivity or resistance to a therapeutic treatment is routine in the art and within the skill of an ordinarily skilled clinician. It is to be understood that any method described herein for enhancing the efficacy of a cancer therapy can be equally applied to methods for sensitizing hyperproliferative or otherwise cancerous cells (e.g., resistant cells) to the cancer therapy.

"Short interfering RNA" (siRNA), also referred to herein as "small interfering RNA" is defined as an agent which functions to inhibit expression of a target biomarker nucleic acid, e.g., by RNAi. An siRNA may be chemically synthesized, may be produced by in vitro transcription, or may be produced within a host cell. In one embodiment, siRNA is a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecule of about 15 to about 40 nucleotides in length, preferably about 15 to about 28 nucleotides, more preferably about 19 to about 25

nucleotides in length, and more preferably about 19, 20, 21, or 22 nucleotides in length, and may contain a 3' and/or 5' overhang on each strand having a length of about 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 nucleotides. The length of the overhang is independent between the two strands, i.e., the length of the overhang on one strand is not dependent on the length of the overhang on the second strand. Preferably the siRNA is capable of promoting RNA interference through degradation or specific post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of the target messenger RNA (mRNA).

In another embodiment, an siRNA is a small hairpin (also called stem loop) RNA (shRNA). In one embodiment, these shRNAs are composed of a short {e.g., 19-25 nucleotide) antisense strand, followed by a 5-9 nucleotide loop, and the analogous sense strand. Alternatively, the sense strand may precede the nucleotide loop structure and the antisense strand may follow. These shRNAs may be contained in plasmids, retroviruses, and lentiviruses and expressed from, for example, the pol III U6 promoter, or another promoter {see, e.g., Stewart, et al. (2003) RNA Apr;9(4):493-501 incorporated by reference herein).

RNA interfering agents, e.g., siRNA molecules, may be administered to a patient having or at risk for having cancer, to inhibit expression of a biomarker gene which is overexpressed in cancer and thereby treat, prevent, or inhibit cancer in the subject.

The term "small molecule" is a term of the art and includes molecules that are less than about 1000 molecular weight or less than about 500 molecular weight. In one embodiment, small molecules do not exclusively comprise peptide bonds. In another embodiment, small molecules are not oligomeric. Exemplary small molecule compounds which can be screened for activity include, but are not limited to, peptides,

peptidomimetics, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, small organic molecules {e.g., polyketides) (Cane et al. (1998) Science 282:63), and natural product extract libraries. In another embodiment, the compounds are small, organic non-peptidic compounds. In a further embodiment, a small molecule is not biosynthetic.

The term "specific binding" refers to antibody binding to a predetermined antigen. Typically, the antibody binds with an affinity (KD) of approximately less than 10"7 M, such as approximately less than 10"8 M, 10"9 M or 10"10 M or even lower when determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology in a BIACORE® assay instrument using an antigen of interest as the analyte and the antibody as the ligand, and binds to the predetermined antigen with an affinity that is at least 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, 3.0-, 3.5-, 4.0-, 4.5-, 5.0-, 6.0-, 7.0-, 8.0-, 9.0-, or 10.0-fold or greater than its affinity for binding to a non-specific antigen (e.g., BSA, casein) other than the predetermined antigen or a closely-related antigen. The phrases "an antibody recognizing an antigen" and "an antibody specific for an antigen" are used interchangeably herein with the term "an antibody which binds specifically to an antigen." Selective binding is a relative term referring to the ability of an antibody to discriminate the binding of one antigen over another.

The term "subject" refers to any healthy animal, mammal or human, or any animal, mammal or human afflicted with a cancer, e.g., brain, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, liver, breast, prostate, and/or colorectal cancers, melanoma, multiple myeloma, and the like. The term "subject" is interchangeable with "patient."

The term "survival" includes all of the following: survival until mortality, also known as overall survival (wherein said mortality may be either irrespective of cause or tumor related); "recurrence-free survival" (wherein the term recurrence shall include both localized and distant recurrence); metastasis free survival; disease free survival (wherein the term disease shall include cancer and diseases associated therewith). The length of said survival may be calculated by reference to a defined start point (e.g. time of diagnosis or start of treatment) and end point (e.g. death, recurrence or metastasis). In addition, criteria for efficacy of treatment can be expanded to include response to chemotherapy, probability of survival, probability of metastasis within a given time period, and probability of tumor recurrence.

The term "synergistic effect" refers to the combined effect of two or more cancer agents (e.g., a modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 and immunotherapy

combination therapy) can be greater than the sum of the separate effects of the cancer agents/therapies alone.

The term "T cell" includes CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. The term T cell also includes both T helper 1 type T cells and T helper 2 type T cells. The term "antigen presenting cell" includes professional antigen presenting cells (e.g., B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells), as well as other antigen presenting cells (e.g., keratinocytes, endothelial cells, astrocytes, fibroblasts, and oligodendrocytes).

The term "therapeutic effect" refers to a local or systemic effect in animals, particularly mammals, and more particularly humans, caused by a pharmacologically active substance. The term thus means any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure,

mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease or in the enhancement of desirable physical or mental development and conditions in an animal or human. The phrase "therapeutically-effective amount" means that amount of such a substance that produces some desired local or systemic effect at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to any treatment. In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound will depend on its therapeutic index, solubility, and the like. For example, certain compounds discovered by the methods of the present invention may be administered in a sufficient amount to produce a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to such treatment.

The terms "therapeutically-effective amount" and "effective amount" as used herein means that amount of a compound, material, or composition comprising a compound of the present invention which is effective for producing some desired therapeutic effect in at least a sub-population of cells in an animal at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to any medical treatment. Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of subject compounds may be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell cultures or experimental animals, e.g., for determining the LD50 and the ED50. Compositions that exhibit large therapeutic indices are preferred. In some embodiments, the LD50 (lethal dosage) can be measured and can be, for example, at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 200%, 300%, 400%, 500%, 600%, 700%, 800%, 900%, 1000% or more reduced for the agent relative to no administration of the agent. Similarly, the ED50 (i.e., the concentration which achieves a half-maximal inhibition of symptoms) can be measured and can be, for example, at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 200%, 300%, 400%, 500%, 600%, 700%, 800%, 900%, 1000% or more increased for the agent relative to no administration of the agent. Also, Similarly, the ICso (i.e., the concentration which achieves half-maximal cytotoxic or cytostatic effect on cancer cells) can be measured and can be, for example, at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 200%, 300%, 400%, 500%, 600%, 700%, 800%, 900%, 1000% or more increased for the agent relative to no administration of the agent. In some embodiments, cancer cell growth in an assay can be inhibited by at least about 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or even 100%. In another embodiment, at least about a 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%,

60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or even 100% decrease in a solid malignancy can be achieved.

A "transcribed polynucleotide" or "nucleotide transcript" is a polynucleotide (e.g. an mRNA, hnRNA, a cDNA, or an analog of such RNA or cDNA) which is complementary to or homologous with all or a portion of a mature mRNA made by transcription of a biomarker nucleic acid and normal post-transcriptional processing (e.g. splicing), if any, of the RNA transcript, and reverse transcription of the RNA transcript.

As used herein, the term "unresponsiveness" includes refractivity of cancer cells to therapy or refractivity of therapeutic cells, such as immune cells, to stimulation, e.g., stimulation via an activating receptor or a cytokine. Unresponsiveness can occur, e.g., because of exposure to immunosuppressants or exposure to high doses of antigen. As used herein, the term "anergy" or "tolerance" includes refractivity to activating receptor-mediated stimulation. Such refractivity is generally antigen-specific and persists after exposure to the tolerizing antigen has ceased. For example, anergy in T cells (as opposed to unresponsiveness) is characterized by lack of cytokine production, e.g., IL-2. T cell anergy occurs when T cells are exposed to antigen and receive a first signal (a T cell receptor or CD-3 mediated signal) in the absence of a second signal (a costimulatory signal). Under these conditions, reexposure of the cells to the same antigen (even if reexposure occurs in the presence of a costimulatory polypeptide) results in failure to produce cytokines and, thus, failure to proliferate. Anergic T cells can, however, proliferate if cultured with cytokines (e.g., IL-2). For example, T cell anergy can also be observed by the lack of IL-2 production by T lymphocytes as measured by ELISA or by a proliferation assay using an indicator cell line. Alternatively, a reporter gene construct can be used. For example, anergic T cells fail to initiate IL-2 gene transcription induced by a heterologous promoter under the control of the 5' IL-2 gene enhancer or by a multimer of the API sequence that can be found within the enhancer (Kang et al. (1992) Science 257: 1134).

There is a known and definite correspondence between the amino acid sequence of a particular protein and the nucleotide sequences that can code for the protein, as defined by the genetic code (shown below). Likewise, there is a known and definite correspondence between the nucleotide sequence of a particular nucleic acid and the amino acid sequence encoded by that nucleic acid, as defined by the genetic code.

GENETIC CODE

Alanine (Ala, A) GCA, GCC, GCG, GCT

Arginine (Arg, R) AGA, ACG, CGA, CGC, CGG, CGT

Asparagine (Asn, N) AAC, AAT

Aspartic acid (Asp, D) GAC, GAT

Cysteine (Cys, C) TGC, TGT

Glutamic acid (Glu, E) GAA, GAG

Glutamine (Gin, Q) CAA, CAG

Glycine (Gly, G) GGA, GGC, GGG, GGT

Histidine (His, H) CAC, CAT

Isoleucine (He, I) ATA, ATC, ATT

Leucine (Leu, L) CTA, CTC, CTG, CTT, TTA, TTG

Lysine (Lys, K) AAA, AAG

Methionine (Met, M) ATG

Phenylalanine (Phe, Έ) TTC, TTT

Proline (Pro, P) CCA, CCC, CCG, CCT

Serine (Ser, S) AGC, AGT, TCA, TCC, TCG, TCT

Threonine (Thr, T) ACA, ACC, ACG, ACT

Tryptophan (Trp, W) TGG

Tyrosine (Tyr, Y) TAC, TAT

Valine (Val, V) GTA, GTC, GTG, GTT

Termination signal (end) TAA, TAG, TGA

An important and well-known feature of the genetic code is its redundancy, whereby, for most of the amino acids used to make proteins, more than one coding nucleotide triplet may be employed (illustrated above). Therefore, a number of different nucleotide sequences may code for a given amino acid sequence. Such nucleotide sequences are considered functionally equivalent since they result in the production of the same amino acid sequence in all organisms (although certain organisms may translate some sequences more efficiently than they do others). Moreover, occasionally, a methylated variant of a purine or pyrimidine may be found in a given nucleotide sequence. Such methylations do not affect the coding relationship between the trinucleotide codon and the corresponding amino acid.

In view of the foregoing, the nucleotide sequence of a DNA or RNA encoding a biomarker nucleic acid (or any portion thereof) can be used to derive the polypeptide amino acid sequence, using the genetic code to translate the DNA or RNA into an amino acid sequence. Likewise, for polypeptide amino acid sequence, corresponding nucleotide sequences that can encode the polypeptide can be deduced from the genetic code (which, because of its redundancy, will produce multiple nucleic acid sequences for any given amino acid sequence). Thus, description and/or disclosure herein of a nucleotide sequence which encodes a polypeptide should be considered to also include description and/or disclosure of the amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence. Similarly, description and/or disclosure of a polypeptide amino acid sequence herein should be considered to also include description and/or disclosure of all possible nucleotide sequences that can encode the amino acid sequence.

Finally, nucleic acid and amino acid sequence information for the loci and biomarkers of the present invention (e.g., biomarkers listed in Tables 1 and 2) are well-known in the art and readily available on publicly available databases, such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For example, exemplary nucleic acid and amino acid sequences derived from publicly available sequence databases are provided below.

Table 1


Aktl MGI:87986 11651 NM_009652.3

Aktl MGI:87986 11651 NP_001159366.1

Aktl MGI:87986 11651 NP_001318036.1

Aktl MGI:87986 11651 NP_033782.1

AKT1 HGNC:391 207 NP_005154.2

AKT1 HGNC:391 207 NM_001014431.1

Alg8 MGI:2141959 381903 NM_199035.2

Alg8 MGI:2141959 381903 NP_950200.2

ALG8 HGNC:23161 79053 NP_076984.2

ALG8 HGNC:23161 79053 NM_001007027.2

Ankrdll MGI:1924337 77087 NM_001081379.2

Ankrdll MGI:1924337 77087 NP_001074848.2

Ankrdll MGI:1924337 77087 NR_037865.1

ANKRD11 HGNC:21316 29123 XP_016878674.1

ANKRD11 HGNC:21316 29123 NM_001256183.1

Ankrd46 MG 1:1916089 68839 NM_175134.4

Ankrd46 MG 1:1916089 68839 NP_780343.1

ANKRD46 HGNC:27229 157567 NP_001257306.1

ANKRD46 HGNC:27229 157567 NM_001270378.1

Aprt MGI:88061 11821 NM_009698.2

Aprt MGI:88061 11821 NP_033828.2

APRT HGNC:626 353 NP_000476.1

APRT HGNC:626 353 NM_001030018.1

Ar MGI:88064 11835 NM_013476.4

Ar MG 1:88064 11835 NP_038504.1

AR HGNC:644 367 NP_000035.2

AR HGNC:644 367 NM_001348061.1

Arf3 MGI:99432 11842 NM_007478.3

Arf3 MGI:99432 11842 NP_031504.1

ARF3 HGNC:654 377 XP_005268913.1

ARF3 HGNC:654 377 NM_001659.2

Arf6 MGI:99435 11845 NM_007481.3

Arf6 MGI:99435 11845 NP_031507.1

ARF6 HGNC:659 382 NP_001654.1

ARF6 HGNC:659 382 NM_001663.3

Arhgaplla MGI:2444300 228482 NM_181416.3

Arhgaplla MGI:2444300 228482 NP_852081.2

ARHGAP11A HGNC:15783 9824 NP_001273409.1

ARHGAP11A HGNC:15783 9824 NM_014783.5

Arhgap21 MGI:1918685 71435 NM_001081364.3

Arhgap21 MGI:1918685 71435 NM_001128084.2

Arhgap21 MGI:1918685 71435 NP_001074833.3

Arhgap21 MGI:1918685 71435 NP_001121556.2

ARHGAP21 HGNC:23725 57584 NP_065875.3

ARHGAP21 HGNC:23725 57584 NM_020824.3

Aridla MGI:1935147 93760 NM_001080819.1

Aridla MGI:1935147 93760 NP_001074288.1

ARID1A HGNC:11110 8289 NP_624361.1

ARID1A HGNC:11110 8289 NM_018450.4

Arid2 MGI:1924294 77044 NM_175251.4

Arid2 MGI:1924294 77044 NP_780460.3

ARID2 HGNC:18037 196528 XP_006719335.1 ARID2 HGNC:18037 196528 NM_001347839.1

Arid4a MGI:2444354 238247 X J30651S834.3

Arid4a MGI:2444354 238247 NP_001074664.1

ARID4A HGNC:9885 5926 XP_016877052.1

ARID4A HGNC:9885 5926 NM_002892.3

Asnsdl MGI:1917646 70396 NM_001290984.1

Asnsdl MGI:1917646 70396 NM_133728.3

Asnsdl MGI:1917646 70396 NP_001277913.1

Asnsdl MGI:1917646 70396 NP_598489.2

ASNSD1 HGNC:24910 54529 XP_016859870.1

ASNSD1 HGNC:24910 54529 NM_019048.2

Asxl2 MGI:1922552 75302 NG_032909.1

Asxl2 MGI:1922552 75302 NM_001270988.1

Asxl2 MGI:1922552 75302 NM_172421.5

Asxl2 MGI:1922552 75302 NP_001257917.1

Asxl2 MGI:1922552 75302 NP_766009.2

ASXL2 HGNC:23805 55252 XP_011531253.1

ASXL2 HGNC:23805 55252 NM_018263.5

Atgl3 MGI:1196429 51897 NM_145528.3

Atgl3 MGI:1196429 51897 NP_663503.1

ATG13 HGNC:29091 9776 NP_001192050.1

ATG13 HGNC:29091 9776 NM_001346324.1

Atgl6ll MGI:1924290 77040 NM_001205391.1

Atgl6ll MGI:1924290 77040 NM_001205392.1

Atgl6ll MGI:1924290 77040 NM_029846.4

Atgl6ll MGI:1924290 77040 NP_001192320.1

Atgl6ll MGI:1924290 77040 NP_001192321.1

Atgl6ll MGI:1924290 77040 NP_084122.2

ATG16L1 HGNC:21498 55054 NP_060444.3

ATG16L1 HGNC:21498 55054 NM_198890.2

Atg5 MGI:1277186 11793 NM_001314013.1

Atg5 MGI:1277186 11793 NM_053069.6

Atg5 MGI:1277186 11793 NP_001300942.1

Atg5 MGI:1277186 11793 NP_444299.1

ATG5 HGNC:589 9474 NP_001273037.1

ATG5 HGNC:589 9474 NM_001286111.1

Atp6vlh MGI:1914864 108664 NM_001310442.1

Atp6vlh MGI:1914864 108664 NM_133826.5

Atp6vlh MG 1:1914864 108664 NP_001297371.1

Atp6vlh MG 1:1914864 108664 NP_598587.2

ATP6V1H HGNC:18303 51606 NP_057025.2

ATP6V1H HGNC:18303 51606 NM_015941.3

Atr MG 1:108028 245000 NM_019864.1

Atr MG 1:108028 245000 NP_063917.1

ATR HGNC:882 545 XP_011511226.1

ATR HGNC:882 545 NM_001184.3

Batf2 MGI:1921731 74481 NM_028967.1

Batf2 MGI:1921731 74481 NP_083243.1

BATF2 HGNC:25163 116071 NP_001287737.1

BATF2 HGNC:25163 116071 NM_138456.3

Becnl MGI:1891828 56208 NM_019584.3

Becnl MGI:1891828 56208 NP_062530.2 BECN1 HGNC:1034 8678 XP_011523723.1

BECN1 HGNC:1034 8678 NM_003766.4

Birc2 MGI:1197009 11797 NM_001291503.1

Birc2 MGI:1197009 11797 NM_007465.3

Birc2 MGI:1197009 11797 NP_001278432.1

Birc2 MGI:1197009 11797 NP_031491.2

BIRC2 HGNC:590 329 NP_001243095.1

BIRC2 HGNC:590 329 NM_001166.4

Boll MGI:1922638 75388 NM_001113367.1

Boll MGI:1922638 75388 NM_029267.3

Boll MGI:1922638 75388 NP_001106838.1

Boll MGI:1922638 75388 NP_083543.2

BOLL HGNC:14273 66037 XP_011509994.1

BOLL HGNC:14273 66037 NM_197970.2

Bptf MG 1:2444008 207165 NM_176850.2

Bptf MGI:2444008 207165 NP_789820.2

BPTF HGNC:3581 2186 XP_005257209.1

BPTF HGNC:3581 2186 NM_182641.3

Brd7 MGI:1349766 26992 NM_012047.2

Brd7 MGI:1349766 26992 NP_036177.1

BRD7 HGNC:14310 29117 NP_001167455.1

BRD7 HGNC:14310 29117 NM_013263.4

Brinp2 MGI:2443333 240843 X _006496836.1

Brinp2 MGI:2443333 240843 NP_997466.2

BRINP2 HGNC:13746 57795 NP_066988.1

BRINP2 HGNC:13746 57795 NM_021165.3

Brwd3 MGI:3029414 382236 NM_001081477.1

Brwd3 MGI:3029414 382236 NP_001074946.1

BRWD3 HGNC:17342 254065 XP_016884873.1

BRWD3 HGNC:17342 254065 NM_153252.4

BC030336 MGI:2446240 233812 X _0Q6507689.2

BC030336 MGI:2446240 233812 NP_001158052.1

C16orf52 HGNC:27087 730094 NP_001158051.1

C16orf52 HGNC:27087 730094 NM_173501.1

C330007P06Rik MGI:1924894 77644 NM_029951.1

C330007P06Rik MGI:1924894 77644 NP_084227.1

CXorf56 HGNC:26239 63932 NP_001164041.1

CXorf56 HGNC:26239 63932 NM_022101.3

C330027C09Rik MGI:2146335 224171 NM_172616.2

C330027C09Rik MGI:2146335 224171 NP_766204.2

KIAA1524 HGNC:29302 57650 NP_065941.2

KIAA1524 HGNC:29302 57650 NM_020890.2

Calr MGI:88252 12317 NM_007591.3

Calr MGI:88252 12317 NP_031617.1

CALR HGNC:1455 811 NP_004334.1

CALR HGNC:1455 811 NM_004343.3

Carml MGI:1913208 59035 NM_021531.6

Carml MGI:1913208 59035 NM_153141.1

Carml MGI:1913208 59035 NP_067506.2

Carml MGI:1913208 59035 NP_694781.1

CARM1 HGNC:23393 10498 XP_011525940.1

CARM1 HGNC:23393 10498 NM_199141.1 Ccdcl34 MGI:1923707 76457 NM_001326588.1

Ccdcl34 MGI:1923707 76457 NM_172428.2

Ccdcl34 MGI:1923707 76457 NP_001313517.1

Ccdcl34 MGI:1923707 76457 NP_766016.2

Ccdcl34 MGI:1923707 76457 NF .37170.1

CCDC134 HGNC:26185 79879 NP_001291726.1

CCDC134 HGNC:26185 79879 NM_024821.3

Ccdcl37 MGI:1914541 67291 NM_152807.3

Ccdcl37 MGI:1914541 67291 NP_690020.1

CCDC137 HGNC:33451 339230 XP_016880062.1

CCDC137 HGNC:33451 339230 NM_199287.2

Ccdcl55 MGI:2687329 384619 NM_201374.2

Ccdcl55 MGI:2687329 384619 NP_958762.2

CCDC155 HGNC:26520 147872 XP_011524797.1

CCDC155 HGNC:26520 147872 NM_144688.4

Ccna2 MG 1:108069 12428 NM_009828.2

Ccna2 MG 1:108069 12428 NP_033958.2

CCNA2 HGNC:1578 890 NP_001228.1

CCNA2 HGNC:1578 890 NM_001237.4

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NM_001122982.2

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NM_001290420.1

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NM_001290422.1

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NM_016746.4

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NP_001116454.1

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NP_001277349.1

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NP_001277351.1

Ccnc MGI:1858199 51813 NP_058026.2

CCNC HGNC:1581 892 NP_001013417.1

CCNC HGNC:1581 892 NM_005190.3

Ccs MGI:1333783 12460 NM_016892.3

Ccs MGI:1333783 12460 NP_058588.1

CCS HGNC:1613 9973 NP_005116.1

CCS HGNC:1613 9973 NM_005125.1

Cd274 MGI:1926446 60533 NM_021893.3

Cd274 MGI:1926446 60533 NP_068693.1

CD274 HGNC:17635 29126 NP_054862.1

CD274 HGNC:17635 29126 NM_014143.3

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NM_001159555.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NM_001159556.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NM_001159557.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NM_001159558.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NM_007643.4

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NP_001153027.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NP_001153028.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NP_001153029.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NP_001153030.1

Cd36 MGI:107899 12491 NP_031669.3

CD36 HGNC:1663 948 XP_005250770.1

CD36 HGNC:1663 948 NM_001127443.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NM_001039150.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NM_001039151.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NM_001177785.1 Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NM_001177786.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NM_001177787.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NM_009851.2

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NP_001034239.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NP_001034240.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NP_001171256.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NP_001171257.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NP_001171258.1

Cd44 MGI:88338 12505 NP_033981.2

CD44 HGNC:1681 960 NP_001001392.1

CD44 HGNC:1681 960 NM_001001391.1

Cdk2 MGI:104772 12566 NM_016756.4

Cdk2 MGI:104772 12566 NM_183417.3

Cdk2 MGI:104772 12566 NP_058036.1

Cdk2 MGI:104772 12566 NP_904326.1

CDK2 HGNC:1771 1017 NP_001277159.1

CDK2 HGNC:1771 1017 NM_001290230.1

Cdk5 MGI:101765 12568 NM_007668.3

Cdk5 MGI:101765 12568 NP_031694.1

CDK5 HGNC:1774 1020 NP_001157882.1

CDK5 HGNC:1774 1020 NM_001164410.2

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NM_001289704.2

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NM_001293804.1

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NM_001293805.1

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NM_009805.4

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NM_207653.5

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NP_001276633.1

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NP_001280733.1

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NP_001280734.1

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NP_033935.2

Cflar MGI:1336166 12633 NP_997536.1

CFLAR HGNC:1876 8837 NP_001338522.1

CFLAR HGNC:1876 8837 NM_001308042.2

Chic2 MGI:1921527 74277 NM_028850.5

Chic2 MGI:1921527 74277 NP_083126.1

CHIC2 HGNC:1935 26511 XP_011532684.1

CHIC2 HGNC:1935 26511 NM_012110.3

Chmp5 MGI:1924209 76959 NM_029814.1

Chmp5 MGI:1924209 76959 NP_084090.1

CHMP5 HGNC:26942 51510 NP_057494.3

CHMP5 HGNC:26942 51510 NM_016410.5

Chtf8 MGI:2443370 214987 NM_145412.3

Chtf8 MGI:2443370 214987 NP_663387.3

CHTF8 HGNC:24353 54921 XP_011521470.1

CHTF8 HGNC:24353 54921 NM_001040145.1

Ckslb MGI:1889208 54124 NM_016904.1

Ckslb MGI:1889208 54124 NP_058600.1

CKS1B HGNC:19083 1163 NP_001817.1

CKS1B HGNC:19083 1163 NM_001826.2

Cmip MGI:1921690 74440 NM_001163262.1

Cmip MGI:1921690 74440 NM_028941.1

Cmip MGI:1921690 74440 NP_001156734.1 Cmip MGI:1921690 74440 NP_083217.1

CMIP HGNC:24319 80790 XP_005256238.1

CMIP HGNC:24319 80790 NM_030629.2

Cnotll MGI:106580 52846 NM_028043.2

Cnotll MGI:106580 52846 NP_082319.1

CNOT11 HGNC:25217 55571 NP_060016.3

CNOT11 HGNC:25217 55571 NM_017546.4

Cnot8 MGI:1916375 69125 NM_026949.3

Cnot8 MGI:1916375 69125 NP_081225.1

CNOT8 HGNC:9207 9337 NP_001288011.1

CNOT8 HGNC:9207 9337 NM_001301082.1

Crebl MGI:88494 12912 NM_001037726.1

Crebl MGI:88494 12912 NM_009952.2

Crebl MGI:88494 12912 NM_133828.2

Crebl MGI:88494 12912 NP_001032815.1

Crebl MGI:88494 12912 NP_034082.1

Crebl MGI:88494 12912 NP_598589.2

CREB1 HGNC:2345 1385 XP_011508951.1

CREB1 HGNC:2345 1385 NM_001320793.1

Crkl MG 1:104686 12929 NM_001277231.1

Crkl MG 1:104686 12929 NM_007764.5

Crkl MG 1:104686 12929 NP_001264160.1

Crkl MG 1:104686 12929 NP_031790.2

CRKL HGNC:2363 1399 NP_005198.1

CRKL HGNC:2363 1399 NM_005207.3

Crlf3 MG 1:1860086 54394 NM_001277106.1

Crlf3 MG 1:1860086 54394 NM_018776.2

Crlf3 MG 1:1860086 54394 NP_001264035.1

Crlf3 MG 1:1860086 54394 NP_061246.1

CRLF3 HGNC:17177 51379 NP_057070.3

CRLF3 HGNC:17177 51379 NM_015986.3

Crocc MGI:3529431 230872 NM_001145958.1

Crocc MGI:3529431 230872 NM_172122.2

Crocc MGI:3529431 230872 NP_001139430.1

Crocc MGI:3529431 230872 NP_742120.2

CROCC HGNC:21299 9696 XP_016858403.1

CROCC HGNC:21299 9696 NM_014675.4

Cwc27 MGI:1914535 67285 X _011244690.2

Cwc27 MGI:1914535 67285 NP_080348.1

CWC27 HGNC:10664 10283 NP_005860.2

CWC27 HGNC:10664 10283 NM_005869.3

Cwfl9ll MGI:1919752 72502 X _0Q6527364.2

Cwfl9ll MGI:1919752 72502 NP_001074546.1

CWF19L1 HGNC:25613 55280 NP_060764.3

CWF19L1 HGNC:25613 55280 NM_018294.5

Ddi2 MGI:1917244 68817 NM_001017966.2

Ddi2 MGI:1917244 68817 NP_001017966.1

DDI2 HGNC:24578 84301 NP_115717.3

DDI2 HGNC:24578 84301 NM_032341.4

Ddx20 MGI:1858415 53975 NM_017397.3

Ddx20 MGI:1858415 53975 NP_059093.3 DDX20 HGNC:2743 11218 NP_009135.4

DDX20 HGNC:2743 11218 NM_007204.4

Ddx42 MGI:1919297 72047 NM_028074.4

Ddx42 MGI:1919297 72047 NP_082350.3

DDX42 HGNC:18676 11325 XP_016879601.1

DDX42 HGNC:18676 11325 NM_203499.2

Dlst MGI:1926170 78920 NM_030225.4

Dlst MGI:1926170 78920 NP_084501.1

DLST HGNC:2911 1743 NP_001231812.1

DLST HGNC:2911 1743 NM_001244883.1

Dnaja2 MGI:1931882 56445 NM_019794.4

Dnaja2 MGI:1931882 56445 NP_062768.1

DNAJA2 HGNC:14884 10294 NP_005871.1

DNAJA2 HGNC:14884 10294 NM_005880.3

Dpf2 MGI:109529 19708 NM_001291078.1

Dpf2 MGI:109529 19708 NM_011262.5

Dpf2 MGI:109529 19708 NP_001278007.1

Dpf2 MGI:109529 19708 NP_035392.1

DPF2 HGNC:9964 5977 XP_016873590.1

DPF2 HGNC:9964 5977 NM_001330308.1

Dsccl MGI:1919357 72107 NM_183089.2

Dsccl MGI:1919357 72107 NP_898912.2

DSCC1 HGNC:24453 79075 XP_005251122.1

DSCC1 HGNC:24453 79075 NM_024094.2

Dtx3l MGI:2656973 209200 NM_001013371.2

Dtx3l MGI:2656973 209200 NP_001013389.2

DTX3L HGNC:30323 151636 NP_612144.1

DTX3L HGNC:30323 151636 NM_138287.3

Eefsec MGI:2137092 65967 NM_023060.3

Eefsec MGI:2137092 65967 NP_075547.1

EEFSEC HGNC:24614 60678 NP_068756.2

EEFSEC HGNC:24614 60678 NM_021937.4

Ei24 MG 1:108090 13663 NM_001199494.1

Ei24 MG 1:108090 13663 NM_007915.5

Ei24 MG 1:108090 13663 NP_001186423.1

Ei24 MG 1:108090 13663 NP_031941.1

EI24 HGNC:13276 9538 NP_001317348.1

EI24 HGNC:13276 9538 NM_001290135.1

Eif2ak3 MGI:1341830 13666 NM_001313918.1

Eif2ak3 MGI:1341830 13666 NM_010121.3

Eif2ak3 MGI:1341830 13666 NP_001300847.1

Eif2ak3 MGI:1341830 13666 NP_034251.2

EIF2AK3 HGNC:3255 9451 NP_004827.4

EIF2AK3 HGNC:3255 9451 NM_001313915.1

Eif2ak4 MGI:1353427 27103 NM_001177806.1

Eif2ak4 MGI:1353427 27103 NM_013719.3

Eif2ak4 MGI:1353427 27103 NP_001171277.1

Eif2ak4 MGI:1353427 27103 NP_038747.2

EIF2AK4 HGNC:19687 440275 XP_011519901.1

EIF2AK4 HGNC:19687 440275 NM_001013703.3

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NM_001302752.1

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NM_001302754.1 Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NM_080287.2

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NM_207706.1

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NP_001289681.1

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NP_001289683.1

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NP_525026.2

Elmo2 MGI:2153045 140579 NP_997589.1

ELM02 HGNC:17233 63916 XP_005260553.1

ELM02 HGNC:17233 63916 NM_022086.6

Epcl MGI:1278322 13831 NM_001276350.1

Epcl MGI:1278322 13831 NM_007935.2

Epcl MGI:1278322 13831 NM_027497.3

Epcl MGI:1278322 13831 NP_001263279.1

Epcl MGI:1278322 13831 NP_031961.1

Epcl MGI:1278322 13831 NP_081773.1

EPC1 HGNC:19876 80314 NP_001269320.1

EPC1 HGNC:19876 80314 NM_025209.3

Epg5 MGI:1918673 100502841 NM_001195633.1

Epg5 MGI:1918673 100502841 NP_001182562.1

EPG5 HGNC:29331 57724 XP_016881380.1

EPG5 HGNC:29331 57724 NM_020964.2

Eril MGI:1914526 67276 NM_026067.3

Eril MGI:1914526 67276 NP_080343.4

ERI1 HGNC:23994 90459 XP_011542153.1

ERI1 HGNC:23994 90459 NM_153332.3

ER01A HGNC:13280 30001 NP_055399.1

ER01A HGNC:13280 30001 NM_014584.2

Eroll MGI:1354385 50527 NM_015774.3

Eroll MGI:1354385 50527 NP_056589.1

Exoc7 MGI:1859270 53413 NM_001162872.1

Exoc7 MGI:1859270 53413 NM_001347636.1

Exoc7 MGI:1859270 53413 NM_016857.2

Exoc7 MGI:1859270 53413 NP_001156344.1

Exoc7 MGI:1859270 53413 NP_001334565.1

Exoc7 MGI:1859270 53413 NP_058553.2

EXOC7 HGNC:23214 23265 NP_001269242.1

EXOC7 HGNC:23214 23265 NM_015219.4

Fadd MGI:109324 14082 NM_010175.5

Fadd MGI:109324 14082 NP_034305.1

FADD HGNC:3573 8772 NP_003815.1

FADD HGNC:3573 8772 NM_003824.3

Faml70b MGI:2145650 105511 NN1J>01164485.1

Faml70b MGI:2145650 105511 NP_001157957.1

FAM170B HGNC:19736 170370 NP_001157956.1

FAM170B HGNC:19736 170370 NM_001164484.1

Fam234b MGI:1921775 74525 NM_028982.4

Fam234b MGI:1921775 74525 NP_083258.2

FAM234B HGNC:29288 57613 XP_016875195.1

FAM234B HGNC:29288 57613 NM_020853.1

Faxc MGI:1923382 76132 NM_175234.4

Faxc MGI:1923382 76132 NP_780443.2

FAXC HGNC:20742 84553 NP_001333460.1

FAXC HGNC:20742 84553 NM_001346530.1 Fhod3 MGI:1925847 225288 NM_001289654.1

Fhod3 MGI:1925847 225288 NM_001289655.1

Fhod3 MGI:1925847 225288 NM_175276.4

Fhod3 MGI:1925847 225288 NP_001276583.1

Fhod3 MGI:1925847 225288 NP_001276584.1

Fhod3 MGI:1925847 225288 NP_780485.2

FHOD3 HGNC:26178 80206 XP_016881495.1

FHOD3 HGNC:26178 80206 NM_001281739.2

Fisl MGI:1913687 66437 NM_001163243.1

Fisl MGI:1913687 66437 NM_001347504.1

Fisl MGI:1913687 66437 NM_025562.3

Fisl MGI:1913687 66437 NP_001156715.1

Fisl MGI:1913687 66437 NP_001334433.1

Fisl MGI:1913687 66437 NP_079838.1

FIS1 HGNC:21689 51024 NP_057152.2

FIS1 HGNC:21689 51024 NM_016068.2

Fitm2 MGI:2444508 228859 NM_173397.4

Fitm2 MGI:2444508 228859 NP_775573.1

FITM2 HGNC:16135 128486 NP_001073941.1

FITM2 HGNC:16135 128486 NM_001080472.3

Fnbp4 MGI:1860513 55935 NM_018828.2

Fnbp4 MGI:1860513 55935 NP_061298.1

FNBP4 HGNC:19752 23360 NP_001305268.1

FNBP4 HGNC:19752 23360 NM_015308.4

Foxbl MGI:1927549 64290 NM_022378.3

Foxbl MGI:1927549 64290 NP_071773.2

FOXB1 HGNC:3799 27023 NP_036314.2

FOXB1 HGNC:3799 27023 NM_012182.2

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_001271467.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_001271468.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_001271469.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_001271470.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_001271492.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_010249.2

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NM_207669.2

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_001258396.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_001258397.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_001258398.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_001258399.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_001258421.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_034379.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NP_997552.1

Gabpbl MGI:95611 14391 NR_073183.1

GABPB1 HGNC:4074 2553 NP_005245.2

GABPB1 HGNC:4074 2553 NM_001320910.1

Gabrb3 MGI:95621 14402 NM_001038701.2

Gabrb3 MGI:95621 14402 NM_008071.3

Gabrb3 MGI:95621 14402 NP_001033790.1

Gabrb3 MGI:95621 14402 NP_032097.1

GABRB3 HGNC:4083 2562 NP_001265560.1

GABRB3 HGNC:4083 2562 NM_000814.5

Gale MGI:1921496 74246 NM_178389.3 Gale MGI:1921496 74246 NP_848476.1

GALE HGNC:4116 2582 NP_000394.2

GALE HGNC:4116 2582 NM_000403.3

Galntl5 MGI:1926004 78754 .03016G.3

Galntl5 MGI:1926004 78754 NP_084442.1

GALNT15 HGNC:21531 117248 NP_473451.3

GALNT15 HGNC:21531 117248 NM_001319052.1

Gigyf2 MGI:2138584 227331 NM_001110212.2

Gigyf2 MGI:2138584 227331 NM_146112.4

Gigyf2 MGI:2138584 227331 NP_001103682.1

Gigyf2 MGI:2138584 227331 NP_666224.3

GIGYF2 HGNC:11960 26058 NP_001096616.1

GIGYF2 HGNC:11960 26058 NM_001103146.1

Gml MGI:3644767 625599 NM_001177524.1

Gml MGI:3644767 625599 NP_001170995.1

GML HGNC:4375 2765 NP_002057.1

GML HGNC:4375 2765 NM_002066.2

Gnb2 MGI:95784 14693 NM_010312.4

Gnb2 MGI:95784 14693 NP_034442.1

GNB2 HGNC:4398 2783 NP_005264.2

GNB2 HGNC:4398 2783 NM_005273.3

Gne MGI:1354951 50798 NM_001190414.1

Gne MGI:1354951 50798 NM_015828.3

Gne MGI:1354951 50798 NP_001177343.1

Gne MGI:1354951 50798 NP_056643.3

GNE HGNC:23657 10020 NP_001177313.1

GNE HGNC:23657 10020 NM_001128227.2

Gpaal MGI:1202392 14731 NM_010331.2

Gpaal MGI:1202392 14731 NP_034461.1

GPAA1 HGNC:4446 8733 NP_003792.1

GPAA1 HGNC:4446 8733 NM_003801.3

GPI HGNC:4458 2821 NP_001171651.1

GPI HGNC:4458 2821 NM_001329910.1

Gpil MGI:95797 14751 NM_008155.4

Gpil MGI:95797 14751 NP_032181.2

GPR31 HGNC:4486 2853 NP_005290.2

GPR31 HGNC:4486 2853 NM_005299.2

Gpr31b MGI:1354372 436440 NM_001013832.2

Gpr31b MGI:1354372 436440 NP_001013854.2

Gpx4 MGI:104767 625249 NM_001037741.3

Gpx4 MGI:104767 625249 NM_008162.3

Gpx4 MGI:104767 625249 NP_001032830.2

Gpx4 MG 1:104767 625249 NP_032188.3

Gpx4 MGI:104767 625249 NR_110342.1

GPX4 HGNC:4556 2879 NP_001034937.1

GPX4 HGNC:4556 2879 NM_001039848.3

Gss MGI:95852 14854 NM_001291111.1

Gss MGI:95852 14854 NM_008180.2

Gss MGI:95852 14854 NP_001278040.1

Gss MGI:95852 14854 NP_032206.1

GSS HGNC:4624 2937 NP_001309424.1

GSS HGNC:4624 2937 NM_001322494.1 Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NM_001080746.2

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NM_001080747.2

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NM_001080748.2

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NM_001080749.2

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NM_010365.4

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NP_001074215.1

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NP_001074216.1

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NP_001074217.1

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NP_001074218.1

Gtf2i MGI:1202722 14886 NP_034495.2

GTF2I HGNC:4659 2969 NP_001509.3

GTF2I HGNC:4659 2969 NM_033001.3

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NM_001077696.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NM_001284248.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NM_001284249.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NM_001284250.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NM_010412.3

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NP_001071164.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NP_001271177.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NP_001271178.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NP_001271179.1

Hdac5 MGI:1333784 15184 NP_034542.3

HDAC5 HGNC:14068 10014 XP_005256963.1

HDAC5 HGNC:14068 10014 NM_001015053.1

Hes7 MGI:2135679 84653 NM_033041.4

Hes7 MGI:2135679 84653 NP_149030.2

HES7 HGNC:15977 84667 NP_115969.2

HES7 HGNC:15977 84667 NM_032580.3

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NM_001136065.2

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NM_001294143.1

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NM_001294144.1

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NM_010433.2

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NP_001129537.1

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NP_001281072.1

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NP_001281073.1

Hipk2 MGI:1314872 15258 NP_034563.2

HIPK2 HGNC:14402 28996 XP_011514379.1

HIPK2 HGNC:14402 28996 NM_022740.4

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_001166427.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_001166428.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_001166429.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_001166430.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_001166431.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_001166432.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NM_133834.2

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_001159899.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_001159900.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_001159901.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_001159902.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_001159903.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_001159904.1

Hnrnpf MGI:2138741 98758 NP_598595.1 HNRNPF HGNC:5039 3185 NP_001091677.1

HNRNPF HGNC:5039 3185 NM_001098205.1

Hsdl7bl2 MGI:1926967 56348 NM_019657.4

Hsdl7bl2 MGI:1926967 56348 NP_062631.1

HSD17B12 HGNC:18646 51144 XP_011518458.1

HSD17B12 HGNC:18646 51144 NM_016142.2

Hsdl7b4 MGI:105089 15488 NM_008292.4

Hsdl7b4 MGI:105089 15488 NP_032318.2

HSD17B4 HGNC:5213 3295 NP_001186220.1

HSD17B4 HGNC:5213 3295 NM_000414.3

Hspal3 MGI:1309463 110920 NM_030201.3

Hspal3 MGI:1309463 110920 NP_084477.1

Hspal3 MGI:1309463 110920 NR_027492.1

HSPA13 HGNC:11375 6782 NP_008879.3

HSPA13 HGNC:11375 6782 NM_006948.4 lcel MGI:2385865 218333 NM_144837.3 lcel MGI:2385865 218333 NP_659086.2

ICE1 HGNC:29154 23379 XP_016864774.1

ICE1 HGNC:29154 23379 NM_015325.2 lcosl MGI:1354701 50723 NM_015790.3 lcosl MGI:1354701 50723 NP_056605.1

ICOSLG HGNC:17087 23308 NP_001269981.1

ICOSLG HGNC:17087 23308 NM_001283052.1

Ikbkb MGI:1338071 16150 NM_001159774.1

Ikbkb MGI:1338071 16150 NM_010546.2

Ikbkb MGI:1338071 16150 NP_001153246.1

Ikbkb MGI:1338071 16150 NP_034676.1

IKBKB HGNC:5960 3551 XP_005273552.1

IKBKB HGNC:5960 3551 NM_001190722.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_001136067.2

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_001161421.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_001161422.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_001161423.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_001161424.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_010547.2

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NM_178590.4

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_001129539.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_001154893.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_001154894.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_001154895.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_001154896.1

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_034677.2

Ikbkg MGI:1338074 16151 NP_848705.1

IKBKG HGNC:5961 8517 NP_001093327.1

IKBKG HGNC:5961 8517 NM_003639.4

Ilk MGI:1195267 16202 NM_001161724.1

Ilk MGI:1195267 16202 NM_010562.2

Ilk MGI:1195267 16202 NP_001155196.1

Ilk MGI:1195267 16202 NP_034692.2

ILK HGNC:6040 3611 NP_001265371.1

ILK HGNC:6040 3611 NM_001014794.2

Impgl MGI:1926876 63859 NM_022016.3 Impgl MGI:1926876 63859 NP_071299.3

IMPG1 HGNC:6055 3617 NP_001269297.1

IMPG1 HGNC:6055 3617 NM_001282368.1

Ipoll MGI:2442377 76582 NM_029665.3

Ipoll MGI:2442377 76582 NP_083941.2

IPOll HGNC:20628 51194 NP_001128251.1

IPOll HGNC:20628 51194 NM_016338.4

Iqsecl MGI:1196356 232227 NM_001134383.1

Iqsecl MGI:1196356 232227 NM_001134384.1

Iqsecl MGI:1196356 232227 NP_001127855.1

Iqsecl MGI:1196356 232227 NP_001127856.1

IQSEC1 HGNC:29112 9922 NP_001127854.1

IQSEC1 HGNC:29112 9922 NM_014869.6

Ireb2 MG 1:1928268 64602 X ...006S11335

Ireb2 MG 1:1928268 64602 NP_073146.2

IREB2 HGNC:6115 3658 NP_001307870.1

IREB2 HGNC:6115 3658 NM_004136.3

Irfl MGI:96590 16362 NM_001159393.1

Irfl MGI:96590 16362 NM_001159396.1

Irfl MGI:96590 16362 NM_008390.2

Irfl MGI:96590 16362 NP_001152865.1

Irfl MGI:96590 16362 NP_001152868.1

Irfl MGI:96590 16362 NP_032416.1

IRF1 HGNC:6116 3659 XP_011541681.1

IRF1 HGNC:6116 3659 NM_002198.2

IRGM HGNC:29597 345611 NP_001139277.1

IRGM HGNC:29597 345611 NM_001145805.1

Irgm2 MG 1:1926262 54396 NM_019440.3

Irgm2 MGI:1926262 54396 NP_062313.3

Itgav MGI:96608 16410 NM_008402.3

Itgav MGI:96608 16410 NP_032428.2

ITGAV HGNC:6150 3685 NP_002201.1

ITGAV HGNC:6150 3685 NM_002210.4

Jmjd6 MGI:1858910 107817 NM_033398.2

Jmjd6 MGI:1858910 107817 NP_203971.2

JMJD6 HGNC:19355 23210 NP_055982.2

JMJD6 HGNC:19355 23210 NM_001081461.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NM_001110305.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NM_001110306.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NM_001110307.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NM_016679.4

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NP_001103775.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NP_001103776.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NP_001103777.1

Keapl MGI:1858732 50868 NP_057888.1

KEAP1 HGNC:23177 9817 NP_987096.1

KEAP1 HGNC:23177 9817 NM_203500.1

Kmt2c MGI:2444959 231051 NM_001081383.1

Kmt2c MGI:2444959 231051 NP_001074852.1

KMT2C HGNC:13726 58508 XP_011514754.1

KMT2C HGNC:13726 58508 NM_021230.2

Kritl MGI:1930618 79264 NM_001170552.1 Kritl MGI:1930618 79264 NM_030675.3

Kritl MGI:1930618 79264 NP_001164023.1

Kritl MGI:1930618 79264 NP_109600.2

Kritl MGI:1930618 79264 NR_033173.1

KRIT1 HGNC:1573 889 XP_005250719.1

KRIT1 HGNC:1573 889 NM_001350678.1

Lamtorl MGI:1913758 66508 NM_025605.3

Lamtorl MGI:1913758 66508 NP_079881.2

LAMTOR1 HGNC:26068 55004 NP_060377.1

LAMTOR1 HGNC:26068 55004 NM_017907.2

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NM_001024526.2

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NM_001080948.2

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NM_001284521.1

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NM_001284522.1

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NM_001284523.1

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NP_001019697.2

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NP_001074417.1

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NP_001271450.1

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NP_001271451.1

Larp4 MGI:2443114 207214 NP_001271452.1

LARP4 HGNC:24320 113251 XP_011536146.1

LARP4 HGNC:24320 113251 NM_001170808.1

Lemd2 MGI:2385045 224640 NM_146075.2

Lemd2 MGI:2385045 224640 NP_666187.2

LEMD2 HGNC:21244 221496 NP_851853.1

LEMD2 HGNC:21244 221496 NM_001348710.1

Lman2 MGI:1914140 66890 NM_025828.3

Lman2 MGI:1914140 66890 NP_080104.2

LMAN2 HGNC:16986 10960 NP_006807.1

LMAN2 HGNC:16986 10960 NM_006816.2

LrplO MGI:1929480 65107 NM_022993.3

LrplO MGI:1929480 65107 NP_075369.2

LRP10 HGNC:14553 26020 NP_054764.2

LRP10 HGNC:14553 26020 NM_001329226.1

Lrrn3 MGI:106036 16981 NM_001271708.1

Lrrn3 MGI:106036 16981 NM_001271709.1

Lrrn3 MGI:106036 16981 NM_010733.3

Lrrn3 MGI:106036 16981 NP_001258637.1

Lrrn3 MGI:106036 16981 NP_001258638.1

Lrrn3 MGI:106036 16981 NP_034863.1

LRRN3 HGNC:17200 54674 NP_001093130.1

LRRN3 HGNC:17200 54674 NM_018334.4

Maea MGI:1891748 59003 NM_021500.2

Maea MGI:1891748 59003 NP_067475.2

MAEA HGNC:13731 10296 NP_005873.2

MAEA HGNC:13731 10296 NM_001297430.1

Man2al MG 1:104669 17158 NM_008549.2

Man2al MG 1:104669 17158 NP_032575.2

MAN2A1 HGNC:6824 4124 NP_002363.2

MAN2A1 HGNC:6824 4124 NM_002372.3

Matr3 MGI:1298379 17184 NM_010771.6

Matr3 MGI:1298379 17184 NP_034901.2 MATR3 HGNC:6912 9782 NP_061322.2

MATR3 HGNC:6912 9782 NM_199189.2

Mcll MGI:101769 17210 NM_008562.3

Mcll MGI:101769 17210 NP_032588.1

MCL1 HGNC:6943 4170 NP_001184249.1

MCL1 HGNC:6943 4170 NM_021960.4

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NM_001104530.1

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NM_001104556.1

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NM_001104557.1

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NM_025426.3

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NP_001098000.1

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NP_001098026.1

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NP_001098027.1

Med7 MGI:1913463 66213 NP_079702.3

MED7 HGNC:2378 9443 NP_001094286.1

MED7 HGNC:2378 9443 NM_001100816.1

Megf8 MGI:2446294 269878 NM_001160400.1

Megf8 MGI:2446294 269878 NP_001153872.1

MEGF8 HGNC:3233 1954 NP_001258867.1

MEGF8 HGNC:3233 1954 NM_178121.2

Meioc MGI:2686410 268491 X _0Q6533415.1

Meioc MGI:2686410 268491 NP_001121048.1

MEIOC HGNC:26670 284071 NP_001138552.2

MEIOC HGNC:26670 284071 NM_001033659.2

Memol MGI:1924140 76890 NM_133771.2

Memol MGI:1924140 76890 NP_598532.1

MEMOl HGNC:14014 51072 XP_011531194.1

MEMOl HGNC:14014 51072 NM_001137602.2

Mprip MGI:1349438 26936 NM_012027.2

Mprip MGI:1349438 26936 NM_201245.3

Mprip MGI:1349438 26936 NP_036157.2

Mprip MGI:1349438 26936 NP_957697.1

MPRIP HGNC:30321 23164 NP_958431.2

MPRIP HGNC:30321 23164 NM_015134.3

Mrps21 MGI:1913542 66292 NM_078479.3

Mrps21 MGI:1913542 66292 NP_510964.1

MRPS21 HGNC:14046 54460 NP_061870.1

MRPS21 HGNC:14046 54460 NM_031901.5

Mtchl MGI:1929261 56462 NM_001347335.1

Mtchl MGI:1929261 56462 NM_019880.3

Mtchl MGI:1929261 56462 NP_001334264.1

Mtchl MGI:1929261 56462 NP_063933.1

MTCH1 HGNC:17586 23787 XP_005249035.1

MTCH1 HGNC:17586 23787 NM_014341.2

N4bpl MGI:2136825 80750 NM_030563.2

N4bpl MGI:2136825 80750 NP_085040.2

N4BP1 HGNC:29850 9683 XP_011521784.1

N4BP1 HGNC:29850 9683 NM_153029.3

Nadk MGI:2183149 192185 NM_001159637.1

Nadk MGI:2183149 192185 NM_138671.2

Nadk MGI:2183149 192185 NP_001153109.1

Nadk MGI:2183149 192185 NP_619612.2 NADK HGNC:29831 65220 NP_075394.3

NADK HGNC:29831 65220 NM_023018.4

Nampt MGI:1929865 59027 NM_021524.2

Nampt MGI:1929865 59027 NP_067499.2

NAMPT HGNC:30092 10135 XP_005250157.1

NAMPT HGNC:30092 10135 NM_005746.2

Nans MGI:2149820 94181 NM_053179.3

Nans MGI:2149820 94181 NP_444409.1

NANS HGNC:19237 54187 XP_016870300.1

NANS HGNC:19237 54187 NM_018946.3

Nckapl MGI:1355333 50884 NM_001290745.1

Nckapl MGI:1355333 50884 NM_016965.3

Nckapl MGI:1355333 50884 NP_001277674.1

Nckapl MGI:1355333 50884 NP_058661.1

NCKAP1 HGNC:7666 10787 NP_038464.1

NCKAP1 HGNC:7666 10787 NM_013436.4

Nepro MGI:2384836 212547 NM_145972.4

Nepro MGI:2384836 212547 NP_666084.1

NEPRO HGNC:24496 25871 NP_001306041.1

NEPRO HGNC:24496 25871 NM_001319109.1

Neurl3 MGI:2429944 214854 NM_153408.2

Neurl3 MGI:2429944 214854 NP_700457.1

NEURL3 HGNC:25162 93082 XP_011510480.1

NEURL3 HGNC:25162 93082 NM_001285486.1

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NM_001081981.2

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NM_001081982.2

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NM_001297601.1

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NM_010906.3

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NP_001075450.1

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NP_001075451.1

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NP_001284530.1

Nfix MGI:97311 18032 NP_035036.1

NFIX HGNC:7788 4784 XP_006722823.1

NFIX HGNC:7788 4784 NM_001271043.2

Nprl2 MGI:1914482 56032 NM_018879.2

Nprl2 MGI:1914482 56032 NP_061367.1

NPRL2 HGNC:24969 10641 NP_006536.3

NPRL2 HGNC:24969 10641 NM_006545.4

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NM_001284359.1

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NM_001284360.1

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NM_181569.3

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NP_001271288.1

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NP_001271289.1

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NP_853547.1

Nprl3 MGI:109258 17168 NR_104306.1

NPRL3 HGNC:14124 8131 NP_001230176.1

NPRL3 HGNC:14124 8131 NM_012075.1

Nrbf2 MGI:1354950 641340 NM_001036293.2

Nrbf2 MGI:1354950 641340 NP_001031370.1

NRBF2 HGNC:19692 29982 XP_006717873.1

NRBF2 HGNC:19692 29982 NM_001282405.1

Nsdhl MGI:1099438 18194 NM_010941.3

- I l l -

Nsdhl MGI:1099438 18194 NP_035071.3

NSDHL HGNC:13398 50814 XP_016885053.1

NSDHL HGNC:13398 50814 NM_015922.2

Nudcd2 MGI:1277103 52653 NM_001290697.1

Nudcd2 MGI:1277103 52653 NM_026023.5

Nudcd2 MGI:1277103 52653 NP_001277626.1

Nudcd2 MGI:1277103 52653 NP_080299.4

NUDCD2 HGNC:30535 134492 NP_660309.1

NUDCD2 HGNC:30535 134492 NM_145266.5

Oprkl MGI:97439 18387 NM_001204371.1

Oprkl MGI:97439 18387 NM_001318735.1

Oprkl MGI:97439 18387 NM_011011.2

Oprkl MGI:97439 18387 NP_001191300.1

Oprkl MGI:97439 18387 NP_001305664.1

Oprkl MGI:97439 18387 NP_035141.1

OPRK1 HGNC:8154 4986 NP_000903.2

OPRK1 HGNC:8154 4986 NM_000912.4

Otulin MGI:3577015 432940 NM_001013792.2

Otulin MGI:3577015 432940 NP_001013814.2

OTULIN HGNC:25118 90268 XP_016865504.1

OTULIN HGNC:25118 90268 NM_138348.5

Padi4 MGI:1338898 18602 NM_011061.2

Padi4 MGI:1338898 18602 NP_035191.2

PADI4 HGNC:18368 23569 XP_011539455.1

PADI4 HGNC:18368 23569 NM_012387.2

Pak2 MGI:1339984 224105 NM_177326.3

Pak2 MGI:1339984 224105 NP_796300.1

PAK2 HGNC:8591 5062 NP_002568.2

PAK2 HGNC:8591 5062 NM_002577.4

Paox MGI:1916983 212503 NM_001346725.1

Paox MGI:1916983 212503 NM_153783.4

Paox MGI:1916983 212503 NP_001333654.1

Paox MGI:1916983 212503 NP_722478.2

PAOX HGNC:20837 196743 NP_997011.1

PAOX HGNC:20837 196743 NM_207125.1

Parn MGI:1921358 74108 NM_028761.3

Parn MGI:1921358 74108 NP_083037.1

PARN HGNC:8609 5073 XP_011520815.1

PARN HGNC:8609 5073 NM_001242992.1

Pax3 MGI:97487 18505 NM_001159520.1

Pax3 MGI:97487 18505 NM_008781.4

Pax3 MGI:97487 18505 NP_001152992.1

Pax3 MGI:97487 18505 NP_032807.3

PAX3 HGNC:8617 5077 NP_000429.2

PAX3 HGNC:8617 5077 NM_181457.3

Pbrml MGI:1923998 66923 NM_001081251.1

Pbrml MGI:1923998 66923 NP_001074720.1

PBRM1 HGNC:30064 55193 XP_016862215.1

PBRM1 HGNC:30064 55193 NM_001350079.1

Pcgf6 MGI:1918291 71041 NM_027654.3

Pcgf6 MGI:1918291 71041 NP_081930.1

Pcgf6 MGI:1918291 71041 NR_133574.1 PCGF6 HGNC:21156 84108 NP_001011663.1

PCGF6 HGNC:21156 84108 NM_001011663.1

Pde7a MG 1:1202402 18583 NM_001122759.2

Pde7a MG 1:1202402 18583 NM_008802.3

Pde7a MG 1:1202402 18583 NP_001116231.1

Pde7a MG 1:1202402 18583 NP_032828.2

PDE7A HGNC:8791 5150 XP_016869027.1

PDE7A HGNC:8791 5150 NM_001242318.2

Pigk MGI:1913863 329777 NM_025662.5

Pigk MGI:1913863 329777 NM_178016.3

Pigk MGI:1913863 329777 NP_079938.1

Pigk MGI:1913863 329777 NP_821135.1

PIGK HGNC:8965 10026 NP_005473.1

PIGK HGNC:8965 10026 NM_005482.2

Pigs MGI:2687325 276846 NM_201406.1

Pigs MGI:2687325 276846 NP_958808.1

PIGS HGNC:14937 94005 NP_149975.1

PIGS HGNC:14937 94005 NM_033198.3

Pigu MGI:3039607 228812 NM_001004721.1

Pigu MGI:3039607 228812 NP_001004721.1

PIGU HGNC:15791 128869 NP_536724.1

PIGU HGNC:15791 128869 NM_080476.4

Pihldl MGI:1916095 68845 NM_001278207.1

Pihldl MGI:1916095 68845 NM_001285904.1

Pihldl MGI:1916095 68845 NM_029406.4

Pihldl MGI:1916095 68845 NP_001265136.1

Pihldl MGI:1916095 68845 NP_001272833.1

Pihldl MGI:1916095 68845 NP_083682.1

PIH1D1 HGNC:26075 55011 NP_060386.1

PIH1D1 HGNC:26075 55011 NM_017916.2

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NM_001146687.2

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NM_001293646.1

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NM_001293647.1

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NM_008844.3

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NP_001140159.1

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NP_001280575.1

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NP_001280576.1

Pip5klc MGI:1298224 18717 NP_032870.2

PIP5K1C HGNC:8996 23396 XP_011526155.1

PIP5K1C HGNC:8996 23396 NM_012398.2

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NM_001042502.2

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NM_001042504.2

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NM_001286942.1

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NM_001287048.1

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NM_011098.4

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NP_001035967.1

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NP_001035969.1

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NP_001273871.1

Pitx2 MGI:109340 18741 NP_001273977.1

Pitx2 MG 1:109340 18741 NP_035228.2

PITX2 HGNC:9005 5308 NP_700476.1

PITX2 HGNC:9005 5308 NM_001204399.1 Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NM_001302389.1

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NM_001302390.1

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NM_001302442.1

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NM_015817.3

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NP_001289318.1

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NP_001289319.1

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NP_001289371.1

Plpp2 MGI:1354945 50784 NP_056632.2

PLPP2 HGNC:9230 8612 NP_803545.1

PLPP2 HGNC:9230 8612 NM_177543.2

Ppcs MGI:1915237 106564 NM_026494.3

Ppcs MGI:1915237 106564 NP_080770.2

PPCS HGNC:25686 79717 NP_001274440.1

PPCS HGNC:25686 79717 NM_001287511.1

Ppp4r2 MGI:3027896 232314 NM_182939.4

Ppp4r2 MGI:3027896 232314 NP_891984.1

PPP4R2 HGNC:18296 151987 NP_001304956.1

PPP4R2 HGNC:18296 151987 NM_001318025.1

PrdmlO MGI:2682952 382066 NM_001080817.1

PrdmlO MGI:2682952 382066 NP_001074286.1

PRDM10 HGNC:13995 56980 NP_955470.1

PRDM10 HGNC:13995 56980 NM_199439.1

Prdxl MGI:99523 18477 NM_011034.4

Prdxl MGI:99523 18477 NP_035164.1

PRDX1 HGNC:9352 5052 NP_002565.1

PRDX1 HGNC:9352 5052 NM_002574.3

Prkcq MGI:97601 18761 NM_008859.2

Prkcq MGI:97601 18761 NP_032885.1

PRKCQ HGNC:9410 5588 NP_001269573.1

PRKCQ HGNC:9410 5588 NM_001282645.1

Prrc2a MGI:1915467 53761 NM_001199044.1

Prrc2a MGI:1915467 53761 NM_020027.3

Prrc2a MGI:1915467 53761 NP_001185973.1

Prrc2a MGI:1915467 53761 NP_064411.2

PRRC2A HGNC:13918 7916 NP_004629.3

PRRC2A HGNC:13918 7916 NM_080686.2

Psmb8 MGI:1346527 16913 NM_010724.2

Psmb8 MGI:1346527 16913 NP_034854.2

PSMB8 HGNC:9545 5696 NP_004150.1

PSMB8 HGNC:9545 5696 NM_004159.4

Psmel MGI:1096367 19186 NM_011189.1

Psmel MGI:1096367 19186 NP_035319.1

PSME1 HGNC:9568 5720 NP_006254.1

PSME1 HGNC:9568 5720 NM_006263.3

Psme2 MGI:1096365 19188 NM_001029855.1

Psme2 MGI:1096365 19188 NM_011190.3

Psme2 MGI:1096365 19188 NP_001025026.1

Psme2 MGI:1096365 19188 NP_035320.1

PSME2 HGNC:9569 5721 XP_006720276.1

PSME2 HGNC:9569 5721 NM_002818.2

Ptarl MGI:1921875 72351 NM_028208.1

Ptarl MGI:1921875 72351 NP_082484.1 PTAR1 HGNC:30449 375743 XP_005252034.1

PTAR1 HGNC:30449 375743 NM_001099666.1

Ptpnll MGI:99511 19247 NM_001109992.1

Ptpnll MGI:99511 19247 NM_011202.3

Ptpnll MGI:99511 19247 NP_001103462.1

Ptpnll MGI:99511 19247 NP_035332.1

PTPN11 HGNC:9644 5781 NP_002825.3

PTPN11 HGNC:9644 5781 NM_080601.2

Ptpn2 MGI:97806 19255 NM_001127177.1

Ptpn2 MGI:97806 19255 NM_008977.3

Ptpn2 MGI:97806 19255 NP_001120649.1

Ptpn2 MGI:97806 19255 NP_033003.1

PTPN2 HGNC:9650 5771 XP_016881377.1

PTPN2 HGNC:9650 5771 NM_080423.2

Rabl3 MGI:1927232 68328 NM_001293741.1

Rabl3 MGI:1927232 68328 NM_026677.4

Rabl3 MGI:1927232 68328 NP_001280670.1

Rabl3 MGI:1927232 68328 NP_080953.1

RAB13 HGNC:9762 5872 NP_001258967.1

RAB13 HGNC:9762 5872 NM_001272038.1

Rabla MGI:97842 19324 NM_008996.3

Rabla MGI:97842 19324 NP_033022.1

RAB1A HGNC:9758 5861 NP_056358.1

RAB1A HGNC:9758 5861 NM_004161.4

Rab25 MGI:1858203 53868 NM_016899.4

Rab25 MGI:1858203 53868 NP_058595.2

RAB25 HGNC:18238 57111 NP_065120.2

RAB25 HGNC:18238 57111 NM_020387.3

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NM_001293652.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NM_001293653.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NM_001293654.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NM_001293655.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NM_009005.3

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NP_001280581.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NP_001280582.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NP_001280583.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NP_001280584.1

Rab7 MG 1:105068 19349 NP_033031.2

RAB7A HGNC:9788 7879 NP_004628.4

RAB7A HGNC:9788 7879 NM_004637.5

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NM_001277938.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NM_001277939.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NM_001277941.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NM_001277942.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NM_011235.4

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NP_001264867.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NP_001264868.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NP_001264870.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NP_001264871.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NP_035365.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NR_102717.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NR_102718.1 Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NR_102719.1

Rad51d MGI:1261809 19364 NR_102720.1

RAD51D HGNC:9823 5892 NP_001136043.1

RAD51D HGNC:9823 5892 NM_001142571.1

Rafl MGI:97847 110157 NM_029780.3

Rafl MGI:97847 110157 NP_084056.1

RAF1 HGNC:9829 5894 XP_005265412.1

RAF1 HGNC:9829 5894 NM_002880.3

Rbm34 MGI:1098653 52202 NM_172762.2

Rbm34 MGI:1098653 52202 NP_766350.2

RBM34 HGNC:28965 23029 XP_016856210.1

RBM34 HGNC:28965 23029 NM_001161533.1

Rela MGI:103290 19697 NM_009045.4

Rela MGI:103290 19697 NP_033071.1

RELA HGNC:9955 5970 NP_001230914.1

RELA HGNC:9955 5970 NM_001145138.1

Rerl MGI:1915080 67830 NM_026395.1

Rerl MGI:1915080 67830 NP_080671.1

RER1 HGNC:30309 11079 XP_011538845.1

RER1 HGNC:30309 11079 NM_007033.4

Rfwd2 MG 1:1347046 26374 NM_011931.3

Rfwd2 MG 1:1347046 26374 NP_036061.1

RFWD2 HGNC:17440 64326 XP_016857568.1

RFWD2 HGNC:17440 64326 NM_001001740.3

Rfx6 MGI:2445208 320995 NM_001159389.1

Rfx6 MGI:2445208 320995 NM_177306.3

Rfx6 MGI:2445208 320995 NP_001152861.1

Rfx6 MGI:2445208 320995 NP_796280.1

RFX6 HGNC:21478 222546 NP_775831.2

RFX6 HGNC:21478 222546 NM_173560.3

Rgmb MG 1:1916049 68799 NM_178615.3

Rgmb MG 1:1916049 68799 NP_848730.2

RGMB HGNC:26896 285704 XP_016864879.1

RGMB HGNC:26896 285704 NM_001012761.2

Rgpl MGI:1915956 242406 NM_172866.3

Rgpl MGI:1915956 242406 NP_766454.1

RGP1 HGNC:21965 9827 NP_001073965.2

RGP1 HGNC:21965 9827 NM_001080496.2

Rhbdl2 MGI:3608413 230726 NM_183163.2

Rhbdl2 MGI:3608413 230726 NP_898986.2

RHBDL2 HGNC:16083 54933 NP_001291675.1

RHBDL2 HGNC:16083 54933 NM_017821.4

Rnf31 MGI:1934704 268749 NP_919327.2

RNF31 HGNC:16031 55072 NP_001297261.1

RNF31 HGNC:16031 55072 NM_017999.4

Rnf38 MGI:1920719 73469 NM_001038993.3

Rnf38 MGI:1920719 73469 NM_175201.5

Rnf38 MGI:1920719 73469 NP_001034082.1

Rnf38 MGI:1920719 73469 NP_780410.2

RNF38 HGNC:18052 152006 XP_016869784.1

RNF38 HGNC:18052 152006 NM_194328.2

Rraga MGI:1915691 68441 NM_178376.3 Rraga MGI:1915691 68441 NP_848463.1

RRAGA HGNC:16963 10670 NP_006561.1

RRAGA HGNC:16963 10670 NM_006570.4

Rsfl MGI:2682305 233532 NM_001081267.2

Rsfl MGI:2682305 233532 NP_001074736.1

RSF1 HGNC:18118 51773 XP_016873412.1

RSF1 HGNC:18118 51773 NM_016578.3

Rsphl MGI:1194909 22092 NM_025290.3

Rsphl MGI:1194909 22092 NP_079566.1

RSPH1 HGNC:12371 89765 XP_005261265.1

RSPH1 HGNC:12371 89765 NM_080860.3

Sepsecs MGI:1098791 211006 NM_172490.3

Sepsecs MGI:1098791 211006 NP_766078.1

SEPSECS HGNC:30605 51091 XP_016863767.1

SEPSECS HGNC:30605 51091 NM_016955.3

Serpinb9 MG 1:106603 20723 NM_009256.3

Serpinb9 MG 1:106603 20723 NP_033282.1

SERPINB9 HGNC:8955 5272 XP_016866432.1

SERPINB9 HGNC:8955 5272 NM_004155.5

Setd2 MGI:1918177 235626 NM_001081340.2

Setd2 MGI:1918177 235626 NP_001074809.2

SETD2 HGNC:18420 29072 XP_016861759.1

SETD2 HGNC:18420 29072 NM_012271.1

Slc2al MGI:95755 20525 NM_011400.3

Slc2al MGI:95755 20525 NP_035530.2

SLC2A1 HGNC:11005 6513 NP_006507.2

SLC2A1 HGNC:11005 6513 NM_006516.2

Slc35al MGI:1345622 24060 NM_011895.3

Slc35al MGI:1345622 24060 NP_036025.2

SLC35A1 HGNC:11021 10559 NP_001161870.1

SLC35A1 HGNC:11021 10559 NM_006416.4

Slc7all MGI:1347355 26570 NM_011990.2

Slc7all MGI:1347355 26570 NP_036120.1

SLC7A11 HGNC:11059 23657 NP_055146.1

SLC7A11 HGNC:11059 23657 NM_014331.3

Smarcel MGI:1927347 57376 NM_020618.4

Smarcel MGI:1927347 57376 NP_065643.1

SMARCE1 HGNC:11109 6605 NP_003070.3

SMARCE1 HGNC:11109 6605 NM_003079.4

Snapin MGI:1333745 20615 NM_133854.3

Snapin MGI:1333745 20615 NP_598615.1

SNAPIN HGNC:17145 23557 NP_036569.1

SNAPIN HGNC:17145 23557 NM_012437.5

Sod2 MGI:98352 20656 NM_013671.3

Sod2 MGI:98352 20656 NP_038699.2

S0D2 HGNC:11180 6648 NP_001019637.1

S0D2 HGNC:11180 6648 NM_001322817.1

Soxll MGI:98359 20666 NM_009234.6

Soxll MGI:98359 20666 NP_033260.4

SOX11 HGNC:11191 6664 NP_003099.1

SOX11 HGNC:11191 6664 NM_003108.3

Sox4 MGI:98366 20677 NM_009238.2 Sox4 MGI:98366 20677 NP_033264.2

SOX4 HGNC:11200 6659 NP_003098.1

SOX4 HGNC:11200 6659 NM_003107.2

Spen MGI:1891706 56381 NM_001347235.1

Spen MGI:1891706 56381 NM_019763.2

Spen MGI:1891706 56381 NP_001334164.1

Spen MGI:1891706 56381 NP_062737.2

SPEN HGNC:17575 23013 NP_055816.2

SPEN HGNC:17575 23013 NM_015001.2

Spnsl MGI:1920908 73658 NM_023712.3

Spnsl MGI:1920908 73658 NP_076201.2

Spnsl MGI:1920908 73658 NR_045537.1

SPNS1 HGNC:30621 83985 XP_016879247.1

SPNS1 HGNC:30621 83985 NM_001142448.1

Sptlcl MGI:1099431 268656 NM_009269.2

Sptlcl MGI:1099431 268656 NP_033295.2

SPTLC1 HGNC:11277 10558 NP_001268232.1

SPTLC1 HGNC:11277 10558 NM_006415.3

Sptlc2 MG 1:108074 20773 NM_011479.4

Sptlc2 MG 1:108074 20773 NP_035609.1

SPTLC2 HGNC:11278 9517 XP_011535686.1

SPTLC2 HGNC:11278 9517 NM_004863.3

Srrd MGI:1917368 70118 NM_027323.2

Srrd MGI:1917368 70118 NP_081599.2

SRRD HGNC:33910 402055 XP_011528480.1

SRRD HGNC:33910 402055 NM_001013694.2

Stat3 MGI:103038 20848 NM_011486.5

Stat3 MGI:103038 20848 NM_213659.3

Stat3 MGI:103038 20848 NM_213660.3

Stat3 MGI:103038 20848 NP_035616.1

Stat3 MGI:103038 20848 NP_998824.1

Stat3 MGI:103038 20848 NP_998825.1

STAT3 HGNC:11364 6774 XP_016880463.1

STAT3 HGNC:11364 6774 NM_003150.3

Strada MGI:1919399 72149 NM_001252448.1

Strada MGI:1919399 72149 NM_001252449.1

Strada MGI:1919399 72149 NM_028126.3

Strada MGI:1919399 72149 NP_001239377.1

Strada MGI:1919399 72149 NP_001239378.1

Strada MGI:1919399 72149 NP_082402.1

STRADA HGNC:30172 92335 XP_016880803.1

STRADA HGNC:30172 92335 NM_001165970.1

Stubl MGI:1891731 56424 NM_019719.3

Stubl MGI:1891731 56424 NP_062693.1

STUB1 HGNC:11427 10273 NP_001280126.1

STUB1 HGNC:11427 10273 NM_001293197.1

Tacc3 MGI:1341163 21335 NM_001040435.3

Tacc3 MGI:1341163 21335 NM_001310541.1

Tacc3 MGI:1341163 21335 NP_001035525.1

Tacc3 MGI:1341163 21335 NP_001297470.1

TACC3 HGNC:11524 10460 XP_005247986.1

TACC3 HGNC:11524 10460 NM_006342.2 TbcldlOb MGI:1915699 68449 NM_144522.5

TbcldlOb MGI:1915699 68449 NP_653105.3

TBC1D10B HGNC:24510 26000 XP_011544092.1

TBC1D10B HGNC:24510 26000 NM_015527.3

Tbkl MGI:1929658 56480 NM_019786.4

Tbkl MGI:1929658 56480 NP_062760.3

TBK1 HGNC:11584 29110 NP_037386.1

TBK1 HGNC:11584 29110 NM_013254.3

Tceal MGI:1196624 21399 NM_001159750.1

Tceal MGI:1196624 21399 NM_001159751.1

Tceal MGI:1196624 21399 NM_011541.4

Tceal MGI:1196624 21399 NP_001153222.1

Tceal MGI:1196624 21399 NP_001153223.1

Tceal MGI:1196624 21399 NP_035671.1

TCEA1 HGNC:11612 6917 XP_006716530.1

TCEA1 HGNC:11612 6917 NM_201437.2

Tcofl MGI:892003 21453 NM_001198984.1

Tcofl MGI:892003 21453 NM_011552.3

Tcofl MGI:892003 21453 NP_001185913.1

Tcofl MGI:892003 21453 NP_035682.1

TCOF1 HGNC:11654 6949 XP_016865282.1

TCOF1 HGNC:11654 6949 NM_001135244.1

Tenl MGI:1916785 69535 NM 027107.1

Tenl MGI:1916785 69535 NP_081383.1

TEN1 HGNC:37242 100134934 NP_001106795.2

TEN1 HGNC:37242 100134934 NM_001113324.2

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NM_001164074.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NM_001164075.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NM_001164076.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NM_001164077.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NM_009372.3

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NP_001157546.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NP_001157547.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NP_001157548.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NP_001157549.1

Tgifl MGI:1194497 21815 NP_033398.2

TGIF1 HGNC:11776 7050 NP_775301.1

TGIF1 HGNC:11776 7050 NM_170695.3

Tgif2 MGI:1915299 228839 NM_001291124.1

Tgif2 MGI:1915299 228839 NM_173396.3

Tgif2 MGI:1915299 228839 NP_001278053.1

Tgif2 MGI:1915299 228839 NP_775572.1

TGIF2 HGNC:15764 60436 NP_068581.1

TGIF2 HGNC:15764 60436 NM_001199514.1

Tiall MGI:107913 21843 NM_001347640.1

Tiall MGI:107913 21843 NM_001347641.1

Tiall MGI:107913 21843 NM_009383.2

Tiall MGI:107913 21843 NP_001334569.1

Tiall MGI:107913 21843 NP_001334570.1

Tiall MGI:107913 21843 NP_033409.1

TIAL1 HGNC:11804 7073 NP_001310893.1

TIAL1 HGNC:11804 7073 NM_001323970.1 Tiparp MGI:2159210 99929 NM_178892.5

Tiparp MGI:2159210 99929 NP_849223.2

TIPARP HGNC:23696 25976 NP_001171646.1

TIPARP HGNC:23696 25976 NM_001184717.1

Tkl MGI:98763 21877 NM_001271729.1

Tkl MGI:98763 21877 NM_009387.2

Tkl MGI:98763 21877 NP_001258658.1

Tkl MGI:98763 21877 NP_033413.2

TK1 HGNC:11830 7083 XP_016880481.1

TK1 HGNC:11830 7083 NM_001346663.1

Tk2 MGI:1913266 57813 NM_021028.3

Tk2 MGI:1913266 57813 NP_066356.3

Tk2 MGI:1913266 57813 NR_045642.1

TK2 HGNC:11831 7084 NP_001166114.1

TK2 HGNC:11831 7084 NM_001271934.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NM_001291235.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NM_001291236.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NM_001291237.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NM_026708.2

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NP_001278164.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NP_001278165.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NP_001278166.1

Tlcdl MGI:1915572 68385 NP_080984.1

TLCD1 HGNC:25177 116238 XP_011522580.1

TLCD1 HGNC:25177 116238 NM_001160407.1

Tm2dl MGI:2137022 94043 NM_053157.2

Tm2dl MGI:2137022 94043 NP_444387.1

TM2D1 HGNC:24142 83941 NP_114416.1

TM2D1 HGNC:24142 83941 NM_032027.2

Tm2d3 MGI:1915884 68634 NM_026795.3

Tm2d3 MGI:1915884 68634 NM_178056.3

Tm2d3 MGI:1915884 68634 NP_081071.1

Tm2d3 MGI:1915884 68634 NP_835157.1

TM2D3 HGNC:24128 80213 NP_079417.2

TM2D3 HGNC:24128 80213 NM_078474.2

TmedlO MGI:1915831 68581 NM_026775.4

TmedlO MGI:1915831 68581 NP_081051.1

TMED10 HGNC:16998 10972 NP_006818.3

TMED10 HGNC:16998 10972 NM_006827.5

Tmed2 MGI:1929269 56334 NM_019770.2

Tmed2 MGI:1929269 56334 NP_062744.1

TMED2 HGNC:16996 10959 NP_001308374.1

TMED2 HGNC:16996 10959 NM_001321445.1

Tmeml65 MGI:894407 21982 NM_011626.2

Tmeml65 MGI:894407 21982 NP_035756.2

TMEM165 HGNC:30760 55858 NP_060945.2

TMEM165 HGNC:30760 55858 NM_018475.4

Tmem41b MGI:1289225 233724 NM_153525.5

Tmem41b MGI:1289225 233724 NP_705745.3

TMEM41B HGNC:28948 440026 NP_001158502.1

TMEM41B HGNC:28948 440026 NM_015012.3

Tmx2 MGI:1914208 66958 NM_001290751.1 Tmx2 MGI:1914208 66958 NM_025868.4

Tmx2 MGI:1914208 66958 NP_001277680.1

Tmx2 MGI:1914208 66958 NP_080144.1

TMX2 HGNC:30739 51075 NP_001334821.1

TMX2 HGNC:30739 51075 NM_001347896.1

Traf2 MGI:101835 22030 NM_001290413.1

Traf2 MGI:101835 22030 NM_009422.3

Traf2 MGI:101835 22030 NP_001277342.1

Traf2 MGI:101835 22030 NP_033448.2

TRAF2 HGNC:12032 7186 XP_016870583.1

TRAF2 HGNC:12032 7186 NM_021138.3

Traf3 MGI:108041 22031 NM_001286122.1

Traf3 MGI:108041 22031 NM_011632.3

Traf3 MGI:108041 22031 NP_001273051.1

Traf3 MGI:108041 22031 NP_035762.2

TRAF3 HGNC:12033 7187 XP_016877106.1

TRAF3 HGNC:12033 7187 NM_001199427.1

Trexl MGI:1328317 22040 NM_001012236.1

Trexl MGI:1328317 22040 NM_011637.6

Trexl MGI:1328317 22040 NP_001012236.1

Trexl MGI:1328317 22040 NP_035767.4

TREX1 HGNC:12269 11277 NP_057465.1

TREX1 HGNC:12269 11277 NM_033629.4

Tripll MGI:1924393 109181 NM_028446.1

Tripll MGI:1924393 NP_082722.1

TRIP11 HGNC:12305 9321 NP_001308780.1

TRIP11 HGNC:12305 9321 NM_001321851.1

Tripl3 MGI:1916966 69716 ΜΝ*ί_027182.2

Tripl3 MGI:1916966 69716 NP_081458.1

TRIP13 HGNC:12307 9319 NP_004228.1

TRIP13 HGNC:12307 9319 NM_004237.3

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_001039363.2

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_001286713.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_001286714.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_001286716.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_001286718.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_001286720.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NM_011647.3

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_001034452.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_001273642.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_001273643.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_001273645.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_001273647.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_001273649.1

Tsc2 MGI:102548 22084 NP_035777.2

TSC2 HGNC:12363 7249 NP_001305761.1

TSC2 HGNC:12363 7249 NM_021056.1

Ttc33 MGI:1914765 67515 NM_026213.3

Ttc33 MGI:1914765 67515 NP_080489.1

TTC33 HGNC:29959 23548 NP_036514.1

TTC33 HGNC:29959 23548 NM_012382.2

Tubb2b MGI:1920960 73710 NM_023716.2 Tubb2b MGI:1920960 73710 NP_076205.1

TUBB2B HGNC:30829 347733 NP_821080.1

TUBB2B HGNC:30829 347733 NM_178012.4

Tvp23b MGI:1914760 67510 NM_026210.4

Tvp23b MGI:1914760 67510 NP_080486.1

TVP23B HGNC:20399 51030 NP_001303849.1

TVP23B HGNC:20399 51030 NM_001316921.1

Txndcl5 MGI:1916922 69672 NM_175150.3

Txndcl5 MGI:1916922 69672 NP_780359.2

TXNDC15 HGNC:20652 79770 NP_078991.3

TXNDC15 HGNC:20652 79770 NM_024715.3

Uba6 MGI:1913894 231380 NM_172712.2

Uba6 MGI:1913894 231380 NP_766300.1

UBA6 HGNC:25581 55236 NP_060697.4

UBA6 HGNC:25581 55236 NM_018227.5

Ube2h MGI:104632 22214 NM_001169576.1

Ube2h MGI:104632 22214 NM_001169577.1

Ube2h MGI:104632 22214 NM_009459.3

Ube2h MGI:104632 22214 NP_001163047.1

Ube2h MGI:104632 22214 NP_001163048.1

Ube2h MGI:104632 22214 NP_033485.1

UBE2H HGNC:12484 7328 NP_001189427.1

UBE2H HGNC:12484 7328 NM_001202498.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NM_001039157.2

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NM_001039158.2

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NM_001039159.2

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NM_001284312.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NM_001284314.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NM_021402.6

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NP_001034246.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NP_001034247.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NP_001034248.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NP_001271241.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NP_001271243.1

Ube2j2 MGI:2153608 140499 NP_067377.4

UBE2J2 HGNC:19268 118424 XP_016855728.1

UBE2J2 HGNC:19268 118424 NM_194315.1

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NM_001310618.1

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NM_001310619.1

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NM_016786.4

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NP_001297547.1

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NP_001297548.1

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NP_058066.2

Ube2k MGI:1858216 53323 NR_144566.1

UBE2K HGNC:4914 3093 NP_001104582.1

UBE2K HGNC:4914 3093 NM_001312647.1

Ube2n MGI:1934835 93765 NM_080560.3

Ube2n MGI:1934835 93765 NP_542127.1

UBE2N HGNC:12492 7334 XP_016875407.1

UBE2N HGNC:12492 7334 NM_003348.3

Ube2r2 MGI:1914865 67615 NM_026275.4

Ube2r2 MGI:1914865 67615 NP_080551.1 UBE2R2 HGNC:19907 54926 XP_016870349.1

UBE2R2 HGNC:19907 54926 NM_017811.3

Ubr4 MGI:1916366 69116 NM_001160319.1

Ubr4 MGI:1916366 69116 NP_001153791.1

UBR4 HGNC:30313 23352 XP_011539413.1

UBR4 HGNC:30313 23352 NM_020765.2

Ubtdl MGI:2385092 226122 NM_145500.3

Ubtdl MGI:2385092 226122 NP_663475.1

UBTD1 HGNC:25683 80019 NP_079230.1

UBTD1 HGNC:25683 80019 NM_024954.4

Uggtl MGI:2443162 320011 NM_198899.2

Uggtl MGI:2443162 320011 NP_942602.2

UGGT1 HGNC:15663 56886 XP_016859997.1

UGGT1 HGNC:15663 56886 NM_020120.3

Ugp2 MGI:2183447 216558 NM_001290634.1

Ugp2 MGI:2183447 216558 NM_139297.6

Ugp2 MGI:2183447 216558 NP_001277563.1

Ugp2 MGI:2183447 216558 NP_647458.1

UGP2 HGNC:12527 7360 XP_016860346.1

UGP2 HGNC:12527 7360 NM_001001521.1

Uspl8 MGI:1344364 24110 NM_011909.2

Uspl8 MGI:1344364 24110 NP_036039.2

USP18 HGNC:12616 11274 NP_059110.2

USP18 HGNC:12616 11274 NM_017414.3

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NM_001168371.2

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NM_001168372.2

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NM_001168373.2

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NM_027804.4

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NM_145407.3

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NP_001161843.1

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NP_001161844.1

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NP_001161845.1

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NP_082080.3

Uspl9 MGI:1918722 71472 NP_663382.2

USP19 HGNC:12617 10869 XP_006713013.1

USP19 HGNC:12617 10869 NM_001199161.1

Usp24 MGI:1919936 329908 NM_183225.2

Usp24 MGI:1919936 329908 NP_899048.2

USP24 HGNC:12623 23358 XP_016856325.1

USP24 HGNC:12623 23358 NM_015306.2

Vpsll MGI:1918982 71732 XIVLG17313538.1

Vpsll MGI:1918982 71732 NP_082165.1

VPS11 HGNC:14583 55823 NP_001277114.1

VPS11 HGNC:14583 55823 NM_001290185.1

Vpsl6 MGI:2136772 80743 NM_030559.3

Vpsl6 MGI:2136772 80743 NP_085036.3

VPS16 HGNC:14584 64601 NP_536338.1

VPS16 HGNC:14584 64601 NM_080413.2

Vps29 MGI:1928344 56433 NM_001347453.1

Vps29 MGI:1928344 56433 NM_019780.1

Vps29 MGI:1928344 56433 NP_001334382.1

Vps29 MGI:1928344 56433 NP_062754.1 VPS29 HGNC:14340 51699 XP_006719523.1

VPS29 HGNC:14340 51699 NM_016226.4

Vps33a MGI:1924823 77573 NM_029929.3

Vps33a MGI:1924823 77573 NP_084205.3

VPS33A HGNC:18179 65082 NP_001337950.1

VPS33A HGNC:18179 65082 NM_001351019.1

Vps4b MG 1:1100499 20479 NM_009190.2

Vps4b MGI:1100499 20479 NP_033216.2

VPS4B HGNC:10895 9525 XP_006722645.1

VPS4B HGNC:10895 9525 NM_004869.3

Wdr26 MGI:1923825 226757 NM_145514.5

Wdr26 MGI:1923825 226757 NP_663489.4

WDR26 HGNC:21208 80232 XP_016857885.1

WDR26 HGNC:21208 80232 NM_025160.6

Xrccl MGI:99137 22594 NM_009532.4

Xrccl MGI:99137 22594 NP_033558.3

XRCC1 HGNC:12828 7515 NP_006288.2

XRCC1 HGNC:12828 7515 NM_006297.2

Xrcc2 MGI:1927345 57434 NM_020570.2

Xrcc2 MGI:1927345 57434 NP_065595.2

XRCC2 HGNC:12829 7516 NP_005422.1

XRCC2 HGNC:12829 7516 NM_005431.1

Xrcc4 MGI:1333799 108138 NM_028012.4

Xrcc4 MGI:1333799 108138 NP_082288.1

XRCC4 HGNC:12831 7518 NP_003392.1

XRCC4 HGNC:12831 7518 NM_022406.3

Xrcc5 MGI:104517 22596 NM_009533.2

Xrcc5 MGI:104517 22596 NP_033559.2

XRCC5 HGNC:12833 7520 NP_066964.1

XRCC5 HGNC:12833 7520 NM_021141.3

Ypel5 MGI:1916937 383295 X _0Q6524538.1

Ypel5 MGI:1916937 383295 NP_081442.1

YPEL5 HGNC:18329 51646 XP_016859810.1

YPEL5 HGNC:18329 51646 NM_001127399.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NM_001253805.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NM_001253806.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NM_001253807.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NM_011740.3

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NP_001240734.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NP_001240735.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NP_001240736.1

Ywhaz MG 1:109484 22631 NP_035870.1

YWHAZ HGNC:12855 7534 XP_016869301.1

YWHAZ HGNC:12855 7534 NM_001135699.1

Zc3hl8 MGI:1923264 76014 NM_001029993.1

Zc3hl8 MGI:1923264 76014 NM_001029994.1

Zc3hl8 MGI:1923264 76014 NM_001310650.1

Zc3hl8 MGI:1923264 76014 NP_001025164.1

Zc3hl8 MGI:1923264 76014 NP_001025165.1

Zc3hl8 MGI:1923264 76014 NP_001297579.1

ZC3H18 HGNC:25091 124245 NP_653205.3

ZC3H18 HGNC:25091 124245 NM_144604.3 Zfpl48 MG I: 1332234 22661 NM_011749.4

Zfpl48 MG I:1332234 22661 NP_035879.1

ZNF148 HG NC:12933 7707 NP_001335353.1

ZNF148 HG NC:12933 7707 NM_001348436.1

Zfp273 MG I:3036278 212569 NIVL.198322.3

Zfp273 MG I:3036278 212569 NP_938081.2

ZNF676 HG NC:20429 163223 NP_001001411.2

ZNF676 HG NC:20429 163223 NM_001001411.2

Zfp281 MG I:3029290 226442 NM_001160251.1

Zfp281 MG I:3029290 226442 N M_177643.4

Zfp281 MG I:3029290 226442 NP_001153723.1

Zfp281 MG I:3029290 226442 NP_808311.1

ZNF281 HG NC:13075 23528 NP_036614.1

ZNF281 HG NC:13075 23528 NM_001281294.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NM_001289836.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NM_001289837.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NM_001289838.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NM_001289839.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 N M_178734.4

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NP_001276765.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NP_001276766.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NP_001276767.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NP_001276768.1

Zfp473 MG I:2442697 243963 NP_848849.2

ZNF473 HG NC:23239 25888 XP_016882063.1

ZNF473 HG NC:23239 25888 NM_001308424.2

Zfp827 MG 1:2444807 622675 NM_001294279.1

Zfp827 MG I:2444807 622675 N M_178267.3

Zfp827 MG 1:2444807 622675 NP_001281208.1

Zfp827 MG 1:2444807 622675 NP_839998.2

ZNF827 HG NC:27193 152485 XP_016863262.1

ZNF827 HG NC:27193 152485 NM_001306215.1

* The nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of the biomarkers of the present invention listed in Table 1 have been submitted at GenBank under the unique identifier provided herein and each such uniquely identified sequence submitted at GenBank is hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference.

* Included in Table 1 are RNA nucleic acid molecules (e.g., thymines replaced with uredines), nucleic acid molecules encoding orthologs of the encoded proteins, as well as DNA or RNA nucleic acid sequences comprising a nucleic acid sequence having at least 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, or more identity across their full length with the nucleic acid sequence of any publicly available sequence listed in Table 1 (see below for example), or a portion thereof. Such nucleic acid molecules can have a function of the full-length nucleic acid as described further herein.

* Included in Table 1 are orthologs of the proteins, as well as polypeptide molecules comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, or more identity across their full length with an amino acid sequence of any publicly available sequence listed in and Table 1 (see below for example), or a portion thereof. Such polypeptides can have a function of the full-length polypeptide as described further herein.

* Included in Table 1 are negative immune regulators (including CD274/PD-L1, Ptpn2, and Serpinb9). It also includes any known component of three major signaling pathways: NF-kB pathway (including Otulin, Rela, Ikbkg, Ikbkb, Rnf31 and Cflar), mTORCl pathways (including Rraga and Lamtorl) and RIG-I like receptor signaling pathway (including Tbkl, Fadd, Atg5 and multiple components overlapped with F-kB pathway), and two major metabolic pathways: glycolysis (including- Nsdhl, Gne, Gale, Eroll and Cd44) and nicotinate/ nicotinamide metabolism (including Nadk and Nampt). Sox4, Hdac5, and Ptpnll are included as well. In particular, any known component of a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex referred to as the PBAF complex, including the three unique PBAF complex components, Arid2, Pbrml and Brd7, are included, as well as orthologs of the pathway components and nucleic acid and amino acid variants having the recited homology described in the immediately preceding paragraphs and elsewhere herein.

Table 2


DERL2 HGNC:17943 51009 NP_001291708.1

DERL2 HGNC:17943 51009 NM_001304779.1

Dusp6 MGI:1914853 67603 NM_026268.3

Dusp6 MGI:1914853 67603 NP_080544.1

DUSP6 HGNC:3072 1848 NP_073143.2

DUSP6 HGNC:3072 1848 NM_022652.3

H2-D1 MGL95896 14964 NM_010380.3

H2-D1 MGL95896 14964 NP_034510.3

HLA-A HGNC:4931 3105 NP_001229687.1

HLA-A HGNC:4931 3105 NM_001242758.1

Ifngrl MGI:107655 15979 NM_010511.3

Ifngrl MGL107655 15979 NP_034641.1

IFNGR1 HGNC:5439 3459 XP_006715534.1

IFNGR1 HGNC:5439 3459 NM_000416.2

Ifngr2 MGI:107654 15980 NM_008338.3

Ifngr2 MG 1:107654 15980 NP_032364.1

IFNGR2 HGNC:5440 3460 XP_011527855.1

IFNGR2 HGNC:5440 3460 NM_001329128.1

Jakl MGL96628 16451 NM_146145.2

Jakl MGL96628 16451 NP_666257.2

JAK1 HGNC:6190 3716 NP_001308783.1

JAK1 HGNC:6190 3716 NM_001320923.1

Jak2 MGL96629 16452 NM_001048177.2

Jak2 MGL96629 16452 NM_008413.3

Jak2 MGL96629 16452 NP_001041642.1

Jak2 MGL96629 16452 NP_032439.2

JAK2 HGNC:6192 3717 NP_001309128.1

JAK2 HGNC:6192 3717 NM_001322204.1

Lztrl MGI:1914113 66863 NM_001331226.1

Lztrl MGI:1914113 66863 NM_001331227.1

Lztrl MGI:1914113 66863 NM_025808.4

Lztrl MGI:1914113 66863 NP_001318155.1

Lztrl MGI:1914113 66863 NP_001318156.1

Lztrl MGI:1914113 66863 NP_080084.2

LZTR1 HGNC:6742 8216 NP_006758.2

LZTR1 HGNC:6742 8216 NM_006767.3

Mbnll MGL1928482 56758 NM_001253708.2

Mbnll MGL1928482 56758 NM_001253709.2

Mbnll MGL1928482 56758 NM_001253710.2

Mbnll MGL1928482 56758 NM_001253711.2

Mbnll MGL1928482 56758 NM_001253713.2

Mbnll MGL1928482 56758 NM_001310514.1 Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NM_020007.4

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_001240637.1

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_001240638.1

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_001240639.1

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_001240640.1

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_001240642.1

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_001297443.1

Mbnll MGI:1928482 56758 NP_064391.2

MBNL1 HGNC:6923 4154 XP_005247534.1

MBNL1 HGNC:6923 4154 NM_207293.1

Nfl MG I:97306 18015 NM_010897.2

Nfl MG I:97306 18015 NP_035027.1

NF1 HGNC:7765 4763 NP_001035957.1

NF1 HGNC:7765 4763 NM_000267.3

Statl MG I:103063 20846 NM_001205313.1

Statl MG I:103063 20846 NM_001205314.1

Statl MG 1:103063 20846 NM_009283.4

Statl MG 1:103063 20846 NP_001192242.1

Statl MG 1:103063 20846 NP_001192243.1

Statl MG 1:103063 20846 NP_033309.3

STAT1 HGNC:11362 6772 XP_006712781.1

STAT1 HGNC:11362 6772 NM_139266.2

Syvnl MGI: 1921376 74126 NM_001164709.1

Syvnl MGI: 1921376 74126 NM_028769.5

Syvnl MGI: 1921376 74126 NP_001158181.1

Syvnl MGI: 1921376 74126 NP_083045.4

SYVN1 HGNC:20738 84447 XP_011543605.1

SYVN1 HGNC:20738 84447 NM_032431.2

Tapl MG I:98483 21354 NM_001161730.1

Tapl MG I:98483 21354 NM_013683.2

Tapl MG I:98483 21354 NP_001155202.1

Tapl MG I:98483 21354 NP_038711.2

TAP1 HGNC:43 6890 NP_000584.2

TAP1 HGNC:43 6890 NM_001292022.1

Tap2 MG I:98484 21355 NM_011530.3

Tap2 MG I:98484 21355 NP_035660.3

TAP2 HGNC:44 6891 NP_000535.3

TAP2 HGNC:44 6891 NM_000544.3

Ube2g2 MGI :1343188 22213 NM_019803.3

Ube2g2 MGI :1343188 22213 NP_062777.2

UBE2G2 HGNC:12483 7327 NP_001189418.1

UBE2G2 HGNC:12483 7327 NM_182688.2 * The nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of the biomarkers of the present invention listed in Table 2 have been submitted at GenBank under the unique identifier provided herein and each such uniquely identified sequence submitted at GenBank is hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference.

* Included in Table 2 are RNA nucleic acid molecules (e.g., thymines replaced with uredines), nucleic acid molecules encoding orthologs of the encoded proteins, as well as DNA or RNA nucleic acid sequences comprising a nucleic acid sequence having at least 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, or more identity across their full length with the nucleic acid sequence of any publicly available sequence listed in Table 2, or a portion thereof. Such nucleic acid molecules can have a function of the full-length nucleic acid as described further herein.

* Included in Table 2 are orthologs of the proteins, as well as polypeptide molecules comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, or more identity across their full length with an amino acid sequence of any publicly available sequence listed in Table 2, or a portion thereof. Such polypeptides can have a function of the full-length polypeptide as described further herein.

* Included in Table 2 are any known components of the MHC class I pathway required for presentation of tumor-derived peptides to T cells (including H2-D1, B2m, Tapl, and Tap2), any known component of the IFNy and IFNa/β recognition and signaling pathway

(including Jakl, Jak2, Statl, Ifiigrl and Ifiigr2), and negative regulators of Ras/MAPK pathways (including Nfl and Dusp6), as well as orthologs of the pathway components and nucleic acid and amino acid variants having the recited homology described in the immediately preceding paragraphs and elsewhere herein.

II. Subjects

In one embodiment, the subject for whom an agent sensitizing cancer cells to T cell mediated killing is administered {e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9), or whose predicted likelihood of efficacy of the agent for treating a cancer is determined, is a mammal {e.g., mouse, rat, primate, non-human mammal, domestic animal,

such as a dog, cat, cow, horse, and the like), and is preferably a human. In another embodiment, the subject is an animal model of cancer. For example, the animal model can be an orthotopic xenograft animal model of a human-derived cancer.

In another embodiment of the methods of the present invention, the subject has not undergone treatment, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and/or immunotherapies. In still another embodiment, the subject has undergone treatment, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and/or immunotherapies.

In certain embodiments, the subject has had surgery to remove cancerous or precancerous tissue. In other embodiments, the cancerous tissue has not been removed, e.g., the cancerous tissue may be located in an inoperable region of the body, such as in a tissue that is essential for life, or in a region where a surgical procedure would cause considerable risk of harm to the patient.

The methods of the present invention can be used to determine the responsiveness to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) of many different cancers in subjects such as those described herein. In one embodiment, the cancers are melanoma, head and neck squamous carcinoma, kidney cancer, and lung

adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma.

III. Sample Collection, Preparation and Separation

In some embodiments, biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) in a sample from a subject is compared to a predetermined control (standard) sample. The sample from the subject is typically from a diseased tissue, such as cancer cells or tissues. The control sample can be from the same subject or from a different subject. The control sample is typically a normal, non-diseased sample. However, in some embodiments, such as for staging of disease or for evaluating the efficacy of treatment, the control sample can be from a diseased tissue. The control sample can be a combination of samples from several different subjects. In some embodiments, the biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) from a subject is compared to a pre-determined level. This pre-determined level is typically obtained from normal samples. As described herein, a "pre-determined" biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) may be a biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) used to, by way of example only, evaluate a subject that may be selected for treatment, evaluate a response to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9), and/or evaluate a response to a combination cancer

therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 in combination of at least one immunotherapy). A pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity

measurement(s) may be determined in populations of patients with or without cancer. The pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) can be a single number, equally applicable to every patient, or the pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) can vary according to specific subpopulations of patients. Age, weight, height, and other factors of a subject may affect the pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) of the individual. Furthermore, the pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity can be determined for each subject individually. In one embodiment, the amounts determined and/or compared in a method described herein are based on absolute measurements.

In another embodiment, the amounts determined and/or compared in a method described herein are based on relative measurements, such as ratios (e.g., biomarker copy numbers, level, and/or activity before a treatment vs. after a treatment, such biomarker measurements relative to a spiked or man-made control, such biomarker measurements relative to the expression of a housekeeping gene, and the like). For example, the relative analysis can be based on the ratio of pre-treatment biomarker measurement as compared to post-treatment biomarker measurement. Pre-treatment biomarker measurement can be made at any time prior to initiation of cancer therapy. Post-treatment biomarker measurement can be made at any time after initiation of cancer therapy. In some embodiments, post-treatment biomarker measurements are made 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 weeks or more after initiation of cancer therapy, and even longer toward indefinitely for continued monitoring. Treatment can comprise cancer therapy, such as a therapeutic regimen comprising one or more modulators of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 alone or in combination with other cancer agents, such as with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

The pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) can be any suitable standard. For example, the pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity measurement(s) can be obtained from the same or a different human for whom a patient selection is being assessed. In one embodiment, the pre-determined biomarker amount and/or activity measurement s) can be obtained from a previous assessment of the same patient. In such a manner, the progress of the selection of the patient can be monitored over time. In addition, the control can be obtained from an assessment of another human or

multiple humans, e.g., selected groups of humans, if the subject is a human. In such a manner, the extent of the selection of the human for whom selection is being assessed can be compared to suitable other humans, e.g., other humans who are in a similar situation to the human of interest, such as those suffering from similar or the same condition(s) and/or of the same ethnic group.

In some embodiments of the present invention the change of biomarker amount and/or activity measurement s) from the pre-determined level is about 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, or 5.0 fold or greater, or any range in between, inclusive. Such cutoff values apply equally when the measurement is based on relative changes, such as based on the ratio of pre-treatment biomarker measurement as compared to post-treatment biomarker measurement.

Biological samples can be collected from a variety of sources from a patient including a body fluid sample, cell sample, or a tissue sample comprising nucleic acids and/or proteins. "Body fluids" refer to fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as fluids that are normally not (e.g., amniotic fluid, aqueous humor, bile, blood and blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, cerumen and earwax, cowper's fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, chyle, chyme, stool, female ejaculate, interstitial fluid, intracellular fluid, lymph, menses, breast milk, mucus, pleural fluid, pus, saliva, sebum, semen, serum, sweat, synovial fluid, tears, urine, vaginal lubrication, vitreous humor, vomit). In a preferred embodiment, the subject and/or control sample is selected from the group consisting of cells, cell lines, histological slides, paraffin embedded tissues, biopsies, whole blood, nipple aspirate, serum, plasma, buccal scrape, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, stool, and bone marrow. In one embodiment, the sample is serum, plasma, or urine. In another

embodiment, the sample is serum.

The samples can be collected from individuals repeatedly over a longitudinal period of time (e.g., once or more on the order of days, weeks, months, annually, biannually, etc.). Obtaining numerous samples from an individual over a period of time can be used to verify results from earlier detections and/or to identify an alteration in biological pattern as a result of, for example, disease progression, drug treatment, etc. For example, subject samples can be taken and monitored every month, every two months, or combinations of one, two, or three month intervals according to the present invention. In addition, the biomarker amount and/or activity measurements of the subject obtained over time can be conveniently compared with each other, as well as with those of normal controls during the monitoring

period, thereby providing the subject's own values, as an internal, or personal, control for long-term monitoring.

Sample preparation and separation can involve any of the procedures, depending on the type of sample collected and/or analysis of biomarker measurement(s). Such procedures include, by way of example only, concentration, dilution, adjustment of pH, removal of high abundance polypeptides (e.g., albumin, gamma globulin, and transferrin, etc.), addition of preservatives and calibrants, addition of protease inhibitors, addition of denaturants, desalting of samples, concentration of sample proteins, extraction and purification of lipids.

The sample preparation can also isolate molecules that are bound in non-covalent complexes to other protein (e.g., carrier proteins). This process may isolate those molecules bound to a specific carrier protein (e.g., albumin), or use a more general process, such as the release of bound molecules from all carrier proteins via protein denaturation, for example using an acid, followed by removal of the carrier proteins.

Removal of undesired proteins (e.g. , high abundance, uninformative, or

undetectable proteins) from a sample can be achieved using high affinity reagents, high molecular weight filters, ultracentrifugation and/or electrodialysis. High affinity reagents include antibodies or other reagents (e.g., aptamers) that selectively bind to high abundance proteins. Sample preparation could also include ion exchange chromatography, metal ion affinity chromatography, gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, chromatofocusing, adsorption chromatography, isoelectric focusing and related techniques. Molecular weight filters include membranes that separate molecules on the basis of size and molecular weight. Such filters may further employ reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration.

Ultracentrifugation is a method for removing undesired polypeptides from a sample.

Ultracentrifugation is the centrifugation of a sample at about 15,000-60,000 rpm while monitoring with an optical system the sedimentation (or lack thereof) of particles.

Electrodialysis is a procedure which uses an electromembrane or semipermable membrane in a process in which ions are transported through semi-permeable membranes from one solution to another under the influence of a potential gradient. Since the membranes used in electrodialysis may have the ability to selectively transport ions having positive or negative charge, reject ions of the opposite charge, or to allow species to migrate through a semipermable membrane based on size and charge, it renders electrodialysis useful for

concentration, removal, or separation of electrolytes.

Separation and purification in the present invention may include any procedure known in the art, such as capillary electrophoresis (e.g., in capillary or on-chip) or chromatography (e.g., in capillary, column or on a chip). Electrophoresis is a method which can be used to separate ionic molecules under the influence of an electric field.

Electrophoresis can be conducted in a gel, capillary, or in a microchannel on a chip.

Examples of gels used for electrophoresis include starch, acrylamide, polyethylene oxides, agarose, or combinations thereof. A gel can be modified by its cross-linking, addition of detergents, or denaturants, immobilization of enzymes or antibodies (affinity

electrophoresis) or substrates (zymography) and incorporation of a pH gradient. Examples of capillaries used for electrophoresis include capillaries that interface with an electrospray.

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is preferred for separating complex hydrophilic molecules and highly charged solutes. CE technology can also be implemented on microfluidic chips. Depending on the types of capillary and buffers used, CE can be further segmented into separation techniques such as capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). An embodiment to couple CE techniques to electrospray ionization involves the use of volatile solutions, for example, aqueous mixtures containing a volatile acid and/or base and an organic such as an alcohol or acetonitrile.

Capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) is a technique in which the analytes move through the capillary at a constant speed but are nevertheless separated by their respective mobilities. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), also known as free-solution CE (FSCE), is based on differences in the electrophoretic mobility of the species, determined by the charge on the molecule, and the frictional resistance the molecule encounters during migration which is often directly proportional to the size of the molecule. Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) allows weakly-ionizable amphoteric molecules, to be separated by electrophoresis in a pH gradient. CEC is a hybrid technique between traditional high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and CE.

Separation and purification techniques used in the present invention include any chromatography procedures known in the art. Chromatography can be based on the differential adsorption and elution of certain analytes or partitioning of analytes between mobile and stationary phases. Different examples of chromatography include, but not

limited to, liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), etc.

IV. Biomarker Nucleic Acids and Polypeptides

One aspect of the present invention pertains to the use of isolated nucleic acid molecules that correspond to biomarker nucleic acids that encode a biomarker polypeptide or a portion of such a polypeptide. As used herein, the term "nucleic acid molecule" is intended to include DNA molecules (e.g., cDNA or genomic DNA) and RNA molecules (e.g., mRNA) and analogs of the DNA or RNA generated using nucleotide analogs. The nucleic acid molecule can be single-stranded or double-stranded, but preferably is double-stranded DNA.

An "isolated" nucleic acid molecule is one which is separated from other nucleic acid molecules which are present in the natural source of the nucleic acid molecule.

Preferably, an "isolated" nucleic acid molecule is free of sequences (preferably protein-encoding sequences) which naturally flank the nucleic acid (i.e., sequences located at the 5' and 3' ends of the nucleic acid) in the genomic DNA of the organism from which the nucleic acid is derived. For example, in various embodiments, the isolated nucleic acid molecule can contain less than about 5 kB, 4 kB, 3 kB, 2 kB, 1 kB, 0.5 kB or 0.1 kB of nucleotide sequences which naturally flank the nucleic acid molecule in genomic DNA of the cell from which the nucleic acid is derived. Moreover, an "isolated" nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA molecule, can be substantially free of other cellular material or culture medium when produced by recombinant techniques, or substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized.

A biomarker nucleic acid molecule of the present invention can be isolated using standard molecular biology techniques and the sequence information in the database records described herein. Using all or a portion of such nucleic acid sequences, nucleic acid molecules of the present invention can be isolated using standard hybridization and cloning techniques (e.g., as described in Sambrook et al, ed., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1989).

A nucleic acid molecule of the present invention can be amplified using cDNA, mRNA, or genomic DNA as a template and appropriate oligonucleotide primers according to standard PCR amplification techniques. The nucleic acid molecules so amplified can be cloned into an appropriate vector and characterized by DNA sequence analysis.

Furthermore, oligonucleotides corresponding to all or a portion of a nucleic acid molecule of the present invention can be prepared by standard synthetic techniques, e.g., using an automated DNA synthesizer.

Moreover, a nucleic acid molecule of the present invention can comprise only a portion of a nucleic acid sequence, wherein the full length nucleic acid sequence comprises a marker of the present invention or which encodes a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention. Such nucleic acid molecules can be used, for example, as a probe or primer. The probe/primer typically is used as one or more substantially purified oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotide typically comprises a region of nucleotide sequence that hybridizes under stringent conditions to at least about 7, preferably about 15, more preferably about 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300, 350, or 400 or more consecutive nucleotides of a biomarker nucleic acid sequence. Probes based on the sequence of a biomarker nucleic acid molecule can be used to detect transcripts or genomic sequences corresponding to one or more markers of the present invention. The probe comprises a label group attached thereto, e.g., a radioisotope, a fluorescent compound, an enzyme, or an enzyme co-factor.

A biomarker nucleic acid molecules that differ, due to degeneracy of the genetic code, from the nucleotide sequence of nucleic acid molecules encoding a protein which corresponds to the biomarker, and thus encode the same protein, are also contemplated.

In addition, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that DNA sequence polymorphisms that lead to changes in the amino acid sequence can exist within a population (e.g., the human population). Such genetic polymorphisms can exist among individuals within a population due to natural allelic variation. An allele is one of a group of genes which occur alternatively at a given genetic locus. In addition, it will be appreciated that DNA polymorphisms that affect RNA expression levels can also exist that may affect the overall expression level of that gene (e.g., by affecting regulation or degradation).

The term "allele," which is used interchangeably herein with "allelic variant," refers to alternative forms of a gene or portions thereof. Alleles occupy the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes. When a subject has two identical alleles of a gene, the subject is said to be homozygous for the gene or allele. When a subject has two different alleles of a gene, the subject is said to be heterozygous for the gene or allele. For example, biomarker alleles can differ from each other in a single nucleotide, or several nucleotides, and can include substitutions, deletions, and insertions of nucleotides. An allele of a gene can also be a form of a gene containing one or more mutations.

The term "allelic variant of a polymorphic region of gene" or "allelic variant", used interchangeably herein, refers to an alternative form of a gene having one of several possible nucleotide sequences found in that region of the gene in the population. As used herein, allelic variant is meant to encompass functional allelic variants, non-functional allelic variants, SNPs, mutations and polymorphisms.

The term "single nucleotide polymorphism" (SNP) refers to a polymorphic site occupied by a single nucleotide, which is the site of variation between allelic sequences. The site is usually preceded by and followed by highly conserved sequences of the allele (e.g., sequences that vary in less than 1/100 or 1/1000 members of a population). A SNP usually arises due to substitution of one nucleotide for another at the polymorphic site. SNPs can also arise from a deletion of a nucleotide or an insertion of a nucleotide relative to a reference allele. Typically the polymorphic site is occupied by a base other than the reference base. For example, where the reference allele contains the base "T" (thymidine) at the polymorphic site, the altered allele can contain a "C" (cytidine), "G" (guanine), or "A" (adenine) at the polymorphic site. SNP's may occur in protein-coding nucleic acid sequences, in which case they may give rise to a defective or otherwise variant protein, or genetic disease. Such a SNP may alter the coding sequence of the gene and therefore specify another amino acid (a "missense" SNP) or a SNP may introduce a stop codon (a "nonsense" SNP). When a SNP does not alter the amino acid sequence of a protein, the SNP is called "silent." SNP's may also occur in noncoding regions of the nucleotide sequence. This may result in defective protein expression, e.g., as a result of alternative spicing, or it may have no effect on the function of the protein.

As used herein, the terms "gene" and "recombinant gene" refer to nucleic acid molecules comprising an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention. Such natural allelic variations can typically result in 1-5% variance in the nucleotide sequence of a given gene. Alternative alleles can be identified by sequencing the gene of interest in a number of different individuals. This can be readily carried out by using hybridization probes to identify the same genetic locus in a variety of individuals. Any and all such nucleotide variations and resulting amino acid

polymorphisms or variations that are the result of natural allelic variation and that do not alter the functional activity are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.

In another embodiment, a biomarker nucleic acid molecule is at least 7, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 550, 650, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, 2200, 2400, 2600, 2800, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, or more nucleotides in length and hybridizes under stringent conditions to a nucleic acid molecule corresponding to a marker of the present invention or to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a protein corresponding to a marker of the present invention. As used herein, the term "hybridizes under stringent conditions" is intended to describe conditions for hybridization and washing under which nucleotide sequences at least 60% (65%, 70%), 75%), 80%), preferably 85%>) identical to each other typically remain hybridized to each other. Such stringent conditions are known to those skilled in the art and can be found in sections 6.3.1-6.3.6 of Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. (1989). A preferred, non-limiting example of stringent hybridization conditions are hybridization in 6X sodium chloride/sodium citrate (SSC) at about 45°C, followed by one or more washes in 0.2X SSC, 0.1% SDS at 50-65°C.

In addition to naturally-occurring allelic variants of a nucleic acid molecule of the present invention that can exist in the population, the skilled artisan will further appreciate that sequence changes can be introduced by mutation thereby leading to changes in the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein, without altering the biological activity of the protein encoded thereby. For example, one can make nucleotide substitutions leading to amino acid substitutions at "non-essential" amino acid residues. A "non-essential" amino acid residue is a residue that can be altered from the wild-type sequence without altering the biological activity, whereas an "essential" amino acid residue is required for biological activity. For example, amino acid residues that are not conserved or only semi-conserved among homologs of various species may be non-essential for activity and thus would be likely targets for alteration. Alternatively, amino acid residues that are conserved among the homologs of various species {e.g., murine and human) may be essential for activity and thus would not be likely targets for alteration.

Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention pertains to nucleic acid molecules encoding a polypeptide of the present invention that contain changes in amino acid residues that are not essential for activity. Such polypeptides differ in amino acid sequence from the naturally-occurring proteins which correspond to the markers of the

present invention, yet retain biological activity. In one embodiment, a biomarker protein has an amino acid sequence that is at least about 40% identical, 50%, 60%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 83%, 85%, 87.5%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or identical to the amino acid sequence of a biomarker protein described herein.

An isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a variant protein can be created by introducing one or more nucleotide substitutions, additions or deletions into the nucleotide sequence of nucleic acids of the present invention, such that one or more amino acid residue substitutions, additions, or deletions are introduced into the encoded protein. Mutations can be introduced by standard techniques, such as site-directed mutagenesis and PCR-mediated mutagenesis. Preferably, conservative amino acid substitutions are made at one or more predicted non-essential amino acid residues. A "conservative amino acid substitution" is one in which the amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a similar side chain. Families of amino acid residues having similar side chains have been defined in the art. These families include amino acids with basic side chains (e.g., lysine, arginine, histidine), acidic side chains (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid), uncharged polar side chains (e.g., glycine, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, cysteine), non-polar side chains (e.g., alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan), beta-branched side chains (e.g., threonine, valine, isoleucine) and aromatic side chains (e.g., tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine). Alternatively, mutations can be introduced randomly along all or part of the coding sequence, such as by saturation mutagenesis, and the resultant mutants can be screened for biological activity to identify mutants that retain activity. Following mutagenesis, the encoded protein can be expressed recombinantly and the activity of the protein can be determined.

In some embodiments, the present invention further contemplates the use of anti-biomarker antisense nucleic acid molecules, i.e., molecules which are complementary to a sense nucleic acid of the present invention, e.g., complementary to the coding strand of a double-stranded cDNA molecule corresponding to a marker of the present invention or complementary to an mRNA sequence corresponding to a marker of the present invention. Accordingly, an antisense nucleic acid molecule of the present invention can hydrogen bond to (i.e. anneal with) a sense nucleic acid of the present invention. The antisense nucleic acid can be complementary to an entire coding strand, or to only a portion thereof, e.g., all or part of the protein coding region (or open reading frame). An antisense nucleic acid molecule can also be antisense to all or part of a non-coding region of the coding

strand of a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of the present invention. The non-coding regions ("5' and 3' untranslated regions") are the 5' and 3' sequences which flank the coding region and are not translated into amino acids.

An antisense oligonucleotide can be, for example, about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 or more nucleotides in length. An antisense nucleic acid can be constructed using chemical synthesis and enzymatic ligation reactions using procedures known in the art. For example, an antisense nucleic acid (e.g., an antisense oligonucleotide) can be chemically synthesized using naturally occurring nucleotides or variously modified nucleotides designed to increase the biological stability of the molecules or to increase the physical stability of the duplex formed between the antisense and sense nucleic acids, e.g., phosphorothioate derivatives and acridine substituted nucleotides can be used. Examples of modified nucleotides which can be used to generate the antisense nucleic acid include 5-fluorouracil, 5-bromouracil, 5-chlorouracil, 5-iodouracil, hypoxanthine, xanthine, 4-acetylcytosine, 5-(carboxyhydroxylmethyl) uracil, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluracil, dihydrouracil, beta-D-galactosylqueosine, inosine, N6-isopentenyladenine, 1-methylguanine, 1-methylinosine, 2,2-dimethylguanine,

2- methyladenine, 2-methylguanine, 3-methylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, N6-adenine, 7-methylguanine, 5-methylaminomethyluracil, 5-methoxyaminomethyl-2-thiouracil, beta-D-mannosylqueosine, 5'-methoxycarboxymethyluracil, 5-methoxyuracil, 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenine, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid (v), wybutoxosine, pseudouracil, queosine, 2-thiocytosine, 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil, 5-methyluracil, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid methylester, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid (v), 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, 3-(3-amino- 3- N-2-carboxypropyl) uracil, (acp3)w, and 2,6-diaminopurine. Alternatively, the antisense nucleic acid can be produced biologically using an expression vector into which a nucleic acid has been sub-cloned in an antisense orientation (i.e., RNA transcribed from the inserted nucleic acid will be of an antisense orientation to a target nucleic acid of interest, described further in the following subsection).

The antisense nucleic acid molecules of the present invention are typically administered to a subject or generated in situ such that they hybridize with or bind to cellular mRNA and/or genomic DNA encoding a polypeptide corresponding to a selected marker of the present invention to thereby inhibit expression of the marker, e.g., by inhibiting transcription and/or translation. The hybridization can be by conventional nucleotide complementarity to form a stable duplex, or, for example, in the case of an

antisense nucleic acid molecule which binds to DNA duplexes, through specific interactions in the major groove of the double helix. Examples of a route of administration of antisense nucleic acid molecules of the present invention includes direct injection at a tissue site or infusion of the antisense nucleic acid into a blood- or bone marrow-associated body fluid. Alternatively, antisense nucleic acid molecules can be modified to target selected cells and then administered systemically. For example, for systemic administration, antisense molecules can be modified such that they specifically bind to receptors or antigens expressed on a selected cell surface, e.g., by linking the antisense nucleic acid molecules to peptides or antibodies which bind to cell surface receptors or antigens. The antisense nucleic acid molecules can also be delivered to cells using the vectors described herein. To achieve sufficient intracellular concentrations of the antisense molecules, vector constructs in which the antisense nucleic acid molecule is placed under the control of a strong pol II or pol III promoter are preferred.

An antisense nucleic acid molecule of the present invention can be an a-anomeric nucleic acid molecule. An a-anomeric nucleic acid molecule forms specific double-stranded hybrids with complementary RNA in which, contrary to the usual a-units, the strands run parallel to each other (Gaultier et al. (1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15:6625-6641). The antisense nucleic acid molecule can also comprise a 2'-o-methylribonucleotide (Inoue et al. (1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15:6131-6148) or a chimeric RNA-DNA analogue (Inoue et al. (1987) FEBS Lett. 215:327-330).

The present invention also encompasses ribozymes. Ribozymes are catalytic RNA molecules with ribonuclease activity which are capable of cleaving a single-stranded nucleic acid, such as an mRNA, to which they have a complementary region. Thus, ribozymes {e.g., hammerhead ribozymes as described in Haselhoff and Gerlach (1988) Nature 334:585-591) can be used to catalytically cleave mRNA transcripts to thereby inhibit translation of the protein encoded by the mRNA. A ribozyme having specificity for a nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention can be designed based upon the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA corresponding to the marker. For example, a derivative of a Tetrahymena L-19 IVS RNA can be constructed in which the nucleotide sequence of the active site is complementary to the nucleotide sequence to be cleaved (see Cech et al. U.S. Patent No. 4,987,071; and Cech et al. U.S. Patent No. 5,116,742). Alternatively, an mRNA encoding a polypeptide of the present

invention can be used to select a catalytic RNA having a specific ribonuclease activity from a pool of RNA molecules (see, e.g., Bartel and Szostak (1993) Science 261 : 1411-1418).

The present invention also encompasses nucleic acid molecules which form triple helical structures. For example, expression of a biomarker protein can be inhibited by targeting nucleotide sequences complementary to the regulatory region of the gene encoding the polypeptide (e.g., the promoter and/or enhancer) to form triple helical structures that prevent transcription of the gene in target cells. See generally Helene (1991) Anticancer Drug Des. 6(6):569-84; Helene (1992) Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 660:27-36; and Maher ( 1992) Bioassays 14( 12) : 807- 15.

In various embodiments, the nucleic acid molecules of the present invention can be modified at the base moiety, sugar moiety or phosphate backbone to improve, e.g., the stability, hybridization, or solubility of the molecule. For example, the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of the nucleic acid molecules can be modified to generate peptide nucleic acid molecules (see Hyrup et al. (1996) Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 4(1): 5-23). As used herein, the terms "peptide nucleic acids" or "PNAs" refer to nucleic acid mimics, e.g., DNA mimics, in which the deoxyribose phosphate backbone is replaced by a pseudopeptide backbone and only the four natural nucleobases are retained. The neutral backbone of PNAs has been shown to allow for specific hybridization to DNA and RNA under conditions of low ionic strength. The synthesis of PNA oligomers can be performed using standard solid phase peptide synthesis protocols as described in Hyrup et al. (1996), supra; Perry-O'Keefe et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 : 14670-675.

PNAs can be used in therapeutic and diagnostic applications. For example, PNAs can be used as antisense or antigene agents for sequence-specific modulation of gene expression by, e.g., inducing transcription or translation arrest or inhibiting replication. PNAs can also be used, e.g., in the analysis of single base pair mutations in a gene by, e.g., PNA directed PCR clamping; as artificial restriction enzymes when used in combination with other enzymes, e.g., SI nucleases (Hyrup (1996), supra; or as probes or primers for DNA sequence and hybridization (Hyrup (1996), supra; Perry-O'Keefe et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 : 14670-14675).

In another embodiment, PNAs can be modified, e.g., to enhance their stability or cellular uptake, by attaching lipophilic or other helper groups to PNA, by the formation of PNA-DNA chimeras, or by the use of liposomes or other techniques of drug delivery known in the art. For example, PNA-DNA chimeras can be generated which can combine

the advantageous properties of PNA and DNA. Such chimeras allow DNA recognition enzymes, e.g., RNASE H and DNA polymerases, to interact with the DNA portion while the PNA portion would provide high binding affinity and specificity. PNA-DNA chimeras can be linked using linkers of appropriate lengths selected in terms of base stacking, number of bonds between the nucleobases, and orientation (Hyrup (1996), supra). The synthesis of PNA-DNA chimeras can be performed as described in Hyrup (1996), supra, and Finn et al. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24(17):3357-3363. For example, a DNA chain can be synthesized on a solid support using standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry and modified nucleoside analogs. Compounds such as 5'-(4-methoxytrityl)amino-5'-deoxy-thymidine phosphoramidite can be used as a link between the PNA and the 5' end of DNA (Mag et al. (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17:5973-5988). PNA monomers are then coupled in a step-wise manner to produce a chimeric molecule with a 5' PNA segment and a 3' DNA segment (Finn et al. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24:3357-3363). Alternatively, chimeric molecules can be synthesized with a 5' DNA segment and a 3' PNA segment (Peterser et al. (1975) Bioorganic Med. Chem. Lett. 5: 1119-11124).

In other embodiments, the oligonucleotide can include other appended groups such as peptides {e.g., for targeting host cell receptors in vivo), or agents facilitating transport across the cell membrane (see, e.g., Letsinger et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:6553-6556; Lemaitre et al. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:648-652; PCT

Publication No. WO 88/09810) or the blood-brain barrier (see, e.g., PCT Publication No. WO 89/10134). In addition, oligonucleotides can be modified with hybridization-triggered cleavage agents (see, e.g., Krol et al. (1988) Bio/Techniques 6:958-976) or intercalating agents (see, e.g., Zon (1988) Pharm. Res. 5:539-549). To this end, the oligonucleotide can be conjugated to another molecule, e.g., a peptide, hybridization triggered cross-linking agent, transport agent, hybridization-triggered cleavage agent, etc.

Another aspect of the present invention pertains to the use of biomarker proteins and biologically active portions thereof. In one embodiment, the native polypeptide

corresponding to a marker can be isolated from cells or tissue sources by an appropriate purification scheme using standard protein purification techniques. In another embodiment, polypeptides corresponding to a marker of the present invention are produced by

recombinant DNA techniques. Alternative to recombinant expression, a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention can be synthesized chemically using standard peptide synthesis techniques.

An "isolated" or "purified" protein or biologically active portion thereof is substantially free of cellular material or other contaminating proteins from the cell or tissue source from which the protein is derived, or substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. The language "substantially free of cellular material" includes preparations of protein in which the protein is separated from cellular components of the cells from which it is isolated or recombinantly produced. Thus, protein that is substantially free of cellular material includes preparations of protein having less than about 30%, 20%, 10%, or 5% (by dry weight) of heterologous protein (also referred to herein as a "contaminating protein"). When the protein or biologically active portion thereof is recombinantly produced, it is also preferably substantially free of culture medium, i.e., culture medium represents less than about 20%, 10%, or 5% of the volume of the protein preparation. When the protein is produced by chemical synthesis, it is preferably substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals, i.e., it is separated from chemical precursors or other chemicals which are involved in the synthesis of the protein. Accordingly such preparations of the protein have less than about 30%, 20%, 10%, 5% (by dry weight) of chemical precursors or compounds other than the polypeptide of interest.

Biologically active portions of a biomarker polypeptide include polypeptides comprising amino acid sequences sufficiently identical to or derived from a biomarker protein amino acid sequence described herein, but which includes fewer amino acids than the full length protein, and exhibit at least one activity of the corresponding full-length protein. Typically, biologically active portions comprise a domain or motif with at least one activity of the corresponding protein. A biologically active portion of a protein of the present invention can be a polypeptide which is, for example, 10, 25, 50, 100 or more amino acids in length. Moreover, other biologically active portions, in which other regions of the protein are deleted, can be prepared by recombinant techniques and evaluated for one or more of the functional activities of the native form of a polypeptide of the present invention.

Preferred polypeptides have an amino acid sequence of a biomarker protein encoded by a nucleic acid molecule described herein. Other useful proteins are substantially identical (e.g., at least about 40%, preferably 50%, 60%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 83%, 85%, 88%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99%) to one of these sequences and

retain the functional activity of the protein of the corresponding naturally-occurring protein yet differ in amino acid sequence due to natural allelic variation or mutagenesis.

To determine the percent identity of two amino acid sequences or of two nucleic acids, the sequences are aligned for optimal comparison purposes (e.g., gaps can be introduced in the sequence of a first amino acid or nucleic acid sequence for optimal alignment with a second amino or nucleic acid sequence). The amino acid residues or nucleotides at corresponding amino acid positions or nucleotide positions are then compared. When a position in the first sequence is occupied by the same amino acid residue or nucleotide as the corresponding position in the second sequence, then the molecules are identical at that position. The percent identity between the two sequences is a function of the number of identical positions shared by the sequences (i.e., % identity = # of identical positions/total # of positions (e.g., overlapping positions) xlOO). In one embodiment the two sequences are the same length.

The determination of percent identity between two sequences can be accomplished using a mathematical algorithm. A preferred, non-limiting example of a mathematical algorithm utilized for the comparison of two sequences is the algorithm of Karlin and Altschul (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:2264-2268, modified as in Karlin and Altschul (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:5873-5877. Such an algorithm is incorporated into the BLAST and XBLAST programs of Altschul, et al. (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410. BLAST nucleotide searches can be performed with the NBLAST program, score = 100, wordlength = 12 to obtain nucleotide sequences homologous to a nucleic acid molecules of the present invention. BLAST protein searches can be performed with the XBLAST program, score = 50, wordlength = 3 to obtain amino acid sequences homologous to a protein molecules of the present invention. To obtain gapped alignments for comparison purposes, Gapped BLAST can be utilized as described in Altschul et al. (1997) Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Alternatively, PSI-Blast can be used to perform an iterated search which detects distant relationships between molecules. When utilizing BLAST, Gapped BLAST, and PSI-Blast programs, the default parameters of the respective programs (e.g., XBLAST and NBLAST) can be used. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Another preferred, non-limiting example of a mathematical algorithm utilized for the comparison of sequences is the algorithm of Myers and Miller, (1988) Comput Appl Biosci, 4: 11-7. Such an algorithm is incorporated into the ALIGN program (version 2.0) which is part of the GCG sequence alignment software package. When utilizing the ALIGN

program for comparing amino acid sequences, a PAM120 weight residue table, a gap length penalty of 12, and a gap penalty of 4 can be used. Yet another useful algorithm for identifying regions of local sequence similarity and alignment is the FASTA algorithm as described in Pearson and Lipman (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444-2448. When using the FASTA algorithm for comparing nucleotide or amino acid sequences, a PAM120 weight residue table can, for example, be used with a &-tuple value of 2.

The percent identity between two sequences can be determined using techniques similar to those described above, with or without allowing gaps. In calculating percent identity, only exact matches are counted.

The present invention also provides chimeric or fusion proteins corresponding to a biomarker protein. As used herein, a "chimeric protein" or "fusion protein" comprises all or part (preferably a biologically active part) of a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention operably linked to a heterologous polypeptide (i.e., a polypeptide other than the polypeptide corresponding to the marker). Within the fusion protein, the term "operably linked" is intended to indicate that the polypeptide of the present invention and the heterologous polypeptide are fused in-frame to each other. The heterologous polypeptide can be fused to the amino-terminus or the carboxyl-terminus of the polypeptide of the present invention.

One useful fusion protein is a GST fusion protein in which a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention is fused to the carboxyl terminus of GST sequences. Such fusion proteins can facilitate the purification of a recombinant polypeptide of the present invention.

In another embodiment, the fusion protein contains a heterologous signal sequence, immunoglobulin fusion protein, toxin, or other useful protein sequence. Chimeric and fusion proteins of the present invention can be produced by standard recombinant DNA techniques. In another embodiment, the fusion gene can be synthesized by conventional techniques including automated DNA synthesizers. Alternatively, PCR amplification of gene fragments can be carried out using anchor primers which give rise to complementary overhangs between two consecutive gene fragments which can subsequently be annealed and re-amplified to generate a chimeric gene sequence (see, e.g., Ausubel et al, supra).

Moreover, many expression vectors are commercially available that already encode a fusion moiety {e.g., a GST polypeptide). A nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide of the present

invention can be cloned into such an expression vector such that the fusion moiety is linked in-frame to the polypeptide of the present invention.

A signal sequence can be used to facilitate secretion and isolation of the secreted protein or other proteins of interest. Signal sequences are typically characterized by a core of hydrophobic amino acids which are generally cleaved from the mature protein during secretion in one or more cleavage events. Such signal peptides contain processing sites that allow cleavage of the signal sequence from the mature proteins as they pass through the secretory pathway. Thus, the present invention pertains to the described polypeptides having a signal sequence, as well as to polypeptides from which the signal sequence has been proteolytically cleaved (i.e., the cleavage products). In one embodiment, a nucleic acid sequence encoding a signal sequence can be operably linked in an expression vector to a protein of interest, such as a protein which is ordinarily not secreted or is otherwise difficult to isolate. The signal sequence directs secretion of the protein, such as from a eukaryotic host into which the expression vector is transformed, and the signal sequence is subsequently or concurrently cleaved. The protein can then be readily purified from the extracellular medium by art recognized methods. Alternatively, the signal sequence can be linked to the protein of interest using a sequence which facilitates purification, such as with a GST domain.

The present invention also pertains to variants of the biomarker polypeptides described herein. Such variants have an altered amino acid sequence which can function as either agonists (mimetics) or as antagonists. Variants can be generated by mutagenesis, e.g., discrete point mutation or truncation. An agonist can retain substantially the same, or a subset, of the biological activities of the naturally occurring form of the protein. An antagonist of a protein can inhibit one or more of the activities of the naturally occurring form of the protein by, for example, competitively binding to a downstream or upstream member of a cellular signaling cascade which includes the protein of interest. Thus, specific biological effects can be elicited by treatment with a variant of limited function. Treatment of a subject with a variant having a subset of the biological activities of the naturally occurring form of the protein can have fewer side effects in a subject relative to treatment with the naturally occurring form of the protein.

Variants of a biomarker protein which function as either agonists (mimetics) or as antagonists can be identified by screening combinatorial libraries of mutants, e.g., truncation mutants, of the protein of the present invention for agonist or antagonist activity.

In one embodiment, a variegated library of variants is generated by combinatorial mutagenesis at the nucleic acid level and is encoded by a variegated gene library. A variegated library of variants can be produced by, for example, enzymatically ligating a mixture of synthetic oligonucleotides into gene sequences such that a degenerate set of potential protein sequences is expressible as individual polypeptides, or alternatively, as a set of larger fusion proteins (e.g., for phage display). There are a variety of methods which can be used to produce libraries of potential variants of the polypeptides of the present invention from a degenerate oligonucleotide sequence. Methods for synthesizing degenerate oligonucleotides are known in the art (see, e.g., Narang (1983) Tetrahedron 39:3; Itakura et al. (1984) Aram. Rev. Biochem. 53 :323; Itakura et al. (1984) Science 198: 1056; Ike et al. (1983) Nucleic Acid Res. 11 :477).

In addition, libraries of fragments of the coding sequence of a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention can be used to generate a variegated population of polypeptides for screening and subsequent selection of variants. For example, a library of coding sequence fragments can be generated by treating a double stranded PCR fragment of the coding sequence of interest with a nuclease under conditions wherein nicking occurs only about once per molecule, denaturing the double stranded DNA, renaturing the DNA to form double stranded DNA which can include sense/antisense pairs from different nicked products, removing single stranded portions from reformed duplexes by treatment with SI nuclease, and ligating the resulting fragment library into an expression vector. By this method, an expression library can be derived which encodes amino terminal and internal fragments of various sizes of the protein of interest.

Several techniques are known in the art for screening gene products of

combinatorial libraries made by point mutations or truncation, and for screening cDNA libraries for gene products having a selected property. The most widely used techniques, which are amenable to high throughput analysis, for screening large gene libraries typically include cloning the gene library into replicable expression vectors, transforming appropriate cells with the resulting library of vectors, and expressing the combinatorial genes under conditions in which detection of a desired activity facilitates isolation of the vector encoding the gene whose product was detected. Recursive ensemble mutagenesis (REM), a technique which enhances the frequency of functional mutants in the libraries, can be used in combination with the screening assays to identify variants of a protein of the present invention (Arkin and Yourvan (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:7811-7815; Delgrave et al. 91993) Protein Engineering 6(3): 327- 331).

The production and use of biomarker nucleic acid and/or biomarker polypeptide molecules described herein can be facilitated by using standard recombinant techniques. In some embodiments, such techniques use vectors, preferably expression vectors, containing a nucleic acid encoding a biomarker polypeptide or a portion of such a polypeptide. As used herein, the term "vector" refers to a nucleic acid molecule capable of transporting another nucleic acid to which it has been linked. One type of vector is a "plasmid", which refers to a circular double stranded DNA loop into which additional DNA segments can be ligated. Another type of vector is a viral vector, wherein additional DNA segments can be ligated into the viral genome. Certain vectors are capable of autonomous replication in a host cell into which they are introduced {e.g., bacterial vectors having a bacterial origin of replication and episomal mammalian vectors). Other vectors {e.g., non-episomal mammalian vectors) are integrated into the genome of a host cell upon introduction into the host cell, and thereby are replicated along with the host genome. Moreover, certain vectors, namely expression vectors, are capable of directing the expression of genes to which they are operably linked. In general, expression vectors of utility in recombinant DNA techniques are often in the form of plasmids (vectors). However, the present invention is intended to include such other forms of expression vectors, such as viral vectors {e.g., replication defective retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses), which serve equivalent functions.

The recombinant expression vectors of the present invention comprise a nucleic acid of the present invention in a form suitable for expression of the nucleic acid in a host cell. This means that the recombinant expression vectors include one or more regulatory sequences, selected on the basis of the host cells to be used for expression, which is operably linked to the nucleic acid sequence to be expressed. Within a recombinant expression vector, "operably linked" is intended to mean that the nucleotide sequence of interest is linked to the regulatory sequence(s) in a manner which allows for expression of the nucleotide sequence {e.g., in an in vitro transcription/translation system or in a host cell when the vector is introduced into the host cell). The term "regulatory sequence" is intended to include promoters, enhancers and other expression control elements {e.g., polyadenylation signals). Such regulatory sequences are described, for example, in

Goeddel, Methods in Enzymology: Gene Expression Technology vol.185, Academic Press,

San Diego, CA (1991). Regulatory sequences include those which direct constitutive expression of a nucleotide sequence in many types of host cell and those which direct expression of the nucleotide sequence only in certain host cells (e.g., tissue-specific regulatory sequences). It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the design of the expression vector can depend on such factors as the choice of the host cell to be transformed, the level of expression of protein desired, and the like. The expression vectors of the present invention can be introduced into host cells to thereby produce proteins or peptides, including fusion proteins or peptides, encoded by nucleic acids as described herein.

The recombinant expression vectors for use in the present invention can be designed for expression of a polypeptide corresponding to a marker of the present invention in prokaryotic (e.g., E. coli) or eukaryotic cells (e.g., insect cells {using baculovirus expression vectors}, yeast cells or mammalian cells). Suitable host cells are discussed further in Goeddel, supra. Alternatively, the recombinant expression vector can be transcribed and translated in vitro, for example using T7 promoter regulatory sequences and T7 polymerase.

Expression of proteins in prokaryotes is most often carried out in E. coli with vectors containing constitutive or inducible promoters directing the expression of either fusion or non-fusion proteins. Fusion vectors add a number of amino acids to a protein encoded therein, usually to the amino terminus of the recombinant protein. Such fusion vectors typically serve three purposes: 1) to increase expression of recombinant protein; 2) to increase the solubility of the recombinant protein; and 3) to aid in the purification of the recombinant protein by acting as a ligand in affinity purification. Often, in fusion expression vectors, a proteolytic cleavage site is introduced at the junction of the fusion moiety and the recombinant protein to enable separation of the recombinant protein from the fusion moiety subsequent to purification of the fusion protein. Such enzymes, and their cognate recognition sequences, include Factor Xa, thrombin and enterokinase. Typical fusion expression vectors include pGEX (Pharmacia Biotech Inc; Smith and Johnson, 1988, Gene 67:31-40), pMAL (New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA) and pRIT5 (Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) which fuse glutathione S-transferase (GST), maltose E binding protein, or protein A, respectively, to the target recombinant protein.

Examples of suitable inducible non-fusion E. coli expression vectors include pTrc (Amann et a/. (1988) Gene 69:301-315) and pET 1 Id (Studier et al, p. 60-89, In Gene

Expression Technology: Methods in Enzymology vol.185, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1991). Target biomarker nucleic acid expression from the pTrc vector relies on host RNA polymerase transcription from a hybrid trp-lac fusion promoter. Target biomarker nucleic acid expression from the pET l id vector relies on transcription from a T7 gnlO-lac fusion promoter mediated by a co-expressed viral RNA polymerase (T7 gnl). This viral polymerase is supplied by host strains BL21 (DE3) or HMS174(DE3) from a resident prophage harboring a T7 gnl gene under the transcriptional control of the lacUV 5 promoter.

One strategy to maximize recombinant protein expression in E. coli is to express the protein in a host bacterium with an impaired capacity to proteolytically cleave the recombinant protein (Gottesman, p. 119-128, In Gene Expression Technology: Methods in Enzymology vol. 185, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1990. Another strategy is to alter the nucleic acid sequence of the nucleic acid to be inserted into an expression vector so that the individual codons for each amino acid are those preferentially utilized in E. coli (Wada et al, (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 20:2111-2118). Such alteration of nucleic acid sequences of the present invention can be carried out by standard DNA synthesis techniques.

In another embodiment, the expression vector is a yeast expression vector.

Examples of vectors for expression in yeast S. cerevisiae include pYepSecl (Baldari et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:229-234), pMFa (Kurjan and Herskowitz (1982) Cell 30:933-943), pJRY88 (Schultz et al. (1987) Gene 54: 113-123), pYES2 (Invitrogen Corporation, San Diego, CA), and pPicZ (Invitrogen Corp, San Diego, CA).

Alternatively, the expression vector is a baculovirus expression vector. Baculovirus vectors available for expression of proteins in cultured insect cells {e.g., Sf 9 cells) include the pAc series (Smith et al. (1983) Mo/. Cell Biol. 3 :2156-2165) and the pVL series (Lucklow and Summers (1989) Virology 170:31-39).

In yet another embodiment, a nucleic acid of the present invention is expressed in mammalian cells using a mammalian expression vector. Examples of mammalian expression vectors include pCDM8 (Seed (1987) Nature 329:840) and pMT2PC (Kaufman et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6: 187-195). When used in mammalian cells, the expression vector's control functions are often provided by viral regulatory elements. For example, commonly used promoters are derived from polyoma, Adenovirus 2, cytomegalovirus and Simian Virus 40. For other suitable expression systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells see chapters 16 and 17 of Sambrook et al, supra.

In another embodiment, the recombinant mammalian expression vector is capable of directing expression of the nucleic acid preferentially in a particular cell type (e.g., tissue-specific regulatory elements are used to express the nucleic acid). Tissue-specific regulatory elements are known in the art. Non-limiting examples of suitable tissue-specific promoters include the albumin promoter (liver-specific; Pinkert et al. (1987) Genes Dev. 1 :268-277), lymphoid-specific promoters (Calame and Eaton (1988) Adv. Immunol. 43 :235-275), in particular promoters of T cell receptors (Winoto and Baltimore (1989) EMBO J. 8:729-733) and immunoglobulins (Banerji et al. (1983) Cell 33 :729-740; Queen and Baltimore (1983) Cell 33 :741-748), neuron-specific promoters (e.g., the neurofilament promoter; Byrne and Ruddle (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:5473-5477), pancreas-specific promoters (Edlund et al. (1985) Science 230:912-916), and mammary gland-specific promoters (e.g., milk whey promoter; U.S. Patent No. 4,873,316 and European Application Publication No. 264,166). Developmentally-regulated promoters are also encompassed, for example the murine hox promoters (Kessel and Gruss (1990) Science 249:374-379) and the a-fetoprotein promoter (Camper and Tilghman (1989) Genes Dev. 3 :537-546).

The present invention further provides a recombinant expression vector comprising a DNA molecule cloned into the expression vector in an antisense orientation. That is, the DNA molecule is operably linked to a regulatory sequence in a manner which allows for expression (by transcription of the DNA molecule) of an RNA molecule which is antisense to the mRNA encoding a polypeptide of the present invention. Regulatory sequences operably linked to a nucleic acid cloned in the antisense orientation can be chosen which direct the continuous expression of the antisense RNA molecule in a variety of cell types, for instance viral promoters and/or enhancers, or regulatory sequences can be chosen which direct constitutive, tissue-specific or cell type specific expression of antisense RNA. The antisense expression vector can be in the form of a recombinant plasmid, phagemid, or attenuated virus in which antisense nucleic acids are produced under the control of a high efficiency regulatory region, the activity of which can be determined by the cell type into which the vector is introduced. For a discussion of the regulation of gene expression using antisense genes (see Weintraub et al. (1986) Trends in Genetics, Vol. 1(1)).

Another aspect of the present invention pertains to host cells into which a recombinant expression vector of the present invention has been introduced. The terms "host cell" and "recombinant host cell" are used interchangeably herein. It is understood

that such terms refer not only to the particular subject cell but to the progeny or potential progeny of such a cell. Because certain modifications may occur in succeeding generations due to either mutation or environmental influences, such progeny may not, in fact, be identical to the parent cell, but are still included within the scope of the term as used herein.

A host cell can be any prokaryotic (e.g., E. coli) or eukaryotic cell {e.g., insect cells, yeast or mammalian cells).

Vector DNA can be introduced into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells via conventional transformation or transfection techniques. As used herein, the terms "transformation" and "transfection" are intended to refer to a variety of art-recognized techniques for introducing foreign nucleic acid into a host cell, including calcium phosphate or calcium chloride co-precipitation, DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection, lipofection, or electroporation.

Suitable methods for transforming or transfecting host cells can be found in Sambrook, et al. {supra), and other laboratory manuals.

For stable transfection of mammalian cells, it is known that, depending upon the expression vector and transfection technique used, only a small fraction of cells may integrate the foreign DNA into their genome. In order to identify and select these integrants, a gene that encodes a selectable marker {e.g., for resistance to antibiotics) is generally introduced into the host cells along with the gene of interest. Preferred selectable markers include those which confer resistance to drugs, such as G418, hygromycin and methotrexate. Cells stably transfected with the introduced nucleic acid can be identified by drug selection {e.g., cells that have incorporated the selectable marker gene will survive, while the other cells die).

V. Analyzing Biomarker Nucleic Acids and Polypeptides

Biomarker nucleic acids and/or biomarker polypeptides can be analyzed according to the methods described herein and techniques known to the skilled artisan to identify such genetic or expression alterations useful for the present invention including, but not limited to, 1) an alteration in the level of a biomarker transcript or polypeptide, 2) a deletion or addition of one or more nucleotides from a biomarker gene, 4) a substitution of one or more nucleotides of a biomarker gene, 5) aberrant modification of a biomarker gene, such as an expression regulatory region, and the like.

a. Methods for Detection of Copy Number and/or Genomic Nucleic Acid Mutations

Methods of evaluating the copy number and/or genomic nucleic acid status (e.g., mutations) of a biomarker nucleic acid are well-known to those of skill in the art. The presence or absence of chromosomal gain or loss can be evaluated simply by a

determination of copy number of the regions or markers identified herein.

In one embodiment, a biological sample is tested for the presence of copy number changes in genomic loci containing the genomic marker. In some embodiments, the increased copy number of at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9, and/or the decreased copy number of at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8 is predictive of poor outcome of cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9). A copy number of at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9 is predictive of likely responsive to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9).

Methods of evaluating the copy number of a biomarker locus include, but are not limited to, hybridization-based assays. Hybridization-based assays include, but are not limited to, traditional "direct probe" methods, such as Southern blots, in situ hybridization (e.g., FISH and FISH plus SKY) methods, and "comparative probe" methods, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), e.g., cDNA-based or oligonucleotide-based CGH. The methods can be used in a wide variety of formats including, but not limited to, substrate (e.g. membrane or glass) bound methods or array-based approaches.

In one embodiment, evaluating the biomarker gene copy number in a sample involves a Southern Blot. In a Southern Blot, the genomic DNA (typically fragmented and separated on an electrophoretic gel) is hybridized to a probe specific for the target region. Comparison of the intensity of the hybridization signal from the probe for the target region with control probe signal from analysis of normal genomic DNA (e.g., a non-amplified portion of the same or related cell, tissue, organ, etc) provides an estimate of the relative copy number of the target nucleic acid. Alternatively, a Northern blot may be utilized for evaluating the copy number of encoding nucleic acid in a sample. In a Northern blot, mRNA is hybridized to a probe specific for the target region. Comparison of the intensity of the hybridization signal from the probe for the target region with control probe signal from analysis of normal RNA (e.g., a non-amplified portion of the same or related cell, tissue, organ, etc) provides an estimate of the relative copy number of the target nucleic acid. Alternatively, other methods well-known in the art to detect RNA can be used, such that higher or lower expression relative to an appropriate control (e.g., a non-amplified portion of the same or related cell tissue, organ, etc.) provides an estimate of the relative copy number of the target nucleic acid.

An alternative means for determining genomic copy number is in situ hybridization {e.g., Angerer (1987) et/z. Enzymol 152: 649). Generally, in situ hybridization comprises the following steps: (1) fixation of tissue or biological structure to be analyzed; (2) prehybridization treatment of the biological structure to increase accessibility of target DNA, and to reduce nonspecific binding; (3) hybridization of the mixture of nucleic acids to the nucleic acid in the biological structure or tissue; (4) post-hybridization washes to remove nucleic acid fragments not bound in the hybridization and (5) detection of the hybridized nucleic acid fragments. The reagent used in each of these steps and the conditions for use vary depending on the particular application. In a typical in situ hybridization assay, cells are fixed to a solid support, typically a glass slide. If a nucleic acid is to be probed, the cells are typically denatured with heat or alkali. The cells are then contacted with a hybridization solution at a moderate temperature to permit annealing of labeled probes specific to the nucleic acid sequence encoding the protein. The targets {e.g., cells) are then typically washed at a predetermined stringency or at an increasing stringency until an appropriate signal to noise ratio is obtained. The probes are typically labeled, e.g., with radioisotopes or fluorescent reporters. In one embodiment, probes are sufficiently long so as to specifically hybridize with the target nucleic acid(s) under stringent conditions. Probes generally range in length from about 200 bases to about 1000 bases. In some applications it is necessary to block the hybridization capacity of repetitive sequences. Thus, in some embodiments, tRNA, human genomic DNA, or Cot-I DNA is used to block non-specific hybridization.

An alternative means for determining genomic copy number is comparative genomic hybridization. In general, genomic DNA is isolated from normal reference cells, as well as from test cells {e.g., tumor cells) and amplified, if necessary. The two nucleic acids are differentially labeled and then hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of a reference cell. The repetitive sequences in both the reference and test DNAs are either removed or their hybridization capacity is reduced by some means, for example by prehybridization with appropriate blocking nucleic acids and/or including such blocking nucleic acid sequences for said repetitive sequences during said hybridization. The bound, labeled DNA sequences are then rendered in a visualizable form, if necessary.

Chromosomal regions in the test cells which are at increased or decreased copy number can be identified by detecting regions where the ratio of signal from the two DNAs is altered. For example, those regions that have decreased in copy number in the test cells will show relatively lower signal from the test DNA than the reference compared to other regions of the genome. Regions that have been increased in copy number in the test cells will show relatively higher signal from the test DNA. Where there are chromosomal deletions or multiplications, differences in the ratio of the signals from the two labels will be detected and the ratio will provide a measure of the copy number. In another embodiment of CGH, array CGH (aCGH), the immobilized chromosome element is replaced with a collection of solid support bound target nucleic acids on an array, allowing for a large or complete percentage of the genome to be represented in the collection of solid support bound targets. Target nucleic acids may comprise cDNAs, genomic DNAs, oligonucleotides (e.g., to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms) and the like. Array-based CGH may also be performed with single-color labeling (as opposed to labeling the control and the possible tumor sample with two different dyes and mixing them prior to hybridization, which will yield a ratio due to competitive hybridization of probes on the arrays). In single color

CGH, the control is labeled and hybridized to one array and absolute signals are read, and the possible tumor sample is labeled and hybridized to a second array (with identical content) and absolute signals are read. Copy number difference is calculated based on absolute signals from the two arrays. Methods of preparing immobilized chromosomes or arrays and performing comparative genomic hybridization are well-known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos: 6,335,167; 6,197,501; 5,830,645; and 5,665,549 and Albertson (1984) EMBO J. 3 : 1227-1234; Pinkel (1988) roc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 9138-9142; EPO Pub. No. 430,402; Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 33 : In situ Hybridization Protocols, Choo, ed., Humana Press, Totowa, N.J. (1994), etc.) In another embodiment, the hybridization protocol of Pinkel, et al. (1998) Nature Genetics 20: 207-211, or of

Kallioniemi (1992) Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 89:5321-5325 (1992) is used.

In still another embodiment, amplification-based assays can be used to measure copy number. In such amplification-based assays, the nucleic acid sequences act as a template in an amplification reaction {e.g., Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In a quantitative amplification, the amount of amplification product will be proportional to the amount of template in the original sample. Comparison to appropriate controls, e.g. healthy tissue, provides a measure of the copy number.

Methods of "quantitative" amplification are well-known to those of skill in the art.

For example, quantitative PCR involves simultaneously co-amplifying a known quantity of a control sequence using the same primers. This provides an internal standard that may be used to calibrate the PCR reaction. Detailed protocols for quantitative PCR are provided in Innis, et al. (1990) PCR Protocols, A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, Inc. N.Y.). Measurement of DNA copy number at microsatellite loci using quantitative PCR analysis is described in Ginzonger, et al. (2000) Cancer Research 60:5405-5409. The known nucleic acid sequence for the genes is sufficient to enable one of skill in the art to routinely select primers to amplify any portion of the gene. Fluorogenic quantitative PCR may also be used in the methods of the present invention. In fluorogenic quantitative PCR, quantitation is based on amount of fluorescence signals, e.g., TaqMan and SYBR green.

Other suitable amplification methods include, but are not limited to, ligase chain reaction (LCR) (see Wu and Wallace (1989) Genomics 4: 560, Landegren, et al. (1988) Science 241 : 1077, and Barringer et al. (1990) Gene 89: 117), transcription amplification (Kwoh, et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 1173), self-sustained sequence replication (Guatelli, et al. (1990) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 1874), dot PCR, and linker adapter PCR, etc.

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and major copy proportion (MCP) mapping (Wang, Z.C., et al. (2004) Cancer Res 64(1):64-71; Seymour, A. B., et al. (1994) Cancer Res 54, 2761-4; Hahn, S. A., et al. (1995) Cancer Res 55, 4670-5; Kimura, M., et al. (1996) Genes Chromosomes Cancer 17, 88-93 ; Li et al. , (2008) MBC Bioinform. 9, 204-219) may also be used to identify regions of amplification or deletion.

b. Methods for Detection of Biomarker Nucleic Acid Expression

Biomarker expression may be assessed by any of a wide variety of well-known methods for detecting expression of a transcribed molecule or protein. Non-limiting examples of such methods include immunological methods for detection of secreted, cell-surface, cytoplasmic, or nuclear proteins, protein purification methods, protein function or activity assays, nucleic acid hybridization methods, nucleic acid reverse transcription methods, and nucleic acid amplification methods.

In preferred embodiments, activity of a particular gene is characterized by a measure of gene transcript {e.g. mRNA), by a measure of the quantity of translated protein, or by a measure of gene product activity. Marker expression can be monitored in a variety of ways, including by detecting mRNA levels, protein levels, or protein activity, any of which can be measured using standard techniques. Detection can involve quantification of the level of gene expression (e.g., genomic DNA, cDNA, mRNA, protein, or enzyme activity), or, alternatively, can be a qualitative assessment of the level of gene expression, in particular in comparison with a control level. The type of level being detected will be clear from the context.

In another embodiment, detecting or determining expression levels of a biomarker and functionally similar homologs thereof, including a fragment or genetic alteration thereof (e.g., in regulatory or promoter regions thereof) comprises detecting or determining RNA levels for the marker of interest. In one embodiment, one or more cells from the subject to be tested are obtained and RNA is isolated from the cells. In a preferred embodiment, a sample of breast tissue cells is obtained from the subject.

In one embodiment, RNA is obtained from a single cell. For example, a cell can be isolated from a tissue sample by laser capture microdissection (LCM). Using this technique, a cell can be isolated from a tissue section, including a stained tissue section, thereby assuring that the desired cell is isolated (see, e.g., Bonner et al. (1997) Science 278: 1481; Emmert-Buck et al. (1996) Science 274:998; Fend et al. (1999) Am. J. Path. 154: 61 and Murakami et al. (2000) Kidney Int. 58: 1346). For example, Murakami et al, supra, describe isolation of a cell from a previously immunostained tissue section.

It is also be possible to obtain cells from a subject and culture the cells in vitro, such as to obtain a larger population of cells from which RNA can be extracted. Methods for establishing cultures of non-transformed cells, i.e., primary cell cultures, are known in the art.

When isolating RNA from tissue samples or cells from individuals, it may be important to prevent any further changes in gene expression after the tissue or cells has been removed from the subject. Changes in expression levels are known to change rapidly following perturbations, e.g., heat shock or activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other reagents. In addition, the RNA in the tissue and cells may quickly become degraded. Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment, the tissue or cells obtained from a subject is snap frozen as soon as possible.

RNA can be extracted from the tissue sample by a variety of methods, e.g., the guanidium thiocyanate lysis followed by CsCl centrifugation (Chirgwin et al, 1979, Biochemistry 18:5294-5299). RNA from single cells can be obtained as described in methods for preparing cDNA libraries from single cells, such as those described in Dulac,

C. (1998) Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 36, 245 and Jena et al. (1996) J. Immunol. Methods 190: 199. Care to avoid RNA degradation must be taken, e.g., by inclusion of RNAsin.

The RNA sample can then be enriched in particular species. In one embodiment, poly(A)+ RNA is isolated from the RNA sample. In general, such purification takes advantage of the poly-A tails on mRNA. In particular and as noted above, poly-T oligonucleotides may be immobilized within on a solid support to serve as affinity ligands for mRNA. Kits for this purpose are commercially available, e.g., the MessageMaker kit (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY).

In a preferred embodiment, the RNA population is enriched in marker sequences. Enrichment can be undertaken, e.g., by primer-specific cDNA synthesis, or multiple rounds of linear amplification based on cDNA synthesis and template-directed in vitro

transcription {see, e.g., Wang et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86: 9717; Dulac et al, supra, and Jena et al, supra).

The population of RNA, enriched or not in particular species or sequences, can further be amplified. As defined herein, an "amplification process" is designed to strengthen, increase, or augment a molecule within the RNA. For example, where RNA is mRNA, an amplification process such as RT-PCR can be utilized to amplify the mRNA, such that a signal is detectable or detection is enhanced. Such an amplification process is beneficial particularly when the biological, tissue, or tumor sample is of a small size or volume.

Various amplification and detection methods can be used. For example, it is within the scope of the present invention to reverse transcribe mRNA into cDNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); or, to use a single enzyme for both steps as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,322,770, or reverse transcribe mRNA into cDNA followed by symmetric gap ligase chain reaction (RT-AGLCR) as described by R. L. Marshall, et al, PCR

Methods and Applications 4: 80-84 (1994). Real time PCR may also be used.

Other known amplification methods which can be utilized herein include but are not limited to the so-called "NASBA" or "3SR" technique described in PNAS USA 87: 1874-1878 (1990) and also described in Nature 350 (No. 6313): 91-92 (1991); Q-beta

amplification as described in published European Patent Application (EPA) No. 4544610; strand displacement amplification (as described in G. T. Walker et al, Clin. Chem. 42: 9-13 (1996) and European Patent Application No. 684315; target mediated amplification, as described by PCT Publication W09322461; PCR; ligase chain reaction (LCR) (see, e.g.,

Wu and Wallace, Genomics 4, 560 (1989), Landegren et al., Science 241, 1077 (1988)); self-sustained sequence replication (SSR) (see, e.g., Guatelli et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 1874 (1990)); and transcription amplification (see, e.g., Kwoh et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 1173 (1989)).

Many techniques are known in the state of the art for determining absolute and relative levels of gene expression, commonly used techniques suitable for use in the present invention include Northern analysis, RNase protection assays (RPA), microarrays and PCR-based techniques, such as quantitative PCR and differential display PCR. For example, Northern blotting involves running a preparation of RNA on a denaturing agarose gel, and transferring it to a suitable support, such as activated cellulose, nitrocellulose or glass or nylon membranes. Radiolabeled cDNA or RNA is then hybridized to the preparation, washed and analyzed by autoradiography.

In situ hybridization visualization may also be employed, wherein a radioactively labeled antisense RNA probe is hybridized with a thin section of a biopsy sample, washed, cleaved with RNase and exposed to a sensitive emulsion for autoradiography. The samples may be stained with hematoxylin to demonstrate the histological composition of the sample, and dark field imaging with a suitable light filter shows the developed emulsion. Non-radioactive labels such as digoxigenin may also be used.

Alternatively, mRNA expression can be detected on a DNA array, chip or a microarray. Labeled nucleic acids of a test sample obtained from a subject may be hybridized to a solid surface comprising biomarker DNA. Positive hybridization signal is obtained with the sample containing biomarker transcripts. Methods of preparing DNA arrays and their use are well-known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos: 6,618,6796;

6,379,897; 6,664,377; 6,451,536; 548,257; U.S. 20030157485 and Schena et a/. (1995) Science 20, 467-470; Gerhold et al. (1999) Trends In Biochem. Sci. 24, 168-173; and Lennon et al. (2000) Drug Discovery Today 5, 59-65, which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety). Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) can also be performed (See for example U.S. Patent Application 20030215858).

To monitor mRNA levels, for example, mRNA is extracted from the biological sample to be tested, reverse transcribed, and fluorescently-labeled cDNA probes are generated. The microarrays capable of hybridizing to marker cDNA are then probed with the labeled cDNA probes, the slides scanned and fluorescence intensity measured. This intensity correlates with the hybridization intensity and expression levels.

Types of probes that can be used in the methods described herein include cDNA, riboprobes, synthetic oligonucleotides and genomic probes. The type of probe used will generally be dictated by the particular situation, such as riboprobes for in situ hybridization, and cDNA for Northern blotting, for example. In one embodiment, the probe is directed to nucleotide regions unique to the RNA. The probes may be as short as is required to differentially recognize marker mRNA transcripts, and may be as short as, for example, 15 bases; however, probes of at least 17, 18, 19 or 20 or more bases can be used. In one embodiment, the primers and probes hybridize specifically under stringent conditions to a DNA fragment having the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the marker. As herein used, the term "stringent conditions" means hybridization will occur only if there is at least 95% identity in nucleotide sequences. In another embodiment, hybridization under "stringent conditions" occurs when there is at least 97% identity between the sequences.

The form of labeling of the probes may be any that is appropriate, such as the use of radioisotopes, for example, 32P and 35S. Labeling with radioisotopes may be achieved, whether the probe is synthesized chemically or biologically, by the use of suitably labeled bases.

In one embodiment, the biological sample contains polypeptide molecules from the test subject. Alternatively, the biological sample can contain mRNA molecules from the test subject or genomic DNA molecules from the test subject.

In another embodiment, the methods further involve obtaining a control biological sample from a control subject, contacting the control sample with a compound or agent capable of detecting marker polypeptide, mRNA, genomic DNA, or fragments thereof, such that the presence of the marker polypeptide, mRNA, genomic DNA, or fragments thereof, is detected in the biological sample, and comparing the presence of the marker polypeptide, mRNA, genomic DNA, or fragments thereof, in the control sample with the presence of the marker polypeptide, mRNA, genomic DNA, or fragments thereof in the test sample,

c. Methods for Detection of Biomarker Protein Expression

The activity or level of a biomarker protein can be detected and/or quantified by detecting or quantifying the expressed polypeptide. The polypeptide can be detected and quantified by any of a number of means well-known to those of skill in the art. Aberrant levels of polypeptide expression of the polypeptides encoded by a biomarker nucleic acid and functionally similar homologs thereof, including a fragment or genetic alteration thereof {e.g., in regulatory or promoter regions thereof) are associated with the likelihood of response of a cancer to a modulator of T cell mediated cytotoxicity alone or in combination with an immunotherapy treatment. Any method known in the art for detecting polypeptides can be used. Such methods include, but are not limited to, immunodiffusion,

Immunoelectrophoresis, radioimmunoassay (RIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), immunofluorescent assays, Western blotting, binder-ligand assays,

immunohistochemical techniques, agglutination, complement assays, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), hyperdiffusion chromatography, and the like (e.g., Basic and Clinical Immunology, Sites and Terr, eds., Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, Conn, pp 217-262, 1991 which is incorporated by reference). Preferred are binder-ligand immunoassay methods including reacting antibodies with an epitope or epitopes and competitively displacing a labeled polypeptide or derivative thereof.

For example, ELISA and RIA procedures may be conducted such that a desired biomarker protein standard is labeled (with a radioisotope such as 125I or 35S, or an assayable enzyme, such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and, together with the unlabeled sample, brought into contact with the corresponding antibody, whereon a second antibody is used to bind the first, and radioactivity or the immobilized enzyme assayed (competitive assay). Alternatively, the biomarker protein in the sample is allowed to react with the corresponding immobilized antibody, radioisotope- or enzyme-labeled anti-biomarker protein antibody is allowed to react with the system, and radioactivity or the enzyme assayed (ELISA-sandwich assay). Other conventional methods may also be employed as suitable.

The above techniques may be conducted essentially as a "one-step" or "two-step" assay. A "one-step" assay involves contacting antigen with immobilized antibody and, without washing, contacting the mixture with labeled antibody. A "two-step" assay involves washing before contacting, the mixture with labeled antibody. Other conventional methods may also be employed as suitable.

In one embodiment, a method for measuring biomarker protein levels comprises the steps of: contacting a biological specimen with an antibody or variant (e.g., fragment) thereof which selectively binds the biomarker protein, and detecting whether said antibody or variant thereof is bound to said sample and thereby measuring the levels of the biomarker protein.

Enzymatic and radiolabeling of biomarker protein and/or the antibodies may be

effected by conventional means. Such means will generally include covalent linking of the enzyme to the antigen or the antibody in question, such as by glutaraldehyde, specifically so as not to adversely affect the activity of the enzyme, by which is meant that the enzyme must still be capable of interacting with its substrate, although it is not necessary for all of the enzyme to be active, provided that enough remains active to permit the assay to be effected. Indeed, some techniques for binding enzyme are non-specific (such as using formaldehyde), and will only yield a proportion of active enzyme.

It is usually desirable to immobilize one component of the assay system on a support, thereby allowing other components of the system to be brought into contact with the component and readily removed without laborious and time-consuming labor. It is possible for a second phase to be immobilized away from the first, but one phase is usually sufficient.

It is possible to immobilize the enzyme itself on a support, but if solid-phase enzyme is required, then this is generally best achieved by binding to antibody and affixing the antibody to a support, models and systems for which are well-known in the art. Simple polyethylene may provide a suitable support.

Enzymes employable for labeling are not particularly limited, but may be selected from the members of the oxidase group, for example. These catalyze production of hydrogen peroxide by reaction with their substrates, and glucose oxidase is often used for its good stability, ease of availability and cheapness, as well as the ready availability of its substrate (glucose). Activity of the oxidase may be assayed by measuring the concentration of hydrogen peroxide formed after reaction of the enzyme-labeled antibody with the substrate under controlled conditions well-known in the art.

Other techniques may be used to detect biomarker protein according to a practitioner's preference based upon the present disclosure. One such technique is Western blotting (Towbin et at., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 76:4350 (1979)), wherein a suitably treated sample is run on an SDS-PAGE gel before being transferred to a solid support, such as a nitrocellulose filter. Anti-biomarker protein antibodies (unlabeled) are then brought into contact with the support and assayed by a secondary immunological reagent, such as labeled protein A or anti-immunoglobulin (suitable labels including 125I, horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase). Chromatographic detection may also be used.

Immunohistochemistry may be used to detect expression of biomarker protein, e.g., in a biopsy sample. A suitable antibody is brought into contact with, for example, a thin

layer of cells, washed, and then contacted with a second, labeled antibody. Labeling may be by fluorescent markers, enzymes, such as peroxidase, avidin, or radiolabeling. The assay is scored visually, using microscopy.

Anti-biomarker protein antibodies, such as intrabodies, may also be used for imaging purposes, for example, to detect the presence of biomarker protein in cells and tissues of a subject. Suitable labels include radioisotopes, iodine (125I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulphur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (112In), and technetium (99mTc), fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

For in vivo imaging purposes, antibodies are not detectable, as such, from outside the body, and so must be labeled, or otherwise modified, to permit detection. Markers for this purpose may be any that do not substantially interfere with the antibody binding, but which allow external detection. Suitable markers may include those that may be detected by X-radiography, NMR or MRI. For X-radiographic techniques, suitable markers include any radioisotope that emits detectable radiation but that is not overtly harmful to the subject, such as barium or cesium, for example. Suitable markers for NMR and MRI generally include those with a detectable characteristic spin, such as deuterium, which may be incorporated into the antibody by suitable labeling of nutrients for the relevant hybridoma, for example.

The size of the subject, and the imaging system used, will determine the quantity of imaging moiety needed to produce diagnostic images. In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from about 5 to 20 millicuries of technetium-99. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment will then preferentially accumulate at the location of cells which contain biomarker protein. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment can then be detected using known techniques.

Antibodies that may be used to detect biomarker protein include any antibody, whether natural or synthetic, full length or a fragment thereof, monoclonal or polyclonal, that binds sufficiently strongly and specifically to the biomarker protein to be detected. An antibody may have a Kd of at most about 10"6M, 10"7M, 10"8M, 10"9M, 10"10M, 10"UM, 10" 12M. The phrase "specifically binds" refers to binding of, for example, an antibody to an epitope or antigen or antigenic determinant in such a manner that binding can be displaced or competed with a second preparation of identical or similar epitope, antigen or antigenic determinant. An antibody may bind preferentially to the biomarker protein relative to other proteins, such as related proteins.

Antibodies are commercially available or may be prepared according to methods known in the art.

Antibodies and derivatives thereof that may be used encompass polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, chimeric, human, humanized, primatized (CDR-grafted), veneered or single-chain antibodies as well as functional fragments, i.e., biomarker protein binding fragments, of antibodies. For example, antibody fragments capable of binding to a biomarker protein or portions thereof, including, but not limited to, Fv, Fab, Fab' and F(ab') 2 fragments can be used. Such fragments can be produced by enzymatic cleavage or by recombinant techniques. For example, papain or pepsin cleavage can generate Fab or F(ab') 2 fragments, respectively. Other proteases with the requisite substrate specificity can also be used to generate Fab or F(ab') 2 fragments. Antibodies can also be produced in a variety of truncated forms using antibody genes in which one or more stop codons have been introduced upstream of the natural stop site. For example, a chimeric gene encoding a F(ab') 2 heavy chain portion can be designed to include DNA sequences encoding the CH, domain and hinge region of the heavy chain.

Synthetic and engineered antibodies are described in, e.g., Cabilly et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,816,567 Cabilly et al, European Patent No. 0,125,023 B l; Boss et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,816,397; Boss et al, European Patent No. 0, 120,694 B l; Neuberger, M. S. et al, WO 86/01533; Neuberger, M. S. et al, European Patent No. 0, 194,276 Bl; Winter, U.S. Pat. No. 5,225,539; Winter, European Patent No. 0,239,400 B l; Queen et al, European Patent No. 0451216 Bl; and Padlan, E. A. et al, EP 0519596 Al . See also, Newman, R. et al, BioTechnology, 10: 1455-1460 (1992), regarding primatized antibody, and Ladner et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778 and Bird, R. E. et al, Science, 242: 423-426 (1988)) regarding single-chain antibodies. Antibodies produced from a library, e.g., phage display library, may also be used.

In some embodiments, agents that specifically bind to a biomarker protein other than antibodies are used, such as peptides. Peptides that specifically bind to a biomarker protein can be identified by any means known in the art. For example, specific peptide binders of a biomarker protein can be screened for using peptide phage display libraries. d. Methods for Detection of Biomarker Structural Alterations

The following illustrative methods can be used to identify the presence of a structural alteration in a biomarker nucleic acid and/or biomarker polypeptide molecule in order to, for example, identify sequences or agents that affect T cell mediated killing of cancer cells.

In certain embodiments, detection of the alteration involves the use of a

probe/primer in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,683, 195 and 4,683,202), such as anchor PCR or RACE PCR, or, alternatively, in a ligation chain reaction (LCR) (see, e.g., Landegran et al. (1988) Science 241 : 1077-1080; and Nakazawa et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :360-364), the latter of which can be particularly useful for detecting point mutations in a biomarker nucleic acid such as a biomarker gene (see Abravaya et al. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23 :675-682). This method can include the steps of collecting a sample of cells from a subject, isolating nucleic acid {e.g., genomic, mRNA or both) from the cells of the sample, contacting the nucleic acid sample with one or more primers which specifically hybridize to a biomarker gene under conditions such that hybridization and amplification of the biomarker gene (if present) occurs, and detecting the presence or absence of an amplification product, or detecting the size of the amplification product and comparing the length to a control sample. It is anticipated that PCR and/or

LCR may be desirable to use as a preliminary amplification step in conjunction with any of the techniques used for detecting mutations described herein.

Alternative amplification methods include: self-sustained sequence replication (Guatelli, J. C. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 1874-1878), transcriptional amplification system (Kwoh, D. Y. et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 1173-1177), Q-Beta Replicase (Lizardi, P. M. et al. (1988) Bio-Technology 6: 1197), or any other nucleic acid amplification method, followed by the detection of the amplified molecules using techniques well-known to those of skill in the art. These detection schemes are especially useful for the detection of nucleic acid molecules if such molecules are present in very low numbers.

In an alternative embodiment, mutations in a biomarker nucleic acid from a sample cell can be identified by alterations in restriction enzyme cleavage patterns. For example, sample and control DNA is isolated, amplified (optionally), digested with one or more restriction endonucleases, and fragment length sizes are determined by gel electrophoresis and compared. Differences in fragment length sizes between sample and control DNA indicates mutations in the sample DNA. Moreover, the use of sequence specific ribozymes (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,498,531) can be used to score for the presence of specific mutations by development or loss of a ribozyme cleavage site.

In other embodiments, genetic mutations in biomarker nucleic acid can be identified by hybridizing a sample and control nucleic acids, e.g., DNA or RNA, to high density arrays containing hundreds or thousands of oligonucleotide probes (Cronin, M. T. et al. (1996) Hum. Mutat. 7:244-255; Kozal, M. J. et al. (1996) Nat. Med. 2:753-759). For example, biomarker genetic mutations can be identified in two dimensional arrays containing light-generated DNA probes as described in Cronin et al. (1996) supra. Briefly, a first hybridization array of probes can be used to scan through long stretches of DNA in a sample and control to identify base changes between the sequences by making linear arrays of sequential, overlapping probes. This step allows the identification of point mutations. This step is followed by a second hybridization array that allows the characterization of specific mutations by using smaller, specialized probe arrays complementary to all variants or mutations detected. Each mutation array is composed of parallel probe sets, one complementary to the wild-type gene and the other complementary to the mutant gene. Such biomarker genetic mutations can be identified in a variety of contexts, including, for example, germline and somatic mutations.

In yet another embodiment, any of a variety of sequencing reactions known in the art can be used to directly sequence a biomarker gene and detect mutations by comparing the sequence of the sample biomarker with the corresponding wild-type (control) sequence. Examples of sequencing reactions include those based on techniques developed by Maxam and Gilbert (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:560 or Sanger (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. USA 74:5463. It is also contemplated that any of a variety of automated sequencing procedures can be utilized when performing the diagnostic assays (Naeve (1995)

Biotechniques 19:448-53), including sequencing by mass spectrometry (see, e.g., PCT International Publication No. WO 94/16101; Cohen et al. (1996) Adv. Chromatogr. 36: 127-162; and Griffin et al. (1993) Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 38: 147-159).

Other methods for detecting mutations in a biomarker gene include methods in which protection from cleavage agents is used to detect mismatched bases in RNA/RNA or RNA/DNA heteroduplexes (Myers et al. (1985) Science 230: 1242). In general, the art technique of "mismatch cleavage" starts by providing heteroduplexes formed by hybridizing (labeled) RNA or DNA containing the wild-type biomarker sequence with potentially mutant RNA or DNA obtained from a tissue sample. The double-stranded duplexes are treated with an agent which cleaves single-stranded regions of the duplex such as which will exist due to base pair mismatches between the control and sample strands.

For instance, RNA/DNA duplexes can be treated with RNase and DNA/DNA hybrids treated with SI nuclease to enzymatically digest the mismatched regions. In other embodiments, either DNA/DNA or RNA/DNA duplexes can be treated with hydroxylamine or osmium tetroxide and with piperidine in order to digest mismatched regions. After digestion of the mismatched regions, the resulting material is then separated by size on denaturing polyacrylamide gels to determine the site of mutation. See, for example, Cotton et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:4397 and Saleeba et al. (1992) Methods Enzymol. 217:286-295. In a preferred embodiment, the control DNA or RNA can be labeled for detection.

In still another embodiment, the mismatch cleavage reaction employs one or more proteins that recognize mismatched base pairs in double-stranded DNA (so called "DNA mismatch repair" enzymes) in defined systems for detecting and mapping point mutations in biomarker cDNAs obtained from samples of cells. For example, the mutY enzyme of E. coli cleaves A at G/A mismatches and the thymidine DNA glycosylase from HeLa cells cleaves T at G/T mismatches (Hsu et al. (1994) Carcinogenesis 15: 1657-1662). According to an exemplary embodiment, a probe based on a biomarker sequence, e.g., a wild-type biomarker treated with a DNA mismatch repair enzyme, and the cleavage products, if any, can be detected from electrophoresis protocols or the like (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,459,039.)

In other embodiments, alterations in electrophoretic mobility can be used to identify mutations in biomarker genes. For example, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) may be used to detect differences in electrophoretic mobility between mutant and wild type nucleic acids (Orita et al. (1989) Proc Natl. Acad. Sci USA 86:2766; see also Cotton (1993) Mutat. Res. 285: 125-144 and Hayashi (1992) Genet. Anal. Tech. Appl. 9:73-79). Single-stranded DNA fragments of sample and control biomarker nucleic acids will be denatured and allowed to renature. The secondary structure of single-stranded nucleic acids varies according to sequence, the resulting alteration in electrophoretic mobility enables the detection of even a single base change. The DNA fragments may be labeled or detected with labeled probes. The sensitivity of the assay may be enhanced by using RNA (rather than DNA), in which the secondary structure is more sensitive to a change in sequence. In a preferred embodiment, the subject method utilizes heteroduplex analysis to separate double stranded heteroduplex molecules on the basis of changes in electrophoretic mobility (Keen et al. (1991) Trends Genet. 7:5).

In yet another embodiment the movement of mutant or wild-type fragments in polyacrylamide gels containing a gradient of denaturant is assayed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) (Myers et al. (1985) Nature 313 :495). When DGGE is used as the method of analysis, DNA will be modified to ensure that it does not completely denature, for example by adding a GC clamp of approximately 40 bp of high-melting GC-rich DNA by PCR. In a further embodiment, a temperature gradient is used in place of a denaturing gradient to identify differences in the mobility of control and sample DNA (Rosenbaum and Reissner (1987) Biophys. Chem. 265: 12753).

Examples of other techniques for detecting point mutations include, but are not limited to, selective oligonucleotide hybridization, selective amplification, or selective primer extension. For example, oligonucleotide primers may be prepared in which the known mutation is placed centrally and then hybridized to target DNA under conditions which permit hybridization only if a perfect match is found (Saiki et al. (1986) Nature 324: 163; Saiki et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:6230). Such allele specific oligonucleotides are hybridized to PCR amplified target DNA or a number of different mutations when the oligonucleotides are attached to the hybridizing membrane and hybridized with labeled target DNA.

Alternatively, allele specific amplification technology which depends on selective PCR amplification may be used in conjunction with the instant invention. Oligonucleotides used as primers for specific amplification may carry the mutation of interest in the center of the molecule (so that amplification depends on differential hybridization) (Gibbs et al. (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17:2437-2448) or at the extreme 3' end of one primer where, under appropriate conditions, mismatch can prevent, or reduce polymerase extension (Prossner (1993) Tibtech 11 :238). In addition it may be desirable to introduce a novel restriction site in the region of the mutation to create cleavage-based detection (Gasparini et al. (1992) Mol. Cell Probes 6: 1). It is anticipated that in certain embodiments amplification may also be performed using Taq ligase for amplification (Barany (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 88: 189). In such cases, ligation will occur only if there is a perfect match at the 3' end of the 5' sequence making it possible to detect the presence of a known mutation at a specific site by looking for the presence or absence of amplification.

VI. Cancer Therapies

The efficacy of cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) is predicted according to biomarker presence, absence, amount and/or activity associated with a cancer in a subject according to the methods described herein. In one embodiment, such cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) or combinations of therapies (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9, in combination with at least one immunotherapy) can be administered to a desired subject or once a subject is indicated as being a likely responder to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9). In another embodiment, such cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) can be avoided once a subject is indicated as not being a likely responder to the cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) and an alternative treatment regimen, such as targeted and/or untargeted cancer therapies can be administered.

Combination therapies are also contemplated and can comprise, for example, one or more chemotherapeutic agents and radiation, one or more chemotherapeutic agents and immunotherapy, or one or more chemotherapeutic agents, radiation and chemotherapy, each combination of which can be with or without cancer therapy (e.g. , at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9).

The exemplary agents useful for modulating biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9, have been described above.

The term "targeted therapy" refers to administration of agents that selectively interact with a chosen biomolecule to thereby treat cancer. For example, targeted therapy regarding the inhibition of immune checkpoint inhibitor is useful in combination with the methods of the present invention. The term "immune checkpoint inhibitor" means a group of molecules on the cell surface of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells that fine-tune immune responses by down-modulating or inhibiting an anti-tumor immune response. Immune checkpoint proteins are well-known in the art and include, without limitation, CTLA-4, PD-1, VISTA, B7-H2, B7-H3, PD-L1, B7-H4, B7-H6, 2B4, ICOS, HVEM, PD-L2, CD160, gp49B, PIR-B, KIR family receptors, TIM-1, TIM-3, TIM-4, LAG-3, BTLA, SIRPalpha (CD47), CD48, 2B4 (CD244), B7.1, B7.2, ILT-2, ILT-4, TIGIT, and A2aR (see, for example, WO 2012/177624). Inhibition of one or more immune checkpoint inhibitors can block or otherwise neutralize inhibitory signaling to thereby upregulate an immune response in order to more efficaciously treat cancer.

Immunotherapy is one form of targeted therapy that may comprise, for example, the use of cancer vaccines and/or sensitized antigen presenting cells. For example, an oncolytic virus is a virus that is able to infect and lyse cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed, making them potentially useful in cancer therapy. Replication of oncolytic viruses both facilitates tumor cell destruction and also produces dose amplification at the tumor site. They may also act as vectors for anticancer genes, allowing them to be specifically delivered to the tumor site. The immunotherapy can involve passive immunity for short-term protection of a host, achieved by the administration of pre-formed antibody directed against a cancer antigen or disease antigen (e.g., administration of a monoclonal antibody, optionally linked to a chemotherapeutic agent or toxin, to a tumor antigen). For example, anti-VEGF and mTOR inhibitors are known to be effective in treating renal cell carcinoma. Immunotherapy can also focus on using the cytotoxic lymphocyte-recognized epitopes of cancer cell lines. Alternatively, antisense polynucleotides, ribozymes, RNA interference molecules, triple helix polynucleotides and the like, can be used to selectively modulate biomolecules that are linked to the initiation, progression, and/or pathology of a tumor or cancer.

The term "untargeted therapy" referes to administration of agents that do not selectively interact with a chosen biomolecule yet treat cancer. Representative examples of untargeted therapies include, without limitation, chemotherapy, gene therapy, and radiation therapy.

In one embodiment, chemotherapy is used. Chemotherapy includes the

administration of a chemotherapeutic agent. Such a chemotherapeutic agent may be, but is not limited to, those selected from among the following groups of compounds: platinum compounds, cytotoxic antibiotics, antimetabolities, anti-mitotic agents, alkylating agents, arsenic compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, taxanes, nucleoside analogues, plant alkaloids, and toxins; and synthetic derivatives thereof. Exemplary compounds include, but are not limited to, alkylating agents: cisplatin, treosulfan, and trofosfamide; plant alkaloids: vinblastine, paclitaxel, docetaxol; DNA topoisomerase inhibitors: teniposide, crisnatol, and mitomycin; anti -folates: methotrexate, mycophenolic acid, and hydroxyurea; pyrimidine analogs: 5-fluorouracil, doxifluridine, and cytosine arabinoside; purine analogs:

mercaptopurine and thioguanine; DNA antimetabolites: 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, aphidicolin glycinate, and pyrazoloimidazole; and antimitotic agents: halichondrin, colchicine, and rhizoxin. Compositions comprising one or more chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., FLAG, CHOP) may also be used. FLAG comprises fludarabine, cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and G-CSF. CHOP comprises cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and

prednisone. In another embodiment, PARP (e.g., PARP-1 and/or PARP-2) inhibitors are used and such inhibitors are well-known in the art (e.g., Olaparib, ABT-888, BSI-201, BGP-15 (N-Gene Research Laboratories, Inc.); INO-1001 (Inotek Pharmaceuticals Inc.); PJ34 (Soriano et al, 2001; Pacher et al, 2002b); 3-aminobenzamide (Trevigen); 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide; (Trevigen); 6(5H)-phenanthridinone (Trevigen); benzamide (U.S. Pat. Re. 36,397); and NU1025 (Bowman et al). The mechanism of action is generally related to the ability of PARP inhibitors to bind PARP and decrease its activity. PARP catalyzes the conversion of .beta. -nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into nicotinamide and poly-ADP-ribose (PAR). Both poly (ADP-ribose) and PARP have been linked to regulation of transcription, cell proliferation, genomic stability, and carcinogenesis

(Bouchard V. J. et.al. Experimental Hematology, Volume 31, Number 6, June 2003, pp. 446-454(9); Herceg Z.; Wang Z.-Q. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, Volume 477, Number 1, 2 Jun. 2001, pp. 97-110(14)).

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a key molecule in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) (de Murcia J. et al. 1997. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:7303-7307; Schreiber V, Dantzer F, Ame J C, de Murcia G (2006) Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:517-528; Wang Z Q, et al. (1997) Genes Dev 11 :2347-2358). Knockout of SSB repair by inhibition of PARP1 function induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that can trigger synthetic lethality in cancer cells with defective homology-directed DSB repair (Bryant H E, et al. (2005) Nature 434:913-917; Farmer H, et al. (2005) Nature 434:917-921). The foregoing examples of chemotherapeutic agents are illustrative, and are not intended to be limiting.

In another embodiment, radiation therapy is used. The radiation used in radiation therapy can be ionizing radiation. Radiation therapy can also be gamma rays, X-rays, or proton beams. Examples of radiation therapy include, but are not limited to, external-beam radiation therapy, interstitial implantation of radioisotopes (1-125, palladium, iridium), radioisotopes such as strontium-89, thoracic radiation therapy, intraperitoneal P-32 radiation therapy, and/or total abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy. For a general overview of radiation therapy, see Hellman, Chapter 16: Principles of Cancer Management: Radiation Therapy, 6th edition, 2001, DeVita et al, eds., J. B. Lippencott Company, Philadelphia. The radiation therapy can be administered as external beam radiation or teletherapy wherein the radiation is directed from a remote source. The radiation treatment can also be administered as internal therapy or brachytherapy wherein a radioactive source is placed inside the body close to cancer cells or a tumor mass. Also encompassed is the use of photodynamic therapy comprising the administration of photosensitizers, such as hematoporphyrin and its derivatives, Vertoporfin (BPD-MA), phthalocyanine,

photosensitizer Pc4, demethoxy-hypocrellin A; and 2B A-2-DMHA.

In another embodiment, hormone therapy is used. Hormonal therapeutic treatments can comprise, for example, hormonal agonists, hormonal antagonists (e.g., flutamide, bicalutamide, tamoxifen, raloxifene, leuprolide acetate (LUPRON), LH-RH antagonists), inhibitors of hormone biosynthesis and processing, and steroids (e.g., dexamethasone, retinoids, deltoids, betamethasone, Cortisol, cortisone, prednisone, dehydrotestosterone, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogen, testosterone, progestins), vitamin A derivatives (e.g., all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)); vitamin D3 analogs; antigestagens (e.g., mifepristone, onapristone), or antiandrogens (e.g., cyproterone acetate).

In another embodiment, hyperthermia, a procedure in which body tissue is exposed to high temperatures (up to 106°F.) is used. Heat may help shrink tumors by damaging cells or depriving them of substances they need to live. Hyperthermia therapy can be local, regional, and whole-body hyperthermia, using external and internal heating devices.

Hyperthermia is almost always used with other forms of therapy (e.g., radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy) to try to increase their effectiveness. Local hyperthermia refers to heat that is applied to a very small area, such as a tumor. The area may be heated externally with high-frequency waves aimed at a tumor from a device outside the body. To achieve internal heating, one of several types of sterile probes may be used, including thin, heated wires or hollow tubes filled with warm water; implanted microwave antennae; and radiofrequency electrodes. In regional hyperthermia, an organ or a limb is heated. Magnets and devices that produce high energy are placed over the region to be heated. In another approach, called perfusion, some of the patient's blood is removed, heated, and then pumped (perfused) into the region that is to be heated internally. Whole-body heating is used to treat metastatic cancer that has spread throughout the body. It can be accomplished using warm-water blankets, hot wax, inductive coils (like those in electric blankets), or thermal chambers (similar to large incubators). Hyperthermia does not cause any marked increase in radiation side effects or complications. Heat applied directly to the skin, however, can cause discomfort or even significant local pain in about half the patients treated. It can also cause blisters, which generally heal rapidly.

In still another embodiment, photodynamic therapy (also called PDT, photoradiation therapy, phototherapy, or photochemotherapy) is used for the treatment of some types of cancer. It is based on the discovery that certain chemicals known as photosensitizing agents can kill one-celled organisms when the organisms are exposed to a particular type of light. PDT destroys cancer cells through the use of a fixed-frequency laser light in combination with a photosensitizing agent. In PDT, the photosensitizing agent is injected into the bloodstream and absorbed by cells all over the body. The agent remains in cancer cells for a longer time than it does in normal cells. When the treated cancer cells are exposed to laser light, the photosensitizing agent absorbs the light and produces an active form of oxygen that destroys the treated cancer cells. Light exposure must be timed carefully so that it occurs when most of the photosensitizing agent has left healthy cells but is still present in the cancer cells. The laser light used in PDT can be directed through a fiberoptic (a very thin glass strand). The fiber-optic is placed close to the cancer to deliver the proper amount of light. The fiber-optic can be directed through a bronchoscope into the lungs for the treatment of lung cancer or through an endoscope into the esophagus for the treatment of esophageal cancer. An advantage of PDT is that it causes minimal damage to healthy tissue. However, because the laser light currently in use cannot pass through more than about 3 centimeters of tissue (a little more than one and an eighth inch), PDT is mainly used to treat tumors on or just under the skin or on the lining of internal organs.

Photodynamic therapy makes the skin and eyes sensitive to light for 6 weeks or more after treatment. Patients are advised to avoid direct sunlight and bright indoor light for at least 6 weeks. If patients must go outdoors, they need to wear protective clothing, including sunglasses. Other temporary side effects of PDT are related to the treatment of specific areas and can include coughing, trouble swallowing, abdominal pain, and painful breathing or shortness of breath. In December 1995, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a photosensitizing agent called porfimer sodium, or Photofrin®, to relieve symptoms of esophageal cancer that is causing an obstruction and for esophageal cancer that cannot be satisfactorily treated with lasers alone. In January 1998, the FDA approved porfimer sodium for the treatment of early nonsmall cell lung cancer in patients for whom the usual treatments for lung cancer are not appropriate. The National Cancer Institute and other institutions are supporting clinical trials (research studies) to evaluate the use of photodynamic therapy for several types of cancer, including cancers of the bladder, brain, larynx, and oral cavity.

In yet another embodiment, laser therapy is used to harness high-intensity light to destroy cancer cells. This technique is often used to relieve symptoms of cancer such as

bleeding or obstruction, especially when the cancer cannot be cured by other treatments. It may also be used to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors. The term "laser" stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Ordinary light, such as that from a light bulb, has many wavelengths and spreads in all directions. Laser light, on the other hand, has a specific wavelength and is focused in a narrow beam. This type of high-intensity light contains a lot of energy. Lasers are very powerful and may be used to cut through steel or to shape diamonds. Lasers also can be used for very precise surgical work, such as repairing a damaged retina in the eye or cutting through tissue (in place of a scalpel). Although there are several different kinds of lasers, only three kinds have gained wide use in medicine: Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser—This type of laser can remove thin layers from the skin's surface without penetrating the deeper layers. This technique is particularly useful in treating tumors that have not spread deep into the skin and certain precancerous conditions. As an alternative to traditional scalpel surgery, the CO2 laser is also able to cut the skin. The laser is used in this way to remove skin cancers.

Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser— Light from this laser can penetrate deeper into tissue than light from the other types of lasers, and it can cause blood to clot quickly. It can be carried through optical fibers to less accessible parts of the body. This type of laser is sometimes used to treat throat cancers. Argon laser— This laser can pass through only superficial layers of tissue and is therefore useful in dermatology and in eye surgery. It also is used with light-sensitive dyes to treat tumors in a procedure known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Lasers have several advantages over standard surgical tools, including: Lasers are more precise than scalpels. Tissue near an incision is protected, since there is little contact with surrounding skin or other tissue. The heat produced by lasers sterilizes the surgery site, thus reducing the risk of infection. Less operating time may be needed because the precision of the laser allows for a smaller incision. Healing time is often shortened; since laser heat seals blood vessels, there is less bleeding, swelling, or scarring. Laser surgery may be less complicated. For example, with fiber optics, laser light can be directed to parts of the body without making a large incision. More procedures may be done on an outpatient basis. Lasers can be used in two ways to treat cancer: by shrinking or destroying a tumor with heat, or by activating a chemical— known as a photosensitizing agent— that destroys cancer cells. In PDT, a photosensitizing agent is retained in cancer cells and can be stimulated by light to cause a reaction that kills cancer cells. CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers are used to shrink or destroy tumors. They may be used

with endoscopes, tubes that allow physicians to see into certain areas of the body, such as the bladder. The light from some lasers can be transmitted through a flexible endoscope fitted with fiber optics. This allows physicians to see and work in parts of the body that could not otherwise be reached except by surgery and therefore allows very precise aiming of the laser beam. Lasers also may be used with low-power microscopes, giving the doctor a clear view of the site being treated. Used with other instruments, laser systems can produce a cutting area as small as 200 microns in diameter—less than the width of a very fine thread. Lasers are used to treat many types of cancer. Laser surgery is a standard treatment for certain stages of glottis (vocal cord), cervical, skin, lung, vaginal, vulvar, and penile cancers. In addition to its use to destroy the cancer, laser surgery is also used to help relieve symptoms caused by cancer (palliative care). For example, lasers may be used to shrink or destroy a tumor that is blocking a patient's trachea (windpipe), making it easier to breathe. It is also sometimes used for palliation in colorectal and anal cancer. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is one of the most recent developments in laser therapy. LITT uses the same idea as a cancer treatment called hyperthermia; that heat may help shrink tumors by damaging cells or depriving them of substances they need to live. In this treatment, lasers are directed to interstitial areas (areas between organs) in the body. The laser light then raises the temperature of the tumor, which damages or destroys cancer cells.

The duration and/or dose of treatment with cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) may vary according to the particular modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 or combination thereof. An appropriate treatment time for a particular cancer therapeutic agent will be appreciated by the skilled artisan. The invention contemplates the continued assessment of optimal treatment schedules for each cancer therapeutic agent, where the phenotype of the cancer of the subject as determined by the methods of the invention is a factor in determining optimal treatment doses and schedules.

Any means for the introduction of a polynucleotide into mammals, human or non-human, or cells thereof may be adapted to the practice of this invention for the delivery of the various constructs of the invention into the intended recipient. In one embodiment of the invention, the DNA constructs are delivered to cells by transfection, i.e., by delivery of "naked" DNA or in a complex with a colloidal dispersion system. A colloidal system includes macromolecule complexes, nanocapsules, microspheres, beads, and lipid-based

systems including oil-in-water emulsions, micelles, mixed micelles, and liposomes. The preferred colloidal system of this invention is a lipid-complexed or liposome-formulated DNA. In the former approach, prior to formulation of DNA, e.g., with lipid, a plasmid containing a transgene bearing the desired DNA constructs may first be experimentally optimized for expression (e.g., inclusion of an intron in the 5' untranslated region and elimination of unnecessary sequences (Feigner, et al, Ann NY Acad Sci 126-139, 1995). Formulation of DNA, e.g. with various lipid or liposome materials, may then be effected using known methods and materials and delivered to the recipient mammal. See, e.g., Canonico et al, Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:24-29, 1994; Tsan et al, Am J Physiol 268; Alton et al, Nat Genet. 5: 135-142, 1993 and U.S. patent No. 5,679,647 by Carson et al.

The targeting of liposomes can be classified based on anatomical and mechanistic factors. Anatomical classification is based on the level of selectivity, for example, organ-specific, cell-specific, and organelle-specific. Mechanistic targeting can be distinguished based upon whether it is passive or active. Passive targeting utilizes the natural tendency of liposomes to distribute to cells of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) in organs, which contain sinusoidal capillaries. Active targeting, on the other hand, involves alteration of the liposome by coupling the liposome to a specific ligand such as a monoclonal antibody, sugar, glycolipid, or protein, or by changing the composition or size of the liposome in order to achieve targeting to organs and cell types other than the naturally occurring sites of localization.

The surface of the targeted delivery system may be modified in a variety of ways. In the case of a liposomal targeted delivery system, lipid groups can be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of the liposome in order to maintain the targeting ligand in stable association with the liposomal bilayer. Various linking groups can be used for joining the lipid chains to the targeting ligand. Naked DNA or DNA associated with a delivery vehicle, e.g., liposomes, can be administered to several sites in a subject (see below).

Nucleic acids can be delivered in any desired vector. These include viral or non-viral vectors, including adenovirus vectors, adeno-associated virus vectors, retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, and plasmid vectors. Exemplary types of viruses include HSV (herpes simplex virus), AAV (adeno associated virus), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), BIV (bovine immunodeficiency virus), and MLV (murine leukemia virus). Nucleic acids can be administered in any desired format that provides sufficiently efficient delivery levels, including in virus particles, in liposomes, in nanoparticles, and complexed to polymers.

The nucleic acids encoding a protein or nucleic acid of interest may be in a plasmid or viral vector, or other vector as is known in the art. Such vectors are well-known and any can be selected for a particular application. In one embodiment of the invention, the gene delivery vehicle comprises a promoter and a demethylase coding sequence. Preferred promoters are tissue-specific promoters and promoters which are activated by cellular proliferation, such as the thymidine kinase and thymidylate synthase promoters. Other preferred promoters include promoters which are activatable by infection with a virus, such as the a- and β-interferon promoters, and promoters which are activatable by a hormone, such as estrogen. Other promoters which can be used include the Moloney virus LTR, the CMV promoter, and the mouse albumin promoter. A promoter may be constitutive or inducible.

In another embodiment, naked polynucleotide molecules are used as gene delivery vehicles, as described in WO 90/11092 and U.S. Patent 5,580,859. Such gene delivery vehicles can be either growth factor DNA or RNA and, in certain embodiments, are linked to killed adenovirus. Curiel et al, Hum. Gene. Ther. 3 : 147-154, 1992. Other vehicles which can optionally be used include DNA-ligand (Wu et al, J. Biol. Chem.

264: 16985-16987, 1989), lipid-DNA combinations (Feigner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:7413 7417, 1989), liposomes (Wang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:7851-7855, 1987) and microprojectiles (Williams et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88:2726-2730, 1991).

A gene delivery vehicle can optionally comprise viral sequences such as a viral origin of replication or packaging signal. These viral sequences can be selected from viruses such as astrovirus, coronavirus, orthomyxovirus, papovavirus, paramyxovirus, parvovirus, picornavirus, poxvirus, retrovirus, togavirus or adenovirus. In a preferred embodiment, the growth factor gene delivery vehicle is a recombinant retroviral vector. Recombinant retroviruses and various uses thereof have been described in numerous references including, for example, Mann et al., Cell 33 : 153, 1983, Cane and Mulligan, Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA 81 :6349, 1984, Miller et al, Human Gene Therapy 1 :5-14, 1990, U.S. Patent Nos. 4,405,712, 4,861,719, and 4,980,289, and PCT Application Nos. WO 89/02,468, WO 89/05,349, and WO 90/02,806. Numerous retroviral gene delivery vehicles can be utilized in the present invention, including for example those described in EP 0,415,731; WO 90/07936; WO 94/03622; WO 93/25698; WO 93/25234; U.S. Patent

No. 5,219,740; WO 9311230; WO 9310218; Vile and Hart, Cancer Res. 53 :3860-3864, 1993; Vile and Hart, Cancer Res. 53 :962-967, 1993; Ram et a/., Cancer Res. 53 :83-88, 1993; Takamiya et a/., J. Neurosci. Res. 33 :493-503, 1992; Baba et a/., J. Neurosurg.

79:729-735, 1993 (U.S. Patent No. 4,777,127, GB 2,200,651, EP 0,345,242 and

WO91/02805).

Other viral vector systems that can be used to deliver a polynucleotide of the invention have been derived from herpes virus, e.g., Herpes Simplex Virus (U.S. Patent No. 5,631,236 by Woo et al, issued May 20, 1997 and WO 00/08191 by Neurovex), vaccinia virus (Ridgeway (1988) Ridgeway, "Mammalian expression vectors," In: Rodriguez R L, Denhardt D T, ed. Vectors: A survey of molecular cloning vectors and their uses.

Stoneham: Butterworth; Baichwal and Sugden (1986) "Vectors for gene transfer derived from animal DNA viruses: Transient and stable expression of transferred genes," In:

Kucherlapati R, ed. Gene transfer. New York: Plenum Press; Coupar et al. (1988) Gene, 68: 1-10), and several RNA viruses. Preferred viruses include an alphavirus, a poxivirus, an arena virus, a vaccinia virus, a polio virus, and the like. They offer several attractive features for various mammalian cells (Friedmann (1989) Science, 244: 1275-1281;

Ridgeway, 1988, supra; Baichwal and Sugden, 1986, supra; Coupar et a/., 1988; Horwich et a/.(1990) J.Virol., 64:642-650).

In other embodiments, target DNA in the genome can be manipulated using well-known methods in the art. For example, the target DNA in the genome can be manipulated by deletion, insertion, and/or mutation are retroviral insertion, artificial chromosome techniques, gene insertion, random insertion with tissue specific promoters, gene targeting, transposable elements and/or any other method for introducing foreign DNA or producing modified DNA/modified nuclear DNA. Other modification techniques include deleting DNA sequences from a genome and/or altering nuclear DNA sequences. Nuclear DNA sequences, for example, may be altered by site-directed mutagenesis.

In other embodiments, recombinant biomarker polypeptides, and fragments thereof, can be administered to subjects. In some embodiments, fusion proteins can be constructed and administered which have enhanced biological properties. In addition, the biomarker polypeptides, and fragment thereof, can be modified according to well-known

pharmacological methods in the art {e.g., pegylation, glycosylation, oligomerization, etc.) in order to further enhance desirable biological activities, such as increased bioavailability and decreased proteolytic degradation.

VII. Clinical Efficacy

Clinical efficacy can be measured by any method known in the art. For example, the response to an cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9), relates to any response of the cancer, e.g., a tumor, to the therapy, preferably to a change in tumor mass and/or volume after initiation of neoadjuvant or adjuvant

chemotherapy. Tumor response may be assessed in a neoadjuvant or adjuvant situation where the size of a tumor after systemic intervention can be compared to the initial size and dimensions as measured by CT, PET, mammogram, ultrasound or palpation and the cellularity of a tumor can be estimated histologically and compared to the cellularity of a tumor biopsy taken before initiation of treatment. Response may also be assessed by caliper measurement or pathological examination of the tumor after biopsy or surgical resection. Response may be recorded in a quantitative fashion like percentage change in tumor volume or cellularity or using a semi-quantitative scoring system such as residual cancer burden (Symmans et al, J. Clin. Oncol. (2007) 25:4414-4422) or Miller-Payne score (Ogston et al, (2003) Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 12:320-327) in a qualitative fashion like "pathological complete response" (pCR), "clinical complete remission" (cCR), "clinical partial remission" (cPR), "clinical stable disease" (cSD), "clinical progressive disease" (cPD) or other qualitative criteria. Assessment of tumor response may be performed early after the onset of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy, e.g., after a few hours, days, weeks or preferably after a few months. A typical endpoint for response assessment is upon termination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or upon surgical removal of residual tumor cells and/or the tumor bed.

In some embodiments, clinical efficacy of the therapeutic treatments described herein may be determined by measuring the clinical benefit rate (CBR). The clinical benefit rate is measured by determining the sum of the percentage of patients who are in complete remission (CR), the number of patients who are in partial remission (PR) and the number of patients having stable disease (SD) at a time point at least 6 months out from the end of therapy. The shorthand for this formula is CBR=CR+PR+SD over 6 months. In some embodiments, the CBR for a particular modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 therapeutic regimen is at least 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, or more.

Additional criteria for evaluating the response to cancer therapy (e.g., e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) are related to "survival," which includes all of the following: survival until mortality, also known as overall survival (wherein said mortality may be either irrespective of cause or tumor related); "recurrence-free survival" (wherein the term recurrence shall include both localized and distant recurrence); metastasis free survival; disease free survival (wherein the term disease shall include cancer and diseases associated therewith). The length of said survival may be calculated by reference to a defined start point (e.g., time of diagnosis or start of treatment) and end point (e.g., death, recurrence or metastasis). In addition, criteria for efficacy of treatment can be expanded to include response to chemotherapy, probability of survival, probability of metastasis within a given time period, and probability of tumor recurrence.

For example, in order to determine appropriate threshold values, a particular modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 therapeutic regimen can be administered to a population of subjects and the outcome can be correlated to biomarker measurements that were determined prior to administration of any cancer therapy (e.g., e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9). The outcome measurement may be pathologic response to therapy given in the neoadjuvant setting. Alternatively, outcome measures, such as overall survival and disease-free survival can be monitored over a period of time for subjects following cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) for whom biomarker measurement values are known. In certain embodiments, the same doses of the agent modulating at least one biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9 are administered to each subject. In related embodiments, the doses

administered are standard doses known in the art for the agent modulating at least one biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9. The period of time for which subjects are monitored can vary. For example, subjects may be monitored for at least 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 months. Biomarker measurement threshold values that correlate to outcome of an cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) can be determined using methods such as those described in the Examples section.

VIII. Further Uses and Methods of the Present Invention

The compositions described herein can be used in a variety of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications regarding biomarkers described herein, such as those listed in Tables 1 and 2. In any method described herein, such as a diagnostic method, prognostic method, therapeutic method, or combination thereof, all steps of the method can be performed by a single actor or, alternatively, by more than one actor. For example, diagnosis can be performed directly by the actor providing therapeutic treatment. Alternatively, a person providing a therapeutic agent can request that a diagnostic assay be performed. The diagnostician and/or the therapeutic interventionist can interpret the diagnostic assay results to determine a therapeutic strategy. Similarly, such alternative processes can apply to other assays, such as prognostic assays.

a. Screening Methods

One aspect of the present invention relates to screening assays, including non-cell based assays. In one embodiment, the assays provide a method for identifying whether a cancer is likely to respond to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) and/or whether an agent can inhibit the growth of or kill a cancer cell that is unlikely to respond to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9).

In one embodiment, the invention relates to assays for screening test agents which bind to, or modulate the biological activity of, at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9. In one embodiment, a method for identifying such an agent entails determining the ability of the agent to modulate, e.g. inhibit, the at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9.

In one embodiment, an assay is a cell-free or cell-based assay, comprising contacting at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9, with a test agent, and determining the ability of the test agent to modulate (e.g. inhibit) the enzymatic activity of the biomarker, such as by measuring direct binding of substrates or by measuring indirect parameters as described below.

In another embodiment, an assay is a cell-free or cell-based assay, comprising contacting the cancer cell with cytotoxic T cells and a test agent, and determining the ability of the test agent to decrease the copy number, amount, and/or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Table 1, 5, 7 or 9, and/or increase the copy number, amount, and/or activity of the at least one biomarker listed in Table 2, 4, 6 or 8, such as by measuring direct binding of substrates or by measuring indirect parameters as described below.

For example, in a direct binding assay, biomarker protein (or their respective target polypeptides or molecules) can be coupled with a radioisotope or enzymatic label such that binding can be determined by detecting the labeled protein or molecule in a complex. For example, the targets can be labeled with 1251, 35 S, 14C, or 3H, either directly or indirectly, and the radioisotope detected by direct counting of radioemmission or by scintillation counting. Alternatively, the targets can be enzymatically labeled with, for example, horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, or luciferase, and the enzymatic label detected by determination of conversion of an appropriate substrate to product.

Determining the interaction between biomarker and substrate can also be accomplished using standard binding or enzymatic analysis assays. In one or more embodiments of the above described assay methods, it may be desirable to immobilize polypeptides or molecules to facilitate separation of complexed from uncomplexed forms of one or both of the proteins or molecules, as well as to accommodate automation of the assay.

Binding of a test agent to a target can be accomplished in any vessel suitable for containing the reactants. Non-limiting examples of such vessels include microtiter plates, test tubes, and micro-centrifuge tubes. Immobilized forms of the antibodies of the present invention can also include antibodies bound to a solid phase like a porous, microporous (with an average pore diameter less than about one micron) or macroporous (with an average pore diameter of more than about 10 microns) material, such as a membrane, cellulose, nitrocellulose, or glass fibers; a bead, such as that made of agarose or polyacrylamide or latex; or a surface of a dish, plate, or well, such as one made of polystyrene.

In an alternative embodiment, determining the ability of the agent to modulate the interaction between the biomarker and its natural binding partner can be accomplished by determining the ability of the test agent to modulate the activity of a polypeptide or other product that functions downstream or upstream of its position within the biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9.

The present invention further pertains to novel agents identified by the above-described screening assays. Accordingly, it is within the scope of this invention to further use an agent identified as described herein in an appropriate animal model. For example, an agent identified as described herein can be used in an animal model to determine the efficacy, toxicity, or side effects of treatment with such an agent. Alternatively, an antibody identified as described herein can be used in an animal model to determine the mechanism of action of such an agent.

b. Predictive Medicine

The present invention also pertains to the field of predictive medicine in which diagnostic assays, prognostic assays, and monitoring clinical trials are used for prognostic (predictive) purposes to thereby treat an individual prophylactically. Accordingly, one aspect of the present invention relates to diagnostic assays for determining the presence, absence, amount, and/or activity level of a biomarker described herein, such as those listed in Tables 1-9, in the context of a biological sample (e.g., blood, serum, cells, or tissue) to thereby determine whether an individual afflicted with a cancer is likely to respond to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9), whether in an original or recurrent cancer. Such assays can be used for prognostic or predictive purpose to thereby prophylactically treat an individual prior to the onset or after recurrence of a disorder characterized by or associated with biomarker polypeptide, nucleic acid expression or activity. The skilled artisan will appreciate that any method can use one or more (e.g., combinations) of biomarkers described herein, such as those listed in Tables 1-9.

Another aspect of the present invention pertains to monitoring the influence of agents (e.g., drugs, compounds, and small nucleic acid-based molecules) on the expression or activity of a biomarker listed in Tables 1-9. These and other agents are described in further detail in the following sections.

The skilled artisan will also appreciate that, in certain embodiments, the methods of the present invention implement a computer program and computer system. For example, a computer program can be used to perform the algorithms described herein. A computer system can also store and manipulate data generated by the methods of the present invention which comprises a plurality of biomarker signal changes/profiles which can be used by a computer system in implementing the methods of this invention. In certain embodiments, a computer system receives biomarker expression data; (ii) stores the data; and (iii) compares the data in any number of ways described herein (e.g., analysis relative to appropriate controls) to determine the state of informative biomarkers from cancerous or pre-cancerous tissue. In other embodiments, a computer system (i) compares the determined expression biomarker level to a threshold value; and (ii) outputs an indication of whether said biomarker level is significantly modulated (e.g., above or below) the threshold value, or a phenotype based on said indication.

In certain embodiments, such computer systems are also considered part of the present invention. Numerous types of computer systems can be used to implement the

analytic methods of this invention according to knowledge possessed by a skilled artisan in the bioinformatics and/or computer arts. Several software components can be loaded into memory during operation of such a computer system. The software components can comprise both software components that are standard in the art and components that are special to the present invention (e.g., dCHIP software described in Lin et al. (2004)

Bioinformatics 20, 1233-1240; radial basis machine learning algorithms (RBM) known in the art).

The methods of the invention can also be programmed or modeled in mathematical software packages that allow symbolic entry of equations and high-level specification of processing, including specific algorithms to be used, thereby freeing a user of the need to procedurally program individual equations and algorithms. Such packages include, e.g., Matlab from Mathworks (Natick, Mass.), Mathematica from Wolfram Research

(Champaign, 111.) or S-Plus from MathSoft (Seattle, Wash.).

In certain embodiments, the computer comprises a database for storage of biomarker data. Such stored profiles can be accessed and used to perform comparisons of interest at a later point in time. For example, biomarker expression profiles of a sample derived from the non-cancerous tissue of a subject and/or profiles generated from population-based distributions of informative loci of interest in relevant populations of the same species can be stored and later compared to that of a sample derived from the cancerous tissue of the subject or tissue suspected of being cancerous of the subject.

In addition to the exemplary program structures and computer systems described herein, other, alternative program structures and computer systems will be readily apparent to the skilled artisan. Such alternative systems, which do not depart from the above described computer system and programs structures either in spirit or in scope, are therefore intended to be comprehended within the accompanying claims,

c. Diagnostic Assays

The present invention provides, in part, methods, systems, and code for accurately classifying whether a biological sample is associated with a cancer that is likely to respond to cancer therapy {e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9). In some embodiments, the present invention is useful for classifying a sample {e.g., from a subject) as associated with or at risk for responding to or not responding to cancer therapy {e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) using a statistical algorithm and/or empirical data {e.g., the amount or activity of at least one biomarker listed in Tables 1-9).

An exemplary method for detecting the amount or activity of a biomarker listed in Tables 1-9, and thus useful for classifying whether a sample is likely or unlikely to respond to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) involves obtaining a biological sample from a test subject and contacting the biological sample with an agent, such as a protein-binding agent like an antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof, or a nucleic acid-binding agent like an oligonucleotide, capable of detecting the amount or activity of the biomarker in the biological sample. In some embodiments, at least one antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof is used, wherein two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or more such antibodies or antibody fragments can be used in combination (e.g., in sandwich ELISAs) or in serial. In certain instances, the statistical algorithm is a single learning statistical classifier system. For example, a single learning statistical classifier system can be used to classify a sample as a based upon a prediction or probability value and the presence or level of the biomarker. The use of a single learning statistical classifier system typically classifies the sample as, for example, a likely cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9) responder or progressor sample with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and/or overall accuracy of at least about 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99%.

Other suitable statistical algorithms are well-known to those of skill in the art. For example, learning statistical classifier systems include a machine learning algorithmic technique capable of adapting to complex data sets (e.g., panel of markers of interest) and making decisions based upon such data sets. In some embodiments, a single learning statistical classifier system such as a classification tree (e.g., random forest) is used. In other embodiments, a combination of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more learning statistical classifier systems are used, preferably in tandem. Examples of learning statistical classifier systems include, but are not limited to, those using inductive learning (e.g.,

decision/classification trees such as random forests, classification and regression trees (C&RT), boosted trees, etc.), Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning,

connectionist learning (e.g., neural networks (NN), artificial neural networks (ANN), neuro fuzzy networks (NFN), network structures, perceptrons such as multi-layer perceptrons, multi-layer feed-forward networks, applications of neural networks, Bayesian learning in belief networks, etc.), reinforcement learning (e.g., passive learning in a known

environment such as naive learning, adaptive dynamic learning, and temporal difference learning, passive learning in an unknown environment, active learning in an unknown environment, learning action-value functions, applications of reinforcement learning, etc.), and genetic algorithms and evolutionary programming. Other learning statistical classifier systems include support vector machines (e.g., Kernel methods), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms, Gauss-Newton algorithms, mixtures of Gaussians, gradient descent algorithms, and learning vector quantization (LVQ). In certain embodiments, the method of the present invention further comprises sending the sample classification results to a clinician, e.g., an oncologist.

In another embodiment, the diagnosis of a subject is followed by administering to the individual a therapeutically effective amount of a defined treatment based upon the diagnosis.

In one embodiment, the methods further involve obtaining a control biological sample (e.g., biological sample from a subject who does not have a cancer or whose cancer is susceptible to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9), a biological sample from the subject during remission, or a biological sample from the subject during treatment for developing a cancer progressing despite cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9).

d. Prognostic Assays

The diagnostic methods described herein can furthermore be utilized to identify subjects having or at risk of developing a cancer that is likely or unlikely to be responsive to cancer therapy (e.g., at least one modulator of biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9). The assays described herein, such as the preceding diagnostic assays or the following assays, can be utilized to identify a subject having or at risk of developing a disorder associated with a misregulation of the amount or activity of at least one biomarker described in, for example, Tables 1-9, such as in cancer. Alternatively, the prognostic assays can be utilized to identify a subject having or at risk for developing a disorder associated with a misregulation of the at least one biomarker described in Tables 1-9, such as in cancer. Furthermore, the prognostic assays described herein can be used to determine whether a subject can be administered an agent (e.g., an agonist, antagonist, peptidomimetic, polypeptide, peptide, nucleic acid, small molecule, or other drug candidate) to treat a disease or disorder associated with the aberrant biomarker expression or activity,

e. Treatment Methods

Another aspect of the invention pertains to methods of modulating the expression or activity of one or more biomarkers described herein (e.g., those listed in Tables 1-9, and the Examples, or fragments thereof,) for therapeutic purposes. The biomarkers of the present invention have been demonstrated to correlate with cancers. Accordingly, the activity and/or expression of the biomarker, as well as the interaction between one or more biomarkers or a fragment thereof and its natural binding partner(s) or a fragment(s) thereof, can be modulated in order to treat cancers.

Modulatory methods of the invention involve contacting a cell with one or more modulators of a biomarker of the invention, including one or more biomarkers of the invention, including one or more biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9, and the Examples, or a fragment thereof or agent that modulates one or more of the activities of biomarker activity associated with the cell. An agent that modulates biomarker activity can be an agent as described herein, such as a nucleic acid or a polypeptide, a naturally-occurring binding partner of the biomarker, an antibody against the biomarker, a combination of antibodies against the biomarker and antibodies against other immune related targets, one or more biomarkers agonist or antagonist, a peptidomimetic of one or more biomarkers agonist or antagonist, one or more biomarkers peptidomimetic, other small molecule, or small RNA directed against or a mimic of one or more biomarkers nucleic acid gene expression product.

An agent that modulates the expression of one or more biomarkers of the present invention, including one or more biomarkers of the invention, including one or more biomarkers listed in Tables 1-9, and the Examples, or a fragment thereof is, e.g., an antisense nucleic acid molecule, RNAi molecule, shRNA, mature miRNA, pre-miRNA, pri-miRNA, miRNA*, anti-miRNA, or a miRNA binding site, or a variant thereof, or other small RNA molecule, triplex oligonucleotide, ribozyme, or recombinant vector for expression of one or more biomarkers polypeptide. For example, an oligonucleotide complementary to the area around one or more biomarkers polypeptide translation initiation site can be synthesized. One or more antisense oligonucleotides can be added to cell media, typically at 200 μg/ml, or administered to a patient to prevent the synthesis of one or more biomarkers polypeptide. The antisense oligonucleotide is taken up by cells and hybridizes to one or more biomarkers mRNA to prevent translation. Alternatively, an oligonucleotide which binds double-stranded DNA to form a triplex construct to prevent DNA unwinding and transcription can be used. As a result of either, synthesis of biomarker polypeptide is blocked. When biomarker expression is modulated, preferably, such modulation occurs by a means other than by knocking out the biomarker gene.

Agents which modulate expression, by virtue of the fact that they control the amount of biomarker in a cell, also modulate the total amount of biomarker activity in a cell.

In one embodiment, the agent stimulates one or more activities of one or more biomarkers of the invention, including one or more biomarkers listed in Table 2, 4, 6, or 8 and the Examples or a fragment thereof. Examples of such stimulatory agents include active biomarker polypeptide or a fragment thereof and a nucleic acid molecule encoding the biomarker or a fragment thereof that has been introduced into the cell (e.g., cDNA, mRNA, shRNAs, siRNAs, small RNAs, mature miRNA, pre-miRNA, pri-miRNA, miRNA*, anti-miRNA, or a miRNA binding site, or a variant thereof, or other functionally equivalent molecule known to a skilled artisan). In another embodiment, the agent inhibits one or more biomarker activities. In one embodiment, the agent inhibits or enhances the interaction of the biomarker with its natural binding partner(s). Examples of such inhibitory agents include antisense nucleic acid molecules, anti-biomarker antibodies, biomarker inhibitors, and compounds identified in the screening assays described herein.

These modulatory methods can be performed in vitro {e.g., by contacting the cell with the agent) or, alternatively, by contacting an agent with cells in vivo {e.g., by administering the agent to a subject). As such, the present invention provides methods of treating an individual afflicted with a condition or disorder that would benefit from up- or down-modulation of one or more biomarkers of the present invention listed in Tables 1-9 and the Examples or a fragment thereof, e.g., a disorder characterized by unwanted, insufficient, or aberrant expression or activity of the biomarker or fragments thereof. In one embodiment, the method involves administering an agent {e.g., an agent identified by a screening assay described herein), or combination of agents that modulates {e.g., upregulates or downregulates) biomarker expression or activity. In another embodiment, the method involves administering one or more biomarkers polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule as therapy to compensate for reduced, aberrant, or unwanted biomarker expression or activity.

Stimulation of biomarker activity is desirable in situations in which the biomarker is abnormally downregulated and/or in which increased biomarker activity is likely to have a beneficial effect. Likewise, inhibition of biomarker activity is desirable in stations in which biomarker is abnormally upregulated and/or in which decreased biomarker activity is likely to have a beneficial effect.

In addition, these modulatory agents can also be administered in combination therapy with, e.g., chemotherapeutic agents, hormones, antiangiogens, radiolabelled, compounds, or with surgery, cryotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The preceding treatment methods can be administered in conjunction with other forms of conventional therapy (e.g., standard-of-care treatments for cancer well-known to the skilled artisan), either

consecutively with, pre- or post-conventional therapy. For example, these modulatory agents can be administered with a therapeutically effective dose of chemotherapeutic agent. In another embodiment, these modulatory agents are administered in conjunction with chemotherapy to enhance the activity and efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent. The Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) discloses dosages of chemotherapeutic agents that have been used in the treatment of various cancers. The dosing regimen and dosages of these aforementioned chemotherapeutic drugs that are therapeutically effective will depend on the particular melanoma, being treated, the extent of the disease and other factors familiar to the physician of skill in the art and can be determined by the physician.

IX. Pharmaceutical Compositions

In another aspect, the present invention provides pharmaceutically acceptable compositions which comprise a therapeutically-effective amount of an agent that modulates (e.g., decreases) biomarker expression and/or activity, formulated together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers (additives) and/or diluents. As described in detail below, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be specially formulated for administration in solid or liquid form, including those adapted for the following: (1) oral administration, for example, drenches (aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions), tablets, boluses, powders, granules, pastes; (2) parenteral administration, for example, by subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous injection as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension; (3) topical application, for example, as a cream, ointment or spray applied to the skin; (4) intravaginally or intrarectally, for example, as a pessary, cream or foam; or (5) aerosol, for example, as an aqueous aerosol, liposomal preparation or solid particles containing the compound.

The phrase "therapeutically-effective amount" as used herein means that amount of an agent that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity which is

effective for producing some desired therapeutic effect, e.g., cancer treatment, at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those agents, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

The phrase "pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier" as used herein means a pharmaceutically-acceptable material, composition or vehicle, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent or encapsulating material, involved in carrying or transporting the subject chemical from one organ, or portion of the body, to another organ, or portion of the body. Each carrier must be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not injurious to the subject. Some examples of materials which can serve as pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers include: (1) sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; (2) starches, such as corn starch and potato starch; (3) cellulose, and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; (4) powdered tragacanth; (5) malt; (6) gelatin; (7) talc; (8) excipients, such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; (9) oils, such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; (10) glycols, such as propylene glycol; (11) polyols, such as glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol and

polyethylene glycol; (12) esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; (13) agar; (14) buffering agents, such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; (15) alginic acid; (16) pyrogen-free water; (17) isotonic saline; (18) Ringer's solution; (19) ethyl alcohol; (20) phosphate buffer solutions; and (21) other non-toxic compatible substances employed in pharmaceutical formulations.

The term "pharmaceutically-acceptable salts" refers to the relatively non-toxic, inorganic and organic acid addition salts of the agents that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity. These salts can be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the respiration uncoupling agents, or by separately reacting a purified respiration uncoupling agent in its free base form with a suitable organic or inorganic acid, and isolating the salt thus formed. Representative salts include the hydrobromide, hydrochloride, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, nitrate, acetate, valerate, oleate, palmitate, stearate, laurate, benzoate, lactate, phosphate, tosylate, citrate, maleate, fumarate, succinate, tartrate, napthylate, mesylate, glucoheptonate, lactobionate, and laurylsulphonate salts and the like (See, for example, Berge et al. (1977) "Pharmaceutical Salts", J. Pharm. Sci. 66: 1-19).

In other cases, the agents useful in the methods of the present invention may contain one or more acidic functional groups and, thus, are capable of forming pharmaceutically-acceptable salts with pharmaceutically-acceptable bases. The term "pharmaceutically-acceptable salts" in these instances refers to the relatively non-toxic, inorganic and organic base addition salts of agents that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression. These salts can likewise be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the respiration uncoupling agents, or by separately reacting the purified respiration uncoupling agent in its free acid form with a suitable base, such as the hydroxide, carbonate or bicarbonate of a pharmaceutically-acceptable metal cation, with ammonia, or with a pharmaceutically-acceptable organic primary, secondary or tertiary amine. Representative alkali or alkaline earth salts include the lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and aluminum salts and the like. Representative organic amines useful for the formation of base addition salts include ethylamine, diethylamine, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, piperazine and the like (see, for example, Berge et al., supra).

Wetting agents, emulsifiers and lubricants, such as sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, release agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants can also be present in the compositions.

Examples of pharmaceutically-acceptable antioxidants include: (1) water soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, cysteine hydrochloride, sodium bisulfate, sodium metabi sulfite, sodium sulfite and the like; (2) oil-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lecithin, propyl gallate, alpha-tocopherol, and the like; and (3) metal chelating agents, such as citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sorbitol, tartaric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like.

Formulations useful in the methods of the present invention include those suitable for oral, nasal, topical (including buccal and sublingual), rectal, vaginal, aerosol and/or parenteral administration. The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well-known in the art of pharmacy. The amount of active ingredient which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single

dosage form will vary depending upon the host being treated, the particular mode of administration. The amount of active ingredient, which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will generally be that amount of the compound which produces a therapeutic effect. Generally, out of one hundred per cent, this amount will range from about 1 per cent to about ninety-nine percent of active ingredient, preferably from about 5 per cent to about 70 per cent, most preferably from about 10 per cent to about 30 per cent.

Methods of preparing these formulations or compositions include the step of bringing into association an agent that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity, with the carrier and, optionally, one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association a respiration uncoupling agent with liquid carriers, or finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product.

Formulations suitable for oral administration may be in the form of capsules, cachets, pills, tablets, lozenges (using a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth), powders, granules, or as a solution or a suspension in an aqueous or nonaqueous liquid, or as an oil-in-water or water-in-oil liquid emulsion, or as an elixir or syrup, or as pastilles (using an inert base, such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia) and/or as mouth washes and the like, each containing a predetermined amount of a respiration uncoupling agent as an active ingredient. A compound may also be administered as a bolus, electuary or paste.

In solid dosage forms for oral administration (capsules, tablets, pills, dragees, powders, granules and the like), the active ingredient is mixed with one or more

pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers, such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate, and/or any of the following: (1) fillers or extenders, such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and/or silicic acid; (2) binders, such as, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, sucrose and/or acacia; (3) humectants, such as glycerol; (4) disintegrating agents, such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate; (5) solution retarding agents, such as paraffin; (6) absorption accelerators, such as quaternary ammonium compounds; (7) wetting agents, such as, for example, acetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; (8) absorbents, such as kaolin and bentonite clay; (9) lubricants, such a talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures

thereof; and (10) coloring agents. In the case of capsules, tablets and pills, the

pharmaceutical compositions may also comprise buffering agents. Solid compositions of a similar type may also be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugars, as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

A tablet may be made by compression or molding, optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets may be prepared using binder (for example, gelatin or hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose), lubricant, inert diluent, preservative, disintegrant (for example, sodium starch glycolate or cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), surface-active or dispersing agent. Molded tablets may be made by molding in a suitable machine a mixture of the powdered peptide or peptidomimetic moistened with an inert liquid diluent.

Tablets, and other solid dosage forms, such as dragees, capsules, pills and granules, may optionally be scored or prepared with coatings and shells, such as enteric coatings and other coatings well-known in the pharmaceutical-formulating art. They may also be formulated so as to provide slow or controlled release of the active ingredient therein using, for example, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose in varying proportions to provide the desired release profile, other polymer matrices, liposomes and/or microspheres. They may be sterilized by, for example, filtration through a bacteria-retaining filter, or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions, which can be dissolved in sterile water, or some other sterile injectable medium immediately before use. These compositions may also optionally contain opacifying agents and may be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain portion of the

gastrointestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding

compositions, which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. The active ingredient can also be in micro-encapsulated form, if appropriate, with one or more of the above-described excipients.

Liquid dosage forms for oral administration include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups and elixirs. In addition to the active ingredient, the liquid dosage forms may contain inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as, for example, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof.

Besides inert diluents, the oral compositions can also include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, coloring, perfuming and preservative agents.

Suspensions, in addition to the active agent may contain suspending agents as, for example, ethoxylated isostearyl alcohols, polyoxyethylene sorbitol and sorbitan esters, microcrystalline cellulose, aluminum metahydroxide, bentonite, agar-agar and tragacanth, and mixtures thereof.

Formulations for rectal or vaginal administration may be presented as a suppository, which may be prepared by mixing one or more respiration uncoupling agents with one or more suitable nonirritating excipients or carriers comprising, for example, cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, a suppository wax or a salicylate, and which is solid at room temperature, but liquid at body temperature and, therefore, will melt in the rectum or vaginal cavity and release the active agent.

Formulations which are suitable for vaginal administration also include pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.

Dosage forms for the topical or transdermal administration of an agent that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity include powders, sprays, ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, solutions, patches and inhalants. The active component may be mixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier, and with any preservatives, buffers, or propellants which may be required.

The ointments, pastes, creams and gels may contain, in addition to a respiration uncoupling agent, excipients, such as animal and vegetable fats, oils, waxes, paraffins, starch, tragacanth, cellulose derivatives, polyethylene glycols, silicones, bentonites, silicic acid, talc and zinc oxide, or mixtures thereof.

Powders and sprays can contain, in addition to an agent that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity, excipients such as lactose, talc, silicic acid, aluminum hydroxide, calcium silicates and polyamide powder, or mixtures of these substances. Sprays can additionally contain customary propellants, such as

chlorofluorohydrocarbons and volatile unsubstituted hydrocarbons, such as butane and propane.

The agent that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity, can be alternatively administered by aerosol. This is accomplished by preparing an aqueous aerosol, liposomal preparation or solid particles containing the compound. A nonaqueous (e.g., fluorocarbon propellant) suspension could be used. Sonic nebulizers are preferred because they minimize exposing the agent to shear, which can result in degradation of the compound.

Ordinarily, an aqueous aerosol is made by formulating an aqueous solution or suspension of the agent together with conventional pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and stabilizers. The carriers and stabilizers vary with the requirements of the particular compound, but typically include nonionic surfactants (Tweens, Pluronics, or polyethylene glycol), innocuous proteins like serum albumin, sorbitan esters, oleic acid, lecithin, amino acids such as glycine, buffers, salts, sugars or sugar alcohols. Aerosols generally are prepared from isotonic solutions.

Transdermal patches have the added advantage of providing controlled delivery of a respiration uncoupling agent to the body. Such dosage forms can be made by dissolving or dispersing the agent in the proper medium. Absorption enhancers can also be used to increase the flux of the peptidomimetic across the skin. The rate of such flux can be controlled by either providing a rate controlling membrane or dispersing the

peptidomimetic in a polymer matrix or gel.

Ophthalmic formulations, eye ointments, powders, solutions and the like, are also contemplated as being within the scope of this invention.

Pharmaceutical compositions of this invention suitable for parenteral administration comprise one or more respiration uncoupling agents in combination with one or more pharmaceutically-acceptable sterile isotonic aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, dispersions, suspensions or emulsions, or sterile powders which may be reconstituted into sterile injectable solutions or dispersions just prior to use, which may contain antioxidants, buffers, bacteriostats, solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient or suspending or thickening agents.

Examples of suitable aqueous and nonaqueous carriers which may be employed in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention include water, ethanol, polyols (such as glycerol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof, vegetable oils, such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters, such as ethyl oleate. Proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of coating materials, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersions, and by the use of surfactants.

These compositions may also contain adjuvants such as preservatives, wetting agents, emulsifying agents and dispersing agents. Prevention of the action of

microorganisms may be ensured by the inclusion of various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, paraben, chlorobutanol, phenol sorbic acid, and the like. It may also be desirable to include isotonic agents, such as sugars, sodium chloride, and the like into the compositions. In addition, prolonged absorption of the injectable pharmaceutical form may be brought about by the inclusion of agents which delay absorption such as aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

In some cases, in order to prolong the effect of a drug, it is desirable to slow the absorption of the drug from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material having poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the drug then depends upon its rate of dissolution, which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form.

Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally-administered drug form is accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle.

Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsule matrices of an agent that modulates (e.g., inhibits) biomarker expression and/or activity, in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending on the ratio of drug to polymer, and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of drug release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations are also prepared by entrapping the drug in liposomes or microemulsions, which are compatible with body tissue.

When the respiration uncoupling agents of the present invention are administered as pharmaceuticals, to humans and animals, they can be given per se or as a pharmaceutical composition containing, for example, 0.1 to 99.5% (more preferably, 0.5 to 90%) of active ingredient in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Actual dosage levels of the active ingredients in the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may be determined by the methods of the present invention so as to obtain an amount of the active ingredient, which is effective to achieve the desired therapeutic response for a particular subject, composition, and mode of administration, without being toxic to the subject.

The nucleic acid molecules of the invention can be inserted into vectors and used as gene therapy vectors. Gene therapy vectors can be delivered to a subject by, for example, intravenous injection, local administration (see U.S. Pat. No. 5,328,470) or by stereotactic injection (see e.g., Chen et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :3054 3057). The pharmaceutical preparation of the gene therapy vector can include the gene therapy vector in an acceptable diluent, or can comprise a slow release matrix in which the gene delivery vehicle is imbedded. Alternatively, where the complete gene delivery vector can be produced intact from recombinant cells, e.g., retroviral vectors, the pharmaceutical preparation can include one or more cells which produce the gene delivery system.

The present invention also encompasses kits for detecting and/or modulating biomarkers described herein. A kit of the present invention may also include instructional materials disclosing or describing the use of the kit or an antibody of the disclosed invention in a method of the disclosed invention as provided herein. A kit may also include additional components to facilitate the particular application for which the kit is designed. For example, a kit may additionally contain means of detecting the label (e.g., enzyme substrates for enzymatic labels, filter sets to detect fluorescent labels, appropriate secondary labels such as a sheep anti-mouse-HRP, etc.) and reagents necessary for controls (e.g., control biological samples or standards). A kit may additionally include buffers and other reagents recognized for use in a method of the disclosed invention. Non-limiting examples include agents to reduce non-specific binding, such as a carrier protein or a detergent.

Other embodiments of the present invention are described in the following

Examples. The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples which should not be construed as further limiting.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Materials and Methods for Examples 2-7

a. Cell Culture

B16F10 cells were maintained in complete DMEM media (10% FBS and 50 U/ml of Penicillin-Streptomycin). B 16F10-Cas9 cells were maintained in complete DMEM media with 2.5-5 ug/ml of blasticidin. CD8 T cells isolated from mice were cultured in complete RPMI 1640 media (10 %FBS, 20 nM HEPES, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 0.05 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 2 mM L-glutamine, and 50 U/ml streptomycin and penicillin).

b. Generation of murine B16F10-Cas9 cell lines

Lentiviral Cas9-Blast (Addgene #52962) vector was co-transfected with lentiviral packaging plasmids pCMV-dR8.91 and pCMV-VSV-G (Addgene #8454) to HEK293T cells. Transfection was done by using TransIT-293 (Minis, MIR2700) following the manufacturer's protocol. Virus was harvested at 48 hrs post-transfection, titered, and stored at -80°C. B 16F10 cells were infected with Cas9-Blast lentivirus overnight. Forty-eight hours post-infection, cells were selected with 5 ug/ml of blasticidin (Life Technologies R21001).

To acquire clones with high Cas9 activity, B 16F10-Cas9 cells were single-cell sorted into 96-well plates. Multiple were infected with lentivirus driving expression of a gRNA specific for Cd274 and mCherry. Ten days post-infection, each individual clone was stimulated with 10 ng/ml of IFNy for 24 hours and the expression of PD-Ll was determined by fluorescence-activated cells sorting (FACS) using an anti-Cd274 antibody (clone 10F.9G2, BioLegend, #124311). Cas9 efficiency was determined by the percentage of PD-LI negative cells in the transduced (mCherry+) population. Clone 4, which showed an editing efficiency >95% was selected for subsequent screen.

c. Development of the screen system

Generation of positive controls: Two positive control B 16F10-Cas9 cells were generated for optimizing the screen system: (1) Positive control for resistance to T cell mediated cytotoxicity: B2m-/- (GFP+) B 16F10-Cas9 cells and (2) positive control for sensitization to T cell mediated killing: Cd274-/- (mCherry+) B16F10-Cas9 cells. These cells were generated by infecting B16F10-Cas9 cells with lentivirus containing GFP and gRNA against B2m or lentivirus containing mCherry and gRNA against Cd274. Ten days after infection, these cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of IFNy for 24 hours and B2m-/-cells (GFP+ H2Kb-) and Cd274-f- cells mCherry+ PD-Ll - populations were sorted by FACS.

Isolation and in vitro activation of CD8+ T cells: Pmel-1 and OT-I TCR transgenic mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratory (stock # 005023 for Pmel-1 and 003831 for OT-1). CD8+ T cells were isolated from spleen and lymph nodes from Pmell or OT-I transgenic mice by using the EasySep® mouse CD8+ T cell isolation kit (STEMCELL #19753) following the manufacturer's protocol. Fresh isolated CD8+ T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 beads (ThermoFisher #11452D) at a ratio of 1 bead to 2 T cells. Recombinant mouse IL-2 (Biolegend, #575406) was added to the culture at 20 ng/ml on day 3. T cells were used for co-culture with B16F10 cells after at least 6 days of in vitro activation.

Testing B16/T cell co-culture with positive controls: Positive controls were mixed with parental B16F10-Cas9 cells at -1% for B2m-I- and -10% for Cd274-/- cells. For optimization of selection, these cells were co-cultured with in vitro activated OT-I or Pmell CD8+ T cells with various of experimental conditions. For selection with OT-I T cells, B16F10 cells were pulsed with SIINFEKL peptide (1 ng/ml) at 37°C for 2 hours prior to co-culture with OT-I T cells. For optimal killing by Pmell T cells, B16F10 cells were pre-treated with 10 ng/ml of IFNy for 24 hours to enhance surface MHC class I expression (which is very low in the absence of IFNy) prior to co-culture with Pmell T cells. After 1-3 days of selection, tumor cells were detached and the percentage of B2m-I- (GFP+) and Cd274-f- (mCherry+) cells was determined by FACS following gating on the DAPI" CD45" CD3" population. Fold enrichment and depletion was calculated by comparing the ratio of positive control cells to parental cells before and after selection.

d. Genome-scale CRIPSR-Cas9 screen in B 16F10 cells

gRNA pool library production: Mouse CRISPR Brie lentiviral-pooled

libraries consisting of 79,637 gRNA were co-transfected with packaging plasmids (psPAX2 #12260 and pCMV-VSV-G #8454) to HEK293T cells using the TransIT®-LTl

Transfection Reagent (Minis Bio. Cat. #MIR2305) following the manufacture's protocol. Briefly, 37 μg of library DNA, 46 μg of psPAX2 DNA, and 4.62 μg of VSV-G DNA were mixed and transfected to 293T cells in a T162 flask (Corning Cat. #3151). Six hours after transfection, media was removed and 60 ml of virus production media (DMEM media with 20% of FBS) was added. Forty-eight hours post-transfection, lentiviral media was harvested and stored in -80°C.

Virus titer determination: One million B 16F10-Cas9 cells were plated into each well of a 6-well plate. B16F10 cells were infected with different amount of "Bire" lentivirus overnight in the presence of absence of 8 ug/ml of polybrene. The next day, 100,000 infected B16 cells from each condition were seeded per well into a 6-well plate (in duplicates). After 24 hours of infection, 1 μg/ml of puromycin was added to one of the duplicated wells. After forty-eight hours of selection, all uninfected cells were dead and infected cells in each wells were counted. The percentage of survival for each of the viral concentration was calculated as follows (Chen et al. (2015) Cell 160: 1246-1260):

Cell# with puromycin

Psurvival =——rrr,——Ί — x 100

Cell# without puromycin

MOI(m) was calculated using following formula:

Psurvival = P(n > 0) = 1 - P(n = 0) = 1 - e~m

Single gRNA infection (SIP) rate was calculated using the following formula:

„.„ _ (1 ^survival) ^(1 Psurvival)

~ 1 survival

The MOI for screen was 0.06, which corresponds to a SIP rate of >95%.

Pmell screen: B 16F10-Cas9 (clone4) cells were infected with "Brie" lentivirus at MOI of 0.06 and selected with puromycin for at least 10 days prior to selection with T cells. B16F10 cells were pre-treated with 10 ng/ml of IFNy for 24 hours prior to co-culture with Pmell T cells to increase MHC class I expression. A total of approximately 8 x 107 B16F10 cells was prepared for each of three replicates for the Pmel-1 screen: (1) 40 million B16F10 cells were harvested for genomic DNA isolation prior to selection; (2) lxlO7 B16F10 cells were co-cultured with control OT-I T cells at a 1 : 1 ratio (control condition, OT-I T cells were not stimulated because B 16F 10 cells were not pulsed with Ova peptide); (3) lxlO7 B16F10 cells were co-cultured with Pmel-1 T cells at a 1 : 1 ratio (experimental condition). B16F10 and Pmell T cells were co-cultured in T 162 flasks for three days before T cells were removed from the culture by gentle washing of the adherent tumor cells.. Genomic DNA was harvested from cells regrown after removing the T cells.

Genomic DNA was isolated by using Blood & Cell Culture DNA Maxi/Midi Kit (Qiagen #13362, 13343) following the manufacturer's protocol. Genomic DNA was submitted to the Genetic Perturbation Platform at the Broad Institute for next generation sequencing. The Genetic Perturbation Platform at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (Cambridge, MA) performed PCR amplification of the gRNA cassette for Illumina sequencing of gRNA representation. Protocols for PCR and Illumina sequencing are available online (available on the World Wide Web at portals.broadinstitute.org/gpp/public/resources/protocols).

OT-I screen: For OT-I selection, B16F10 cells were pulsed with 1 ng/ml of Ova peptide (SIINFEKL) at 37°C for 2 hours prior to co-culture with OT-I T cells. A total of approximately 3 x l08 B16F10 cells were prepared for each of three replicates for the OT-I screen: (1) 8xl07 B16F10 cells were harvested for genomic DNA isolation prior to the screen; (2) 9xl07 non-pulsed B16F10 cells were co-cultured with OT-I T cells at a 1 : 1 ratio (control condition, no SIINFEKL peptide pulse); (3) 9xl07 SIINFEKL pulsed B16F10 cells

were co-cultured with OT-I T cells at a 1 : 1 ratio (experimental condition). Given that killing of tumor cells by OT-I was rapid, B 16F10 and OT-I T cells were co-cultured for one day before T cells were removed from the culture. Genomic DNA was extracted from cells regrown following T cell removal, and the gRNA cassette was sequenced as described above.

e. Screen data analysis

For a direct comparison of enriched and depleted gRNA, the average normalized gRNA count in each condition were compared and plotted using R. For candidate gene discovery, the normalized gRNA count table was loaded to MaGeCK (Model -based

Analysis of Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout) (Li et al. (2014) Genome Biol. 15:550) by comparing the condition for OT-I/Pmell selection versus selection with control T cells. Top genes were determined based on median Log(2) fold change for all gRNAs and false discovery rate (FDR). Log(2) fold changes >|2| and FDR<0.05 was used as a cutoff for significant genes. In order to identify significant pathways enriched or depleted in the screen, a hypergeometric distribution was computed by using overlapped genes sets with top positively selected or negative selected genes (Hallmark and Biological Process gene sets). Genes included in each pathway were based on MSIgDB (Molecular signature database), available on the World Wide Web at

software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/search.jsp) and relevant literature.

Table 3 provided below lists the top single-stranded guide RNAs (sgRNAs) identified in the screen.

Table 3

Cd274 TG CTG C ATA ATC AG CT ACG G 0.07 -3.62

Ikbkb ATGTGGCACCCTCGGCAAAG -0.60 -5.03

Ikbkb CAAGATCCATGTCCAACGTG -1.18 -3.60

Ikbkb GAAGCCAGTGATGCACTCGA -1.56 -3.74

Ikbkb TCACACATACCCCGTGACGG -2.91 -1.89

Psmel AAAGGGGACGAAGACGACAA 0.27 -2.49

Psmel CCGTGAAGACCTGTGTAGCA -0.57 -3.40

Psmel CTG CAACC AG GTAGTG ACCT 0.89 -4.18

Psmel G A ACTG C A ATG AG A AG ATTG -0.48 -4.05

Fadd AAGCTGGAGCGCGTGCAGAG -0.26 -2.42

Fodd GCGCCTGGACGACTTCGAGG -3.96 -4.05

Fadd TAG ATCGTGTCG G CG CAG CG -1.15 -4.00

Fadd TTCGTTTG CTCACG CG CTCG -2.25 -3.34

Rela GATTCCGCTATAAATGCGAG -3.44 -3.34

Rela G CCC AG ACCG CAGTATCC AT -1.32 -3.30

Rela TATCAAAAATCG G ATGTG AG -1.78 -3.48

Rela TC ACCAAG G ATCC ACCTCAC -3.53 -3.67

Crebl ACAGATTGCCACATTAGCCC 0.75 -3.83

Crebl AC AG CTG G CTA AC A ATG GT A 0.24 -3.59

Crebl ACTG CT AGTTTG GT AA ATG G 0.16 -3.35

Crebl GAAG G G AAATCCTTTCAAG G 0.71 -2.81

Ypel5 AAAAAG AAATG CTCTACCAG -2.86 -2.66

Ypel5 AG CTCAC ATCTCG AACCATG -2.86 -3.44

Ypel5 AGTACAGTGAAGTTCAAGAT -1.70 -3.67

Ypel5 ATCTTTCTTG ACC ATATCG G -0.94 -3.68

Fitm2 C AC A ATC ATG AGCGCACAGA -3.54 -2.86

Fitm2 CCCGATGCACTCACACGTTG -3.84 -3.31

Fitm2 CTTACCAACTACCACCTGAC -3.25 -3.54

Fitm2 GAGGTAGCTCTCGGGCAGCG -1.48 -3.63

Tceal AC ATACCTGTAG CAATTCTA 0.10 -3.58

Tceal AG A ACTG G G ATCTC AG ATTG -0.81 -3.68

Tceal GATGAGAGACTTGGCTAGAG -1.25 -2.37

Tceal GCTGCAGCTCTTCGGACAGG -0.96 -3.61

Psme2 GAATTCAGAGACTTACCTCC -0.43 -3.97

Psme2 GGATGTCCAGAGGAGCCCGG 1.00 -3.03

Psme2 TCCTCCACCCAAG G ATG ACG 0.09 -2.87

Psme2 TTTCTCTTAGTCCCTAAGTG 0.19 -3.30

Uspl8 ACAGCTCTCGCAGCACATGT -1.87 -2.94

Uspl8 CAGGCACTGAACGAGCTCCG -2.85 -2.94

Uspl8 CATC ATG AAC ACTTG A AG C A -3.58 -3.42

Uspl8 TGTAC AG CCC ACG CAAATCA -3.49 -3.80

Spnsl ACAGCCAGCACTCCTAGACC -1.16 -3.08 Spnsl AGGAAGAGCATGAATCTCCA -0.18 -2.31

Spnsl CCATTCGACCCTCATAGTGG -0.49 -4.31

Spnsl GGATGATCCCAGTGTCACCA 0.97 -3.27

Gale AGAACTTGGACTTGCCGTAG -3.46 -3.44

Gale ATCTTCACCGATGCGCCCAG -0.18 -4.51

Gale CTGGGGGTTCCCGTACACGG -1.10 -3.03

Gale TTAACTCTATAGTAGTCCAG -2.79 -1.90

Ptpn2 AAGAAGTTACATCTTAACAC -3.44 -3.15

Ptpn2 CACTCTATGAGGATAGTCAT -3.05 -2.65

Ptpn2 CTCACTTCCATTATACCACC -3.96 -3.58

Ptpn2 TGCAGTGATCCATTGCAGTG -4.06 -3.50

Nprl2 C ATACTCCTG CGC AAC AG G A -1.95 -2.62

Nprl2 CTCGCGAGATGAAATCCTCA 0.29 -3.43

Nprl2 GGCCGGCTACTTGACCACGC -3.09 -2.90

Nprl2 TGGTGTTGGG C A AT AC AC AT -0.29 -3.85

Tcofl ACCTGCTAAACCAGCCAGGG -1.08 -3.48

Tcofl GTCCC ATTGTAAG GC AG G AG -3.55 -3.10

Tcofl TG AG G ACG ATTCTG ATAGTG -2.26 -3.45

Tcofl TTCTCCAGATAAAACCTGTG -1.68 -2.75

Tkl AG G ACTCCTGG GTCAC ATCG -0.19 -3.30

Tkl CAGGCCCAGCCTCTTCGTGT -0.92 -2.77

Tkl GTAATTGTGGCAGCGCTGGA -0.47 -2.71

Tkl TAGGACTGACCGATCATGTG -1.41 -3.96

Nadk AAGTTCTGCACGTTCCGTGA -3.11 -3.32

Nadk AATGAAGTGGTGATCGACAG -0.17 -3.12

Nadk AG CTACAATC ACCCTATCCG -1.44 -3.10

Nadk TAAACTC ACATG ATG GTCTG -0.74 -3.19

Tiparp AAAGTTATGGATTATGTACC -0.03 -2.92

Tiparp CTCTCCG G A AG A ATG AGTTG -0.18 -2.66

Tiparp CTGAATTTGACCAACTACGA -1.06 -2.62

Tiparp TGCCTGTCCTGATTCCTGAT 0.26 -4.52

Wdr26 ACGTTAGAAGGACATGCGTA -1.36 -3.87

Wdr26 CCTCTTACCACAATAGCGTG -1.37 -2.03

Wdr26 G AC ATCCTG ACTCTTG C ATG -1.46 -3.12

Wdr26 GAGAGTCTGTAAACGCCGTG -0.12 -3.68

Sox4 ACAACCCCAGTGGATCACTG -0.43 -3.34

Sox4 CCAAGCGGCTAGGCAAACGC -3.18 -1.86

Sox4 CCACGCTAAGCTGGTCCCGG 0.02 -4.24

Sox4 CCACGGCCGTCTACAAGGTG 0.05 -3.25

Srrd ACCTCAGTCTGACTGAACAG -2.47 -3.83

Srrd CACTAGGCAACGATGAGCCA -1.84 -2.64

Srrd CG AGTGTCTTAG G AAAC AGT -1.69 -2.62 Srrd G C AC AC AC ACTTC AC ATG G G -0.91 -3.45

Kritl AG C A AC AGTG A A ATAG C AC A 1.22 -3.57

Kritl C ATG CTTTAGTTC A AC AG A A -3.57 -3.15

Kritl TATGGTTAGAGAACGACAGT 0.35 -2.58

Kritl TTTGTCTTTATCCGTTCAAG 0.32 -3.03

Serpinb9 CAGAAAGTACTCTCTTAGAG -0.12 -3.36

Serpinb9 CAGGCAACACATAAACACAT -3.62 -3.42

Serpinb9 GCTCCGTCGATTCAGAAACC -0.49 -2.41

Serpinb9 TAACCTCGCCTATGTGAAGG -0.46 -3.13

Memol ATGCGGGATACACATACTGT -0.56 -4.20

Memol GAGAGTGCACATCGAGACAG -1.17 -3.05

Memol TCAATACGAAGATCATACAG -0.86 -3.59

Arid2 ACTTG CAGTAAATTAG CTCG -1.30 -2.42

Arid2 GCTGAACCGTCTGACCGGCA -3.68 -3.03

Arid2 GTTGCCTTAACGACTTCACA -1.06 -3.21

Arid2 TTTACTGCTCGCTAATGCGG -0.70 -3.58

Crkl CTTACGTTGAAAAGCTTGTG -0.76 -3.75

Crkl GGGCGCCGGTTCGATTAAGG -2.68 -2.64

Crkl GGTCCCCGATCTTAAAGCGG -0.63 -3.96

Itgav ATAATAACC AATTAG C AAC A -2.95 -3.48

Itgav CCTGC ATG G AG CATACTCAA -3.17 -3.07

Itgav TCATGGACCGAGGTTCCGAT -1.94 -3.69

Mprip CAAGACACAGAATGTCCACG -3.24 -3.42

Mprip CCATCAAGTGACACTCGTCA -0.70 -3.65

Mprip CCATGACATCTGGCATACGA -0.74 -3.30

Hdac5 AACTCTGGTCCAAAGAAGCG 0.17 -3.79

Hdac5 CGTGCCCTGTACTTACGGTG -0.28 -4.26

Hdac5 C I 1 I C I G I AGAGCC I I CCCG -2.29 -1.96

Moeo C A ATG A ACTCCTG A ATCCTG -0.25 -3.72

Moeo C ATG AG CATTACCTTGTATG -3.00 -3.10

Moeo GCAGGAGTACCCGACCCTCA -2.79 -3.22

Ptpnll AAGGAGCTGAAATACGACGT 0.22 -3.63

Ptpnll AGAGAACGAAGTCTCCGGGG -0.49 -3.54

Ptpnll AGTATTAC ATG G AAC ACC AT -0.62 -3.50

Cflor ATG ATC A AG C AG ATTCCTAG 0.61 -3.06

Cflor CCAAAATTACTTACTG G ACT -1.01 -3.49

Cflor CTTACCTATAATCAGAAACC -3.08 -1.94

Cflor TGGGTTATGTCATGTGACTT -1.52 -3.43

Fisl AGGCTCTAAAGTATGTGCGA -0.81 -2.33

Fisl GCACGCAATTTGAATATGCC -2.82 -4.16

Fisl G GTTCG A AG C A A ATAC A ATG -0.56 -3.60

Tgifl GACACACCTGTCCACACTAC 0.32 -2.25 Tgifi GTTCACGATTTCCCGCCGTG 0.10 -3.14

Tgifi TGGGTTGGGTCCAACTACGC 0.90 -3.60

Tgifi TG GT ATG G C AG ATC ACTG AC -0.22 -2.88

Jmjd6 AGTTCGTGGAGCGCTACGAG -2.15 -3.14

Jmjd6 CTGCTATCGAAGATGTAAAG -2.26 -2.53

Jmjd6 TAGTTC AGG GTC ACAAG CG G -2.66 -3.15

Jmjd6 TGAATCCCAGTTCCAGAACG -1.03 -2.97

Brd7 AGCTCGTTAGCCAAACAAGA 0.50 -4.07

Brd7 CAGGAGGCAAGCTAACACGG 0.27 -2.08

Brd7 CTG G AGTG AAC ACTCTG CAG -0.59 -3.65

Uspl9 GTG ATTGTTAAG CTG CG CGT -0.33 -3.18

Uspl9 TCTGTCCTGGACCATAACCG 0.50 -2.59

Uspl9 TGGAGGGGTTGAATCCAAAG -1.09 -2.03

Uspl9 TTAACTACAATAACCCATTG -1.27 -3.89

Gpil ACTTACCGTGTTCGTAGACA -0.04 -2.99

Gpil CGGCAAAGATGTGATGCCGG -1.37 -2.55

Gpil GTAC ACTG G CAAATCC ATC A -1.05 -3.27

Gpil TTAGAGACAAACCAGACACG -3.25 -2.82

Gabpbl AGAGAAATGCCCATACTGTG -0.94 -3.63

Gabpbl CAGTGGTGTCCGGTCCACTT -0.75 -3.34

Gabpbl CGTAGCTAATACTGACGTAG 0.71 -2.26

Gabpbl GTTCATCATTGGACCCGGAG -1.89 -2.39

Ube2h ACGCTTCATCAATGTTGGGA -1.18 -3.33

Ube2h CACCATTGAGAGGATCTATG 0.46 -2.60

Ube2h CGGCAAGAGGCGGATGGACA -1.51 -2.93

Ube2h GTTAC AG C ACC ATATG A AG G -2.57 -2.73

Atg5 AAATGTACTGTGATGTTCCA -3.55 -3.28

Atg5 AAGAGTCAGCTATTTGACGT -2.85 -2.54

Atg5 CCTTCTACACTGTCCATCCA -4.15 -3.93

Pbrml AATAAAAGAGCAGTCCAAGG 0.92 -2.60

Pbrml AC AAG C AG CTTT ATACTC AG 0.12 -3.95

Pbrml C A ATG CC AG G C ACT AC A ATG -0.74 -4.32

Eril AGTACTGTATACTAACAGAT -3.59 -3.33

Eril ATACGTTTCAGCAGTATGTG -3.70 -3.77

Eril CGGTCTTACTGGAATCACTC -3.18 -2.86

Eril GTCATAGTAACTGTCCCCAG -2.27 -1.58

Nampt AATGCGTGTGAGAAAATATG -3.09 -3.27

Nampt CAGACCATCTAAGTTACCAG -0.28 -2.91

Nampt CTAGTACC ATAACGG CTTG G -0.29 -3.51

PcgfS ATG A AG AC ACTCTGT A ATG G -0.18 -3.38

PcgfS CAAATTAGTGATCAATCTAG -0.55 -2.66

PcgfS CCTCGAAGCGGCCTCTCAAG 0.06 -2.81 PcgfS TGTAGGGGGTCAGCTCGACA -0.32 -2.60

Chmp5 ATAG G ACTT AC A AG ACC AG C -0.29 -3.08

Chmp5 CAGTCCGTCAAG CTAG GTG G -1.09 -2.74

Chmp5 GGCCCAACAGTCCTTTAACA -3.17 -2.78

Chmp5 TTACACCATCCAGTCACTAA -1.16 -2.69

Man2al ACAATCCCTTTGAACAAGAA -0.30 -3.31

Man2al AG G AACCG CG AAAG ACTG G G -2.21 -3.39

Man2al CAGCTGGAAATTGTGACCGG -1.46 -3.19

Man2al TGCGTCGAAATAATCTGACA -2.14 -1.32

C330027C09Rik AAATTG CTG ATTATCTG ACC -0.89 -2.62

C330027C09Rik AGGTAGCCGATTCTGAGTTG 0.40 -3.05

C330027C09Rik GGTCACAAAATGGTCAGTTG -2.66 -2.45

C330027C09Rik TTTGCCAATAGTCCTAGACA -2.61 -3.09

Hipk2 ACAGGTCAATGAACTCCCGT -0.63 -2.37

Hipk2 ACTG G G CG A ATATACTTG AG -0.23 -3.02

Hipk2 TTAGGTTATGTGGTCCACCG 0.31 -3.28

Hipk2 TTCAG C AATG AC AC AACC AA 0.51 -2.54

Cnotll ATCACAGAGTCTTTAGTCAG -0.84 -2.98

Cnotll TCCATCAAGGCAATCTGGCG -1.21 -3.06

Cnotll TGGCGGCGAGCGGCTCGGTG 0.16 -3.26

Gss AC AG CTG G CTG G G ACTA AG A -3.22 -1.44

Gss AGTCAGTATAATTCACAGGT -1.41 -2.85

Gss GTTCTCTGGACCAAAACCGA -2.37 -3.01

Gss TCAGATTACATGTTCCAGTG -3.96 -3.88

Epg5 ACAGCCGACTCGTTGTAACA -3.60 -3.10

Epg5 GAAACGCTGTCTTACACAAG -2.34 -1.76

Epg5 TCGAGCCAGAAGAACCAATG -3.19 -3.10

Epg5 TGGGTACCATACCCATATTG -1.24 -3.21

Prkcq ATGGGAGACCAATTTCAACT -2.83 -3.29

Prkcq CCACCACCGATGCCAGACAA -3.36 -2.57

Prkcq TTTGACGCCCACATTAACAA -2.69 -2.12

Prkcq TTTG CACTG CATC AG CG CCG -0.16 -3.17

Rnf31 CTACCTCAACACCCTATCCA -4.69 -4.50

Rnf31 GAACTATGAGTTGTTGGACG -3.28 -3.35

Rnf31 G GAG G AACCAAG GTGTTGTG -3.84 -2.86

Rraga AAAGATGATCGACCTCATGC -0.26 -3.02

Rraga GATCAGCTGATAGACGATGC -2.68 -2.14

Rraga G GTTCCCC AAG AATCG G ACG -0.40 -3.05

Rraga TTCATCAG CCTCAATAATCT -0.74 -2.83

Dpf2 AG AG G CG G G CGTTATA ATTG 0.81 -3.50

Dpf2 AGTGGTAACTGAGGCCAGGT -0.33 -3.28

Dpf2 GAAGATACGCCAAAGCGTCG 0.02 -2.01 Dp/2 TGGATGGAAAAGCGACACCG -3.33 -2.24

Pde7a ACGGAAGTCAATGTACGGAT -0.73 -3.27

Pde7a GAAACGGCTGATTAACACCT -1.26 -2.75

Pde7a GGCACCCCGAAAAACTCGTG -0.64 -2.13

Pde7a TACTT A A AG G A ACCTA AG GT -0.84 -2.88

Eif2ak4 ATTCTGG C AG AG CACGTC AG 0.53 -3.24

Eif2ak4 CTG C A AG C AG AC ACTTCCG C -0.13 -3.45

Eif2ak4 CTGCGGGACACCATTGACCA -0.27 -3.15

Actr3 ACGGGTACAGTAATAGACAG -0.86 -3.15

Actr3 ATGACACCGATGGGTCAAAG 0.22 -2.47

Actr3 TAATAGTG GCC AATTCG CC A -0.15 -2.69

Actr3 TTTCC A AG G ACTG CTC AG G A 0.08 -2.70

Zfp273 AAATGTGACCAGGTATGGCT 0.24 -2.05

Zfp273 AGTGTGGAAAGGCCTTTGAT -3.58 -3.47

Zfp273 CAACACCAACAGATTCATAG -0.92 -2.69

Zfp273 GCACCAGCG A ACTC ATACTG 0.42 -2.78

Arid la CCTGCTGGCCATACGCACTG -2.96 -2.21

Arid la GCAGCTGCGAAGATATCGGG -0.56 -2.78

Arid la TACCCAAATATGAATCAAGG -1.38 -2.39

Arid la TGGTCGTGCGAGTTCTGCTG -2.09 -3.59

Ddi2 ATGCTACTGAAGTCAATCCG -1.72 -2.51

Ddi2 GAGCCCGGAGAGAACAAGAA -0.23 -2.65

Ddi2 TC AG C A AG G AC A ACTC ATG C -2.73 -2.76

Ddi2 TCTGTC ACCTG AGTCG AC A A -3.46 -2.99

Tk2 CTCCAATACAACAGACGTCG 0.55 -3.84

Tk2 TACCATGATGCCAGCCGATG 0.77 -2.10

Tk2 TTG AG G G C A ATATTG C A AGT -1.09 -3.48

Irfl CGGAGCTGGGCCATTCACAC -3.91 -3.49

Irfl CTGTAGGTTATACAGATCAG -1.26 -3.54

Irfl TTAATTCCAACCAAATCCCA -2.87 -3.08

Tenl CAAATCCATCCCCTCCACAC -0.69 -2.25

Tenl G GTCCCC AAG AACC ATGTAC -0.18 -3.84

Tenl TGGCCGTCACTGACCTCCCA -1.41 -3.72

Nrbf2 ATG G CTC ACCTG CTC AG ACT -4.07 -3.82

Nrbf2 CTAACAAACGGTCTGCTCGG -2.72 -2.21

Nrbf2 TG AG A AG C AG CTGTTTC ATG -3.28 -3.05

Strada AAGTCCGATATCTACAGTGT -1.58 -2.12

Strada GAGAGTATGTGACAGTACGA -0.96 -2.14

Strada G AT ACG GT ACTAT ATTG G G A 0.70 -3.23

Strada GTCACATCATTTATGGCGTA -1.00 -3.32

Epcl CTATGAGTCCATATACCCTG -1.73 -2.95

Epcl TATCG ACT AGTATCTG ACTG -0.88 -2.45 Epcl TGTTAGTAATCGGGATGATG -2.14 -3.50

Ccs C AG G CTGT ACTC A AG G GTAT -0.90 -3.21

Ccs CCCTG ATG G AG CATCTCATG -3.35 -3.00

Ccs TTGATTGAGGGAACCATCGA -3.67 -3.46

Dtx3l GAACGGGAGCAGAAACGGAA -0.49 -3.03

Dtx3l TCTATGAACTCTAGTCTACC 0.97 -3.06

Dtx3l TGGGTACACGACGGGCATCG -0.23 -3.54

Rafl ACCTGGCGATTGTGACTCAG -0.23 -2.94

Rafl GAGAGACTCGAGTTATTACT -3.20 -2.69

Rafl GCCGAATAAGCAAAGGACTG -2.76 -2.06

Rafl GGGTGTAGAGTATCTGTGCT -0.15 -3.05

LrplO A AGT AC A AG G C ACTTTAC AG -0.01 -3.23

LrplO AGGTGAGCGTTGCTATAGCG 0.57 -3.34

LrplO GAGGCTACGTAGCAGTCGAG -2.00 -3.07

Iqsecl AGTTCCACGGAGCTATCACT -1.69 -3.74

Iqsecl G C AC A ATG CG ACGTG AC ATG -0.20 -3.51

Iqsecl TG AGTCTG ACTACTC AG ATG -0.03 -3.69

Mtchl AAGGCGTTGGACATAAGGCG -3.03 -2.83

Mtchl AGTGATCTCGATGCGATGCA -2.10 -2.23

Mtchl CTCACTCAAGAAAGTTGTGA -3.46 -2.51

Mtchl GGACAACGCCCCGACCACCG -2.89 -3.16

Nprl3 G CAG G AC AGTAGC AATTCG G -3.30 -3.45

Nprl3 GCTGCATAGTGGATCTTGTG -0.32 -2.10

Nprl3 TGTCTCACTCAGATAAACCA -1.42 -3.97

Vps4b GGAAAGCGGACACCTTGGAG -3.47 -3.19

Vps4b GGCTGCACGGAGAATTAAGA -2.97 -2.61

Vps4b TAAAGCCAAGCAAAGTATCA -3.67 -3.37

Dnaja2 AAATGGCAGAAGAAGAGGCG -2.86 -1.64

Dnaja2 A AG G C ATG A A AC ATG G AC AG -0.51 -3.02

Dnaja2 C AG AAATG CAG CGCTTGTCG -1.39 -3.62

Dnaja2 CTTACCTTCTCCATTACAGT -2.41 -2.39

Trexl ACACAGAAGGTACCATCTAG -3.32 -2.64

Trexl AGCTTGTCCACCACACGGGG -2.18 -4.08

Trexl GGAGCAGAGGAAAGTCATAG -3.14 -2.87

Gabrb3 CCTGGTAGATGGCTACACTA 0.88 -2.94

Gabrb3 CGAAAACTCAATGAAAGTCG -0.83 -3.51

Gabrb3 CGCCTGAGACCCGACTTCGG -0.36 -2.88

Paox CTTCACACTCCACCAATACG 0.55 -2.66

Paox TACCGAAG CAG CGTTCCG AG 0.12 -3.64

Paox TGGGCAAGGAAGCCAGTATG -2.69 -2.80

Tacc3 AGTTTAAGGAGTCGGCCTGG -1.05 -2.32

Tacc3 TAACATGACCAATAAGCGTG 0.07 -3.44 Tacc3 TCAGGGACTAGAACCTGTCG -2.74 -2.80

Boll A AG G ATA AG A A ACTC A AC AT 0.77 -2.79

Boll AGGTTCTAGTCTCATGCCAG 0.45 -2.46

Boll G A ATC ACTT AC AG G CCA AG A -0.54 -2.95

Boll G GTG AC ACAG G ATTAG GG G A 0.28 -2.32

Gpr31b G ACG GT A A A AG A AG GTCC AG 1.15 -2.47

Gpr31b G ATG AG G CC ACTGTTG C AG A -0.72 -2.61

Gpr31b G G AAG GCTACTCCCAC ACCA 1.13 -2.31

Gpr31b TGTCTACCTGTTCAACCTGG 0.84 -3.08

Ilk CCTCG G AG A AG CTCTCT A AG -2.06 -2.44

Ilk CTTCCTGTTAGATTTCGTTG -2.29 -1.75

Ilk G ATTA ATGTG ATG A ATCGTG -2.01 -3.53

Ilk TCAGTGTCCCACCTGAGCCG -0.84 -2.74

Slrtal C A A AC ATG G A ACC ACCG CT A -2.80 -1.10

Slrtal CCTGCTCATCAATCGTAACG 0.22 -3.73

Slrtal GTGTCACCTACAGCTCTACG -0.39 -3.71

Becnl ACACAGCGGGTGATCCACAT -0.72 -3.64

Becnl GGAAGAGGCTAACTCAGGAG 0.20 -2.57

Becnl GGATGACGAACTCAAGAGTG -2.81 -1.93

Becnl TGTGGAAAAGAACCGCAAGG -2.81 -2.30

Zfp281 CGAACAGCCCCCCATAGTGG -1.70 -3.73

Zfp281 TTG AAG C AC AG GCG CACGTG -0.70 -4.25

Ywhaz AAAACGTTGTAGGAGCCCGT -0.37 -2.20

Ywhaz ATG A AGTCTGTC ACTG AG C A -0.58 -2.63

Ywhaz G TTG C ATT ATCT AG G A ATTG -0.64 -2.50

Ywhaz TTTCTGGTTGCGAAGCATTG -0.16 -3.09

Cnot8 ACCCGTCTG G AATC AAC AC A -0.33 -3.68

Cnot8 GCAGTTCCAGAAACACGAGG -2.92 -3.12

Cnot8 G GTGTG GG CCAG C AATCTTG -0.86 -2.79

Cmip CCTTCAAGACAACCTCCCAG -3.41 -3.10

Cmip CGGTCTCCAGTCATCGTAGT -1.57 -3.21

Cmip GAG CTGTA A AC AGT ACTTCG 0.70 -2.75

Cdk5 CCAGAACCTGCTCATAAACA -0.56 -2.44

Cdk5 TGAGTAGACAGATCTCCCGG -0.17 -3.21

Cdk5 TGTGTTCAAGGCTAAAAACC -2.26 -3.00

2700049A03Rik AACACATTTGTTTCTAAACG -0.55 -2.10

2700049A03Rik AGTTTACAAGTCCACCTGTG 0.65 -3.63

2700049A03Rik TTACCTAAG AG G ATTG CC AT -0.34 -3.49

Tsc2 C AC AG G GTG ATA ATG A AC AG -2.90 -2.65

Tsc2 CTG ATCCT AG C AC AC ATGTG 0.04 -2.96

Tsc2 TGAACCACATGGCTATGACG -3.20 -2.95

Tm2d3 AACTACAATACTTACGACAC 0.99 -2.24 Tm2d3 GACACTTCGTCATGTAAGGA -0.38 -2.78

Tm2d3 GCGCTGCCGAGGGCAAGCCA 0.49 -2.52

Tm2d3 GGACAGGAAAAGCAGCACGC 0.77 -2.80

Rgmb AGTGATCCTTGAAAGTTCGA -0.06 -3.27

Rgmb CGTTCGTCACTTGAACCGAA 1.55 -2.76

Rgmb CTCAGAGTCAAACCCATCAG -0.48 -2.53

Zfpl48 C AGTG CTG AC ATCG ATC AAG -0.38 -3.39

Zfpl48 G AACG AACTATC ACTTAC AG -1.43 -3.46

Tbkl CGGGAACAACTCAATACCGT -3.71 -1.79

Tbkl CTTCTCGCTACAACACATGA -2.16 -3.80

Tbkl TGCCGTTTAGACCCTTCGAG -0.72 -2.79

Zfp473 CAATAAAATCCACACCATCG 0.00 -2.89

Zfp473 GTTAAAAGTCCTGGCACACA 0.23 -2.75

Zfp473 TCTACGAAACCACTCTGCAA -3.29 -3.31

CcdclSS CTGTAGAGGAGCATCAGGAG 0.55 -3.73

CcdclSS G CAAG AG ATCTCAAACCTG G 0.26 -3.20

CcdclSS TTTGATACAGGGGATTAGAG 0.32 -3.08

Rob25 ACCCCATACAG GTACTATCG -0.10 -2.64

Rab25 C ACG AG C ATG AC A AC A ATCG 0.11 -2.87

Rab25 CGGTGCCCAGCATTACAGTG -3.16 -3.28

Pitx2 CTCGCGAAGAAATCGCCGTG -0.46 -3.50

Pitx2 G GG CC AG CAAG G AAAG AATG 0.97 -2.32

Pitx2 G GTTTG GTTC AAG A ATCG CC -3.56 -3.64

March5 AG G C A A A ATG ATTCG CTG G G -0.56 -3.96

March5 TGTCACTGCTCCATAAGTCA -1.45 -4.12

Meioc ACGAAGACAATGTAGACCTA 0.14 -2.43

Meioc GTTGGGGAAAATCTGAAGAG 0.48 -3.25

Meioc TGAGAGATAGATGTATCTAC -3.10 -2.66

Xrccl C ATTG CCAATGTCC ACACTG -1.05 -3.38

Xrccl CCGGATTGTGCGTAAAGAGT 0.71 -2.52

Xrccl TGTGAAACTTCACAAAACTC 0.98 -2.44

Fa m 170b CTGAGAGTAGGACTGATACT 0.57 -3.56

Fa m 170b GCCGCGCACAGTCTGCACGT -1.10 -3.54

Fa m 170b G GAG G AATG AGTCATCTCCG 0.47 -3.03

Ptarl ACATCACCAACGCCTTCCGA -2.33 -1.40

Ptarl CTGT A A A ACCC AG ATG CG AT -2.01 -3.81

Ptarl GGCGATAGTGAAATCCACTG -3.19 -2.54

Ptarl G GTTG AG AAC AAACTTG GTG -1.85 -2.37

Sod2 AC AAACCTG AG CCCTAAG GG -0.14 -2.71

Sod2 ATGATCTGCGCGTTAATGTG -2.71 -3.22

Sod2 CCTGCACTGAAGTTCAATGG 0.36 -3.02

Tgif2 CCTGGGGAGAGCCACATCAG 0.00 -2.55 Tgif2 CTCTTACCTG CAG CACCG AG -0.36 -2.38

Tgif2 TT AG CTTCTCCTG CTCTG AG -0.72 -3.55

Elmo2 CTG A AG G AC AT AC AG CTG AT -3.38 -2.88

Elmo2 GAGTGGGACTGAAAAGCGCA 0.44 -3.20

Elmo2 TCATCAAGGAGGTGTGCGAT -2.79 -2.19

Crlf3 C AG G GT AC ATC A ACTAG C A A -2.05 -1.31

Crlf3 CTGGAGGCATCATAGTGCGA -1.41 -3.71

Crlf3 G AAG CTATTG G ATG AG CG AT 0.62 -3.48

Rfwd2 A AG CTCCTTCTCC ATC AC AC -0.06 -3.11

Rfwd2 ATC ACTAG C ATA AG AC AATG -1.43 -2.87

Rfwd2 G ATG GTCTT ACC A A A AG CTG 0.67 -2.69

Pigk AAAGAGTATTTGCAACATGT -2.33 -3.15

Pigk AGGGCGCGTCCATGTACGAG -2.18 -3.47

Pigk CTCTGCCGCTGGACACATCG -3.67 -1.84

Pigk TTTGAGCGAGGGGTACTGGG -2.31 -1.58

Arhgap21 ACTGGG GTGTC ACTTC A ACG -0.21 -3.32

Arhgap21 CTG ATG CTA AG ACTCTG G CG 1.03 -2.82

Arhgap21 GAGCGCAGCAG ACT ATA ACC -1.13 -2.95

Ar ACCAG G ATACC ACACTTCG G -3.38 -0.96

Ar G ACTTG G GTAGTCT AC ATG G -0.26 -3.09

Ar GCTCCTGGGAGGTCCACCCG -0.39 -2.86

Ar GGTGGAAAGTAATAGTCGAT 0.52 -3.07

Arhgopllo GAGTCCATCAATACCTAACA -2.63 -2.68

Arhgopllo TGGAACGACTGAATGAGGCA -2.23 -2.72

Arhgopllo TTAATTCTGTACTGACCAAG -0.74 -3.29

TbcldlOb CAGAGAGAGCTCTATTCCGG -0.70 -3.49

TbcldlOb GCAGTACCTGTCTAATAGCA -2.45 -2.90

TbcldlOb TACC ATCTAC AG G CCTG ACG -3.62 -3.49

Ttc33 G CGTAACCC AC ACTCGTG GG -0.01 -2.97

Ttc33 TAACAACTGCAGATACAAGG -0.36 -3.29

Ttc33 TG ATTTC ATCTC ATA A AG G G -1.53 -2.82

Sox 11 GAAGATCCCGTTCATCAGGG -0.29 -2.77

Sox 11 GTAC AG G CTCG CG CCCTCG G -0.03 -2.49

Sox 11 TGTGGTCCAAGATCGAGCGC -0.17 -2.75

Oprkl AAATACCACAGAGTAGACAG -0.62 -2.15

Oprkl AG C ACTCTG A A AG G G C ATAG -1.84 -3.04

Oprkl TG GG C AG AATCCG AC AGTAA -2.43 -3.04

Atgl6ll CATACTTACGAAGACATACG 0.53 -2.66

Atgl6ll CGAACTGCACAAGAAGCGTG -2.62 -3.45

Atgl6ll G A AACTG AG G A A A ACTACTG -2.60 -2.59

Ankrdll CTGATGGCACTCGAGCCGTA -0.16 -2.56

Ankrdll G CAG GCTCTTCTCG AC ATCG -0.36 -2.76 Ankrdll GCTGGGGCACG AC ACTACTG -1.64 -2.68

Pax3 CCCAGACATTTACACCAGGG -3.34 -3.11

Pax3 GTTAATGGACCCAGTACCTG -2.65 -2.14

Pax3 TGCCGCCGATGGCACCAGGT -0.49 -2.77

Keopl CATGTACCAGATTGACAGCG -0.48 -2.33

Keopl GGCACGCTCATAGAGGCACA -1.05 -2.14

Keopl GGGCCGCCTCATCTACACAG 0.59 -2.52

Keopl TCAAATACGACTGCCCGCAG -1.67 -2.90

Trof2 AGATAACGCTGCCCGCAGAG -3.59 -3.05

Trof2 AGTACAAACCTTGTTACTCA -2.28 -3.41

Trof2 C AC AG GTTA AG G G A A ACTTG -3.32 -0.88

Trof2 CGGACCAGG CCTTTAC ATG C -2.71 -2.51

Xrcc5 CAAATCCATGCACACAATCA -1.09 -3.47

Xrcc5 GAATGATATCACTTCCGTAG -1.65 -2.17

Xrcc5 GAG CTTG GTAAAG AAAAACG -1.95 -2.04

Xrcc5 GTC ATA AG C ATATCG G ACG A -1.32 -2.16

Hspol3 GACAATTCATCAGTCTGCCC 0.13 -2.23

Hspol3 G AG G AC A AG ACTTC A ATC AG 0.71 -2.49

Hspol3 GTGTTG GTC ATAG ACTTGG G -0.24 -3.43

Neurl3 GGAGGAGCAGAGTCCCACGT -2.36 -1.93

Neurl3 GGCTGAACACGATACCATCG -0.34 -3.01

Neurl3 TG G AAACTAAG GG CCTCG CG -2.29 -3.18

Nfix TA A AC A A A ATC ACC ATG ACC 0.57 -3.98

Nfix TGTGATGTGGCTGGACACAC -1.00 -3.78

Zc3hl8 GCAACACCGAGACCGAGACA -2.15 -3.29

Zc3hl8 TTCCCTAG G AAACTG CACGT -3.03 -2.80

Eroll CTGAAGGAGAAGGCCCACGA -1.20 -3.42

Eroll CTTAACCCTGAGCGCTACAC -0.31 -4.09

Gigyf2 AACAGGAGGAAATCCTTCGG 0.89 -2.83

Gigyf2 GGTGATATCATGAAAATGTG -0.57 -2.87

Gigyf2 TGACACAGACCTAGTTACTG -0.14 -3.26

Rabl3 CATGGCTCCACGGTAATAGG 0.72 -2.92

Rabl3 CTG G ATG A A A AG C ATC A AAG 0.17 -2.47

Rabl3 TGATTTCAAGATCCGAACCG 1.17 -2.61

Golntl5 CTG CAG CAG C ACCCTAC AAG -0.35 -3.59

Golntl5 G CT ACC AGTTC ATC A A AC AC 0.32 -3.42

Arid4a TCCATCCGTAGTAGTGCACT 0.05 -3.81

Arid4a TTGGAGCTATTGTAGAAACA 0.41 -4.40

Nsdhl CCTGTGTACCCACAGAAATG -2.54 -2.93

Nsdhl CTTG G G CCG A A A ATG CC ATG -3.94 -1.65

Nsdhl TAG G CTTC ATG G CGTA AG G G -0.27 -3.24

Ube2j2 G AAG ATTT A AGTG C A AC AC A -0.78 -2.95 Ube2j2 GTTATCATGTAAATACTAGG -1.11 -2.77

Ube2j2 TGGAGAAAGGCCCCACCCTG -3.30 -3.25

Gml AATAGAAGGTGTTATGCTCC 0.37 -2.61

Gml ACATATCCACTATTGTGACA -0.63 -2.69

Gml GTATTCG AC A AC ACTACTG G -2.69 -2.36

Gml TGTAGACATAGAGCAGCCGA -0.45 -2.01

Nckopl AAATACAAGTACTCACGCGT -2.49 -2.01

Nckopl G CAG G ATTAAGC ATTGTG CT 0.22 -2.77

Nckopl GGGAGCACACCTTCACGCCG -0.93 -2.41

Nckopl TTCCACCAACATTTCAACCA -1.20 -2.47

Tripl3 ACTACTCGGATAGCATCTGA -2.89 -2.97

Tripl3 GGATAGCCTCGTGTATGATG -2.42 -1.02

Tripl3 TGAACTAGGAATTTACCTGA -0.63 -3.03

Tripl3 TTTG G G CT A ATG CCTT AC A A -1.10 -2.59

Snapin AG AACTGTG CCG G ATCAATG -2.93 -2.46

Snapin CCTGGAGTTCCTGCGACCCG -1.68 -2.52

Snapin G CCTGTG GG CCCCG CCACTG -2.79 -2.36

Snapin G CTCG ACTCTC ACGTG CACG -0.80 -2.25

Ccdcl37 CCTGCGCTGTCCGGGCAGTG 0.82 -2.68

Ccdcl37 GAATTG CAAG CCTAAG AACC -2.17 -2.45

Ccdcl37 G GTG G CTTTC AAG AAG ACGT -0.45 -2.69

Stubl CGTGGGCCGCAAGTACCCGG -2.59 -1.97

Stubl GAAGCGCTGGAACAGTATCG -2.71 -2.45

Stubl GGAGATGGAGAGTTATGATG -2.98 -2.69

Stubl GGCAGTGTACTACACTAACC -2.89 -2.47

Foxbl ACCGCCCAGGTTGTACGCAG 0.40 -3.57

Foxbl GTAGTTA ACTG GTTAG G G AG -2.82 -1.73

Foxbl TATCGAGAACATCATCGCTA 0.20 -3.39

Xrcc4 ACTGGAATGATGTTCAAGGC 0.00 -3.25

Xrcc4 GCCGAGACTCCTTAGAAAAG -0.74 -2.86

Xrcc4 TTTGTTATTAC ACTT ACTG A -0.12 -3.64 lcel AAGTAC ACTTATAACCTCG G 0.90 -3.13 lcel CTGAGCCCTGCTGTAAATGG -2.02 -2.35 lcel GATACAAACCCTGTGGACTG -2.64 -1.74 lcel G CTG C AC AT ATG CCTG ACTG -2.40 -2.33

Fhod3 GAAAAGCTGTACAACTCCAG 0.29 -2.98

Fhod3 GAGAAGCCAATAAATTACCG 0.75 -3.38

Fhod3 G G AATATCTAG AC AAAAG GG -0.39 -3.02

Ube2r2 CCTAACACCCTCTACGAAGG 0.21 -3.49

Ube2r2 TC AG ATTCTTG ACC A A AATG -1.00 -3.38

Ube2r2 TGAGTCCGACCTCTACAACT -0.20 -2.61

Slc7all ACAGGCAGACCAGAAAACCA -3.53 -3.44 Slc7all G AAG AG AC AC A AGTCTA ATG -3.14 -2.91

Slc7all GGGCTACGTACTGACAAACG -2.39 -1.29

Padi4 AG A ATTCTC ATCG G G A ATAG 0.19 -2.93

Padi4 CTACCATAACTCGCTTGACA -0.82 -2.70

Padi4 CTG G AC AAGTCTAACCCG GT -2.42 -2.01

Rfx6 GGACATAGGATGTCTCCACG -0.37 -3.14

Rfx6 TG AG C ATA A AG A ATG C ACCG -0.22 -3.02

Pigu AACACAAGACAAGATCGTGT -3.76 -3.08

Pigu GAGAAGTCCTGGGGCAAACA -3.42 -2.24

Pigu GAGTACGCCATGATGTACAC -3.22 -1.88

Pigu TGGCCGAGTTCATTTCCGAG -0.73 -2.29

Cdk2 ACCTG CTT ATC A ATG C AG AG -0.04 -2.99

Cdk2 CAAGTTGACGGGAGAAGTTG -2.30 -1.94

Cdk2 CATGAGTGTAAGTTCGGACA -1.07 -2.66

Txndcl5 CCAAGTGTTGGAAACGCCCG 0.90 -2.69

Txndcl5 TGTGTATCTGCATGAAGAGG -0.10 -3.23

Txndcl5 TTG G GTTTAG G AA ATCC ATG -0.69 -3.68

Gpx4 CATGCCCGATATGCTGAGTG -2.71 -2.64

Gpx4 CGTGTGCATCGTCACCAACG -3.57 -3.61

Gpx4 TGGTCTGGCAGGCACCATGG -2.83 -2.83

Hsdl7b4 ACCAAACCGTACCAGTCACG 0.15 -2.14

Hsdl7b4 TCTA AC ATAG G CTCTTC ACG -1.56 -2.21

Hsdl7b4 TGCAGTGAACGACTTAGGAG 0.35 -2.38

Hsdl7b4 TGGGCGCCATCGTCAGAAAG -1.48 -2.71

Hes7 CCAAGCGAAGCAGGCACTCG 0.06 -3.41

Hes7 GGAGAAAAGCTGGGAGCGTG -1.76 -2.90

Hes7 GGCCCGAGGCCGTAGATCCA -0.18 -3.35

Rsfl GATGAACCTTGCAAAAAGTG -0.27 -2.17

Rsfl GTGTGGGTCGAACTTTAAGA -1.37 -2.26

Rsfl TGGCCCCAGCCATCGAGAGT -0.38 -3.24

Fam234b CCTGTGAAGTATAACATCGT 0.41 -3.23

Fam234b CTTGTCGGGTTGTAATCAGG -0.46 -3.10

Fam234b GCAGAGCAATACCAGAACCA -1.48 -3.60

Ubo6 CTATCGAACATACTATCCAG -2.81 -1.66

Ubo6 CTGGACCCATATTTACATGG -3.11 -2.85

Ubo6 TTCATGCCCAGGATTGCCTA -3.42 -3.00

Tm2dl ATAACTTGTAAGGATTTGAG 0.49 -3.01

Tm2dl TGTAC AAACTACAC AG CTC A 0.33 -2.58

Rob7 ACGGTTCCAGTCTCTTGGTG -2.35 -2.73

Rob7 CGACAGACTTGTTACCATGC -0.46 -2.79

Rob7 GGAAGTTCTCGGGATCCCGG -2.15 -2.17

Motr3 ACACCGTGGAGATACAGACC -0.32 -3.08 Motr3 AG CC ACCATAC AG AGTACCT -0.65 -3.60

Motr3 CTTCCATGGACTCTTACCGA -0.02 -2.65

Asxl2 AGAACCGACATGAGGGAAAA -1.55 -2.93

Asxl2 AGTCAGTCAGAACCGACATG -1.04 -3.47

Asxl2 GTCAGTCAGAACCGACATGA -0.89 -3.05

Faxc CAGTTTGCAAGACCTAACAA -1.00 -2.87

Faxc GTGGAGCAGATACGCAGCCG -2.14 -3.00

Faxc TA AC A A A AG G A ATTGTG A AG -0.17 -3.25

Ei24 AAAATTCTACTAACAATACG -2.73 -2.14

Ei24 ACTTTG CTA AG C AC A A AC AG -3.62 -2.63

Ei24 TG G C ATTTG A AGT ATC AG G G -3.61 -3.05

Ube2k AG GTTTAC A ATACCTTAG G G -2.65 -1.83

Ube2k CCTTCATACGGTGTGTCTGG -1.79 -2.17

Ube2k GTCATTG CAAG CGCTGTTG G -0.80 -3.17

Ube2k TAATATTAGTTCCGTCACAG -1.58 -2.10

Pok2 AG G A ACT ATTGTG AG C ATAG -2.15 -2.53

Pok2 G GTGTG CTC AAAATC AG ATG -1.94 -2.08

Pok2 TATCTCTG C AG ATTTAC ACA -2.04 -2.95

Cwfl9ll ATATCTTACTCACGTCCCCG -1.02 -4.11

Cwfl9ll TGTGCTTGGTGCCAATAACG -2.39 -3.46

Larp4 AAGTAGTTAACTTACCCTCA -2.47 -2.35

Larp4 TACCAGAAACATCATAGAGT -1.39 -2.31

Larp4 TCAGTTCGTCCCAATATGGA -2.00 -2.54

Larp4 TGGTCCATCCCCCAATGACA -2.38 -1.99

Batf2 GATCACAGTCCACTCTGCAC -0.06 -2.23

Batf2 G C AG CC ATTGT ATCC A AG AG -1.02 -2.91

Batf2 GTGATGATGCAGACAGGACA 1.08 -2.09

Birc2 AATCTTGTC AAATTG G AC AA -1.02 -3.68

Birc2 GAGTTCTTGATACGGATGAA -3.68 -0.14

Birc2 GGCTGAACAGGAACACTAGG -3.87 -1.32

Birc2 TGAATGCCACCTCGTTCCAG -1.40 -3.97

Impgl CTTACCTAAATCCTAATACA 0.52 -3.66

Impgl TCAAG CCTAG GCTC AACG AA 0.54 -3.52

Bptf CGATGACTCCGATTATCCGG 1.75 -2.92

Bptf G ACTCCTTA AG A ATC A AACG 0.35 -3.09

Bptf TGAGTTCCGATCTGGACAAG 0.54 -3.04

Xrcc2 CAGACTCTCGCAAAGCTCCG -1.80 -2.56

Xrcc2 CG AG CCGTAG CATGTCAAAG -3.40 -1.85

Xrcc2 TGGATAGACCGAGTCAGTGG -0.64 -2.56

Xrcc2 TTCATGGTCCAGAAGGAACG -0.78 -2.06

Gtf2i CTTACTTCTTAATCACGAAG 0.41 -2.87

Gtf2i TCACTCCTCAGAAGGCAACG -0.06 -2.99 Gtf2i TCTTGGGATTCCATACCACG 1.40 -3.20

Lemd2 G C AG CCTTA A ACCTCG A AG A -2.46 -2.55

Lemd2 TGACGAGGATACACGAACGC -0.92 -3.03 lcosl AGAGACTGAAGTCGGTGCAA -3.04 -2.44 lcosl G G AC A ATAG CCTA ATAG AC A 0.03 -2.97

Ak2 GGTAGGACCGGCCACTCTTG -0.63 -2.35

Ak2 TCAGCCAGTTTGGGTGCCTG -1.70 -2.46

Ak2 TCCGAACCGGAGATTCCGAA -2.32 -2.32

Ak2 TGAAGGCGACAATGGATGCA -2.42 -1.76

Spen CAGGCCGTATCTCTCCTCGG -0.44 -2.69

Spen GAGCCCACATAAATGCCGGT -0.71 -2.00

Spen GCTCGGCCGTGACACTACCA -2.87 -1.64

Spen TG ACG CCACTC AG AACG CTG -3.17 -2.56

Ikbkg A AG G ATCG G C A AG CTTTAG A -1.74 -2.36

Ikbkg AGGCTGCCTTGCGAATGGAG -0.45 -4.58

Ikbkg G CTCAG GTG AC ATC ATTG CT -4.18 -0.92

Eif2ak3 AAAGTTCCCTACAAGCCCAA -0.91 -2.93

Eif2ak3 G A AT ATACCG A AGTTC A A AG -0.51 -2.37

Rnf38 CTCCTACACGGTAACTACGG -0.80 -2.58

Rnf38 GAGGAGGCACACTACAGACG -0.58 -2.34

Vpsll AGTTGTCACGACAAACAAGT -2.92 -1.92

Vpsll G ACC ACCCTG C AC ATATG G A -4.13 -3.00

Vpsll GCAGCTTCCCGATATACCGA -2.53 -1.39

Vpsll TCAGAGCCTCCCGATCGCCT -0.39 -2.50

Nans GAGATCACCATAGGACGACC -2.89 -2.31

Nans TATGTGACGTTCCAACACCT 0.02 -2.64

Nans TCGTGCCCGGAATACCCGAT 0.38 -2.18

Zfp827 AATAATTCCAAGGACTGAGG -0.94 -2.71

Zfp827 CTGAACACGTAGCTGGAGCG -2.64 -2.96

Zfp827 TGACGTCTAACACGCCAGAG 0.21 -2.99

Cd36 TAG G AT ATG G A ACC A A ACTG -3.70 -3.41

Lam tori C ATCTGTGCG AG CTG AAG GT 0.37 -2.91

Lam tori CTC ACCTAG CTGTCTTG G C A -1.91 -3.05

Lam tori TGGACCGGGCAAGGCAGTAC -1.95 -2.76

\rgm2 C AG G CTTA A AG AC AG ATACC -2.83 -2.91

\rgm2 CTTG GT A A AG G GTTTCG ACG -0.24 -2.82

\rgm2 G ACG G C A ATACTTTATCTGT -1.23 -2.88

\rgm2 TTCGTGTCCGATGAGCCTAA -2.82 -0.03

Arf6 CCCCACG GTGG G CTTC AACG -2.76 -2.24

Arf6 CGACCGCGACCGCATCGACG -2.50 -2.20

Arf6 TCTGGCGGCATTACTACACC -2.37 -2.25

Cd44 CAGTCCGGGAGATACTGTAG -1.31 -3.56 Cd44 TCTGTGCGGGCAGAAACCCG -0.96 -3.64

Rsphl GAAAGCACGACTGCCCAACG -2.54 -1.88

Rsphl GACTTACAAATTTAAGAATG -2.93 -2.21

Rsphl GATATTGGATGCGAACAGCA 0.90 -2.64

Vpsl6 AG GTG AG AG G G ATCCCAATG -1.05 -2.58

Vpsl6 ATGTCAGAGTATGAAACACC -2.17 -2.25

Carml CAATCTGACAGACCGCATCG 0.10 -2.25

Carml G GTTCTGC AG G ATCG CACG C -2.89 -2.10

Carml TGAGTACTTCCGGCAACCTG -0.42 -2.46

Tmeml65 ACATAGTATGTATACACCCT -0.91 -4.31

Tmeml65 GGCATTAGAATGCTTCGGGA -1.33 -2.45

Tmeml65 GTCATCATAGTGTCCGAACT -2.60 -2.55

PipSklc G CC ATG GAGTCTATCC AG GG -0.29 -2.40

PipSklc TG GTGG C AAG AAC ATCCG CG -2.06 -1.46

PipSklc TTACC AAATAGTC ATCTG G A 0.57 -4.41

Prdxl ACTGAAAGCAATGATCTCCG -0.19 -2.63

Prdxl TC AATAATAAAAAG G CCCCJ -1.61 -2.92

Prdxl TCTTACCTTTGTATTCACTT -0.08 -2.64

Ppp4r2 C AAACC ATTTGTTGTCAAG G -3.01 -2.06

Ppp4r2 CTCTATACTTACTCTGAGGA -0.49 -2.25

Ppp4r2 G CG G CT ATG TG A ATTG CT A A 0.16 -2.23

Setd2 GCATTCGCTTAATATCCCGG 3.44 -2.09

Setd2 TGCTCATGCTCAGAGTGACG 2.43 -2.58

Setd2 TTGCTTATGATCGAATCCAA 3.37 -2.66

Rgpl ACTGACTGACCCCGAAAGGA -2.97 -2.75

Rgpl CAGACTTGGCGAAGACGTGG -2.72 -2.93

Rgpl CTCTCTCTCTAACCTCGGTG -0.44 -3.11

Stat3 C AAAG AGTCAC ATG CC ACGT -1.72 -3.49

Stat3 GTTTACCACGAAAGTCAGGT -0.46 -3.52

Kmt2c AAAAGGCCCATTACCCAATG -0.17 -3.01

Kmt2c AAG C ATT ACCTG AATCC ATG -2.25 -3.30

Kmt2c G GTG AAATG G ATG ATAGTCG 0.60 -2.69

Gne ACGTCC AACTC AAAG AACG C -2.82 -2.24

Gne CCTCTTGTTAAACGAGATCA -3.02 -2.30

Gne GCTCCACACGATTGTTAGAG -2.75 -1.66

Gne TTG C AG CTC A A AG AT AT ATG -0.49 -2.02

Tubb2b AGCCTCATTATCGATGCAGT -0.35 -2.71

Tubb2b AGGTAATAAATATGTGCCTA -0.96 -2.77

Tubb2b CTCCATGGTAACTTCCAGTG 0.21 -2.94

Lrrn3 CGTCGTCTGGTATTTCCGTG -0.61 -3.48

Lrrn3 GGTGAATGTAAGACAATCTG 0.48 -3.43

Tmem41b GGAACCCGGAGAGTATACTG -2.56 -1.88 Tmem41b TAT ACTT ACTC ACTA AG CTG -0.56 -2.42

Tiall A ATG C A ATTGTG CATATG G G 0.47 -2.28

Arf3 CCTCTACAAG CTG AAACTCG -1.44 -3.14

Arf3 GAAGAGCCTAATCGGCAAGA -2.67 -3.01

Arf3 TGATCGGGAGCGAGTGAACG -3.33 -1.84

Arf3 TTCACAGTCTGGGACGTAGG -2.40 0.00

Gpaal CCGCAGGATGCCATACACGT -1.64 -2.54

Gpaal GTCCCTCCACTGTCACATCG -2.68 -3.71

Gpaal GTGGAGGCACTAACCCTACG -3.58 -1.89

Brwd3 AGACATTACTAGGTGTCGGT -2.67 -1.22

Brwd3 ATGGTATCCAAGATCCACTG -2.18 -1.89

Brwd3 GCTGTGGAAGGTCTTTACGA -1.29 -2.31

Brwd3 TAG CCTTTG ATCG A AG CG G G -2.21 -2.50

Tlcdl ATACTTTATCCACGACACAG -0.58 -2.22

Tlcdl GCAGGCGACAGAGCACGCGC -2.65 -2.84

Tlcdl TG GTG G AG ATTG A A AC AG CG -3.51 -0.45

Tlcdl TT ACC ATG AC ATG ATG A AC A -3.59 -1.92

Dsccl ATGCTACGGAAAGAGATACG -2.44 -2.24

Dsccl CGGTACCTCCGTGTGAACGA -2.59 -2.43

Dsccl CTAATG G AAAATACCTACG A -2.76 -2.42

Dsccl G GG G ACTCTATCC AAAG ACC -3.01 -0.33

Cwc27 AC ATAG A ATC A AG AGTTGTG -2.85 -2.43

Cwc27 CCTG G CTTT AT AGTCC A AG G -2.79 -1.44

Cwc27 GAGATATTGACATAGAGTTG -2.50 -1.67

Cwc27 GGGAGCCTACCTGACTGACT -2.57 -1.70

Rbm34 AGGAGAAGGTCTCAGTCTCG -2.57 -0.15

Rbm34 AG G AG CG GTTA A A A A ACG AG -2.54 -2.67

Rbm34 TACCACAGAACGAAATCGTA -2.26 -2.39

Rbm34 TGTCTTTATAACTAGAAATG -2.37 -1.89

Mcll CGGCCGACGCGGTGACGTCG -3.01 -1.99

Mcll CGTGCAGCGCAACCACGAGA -2.60 -1.90

Mcll CTCCTCCG G AG ACACG ATG G -3.31 -1.97

Fnbp4 CAGACATGTATACAAAGGAG -3.15 -1.03

Fnbp4 CATCTCAGGACGGAGTGCGT -2.30 -2.42

Pihldl CTTG CATCCAG CTCCG CGTG -2.74 -2.35

Pihldl TCAATAG CAACTTCTACCTG -3.06 -1.57

Pihldl TCCTCAGTCACGTCGGCCGG -3.08 -2.08

Pigs ACCATAATGCCACCCCAGCG -4.05 -0.21

Pigs CTACCTAAGCTGGACTTGAG -1.68 -2.16

Pigs G ATCTCTCG CTC ATG C AC A A -3.02 -1.16

Pigs GGGCGACCTGG ACT ATG CG A -3.27 -3.20

Sptlcl AATGTGCCATAGAACCCTCG -3.01 -0.89 Sptlcl CCCTCCAACCCACAACATCG -2.81 -3.10

Sptlcl TCCTGCGTACTCTAAGAGAG -2.79 -1.79

PrdmlO AAAGAGTGACGACGGAACAC -2.02 -1.62

PrdmlO GTTCCAAGACCTTCAAACCA -2.16 -2.08

PrdmlO TACATAGATAGGTTCCTCGG -2.07 -1.21

PrdmlO TTATTGTTGTGTAATACACA -2.31 -1.41

Aprt CGCACCTGAACAGCACGCCC -3.15 -0.42

Aprt CTA AC AG GTCTAG ACTCC AG -2.01 -2.18

Aprt GAGTCCGGGTCTTTCAAGAG -2.88 -2.14

Aprt TGTGTGCTCATCCGGAAACA -3.27 -1.40

Crocc CGGCAGGAACAGGACCGGGT -2.40 -0.76

Crocc G CTTC AG G A AC AG AC A ACCC -1.63 -2.59

Crocc GGTGGCCGAGGCGCTAACCA -2.08 -1.47

Crocc TCTGAGCGAGGACATACGCA -2.99 -1.23

C330007P06Rik AG GAG ACT ACTTATCTTCG G -2.82 -1.42

C330007P06Rik CTCAGACACCCGGGACCGCG -3.51 -2.87

Traf3 AGTGACTG C ACGTG GCCTCG -3.85 -1.25

Traf3 CAGGTTCACGTGCTGTACCG -2.41 -1.75

Traf3 G CTTTG AG ATC G AG ATTG AG -3.75 -2.57

Aktl ACACACGCTCTCGAGACAGG -3.16 -1.63

Aktl ACGGTTCTCAGTAAGCGTGT -3.10 -0.73

Aktl CTCACCCAGTGACAACTCAG -2.51 -2.23

Sptlc2 A ATCTCG A AG ATATCC A A AG -2.58 -1.82

Sptlc2 AC AACTATCTTG G ATTTG CG -2.70 -2.45

Sptlc2 GTTGTGTTTGAAGATTCGAA -2.21 0.44

Sptlc2 TG AG AG C A ATC ACTTC AG G A -3.00 -1.94

Ugp2 AAGGGACCGTCTGTGGACTG -2.90 -0.26

Ugp2 GAAGCGCTGTGAGTTTGTCA -3.48 -2.37

Ugp2 TCTAC ACCTTC A ATC A A AG C -2.02 -2.23

Med7 AC ATCTTA AT AAG A AGTCCT -3.14 -3.08

Med7 GCCTCCAATGCAGTACATCA -2.33 -0.89

Gnb2 ACAGGCCACAAAGTTCCCTG -2.47 -1.83

Gnb2 GGACGCCAGAAAAGCATGCG -2.30 -1.91

Aip ATAGATGACAGCCGAACACG -3.27 1.36

Aip CAGCGTCCGAAAGTGGAACG -2.72 -2.83

Aip GGGCAACCGGTTGTACCGTG -2.79 -2.06

Exoc7 AGCAGACAGAGAACCTACAG -2.04 -0.08

Exoc7 G A AT AC A AC ATG CCTA A AG A -2.37 -2.32

Exoc7 GCTGGCTGGTGGAATATGGT -2.18 -1.27

Tmx2 CAACCCGTGTGACTTTGACT -2.04 -2.31

Tmx2 GCCAGCCATCGAGAAAGCCG -2.43 -1.72

Tmx2 GTCACTGTGGAGCAACATGT -2.77 -1.35 7/7ix2 TCAGTGTG C ATACTC ACTTG -3.43 -0.03

Rhbdl2 AGAGGGAAAGGAAGAACCGG -2.99 -1.52

Rhbdl2 GCTCCCACAAGAGACTTGAG -2.55 -3.45

Rhbdl2 GGTCCACAAAGGCCTCCGAG -2.94 -0.78

Atgl3 ACAGTTCGAGTTGGAACAGT -2.78 -0.95

Atgl3 TGTGGGGCGATCTATGTGTG -3.96 -0.94

Ireb2 AATTTGGCAGAAATCGAGAG -2.38 -1.40

Ireb2 TAAGCTGTCCCATGGATCCG -2.71 -2.00

Ireb2 TCTAAGAAGCTTCCATGTCG -3.20 -2.70

Coir C AAG AATGTG CTG ATCAAC A -3.39 -0.25

Coir G CG GCC AG AC AAC ACCTATG -3.42 -2.96

Coir TATGTTTGGATTCGACCCAG -2.99 -0.56

Tvp23b C A ATATG ATTCC ACC A ACG C -2.53 -0.79

Tvp23b TAGCCAAAAGATTCTTGACT -3.45 -1.34

Tvp23b TG CTACTG AG CAG CTCG CAA -2.74 -1.02

Uggtl CAAGTGG GTC A AC A ACCTAG -2.11 -2.42

Uggtl GGAGAAGAAGTACCCGTACG -2.58 0.78

Uggtl TCGTGTGACAGGGTCAACAA -3.23 -3.30

Ccno2 ATAGACATATCCATAGCATG -2.56 -1.34

Ccno2 C ATG CTC ATCGTTTAT AG G A -2.84 -2.35

Ccno2 G CCTG CCTTCACCATTC ATG -3.07 -1.28

TmedlO AAACATGTCATAGTCTTCCG -3.29 -3.06

TmedlO AGAGGCGAAAAATTATGAAG -3.19 -0.46

TmedlO CTCTCGCAAGTGTCTCCGAG -2.75 -1.13

Eefsec AC ATA AG G A ATG GTCCAGAG -3.00 -1.47

Eefsec G CAG GG GTCCTCG G AAGTAA -2.98 -1.23

Eefsec GGGTGCACCGATTATTCCCG -2.72 -1.42

Eefsec G GGTGTATG G AAC ATCTG C A -2.95 -0.77

Prrc2a AAAGCTCAAATTCAGCGATG -1.96 -2.93

Prrc2a G AG G A ATC ATC ATCC AG CG G -3.13 -1.22

Prrc2a TCAGTACGATTCTCTCTCCG -2.22 0.56

Sgoll CAGCATTGACAATACGACCA -3.84 0.62

Sgoll GCTGTTACTCCAGAGACACA -0.23 -2.27

Sgoll TTACCCCCTACTACACTGGA -2.56 -2.24

Sgoll TTTACAATCCTCCAAAGTCG -3.13 -0.68

Ankrd46 G AAGTAA AG G G ATTT A AC AG -2.59 -0.84

Ankrd46 TTAGTTCTGGCAAAGCGCCG -2.23 -2.54

Ddx20 CGGCCCGCCGATGTCGTGTG -3.19 -0.25

Ddx20 G CCA AC ATCTG CTTACTCG C -2.55 -1.97

Ddx20 TCTTGAAAACTATAGTACTC -2.40 -2.12

Chtf8 GCCC I 1 I AC I 1 I CAG I ACGG -2.52 -0.93

Chtf8 GGAATCCCTGTGCTGATCGT -2.76 -0.49 Chtf8 TGTAATGTAGGTCTCCCAGG -3.77 -1.35

Vps29 G AG ATCTG C ACATTCCG CAC -2.69 -0.78

Vps29 GCTGCAGAGGCAGTTTGATG -3.06 -0.70

Vps29 GGACACCAAGTTATTCCGTG -3.20 -2.89

Brinp2 CCATATCCAAATAG CCAC AG -3.59 -2.19

Brinp2 CCTGGGCTAGCACATAACCA -3.35 0.10

Tripll TACTGATCATAAACGAACCA -3.34 0.25

Tripll TT ATTG AGTC A AG A A A AG GT -3.67 -1.87

Hsdl7bl2 AAAAATTCAACGTTGAAACA -1.37 -3.43

Hsdl7bl2 AG ATTGTC A AC A ATG G A ACT -2.17 0.00

Hsdl7bl2 TGTTTG CAGTTAG CAAAACG -2.49 0.00

Plpp2 AGTTGGATCGCGAATAAAGA -2.70 -2.35

Plpp2 CATAGCCAGAACAGTTGACC -2.44 -0.66

Plpp2 C ATG C A AT AC ATG CCA A AG G -2.39 -0.22

Slc35al ATAGCACCAAAGCCTAACAA -2.27 0.00

Slc35al G A AC ACTC AG C A A ATTAC AG -2.58 -0.81

Slc35al TCTTAAAGCTACGGTGTAAG -2.41 -0.87

Slc35al TG C AC AG C AT AC ACTAGTG A -2.96 -1.65

Ubr4 CCTCCGACATTCCGTAACTG -2.32 -1.90

Ubr4 CTC AGCTG G ATACAACCAG G -2.27 0.00

Ubr4 CTGAGCATGTCTAACACGAG -2.99 -0.37

Atr CTTCAGATCTCTCTCGAATG -2.84 -2.11

Atr CTTGTGACGGTAATTCTGAA -2.48 0.00

Atr TTC A A AG C A AG G CTCTACTG -2.28 -0.93

Chic2 GCTCAAGTACTCGCCCGACC -2.85 -0.69

Nudcd2 GGTTCCTTGCGGGACTCCGT -3.31 -2.53

Alg8 ACAGCCTCCCAATATCTCAG -3.56 -0.54

Alg8 AGTTTGGAGCCCAGTAGGCA -2.77 -2.19

Alg8 CCG CAG C AG ATAG ACACC AT -2.54 -0.11

Alg8 TTGTCCG CGTTACTTCCCTG -2.50 0.07

Rad51d AG AG ATCTG CG CCATTTAAG -3.28 -0.91

Rad51d GATATGCTACAGGACCTTCG -2.83 0.44

Rad51d TG ATG CTG G CCTCT AT ACTG -3.28 -1.90

Dlst AATGCTGACGACTTTCAATG -2.31 0.00

Dlst G CAG GG GTCTCCTTATGTCG -2.67 -1.13

Dlst G GTTCG CTTCTTCC AAACCA -2.41 -2.08

N4bpl CCATTGTATAACTGTCTGCG -3.02 -1.14

N4bpl GAGTTGCAGCCAGATACGCG -3.25 -1.28

N4bpl TTACTGAGGCTCGATTGGGA -3.59 0.41

Ipoll ATGGGATTGATCGTTACTGG -2.32 0.00

Ipoll CCAAACACCCCACATATGGT -2.24 -0.79

Ipoll GTATA AG CC ATT ACG ACGCA -2.81 -1.52 Sepsecs CACCGGATCGTCCAATTCCG -2.82 -0.88

Sepsecs C AG G ACTTCTG GTCT ATCCG -3.14 -1.47

Sepsecs TAAG CGTTGTTG ACTAC ATG -3.02 0.00

Asnsdl CCTGGGTACCAACTGACGAA -2.91 -2.96

Asnsdl TGATAATAGATAAACGACCA -3.36 0.05

Asnsdl TTGTGCCTAAACAAAAAACA -2.52 0.85

Ube2n CTGTTACCTTCATAGATAAG -2.50 0.00

Ube2n GCTGCCCCGCAGGATCATCA -2.94 -2.00

Ube2n TAAAAGTCCCTCCCTCAAAG -2.56 0.00

Ubtdl CAGCAGCAAGTTCACAGGTG -3.04 -1.37

Ubtdl TGAAGCTAATGACCATGAGC -2.77 -0.59

Ubtdl TGTGAATGCTATGACGAGCT -2.59 0.02

Ccnc ATTTCAAGAGATTCTATGCT -2.59 1.73

Ccnc G l 1 1 1 GGCA 1 CCAAA 1 AG -2.50 0.80

Ccnc TCTGTTGAAAGAGCGCCAAA -0.71 -3.36

Ccnc TGGTCTAGTTACCATGCAAG -3.50 -0.83

Parn AAAACGGTCTCAAGCCAATG -3.05 1.05

Parn A AG AC ATATAGTT ATC AG C A -2.22 -1.83

Parn G GTC ATACTT A A AAG C AC A A -2.07 -0.81

Ccdcl34 GCCAG I 1 I I GCAC I G -0.61 -2.01

Ccdcl34 TGGAACCTCCTG ATCCG CTG -4.60 0.12

Ccdcl34 TGGAATTATGGTCAAAGTAG -2.20 0.96

Nepro C AAG AG CC AG ACCTTG G ATG -2.86 0.41

Nepro CCTTTAGTAGCAGAAGCCGC -2.95 0.73

Nepro GTCTTGTGCAAAAAGCCCGA -2.54 -0.15

Nepro TCAGCAACTGAGAACTCACT -1.37 -2.37

Vps33a ACACAACGCTAAGACAGTCG -3.60 -0.22

Vps33a GCAAGAGGTTATCAAACACG -2.17 -0.79

Vps33a G CCTGTACC ACG CAG CCAAG -2.37 0.00

Vps33a TAATTGCTGAGAATGTACTC -2.54 0.00

Ckslb ACGACGAGGAGTTCGAATAC -2.76 -0.86

Ckslb GAATCTGAATGGAGGAACCT -2.21 0.00

Ckslb TTC AG ATTC AG AC ATC AG AT -2.07 0.00

Ckslb TTCGGACAAATACGACGACG -2.32 0.00

Atp6vlh CTG CAG C ATATCGTCAACC A -2.30 -0.72

Atp6vlh GAATGATATTATAGCGACGA -2.20 0.59

Atp6vlh GGATCCTGGCGATTCAACAT -3.11 0.74

Atp6vlh TC ATAG CC AG AG C ATACTCT -3.24 -1.33

Rerl ACGCAATGAAAAGGTTTAGG -2.24 2.19

Rerl AG GTC AC AATGTACC AACCC -1.71 -2.61

Rerl CAGTGTCACAACCCACCGGA -2.75 0.23

Rerl GAAAAATCTGTACACCACCG -2.64 -0.30 BC030336 CCCG G ACTG G ATC AAC ACCG -3.76 -0.09

BC030336 GCTCG ATG G AT AG C ATTC AC -3.98 0.17

Megf8 CACACCCTTACTGCCCGTCG -2.48 -1.34

Megf8 GAATTG CAACG CCC ACACCG -3.93 0.39

Megf8 GATGTGTCCCTAGTCTACCG -3.40 -0.24

Megf8 TGTTCT AG G A A ACT AC ATG G -2.76 1.10

Hnrnpf ACAGGGAAAGCATGGGACAC -2.35 0.76

Hnrnpf AGAAGGCAGGCAGAGTGGTG -2.13 -0.75

Hnrnpf TTGTGAGGCAAACTGAACGA -2.11 -0.86

Mrps21 GCGTCGTCGACTTATGACTT -3.36 -0.05

Ppcs AACTTCAGTAGCGGGCGACG -2.23 0.00

Ppcs ATAG A A ATCTG AC ACTG CCG -2.12 0.00

Ppcs ATG C AG ATAATCCG CC AAAG -2.49 0.00

Rabla ACTTCTGATTGGCGATTCTG -3.78 -2.49

Rabla ATACACAACTATGATGCCAT -1.48 5.64

Rabla CCTTCAATAACGTTAAACAG -2.79 -0.26

Lman2 ACTTCAAAGTCCATGGCACA -2.45 -0.63

Lman2 CCCGGGAATAGCGTACAGCT -2.71 0.70

Lman2 GCAAATGTAGAAATGTCGTG -2.34 -0.65

Smarcel ATGAGGTACAGCAGAAAGGT -2.05 0.90

Smarcel CAGCCTG CTG AG G ATCC AG A -2.33 -1.07

Smarcel GAATACGAAGCAGAAAAGGT -2.50 0.00

Tmed2 CCG CTCGAAGAAG C ACTCCT -3.04 0.95

Tmed2 CTTCCTGGACATCGACGTGG -2.12 0.56

Tmed2 GGACAAGACATGGAGACAGA -2.11 0.83

Ddx42 AAACAAGAG CAC ACTCCCCG -2.06 1.49

Ddx42 AC ATTG ATACG C AC ACTC AC -2.37 1.41

Ddx42 ACCTCCGAATGATCAATGGG -2.52 -0.84

Ddx42 AGCGTATAATCTTCGATCAG -2.46 1.35

Usp24 CATGAGGTAGAATAGTTCGT -0.65 2.15

Usp24 TATGGAGCGGTGTATGCCCG -3.33 1.27

Usp24 TCACTGCGTACGCGTCACTG -3.44 0.81

Mbnll CTGCACCAATGTTGGTCACG 0.32 2.82

Mbnll GCTCACCACGGGCTGCAACG 0.43 2.34

Syvnl A AG G G CC ACTTAC A ATTAG G -0.44 2.10

Syvnl CTTG GTC AA AT AC ACTAC AG 1.61 2.66

Syvnl TC AG G ATG CTGTG ATAAGCG -0.67 2.98

Nfl GACAAGATGACAAACCTGGT 1.65 3.45

Nfl G G AAACGTGG CATGTCTCG G 1.93 2.66

Nfl GGACGAGAGCAACATAAACA -0.03 2.15

Derl2 CAAAGTCTGCTGTCCGACCT 0.41 2.57

Derl2 CAATAATGCTGGTCTACGTG 0.89 2.58 Derl2 G A AG ACC A A AG A AGTTC ATG -0.52 2.37

Derl2 G CTG G G G A ACTC A ATTAT AG -0.78 2.03

Top2 AG AAG CCACTCG G ACTACTG -0.30 2.77

Top2 GCTGTGGGGACTGCTAAAAG -1.12 2.22

Top2 TTACACGACCCGAATAGCGA -2.14 3.22

Topi ACTAATG G ACTCG CAC ACGT -0.42 2.09

Topi GTCTCTAGCAAAGTCCACGC -0.40 3.25

Topi TGGACATGAGCCATATGTTG -0.14 3.35

Dusp6 ACTCGTACAG CTCCTGTG GT 0.67 2.62

Dusp6 CACTGCGAGACCAATCTAGA 1.44 2.24

Dusp6 CCGAGACCCCAATAGTGCAA 0.71 2.89

Dusp6 CTCTTCCAACACGTCCAAGT 0.64 3.56

Ube2g2 ATC ACCTG GAG C ATG C AG G A -0.29 2.72

Ube2g2 GAATCCTCCAGAAGGAATCG 0.26 2.99

Ube2g2 G CACTG CTCTCATAACCC AT -0.77 3.01

Ube2g2 TC ATCTTCG G AG G G CTC A AG 0.18 2.75

Lztrl ATGTTGCCATCGTCACTGCA 0.41 3.04

Lztrl CCC ACG AATTCGTC ACAG G G 1.32 2.63

Lztrl CGGATGGCCACACGTAACAG 0.20 3.00

Lztrl GTAGACAACAACATTCGCAG 0.33 2.97

Jok2 A AGTCCTAG ATA A AG CAC AT 3.13 3.43

Jok2 ACAGATACGGAGTGTCCCGT 2.85 1.90

Jok2 CGGGTATTACAGACTAACTG 2.71 3.20

Jok2 TCTTCAGGAGAGAATACCAT 3.69 3.86

H2-D1 CGACGCAAGTGGGAGCAGAG -2.09 3.91

H2-D1 GGCCCCGACTCAGACCCGCG 5.15 3.60

H2-D1 GTGAGCCTGAGGAACCTGCT 1.01 3.08

H2-D1 TAGCCGACAGAGATGTACCG 0.05 3.52

B2m ACTC ACTCTG G ATAG CAT AC 5.27 3.80

B2m ATTTGGATTTCAATGTGAGG 5.19 3.20

B2m TCGGCTTCCCATTCTCCGGT 5.48 4.33

B2m TG AGT AT ACTTG A ATTTG AG 5.51 3.55

Ifngrl GGTATTCCCAGCATACGACA 3.32 5.25

Ifngrl TATACCAATACGCAAATACC 4.07 4.34

Ifngrl TATGTGGAGCATAACCGGAG 2.95 3.80

Ifngrl TTCAGGGTGAAATACGAGGA 3.43 5.32

Ifngr2 AGGGAACCTCACTTCCAAGT 3.12 4.83

Ifngr2 TCCCTTTGATGTGTTCCACG 3.40 4.23

Ifngr2 TG ATG AG C AG ATTCTA ACTT 3.81 5.03

Ifngr2 TGGACCTCCGAAAAACATCT 3.78 5.37

Stotl GAAAAGCAAGCGTAATCTCC 2.70 8.13

Stotl GGATAGACGCCCAGCCACTG 3.32 9.31 Stotl TGTGATGTTAGATAAACAGA 1.50 7.91

Stotl TTAATGACGAGCTCGTGGAG 2.25 8.60

Jakl AAACATATAGTGTACCTCTA 2.36 10.21

Jakl CGATGCCATTCGAATGACAG 1.57 8.40

Jakl TCCGAACCGAATCATCACTG 3.59 10.23

Jakl TGAATAAATCCATCAGACAG 2.46 9.92

Tables 4-5 provided below lists the top sgRNAs identified in the screen.

Table 4


Table 5

f. In vitro validation of genes of the PBAF complex

Guide RNA sequences against Arid2, Brd7 and Pbrml were cloned into a

PLK03G-GFP vector and confirmed by sequencing. gRNA constructs were co-transfected with pCMV-dR8.91 and pCMV-VSV-G (Addgene #8454) to HEK293T cells. Transfection was done by using TransIT®-293 (Minis, MIR2700) following the manufacturer's protocol. Virus was harvested at 48 hors post-transfection and stored at -80°C. B16F10-Cas9 cells (clone4) were infected with a gRNA lentivirus driving expression of a single gRNA overnight to inactivate Arid2, Brd7 or Pbrml genes individually. Infected cells were sorted based on GFP expression by BD FACS Aria II. Cells were edited for at least ten days prior to validation experiment.

For in vitro validation, Arid2, Brd7 or Pbrm 1 deficient B16F 10 cells (GFP positive) were mixed with control B 16F10 cells (GFP negative) at a 1 : 1 ratio. These cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of IFNy and co-cultured with in vitro activated Pmell T cells at different effector to target ratios in a 6-well plate (triplicated wells for each gRNA). After a three-day co-culture with T cells, fold depletion of mutant B16F 10 cells in the presence or absence of T cells was determined by FACS, comparing the percentage of mutant cells (GFP positive) to control B16F10 cells (GFP negative).

g. In vivo experiment with Pbrm 1 -deficient B16F 10 cells

Two hundred and fifty thousand control (non-targeting gRNA) or Pbrm 1 -deficient

B16F10-Cas9 (clone4) cells were subcutaneously injected into 7 to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (The Jackson Laboratory, #000664). Three treatment groups were compared for mice implanted with control or Pbrml deficient B 16F10 tumor cells: CD8 depletion (n=5-8 mice/group), checkpoint blockade therapy (aCTLA-4+aPD-l) (n=10 mice/group) and isotype control antibody (n=5-7 mice/group). For the CD8 depletion group, CD8 mAb (clone53-5.8, #BE0223, 100 μg/mouse) was given on day -1, day 0, and every four days. For checkpoint blockade treatment group (a-PD-1 : clone 29F.1 A 12, #BE0273, 200 μg/mouse; a-CTLA-4: clone 9H10, #BP0131, 100 μg/mouse) mAbs were administered on day 4 and then every 3rd day. For isotype control group (2A3 and polyclonal Syrian hamster IgG, 200 μg/mouse and 100 μg/mouse, respectively), antibodies were given starting on day 4, and every three days. Tumor size were measured with digital calipers every 2-3 days. Mice were sacrificed when tumor reached 20mm in diameter. All experiments were performed in compliance with federal laws and institutional guidelines and were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

h. _Validation screen

Top hits were selected from the genome-scale screen for validation based on the following criteria: (1) |LFC| > 2, (2) FDR<0.05, and (3) known human homologs. The mini-pool gRNA library was synthesized by the Genetic Perturbation Platform at the Broad Institute and included 1,878 gene-targeting gRNAs (6 gRNAs/gene) and 2,000 control gRNAs for data normalization. Lentivirus for the mini-pool gRNA library was produced as described above, and a low MOI was used for the validation screen (MOI=0.08). Pmel-1 and OT-I screens were performed as described for the genome-scale screen with a

representation (cell number/gRNA) of >5,000. For both Pmel-1 and OT-I screens, B16F10 cells and T cells were co-cultured for 3 and 1 days respectively, before T cells were removed from the culture. An Ova peptide concentration of 0. lng/ml was used in the validation screen with OT-I T cells. Genomic DNA was extracted from cells regrown after T cell removal, and gRNA representation was quantified as described above.

i. Western blot analysis of mutant cell lines

Cells were lysed in RIPA buffer (50mM Tris-HCl, pH7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.25% deoxycholic acid, 1% NP-40, ImM EDTA). Protein concentrations were quantified with the Pierce™ BCA Protein Assay Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific). For Western blotting, equal amounts of protein were heat denatured in the presence of a reducing agent and separated on 4-12% Bis Tris NuPage gels or 3-8% Tris- Acetate NuPage gels (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and transferred to PVDF membranes. Antibodies used for Western blotting were as follows: BRD7 (Cell Signaling, clone D9K2T), PBRM1 (Cell Signaling, clone D3F70), ARID2 (Abeam, ab51019) and GAPDH (Cell Signaling, clone D16H11), OTULIN (Cell Signaling, #14127), DUSP6 (Abeam, #ab76310) and NF1 (Cell Signaling, #14623). Proteins were detected using ECL Plus (GE Healthcare Life Sciences) using the ChemiDoc™ Imaging System (Bio-Rad). For total protein measurement, whole cell lysates were loaded to TGX Stain-Free gel (BIO-RAD) and ChemiDoc™ Imaging System (Bio-Rad) was used for image acquisition.

j . FACS analysis with tumor infiltrating T cells

Five times 105 control (non-targeting gRNA) or Pbrml deficient B16F10-Cas9 cells were subcutaneously injected into 7 to 8 week old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administrated with checkpoint blockade therapy (aCTLA-4 plus aPD-1) starting from day 3 and then every third day. Tumors were harvested on day 15, and single cell suspensions were stained with the following antibodies: anti-CD3 (17A2, BV510), anti-CD4 (RM4-5, BV785), anti-CD8 (53-6.7, BV650), anti-CD45 (30-F11, APC), anti-B220 (RA3-6B2, FITC), anti-NKl . l (PK136, FITC) (Biolegend), anti-CD 19 (MB 19-1, FITC), anti-granzyme B (NGZB, PE-Cy7) (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and with fixable Zombie UV™ viability dye (Biolegend). BD LSRFortessa™ X-20 was used for data acquisition and FlowJo (Tree Star) was used for data analysis.

k. Analysis of MHC class I and PD-L1 expression by flow cytometry

Control (non-targeting gRNA), Arid2, Pbrml and Brdl deficient B16F 10 cells were treated with different doses (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or lOng/ml) of IFNy for 24 hours in triplicates. Cells were then stained with anti-H2-Kb (AF6-88.5, APC, Biolegend) or anti-PD-Ll (10F.9G2, APC, Biolegend) antibodies followed by FACS analysis. BD LSRFortessa™ X-20 was used for data acquisition and FlowJo (Tree Star) was used for data analysis.

Geometric mean fluorescence intensity (gMFI) was calculated using FlowJo software.

1. RNA-seq analysis

Total RNA was extracted from control (non-targeting gRNA), Arid2, Pbrml and Brdl deficient B16F 10 cells cultured in complete DMEM in triplicates. Cells were stimulated with IFNy (lOng/ml) or vehicle control for 24 hours. RNA extraction was performed using the RNeasy® Plus Mini Kit (Qiagen, # 74134) following the

manufacturer's protocol. Total RNA was submitted to the Molecular Biology Core Facility at DFCI for sequencing. Standard mRNA library preparation kit (RS-122-2101, Illumina) was used for library preparation. Single-end 75bp sequencing was done on Illumina

NextSeq™ 500. Statistics for differentially expressed genes were calculated by DESeq2 (version 3.5) (Love et al. (2014) Genome Biol. 15:550) and Cufflinks (Trapnell et al. (2010) Nat. Biotechnol. 28: 511-515).

m. ATAC-seq

Control (non-targeting gRNA) and Pbrml deficient B 16F 10 cells were cultured in complete DMEM media in 10cm dishes. Cells were treated with lOng/ml IFNy or vehicle control for 24 hours. ATAC-seq was performed on triplicates (200,000 cells) by the Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics at DFCI as previously described (Buenrostro et al.

(2015) Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 109:21-29; Buenrostro et al. (2013) Nat. Methods 10: 1213-1218). For data analysis, Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) (Li et al. (2009)

Bioinformatics 25: 1754-1760) was used to map sequencing reads to the reference genome and MACS2 (Zhang et al. (2008) Genome Biol. 9:R137) for peak calling. DESeq2 (Love et al. (2014) Genome Biol. 15:550) was applied to identify the differentially accessible regions with or without IFNy treatment from ATAC-seq data. Binding and expression target analysis (BETA) (Wang et al. (2013) Nat. Protoc. 8:2502-2515) was used to integrate ATAC-seq data on accessible chromatin sites with differential gene expression data to infer directly targeted genes.

n. Gene sets enrichment analysis (GSEA)

For gene set identification, the hypergeometric overlap statistic tool (available on the World Wide Web at software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/annotate.jsp) was used to calculate the overlap between a gene list and pathways in MSIgDB (Molecular signature database) (Subramanian et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102: 15545-15550;

Mootha et al. (2003) Nat. Genet. 34:267-273). GSEA on gene expression data was performed by loading cufflink count table for each comparison into the GSEA package.

o. Single-cell RNA-seq

Five times 105 control (non-targeting gRNA) or Pbrml deficient B16F10-Cas9 cells were subcutaneously injected into 7 to 8 week old male C57BL/6 mice (n=5 for each group). Mice were administrated with checkpoint blockade therapy (aCTLA-4 plus aPD-1) starting from day 3 and then every third day. On day 15, tumors were harvested and 9,000 CD45+ live (DAPI negative) cells were sorted from each individual tumor by BD FACS Aria II. Sorted CD45+ cells were then combined for each group (total -45,000

CD45+ cells for each genotype) and washed with 0.04% RNase-free BSA (Thermo Fisher Scientific) in PBS. Five thousand cells per condition were targeted for the 10X Genomics 3' single cell assay (10X Genomics). Reverse transcription, cDNA amplification and library preparation were performed according to manufacturer's protocols. Completed libraries were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 on rapid-run mode, yielding >40,000 reads per cell.

Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis was performed using the Cell Ranger Single-Cell Software Suite provided by 10X Genomics: available on the World Wide Web at support.10xgenomics.com/single-cell-gene-expression/software/downloads/latest. Briefly, UMI counts were obtained by sequence alignment followed by barcode demultiplexing. The gene expression matrix was filtered to include only genes with at least one UMI count in at least one cell. Raw UMI counts were normalized by the total counts in each cell. The 1,000 genes with highest dispersion values (defined as the variance divided by the mean) were selected for further analysis. The UMI counts were log-transformed and z-score normalized for each gene. tSNE analysis was carried out based on the first 50 principal components obtained from PCA analysis. Distinct cell subpopulations were identified using k-means clustering. Differential expression analyses were performed by using the zlm.SingleCell Assay function in the R MAST package with method "glm".

Hypergeometric overlap statistic tool (available on the World Wide Web at

software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/annotate.jsp) was used for GSEA analysis for single cell data.

p. ELISA

Cells (lxlO6) were plated in 6-well plates with complete growth medium. On the following day, cells were washed with serum -free medium three times and treated with IFNy at indicated concentrations for 24 hrs. Chemokines were measured in supernatants using mouse CXCL9 (MIG) ELISA Kit and mouse CRG-2 (CXCL10) ELISA Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer's protocol.

q. Quantitative real-time PCR

Cells were treated with indicated concentrations of IFNy for 24 hours and total RNA was isolated by RNeasy® Plus Mini Kit (Qiagen). cDNAs were synthesized from 1 μg of total RNA using the PrimeScript™ RT reagent Kit (Takara) and were amplified by SYBR® Premix Ex Taq™ II (Takara) using CFX96 Real-Time PCR System (Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer's protocols. Primers for Cxcl9 and Gapdh were as follows: Cxcl9; 5'-AGTCCGCTGTTCTTTTCCTC-3 ' and 5 ' -TGAGGTCTTTGAGGGATTTGT AG-3 ' , Gapdh; 5 ' -GTGTTCCT ACCCCC AATGTGT-3 ' and 5'- ATTGTCATACC AGGAAATGAGCTT-3 ' . Relative mRNA expression was evaluated after normalization for Gapdh expression.

r. Growth competition assay

PBAF mutant (GFP+) and control B 16F10-Cas9 cells (GFP-) were mixed at 1 : 1 ratio. The mixture of cells was then seeded in 10cm dish in complete growth medium. Cells were passaged every three or four days and were analyzed by flow cytometry for changes of the ratio of GFP+/GFP- cells.

s. Doxorubicin-induced cell death

Two knockout B16F 10 cell lines with independent gRNAs were generated for Otulin, Dusp6 and Nfl using the same protocol as described for PBAF complex. The knockout cell lines (GFP+) were mixed with control cells (GFP-) at 1 : 1 ratio. The mixture of cells was then seeded at 200,000 cells/well in a 6-well plate. Eighteen hours after seeding, different doses of doxorubicin (Sigma- Aldrich, D1515) as indicated in Figure 11 were added to the cell culture (triplicate wells per condition). After 24 or 48 hours, cells were harvested and stained with DAPI (5 μ§/ιη1) for 5 minutes in PBS with 2% FBS at room temperature. The ratio of GFP+/GFP- was determined by FACS (gated on DAPI- for live cells).

Example 2: Genome-scale screen to discover regulators of T cell mediated killing

In order to establish a screening system that allows for the identification of immune regulators in murine melanoma B 16F 10 tumor cells, the CRTPSR/Cas9 system was used to generate positive controls that are either more resistant (GFP+, B2m'A) or more sensitive (mCherry+, Cd274~/~) to T cell-mediated killing. The murine B16F10 melanoma cell line was used for this screen because it is resistant to checkpoint blockade with antibodies targeting the PD-1 and/or CTLA-4 receptors (van Elsas et al. (1999) J. Exp. Med. 190:355-366; Chen et al. (2015) Cancer Immunol. Res. 3 : 149-160). Inactivation of resistance genes resulted in depletion of the corresponding gRNAs, but such depletion could only be detected with sufficient sensitivity when most tumor cells had sufficient Cas9 activity. Therefore, a B16F10-Cas9 clone with high editing efficiency was selected (Fig. 2) and tested with positive controls that were either more resistant (B2m~/~) or sensitive (Cd274~f~) to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity (Fig. 1).

These controls were mixed with parental cells followed by selection with in vitro activated OT-1 T cells. B2m~ ~ cells were strongly enriched and Cd274~/~ were noticeably depleted after 1-3 days of selection by the T cells (Fig. 1), indicating that both positive and negative regulators can be identified by using this approach. Identification of negative regulators requires efficient depletion of gRNAs during the selection process, which requires sufficient Cas9 activity in the vast majority of cells because non-edited cells are resistant to selection. Accordingly, Cas9 was introduced into the B 16 cells and clones from sorted single cells for Cas9 activity by introducing a gRNA targeting PD-L1 were tested. Treatment of tumor cells with IFNy results in strong upregulation of PD-L1 expression, which allowed for the identification of Cas9-expressing B16F10 clones with high editing efficiency. Similar results were obtained for multiple clones, and one of these clones (clone #4) was selected for the screen (Fig. 2).

This B 16F10-Cas9 clone was then transduced with a genome-scale gRNA library in a lentiviral vector (Doench et al. (2016) Nat. Biotechnol. 34: 184-191). These tumor cells were transduced with a genome-scale gRNA library in a lentiviral vector, and transduced cells were selected using puromycin. CD8 T cells from two TCR transgenic strains were

used for selection: 1. Pmell T cells that recognize an endogenous melanoma antigen, gplOO; and 2. OT-I T cells that recognize an ovalbumin-derived peptide. The OT-I TCR has a higher affinity for its peptide-MHC ligand that Pmell T cells. Selection was performed either with Pmel-1 T cells which have a relatively low TCR affinity for an endogenous melanoma antigen (Overwijk et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:569-580) or high-affinity OT-I T cells (Hogquist et al. (1994) Cell 76: 17-27). Following a three-day co-culture of CD8 T cells with edited tumor cells, T cells were removed and remaining tumor cells were grown up for isolation of genomic DNA. Edited tumors cells were selected by three-day co-culture with Pmel-1 CD8 T cells (or one day for OT-I T cells), and the representation of all gRNAs was then determined following Illumina sequencing of the gRNA cassette (Fig. 3 A). The specificity of gRNA enrichment/depletion was demonstrated by comparing selection with tumor-specific T cells versus control T cells of irrelevant specificity (Fig. 9). This comparison also controlled for potential effects of gRNAs on cell proliferation/viability.

In this screen, enriched gRNAs correspond to genes that are required for efficient T cell-mediated killing of the tumor cells. In fact, a number of well-known genes required for T cell-mediated tumor immunity were identified among the enriched gRNAs in both Pmel-1 and OT-1 screens (Fig. 3B, Fig. 10A, and Tables 6-9), including key genes in the MHC class I and IFNy signaling pathways (Blum et al. (2013) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 31 :443-473; Kobayashi et al. (2012) Nat. Rev. Immunol. 12:813-820; Parker et al. (2016) Nat. Rev. Cancer 16: 131-144). These included the key components of the MHC class I pathway required for presentation of tumor-derived peptides to T cells, including H2-D1 (MHC class I heavy chain), B2m (subunit of MHC class I proteins), Tapl and Tap2 (transporters for peptides from cytosol to ER) and Nlrc5 (key transcription factor for MHC class I genes). Furthermore, key components required for IFNy and IFNa/β recognition and signaling were identified, including Jakl, Jak2, Statl, Ifiigrl and Ifhgr2, which are important for interferon-mediated upregulation of MHC pathway genes (Figs. 3B and 4). In fact, mutations in both MHC and interferon pathway genes were shown to confer resistance to immunotherapy in cancer patients, indicating that these genes are relevant for tumor immunity in humans (Gao et al. (2016) Cell 167:397-404; Zaretsky et al. (2016) N. Engl. J. Med. 375:819-829). T cell-based CRISPR/Cas9 screens have been described by two other laboratories. One of these studies performed an in vivo screen covering 2,368 murine genes and highlighted the phosphatase Ptpn2 as a novel target for immunotherapy (Manguso et al. (2017) Nature 547:413-418). The second study focused on human tumor cells and T cells and reported that mutations in APLNR render tumor cells resistant to T cell mediated cytotoxicity (Patel et al. (2011) Bioconjugate Chem. 22:376-387). This approach emphasized sensitive detection of depleted gRNAs in a genome-wide manner, which allowed discovery of additional mechanisms conferring resistance to immunotherapy.

A striking result was that a much larger number of gRNAs were depleted (Tables 6-9), indicating that inactivation of these genes sensitized tumor cells to killing by T cells. Top genes in this group included known negative immune regulators, including CD274 (encoding PD-L1 (Dong et al. (1999) Nat. Med. 5: 1365-1369; Freeman et al. (2000) J. Exp. Med. 192: 1027-1034)), the phosphatase Ptpn2 (Kleppe et al. (2011) Blood 117:7090-7098;, and granzyme B inhibitor Serpinb9 (Kaiserman et al. (2010) Cell Death Differ. 17:586-595^ indicating the depleted gRNA well identified negative regulators of T cell-mediated killing in tumor cells (Figs. 3C and 10B). However, the vast majority of identified genes had not been previously implicated in resistance to T cell mediated killing (Tables 6-9).

Table 6: List of top candidate genes enriched in Pmel-1 screen (FDR<0.05)

LogFC, Log(2) fold change; FDR, False Discovery rate. FDR and p value calculated by

MaGeCK.


mix 1.93 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Aupl 1.93 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Ube2jl 1.91 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

IntslO 1.91 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Vgll4 1.65 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Spredl 1.64 4.07E-06 1.91E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Fus 1.64 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Cbx4 1.62 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Pmel 1.53 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Fbrs 1.51 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Nlrc5 1.48 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Selll 1.48 7.18E-07 4.24E-04 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Xpnpepl 1.47 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Mbnl2 1.46 2.16E-06 1.11E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Swi5 1.46 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Asun 1.46 1.56E-05 6.57E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Usp24 1.45 1.20E-06 6.51E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Ifnarl 1.42 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Cdknla 1.38 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Ifnar2 1.37 7.18E-07 4.24E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Rfxank 1.37 2.42E-05 8.93E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Edem3 1.35 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Nf2 1.33 3.59E-06 1.77E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Medl3 1.29 2.39E-07 1.50E-04 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Usp22 1.28 0.00010081 3.16E-02 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Pvr 1.26 1.20E-06 6.51E-04 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

\pol3 1.24 9.27E-05 2.95E-02 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Kdmla 1.20 4.07E-06 1.91E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Bbx 1.19 1.68E-06 8.89E-04 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00

Chrocl 1.15 0.00016834 4.70E-02 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Eloa 1.14 7.02E-05 2.34E-02 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

2310033P09Rik 1.08 2.08E-05 7.98E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Cdkn2c 1.08 2.75E-05 9.65E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Kirrel 1.07 2.75E-05 9.65E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Lta4h 1.07 3.59E-06 1.77E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Alkbh8 1.06 2.61E-05 9.47E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Cdc73 1.03 0.00011135 3.44E-02 9.95E-01 l.OOE+00

Cdkl2 1.02 1.84E-05 7.47E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Gosr2 1.02 0.00014583 4.19E-02 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00

Rasa2 1.01 6.47E-06 2.97E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Senpl 0.99 0.00014583 4.19E-02 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00

Fgfu 0.98 9.27E-05 2.95E-02 9.94E-01 l.OOE+00 Creb3l2 0.98 6.15E-05 2.12E-02 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00

Menl 0.96 2.08E-05 7.98E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Spop 0.96 1.51E-05 6.50E-03 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Cblll 0.91 0.00014439 4.19E-02 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Ankrd24 0.90 1.75E-05 7.23E-03 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00

Edem2 0.90 0.00016594 4.70E-02 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00

Pcifl 0.87 2.42E-05 8.93E-03 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00

4921507P07Rik 0.86 0.00017169 4.73E-02 9.93E-01 l.OOE+00

Ddx42 0.85 1.20E-06 6.51E-04 9.79E-01 l.OOE+00

Otud5 0.84 1.89E-05 7.52E-03 9.71E-01 l.OOE+00

Dppa5a 0.84 1.13E-05 5.06E-03 9.96E-01 l.OOE+00

Kif3a 0.77 0.00011949 3.63E-02 9.82E-01 l.OOE+00

Sec22a 0.72 0.00014583 4.19E-02 9.92E-01 l.OOE+00

Furin 0.71 0.00017648 4.80E-02 9.92E-01 l.OOE+00

Ankrd6 0.49 7.40E-05 2.43E-02 7.32E-01 9.14E-01

Lsml2 0.29 6.44E-05 2.18E-02 4.65E-01 7.50E-01

Marcksll 0.20 1.46E-05 6.43E-03 9.86E-02 4.84E-01

Table 7: List of top candidate genes depleted in Pmel-1 screen (FDR<0.05)

LogFC, Log(2) fold change; FDR, False Discovery rate. FDR and p value calculated by

MaGeCK.


Tos2rl04 -1.84 0.80913 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Eropl -1.85 0.39007 l.OOE+00 7.16E-05 2.00E-02

Sept3 -1.86 0.22664 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Zfand6 -1.89 0.97729 l.OOE+00 5.55E-04 4.63E-02

C3arl -1.90 0.37623 l.OOE+00 5.30E-04 4.63E-02

Mylip -1.92 0.88336 l.OOE+00 1.75E-04 3.68E-02

Gosrl -1.92 0.99198 l.OOE+00 1.85E-04 3.68E-02

Pcp4 -1.93 0.91935 l.OOE+00 5.24E-04 4.63E-02

Cochdl -1.95 0.81897 l.OOE+00 1.80E-05 9.79E-03

Rfxap -1.96 0.93257 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Sic 12a 2 -1.96 0.96301 l.OOE+00 5.53E-04 4.63E-02

Ube2a -1.97 0.8566 l.OOE+00 4.66E-04 4.63E-02

Tgif2lxl -1.98 0.95558 l.OOE+00 5.06E-04 4.63E-02

Strn4 -1.98 0.9735 l.OOE+00 5.46E-04 4.63E-02

Nudtll -1.99 0.96227 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

Tiall -2.01 0.9539 l.OOE+00 3.17E-04 4.18E-02

Tmem41b -2.02 0.96579 l.OOE+00 3.96E-04 4.63E-02

Lrrn3 -2.03 0.98067 l.OOE+00 5.06E-04 4.63E-02

Tubb2b -2.04 0.86216 l.OOE+00 4.69E-04 4.63E-02

Gne -2.06 0.95715 l.OOE+00 5.45E-04 4.63E-02

Rsll -2.06 0.94016 l.OOE+00 4.06E-04 4.63E-02

Zfp942 -2.07 0.97317 l.OOE+00 4.12E-04 4.63E-02

Kmt2c -2.08 0.59541 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Stot3 -2.08 0.99048 l.OOE+00 4.06E-04 4.63E-02

Rgpl -2.09 0.76343 l.OOE+00 4.12E-04 4.63E-02

Ppp4r2 -2.11 0.95069 l.OOE+00 2.80E-04 4.17E-02

Prdxl -2.12 0.99041 l.OOE+00 5.24E-04 4.63E-02

PipSklc -2.12 0.99136 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Tmeml65 -2.13 0.48032 l.OOE+00 4.57E-04 4.63E-02

Carml -2.13 0.96937 l.OOE+00 4.93E-04 4.63E-02

Vpsl6 -2.14 0.9762 l.OOE+00 3.96E-04 4.63E-02

Rsphl -2.15 0.97941 l.OOE+00 2.89E-04 4.17E-02

Cd44 -2.15 0.98583 l.OOE+00 2.63E-04 4.17E-02

Arf6 -2.16 0.95126 l.OOE+00 2.59E-04 4.17E-02

Irgm2 -2.16 0.98195 l.OOE+00 2.83E-04 4.17E-02

Lam tori -2.18 0.95816 l.OOE+00 3.97E-04 4.63E-02

Cd36 -2.18 0.99451 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

Zfp827 -2.19 0.98737 l.OOE+00 4.69E-04 4.63E-02

Olfr512 -2.19 0.9518 l.OOE+00 2.61E-05 1.02E-02

Nans -2.20 0.97933 l.OOE+00 5.53E-04 4.63E-02

Rnf38 -2.20 0.97671 l.OOE+00 2.63E-04 4.17E-02 Eif2ok3 -2.20 0.99073 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

Ikbkg -2.21 0.9944 l.OOE+00 2.08E-05 9.79E-03

Spen -2.22 0.98152 l.OOE+00 5.55E-04 4.63E-02

Ak2 -2.22 0.96937 l.OOE+00 4.71E-04 4.63E-02 lcosl -2.24 0.99186 l.OOE+00 5.30E-04 4.63E-02

Krtapl-5 -2.24 0.98152 l.OOE+00 1.56E-05 9.75E-03

Lemd2 -2.25 0.9933 l.OOE+00 5.45E-04 4.63E-02

Gtf2i -2.25 0.94313 l.OOE+00 2.62E-04 4.17E-02

Xrcc2 -2.26 0.97576 l.OOE+00 3.05E-04 4.18E-02

Bptf -2.26 0.97193 l.OOE+00 1.84E-04 3.68E-02

Impgl -2.27 0.99352 l.OOE+00 2.89E-04 4.17E-02

Birc2 -2.28 0.98877 l.OOE+00 1.13E-04 2.86E-02

Batf2 -2.30 0.98999 l.OOE+00 2.58E-04 4.17E-02

Larp4 -2.30 0.97355 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Cwfl9ll -2.30 0.91546 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Tgtpl -2.30 0.90076 l.OOE+00 7.30E-05 2.00E-02

Pok2 -2.30 0.9912 l.OOE+00 5.46E-04 4.63E-02

Ube2k -2.32 0.99548 l.OOE+00 3.17E-04 4.18E-02

Faxc -2.33 0.99186 l.OOE+00 2.59E-04 4.17E-02

Asxl2 -2.33 0.9296 l.OOE+00 1.82E-04 3.68E-02

Motr3 -2.33 0.97193 l.OOE+00 5.01E-04 4.63E-02

Rab7 -2.34 0.98577 l.OOE+00 5.45E-04 4.63E-02

ArlUepl -2.34 0.99093 l.OOE+00 3.03E-04 4.18E-02

Tm2dl -2.34 0.99258 l.OOE+00 2.81E-04 4.17E-02

Ubo6 -2.35 0.9925 l.OOE+00 5.46E-04 4.63E-02

Fam234b -2.35 0.72319 l.OOE+00 7.06E-05 2.00E-02

Rsfl -2.35 0.99657 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Hes7 -2.36 0.89628 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Hsdl7b4 -2.36 0.98272 l.OOE+00 1.13E-04 2.86E-02

Gpx4 -2.36 0.99594 l.OOE+00 5.24E-04 4.63E-02

Txndcl5 -2.37 0.92739 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Cdk2 -2.37 0.99215 l.OOE+00 2.83E-04 4.17E-02

Pigu -2.37 0.99418 l.OOE+00 2.83E-04 4.17E-02

Rfx6 -2.37 0.99498 l.OOE+00 5.46E-04 4.63E-02

Padi4 -2.38 0.99068 l.OOE+00 3.10E-04 4.18E-02

Ube2r2 -2.38 0.98387 l.OOE+00 5.46E-04 4.63E-02

Fhod3 -2.39 0.98998 l.OOE+00 1.68E-04 3.68E-02 lcel -2.39 0.99477 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Xrcc4 -2.39 0.90778 l.OOE+00 2.69E-04 4.17E-02

Foxbl -2.39 0.99902 l.OOE+00 5.55E-04 4.63E-02

Stubl -2.39 0.98149 l.OOE+00 2.58E-04 4.17E-02

Ccdcl37 -2.39 0.98149 l.OOE+00 4.66E-04 4.63E-02 Sna in -2.40 0.97303 l.OOE+00 7.11E-05 2.00E-02

Tripl3 -2.40 0.99343 l.OOE+00 5.56E-04 4.63E-02

Nckopl -2.42 0.9851 l.OOE+00 1.85E-04 3.68E-02

Gml -2.42 0.98162 l.OOE+00 1.85E-04 3.68E-02

Ube2j2 -2.42 0.99665 l.OOE+00 3.18E-04 4.18E-02

Nsdhl -2.42 0.99658 l.OOE+00 5.53E-04 4.63E-02

Arid4a -2.43 0.80658 l.OOE+00 1.84E-05 9.79E-03

Golntl5 -2.43 0.99902 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

Rabl3 -2.44 0.99042 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Gigyf2 -2.44 0.99705 l.OOE+00 2.81E-04 4.17E-02

Eroll -2.44 0.99887 l.OOE+00 5.06E-04 4.63E-02

Olfr912 -2.45 0.99066 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

Zc3hl8 -2.45 0.99723 l.OOE+00 4.68E-04 4.63E-02

Nfix -2.45 0.9959 l.OOE+00 2.08E-05 9.79E-03

Neurl3 -2.45 0.99577 l.OOE+00 5.01E-04 4.63E-02

Hspol3 -2.46 0.99844 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

Xrcc5 -2.46 0.9979 l.OOE+00 1.75E-04 3.68E-02

Prl2c3 -2.47 0.99614 l.OOE+00 1.75E-04 3.68E-02

Keapl -2.47 0.98993 l.OOE+00 1.13E-04 2.86E-02

Pox3 -2.47 0.99466 l.OOE+00 2.92E-04 4.18E-02

Ankrdll -2.47 0.98473 l.OOE+00 2.80E-04 4.17E-02

Atgl6ll -2.48 0.99847 l.OOE+00 5.60E-04 4.63E-02

Oprkl -2.48 0.99358 l.OOE+00 5.24E-04 4.63E-02

Sox 11 -2.48 0.98494 l.OOE+00 2.80E-04 4.17E-02

Ttc33 -2.48 0.99723 l.OOE+00 2.83E-04 4.17E-02

TbcldlOb -2.48 0.98395 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Arhgaplla -2.49 0.99723 l.OOE+00 4.90E-04 4.63E-02

Ar -2.49 0.99435 l.OOE+00 2.67E-04 4.17E-02

Arhgap21 -2.50 0.99764 l.OOE+00 2.83E-04 4.17E-02

Rfwd2 -2.51 0.99466 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Crlf3 -2.52 0.99906 l.OOE+00 4.11E-04 4.63E-02

Elmo2 -2.52 0.99593 l.OOE+00 3.12E-04 4.18E-02

Tgif2 -2.53 0.99901 l.OOE+00 5.60E-04 4.63E-02

Sod2 -2.53 0.99643 l.OOE+00 4.69E-04 4.63E-02

Fa m 170b -2.54 0.9833 l.OOE+00 1.13E-04 2.86E-02

Xrccl -2.54 0.99811 l.OOE+00 3.12E-04 4.18E-02

Meioc -2.54 0.99689 l.OOE+00 3.17E-04 4.18E-02

March5 -2.55 0.99799 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.00E-03

Pitx2 -2.56 0.99902 l.OOE+00 3.12E-04 4.18E-02

Rab25 -2.56 0.99719 l.OOE+00 5.13E-04 4.63E-02

CcdclSS -2.56 0.99257 l.OOE+00 7.16E-05 2.00E-02

Zfp473 -2.56 0.99762 l.OOE+00 4.12E-04 4.63E-02 Tbkl -2.58 0.99959 l.OOE+00 4.57E-04 4.63E-02

Zfpl48 -2.58 0.99863 l.OOE+00 5.60E-04 4.63E-02

Rgmb -2.58 0.99711 l.OOE+00 4.79E-04 4.63E-02

Tm2d3 -2.59 0.98635 l.OOE+00 7.16E-05 2.00E-02

Tsc2 -2.59 0.99145 l.OOE+00 4.56E-04 4.63E-02

2700049A03Rik -2.59 0.99917 l.OOE+00 4.00E-04 4.63E-02

Cdk5 -2.60 0.99621 l.OOE+00 4.90E-04 4.63E-02

Cmip -2.60 0.99622 l.OOE+00 4.12E-04 4.63E-02

Ccdcl87 -2.60 0.99705 l.OOE+00 2.80E-04 4.17E-02

Cnot8 -2.60 0.99918 l.OOE+00 3.10E-04 4.18E-02

Dspp -2.60 0.99548 l.OOE+00 3.12E-04 4.18E-02

Ywhaz -2.60 0.99438 l.OOE+00 7.26E-05 2.00E-02

Cfhr2 -2.61 0.9925 l.OOE+00 7.16E-05 2.00E-02

Zfp281 -2.61 0.99865 l.OOE+00 6.97E-05 2.00E-02

Becnl -2.61 0.99906 l.OOE+00 2.69E-04 4.17E-02

Slc2al -2.61 0.99946 l.OOE+00 7.21E-05 2.00E-02

Ilk -2.62 0.9989 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Gpr31b -2.62 0.99422 l.OOE+00 2.56E-05 1.02E-02

Sprr2e -2.62 0.99665 l.OOE+00 5.24E-04 4.63E-02

Boll -2.63 0.99136 l.OOE+00 2.56E-05 1.02E-02

Tacc3 -2.63 0.99846 l.OOE+00 2.55E-04 4.17E-02

Paox -2.66 0.99923 l.OOE+00 5.00E-04 4.63E-02

Gabrb3 -2.66 0.99887 l.OOE+00 2.59E-04 4.17E-02

Trexl -2.67 0.99964 l.OOE+00 5.24E-04 4.63E-02

Dnaja2 -2.67 0.99907 l.OOE+00 5.53E-04 4.63E-02

Vps4b -2.68 0.9981 l.OOE+00 5.46E-04 4.63E-02

Nprl3 -2.68 0.99974 l.OOE+00 4.90E-04 4.63E-02

Mtchl -2.68 0.99534 l.OOE+00 7.16E-05 2.00E-02

Iqsecl -2.68 0.89653 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

LrplO -2.68 0.99784 l.OOE+00 7.21E-05 2.00E-02

Rafl -2.69 0.99392 l.OOE+00 1.74E-04 3.68E-02

Dtx3l -2.69 0.999 l.OOE+00 1.13E-04 2.86E-02

Ccs -2.70 0.99858 l.OOE+00 1.68E-04 3.68E-02

Epcl -2.70 0.99881 l.OOE+00 2.74E-04 4.17E-02

Strada -2.70 0.9977 l.OOE+00 1.68E-04 3.68E-02

Nrbf2 -2.70 0.99964 l.OOE+00 4.83E-04 4.63E-02

Tenl -2.72 0.99964 l.OOE+00 7.11E-05 2.00E-02

Irfl -2.72 0.999 l.OOE+00 7.21E-05 2.00E-02

Vmn2r72 -2.72 0.99853 l.OOE+00 1.74E-04 3.68E-02

Tk2 -2.73 0.99964 l.OOE+00 4.63E-04 4.63E-02

Ddi2 -2.73 0.99216 l.OOE+00 1.46E-05 9.44E-03

Arid la -2.74 0.99903 l.OOE+00 7.21E-05 2.00E-02 Zfp273 -2.75 0.99863 l.OOE+00 1.75E-04 3.68E-02

Actr3 -2.75 0.99505 l.OOE+00 1.75E-05 9.79E-03

Eif2ak4 -2.75 0.99846 l.OOE+00 2.56E-05 1.02E-02

Pde7a -2.76 0.99715 l.OOE+00 1.62E-04 3.68E-02

Dpf2 -2.76 0.99881 l.OOE+00 1.85E-04 3.68E-02

Rraga -2.76 0.99382 l.OOE+00 1.13E-04 2.86E-02

Rnf31 -2.77 0.99534 l.OOE+00 1.74E-04 3.68E-02

Smgc -2.78 0.99719 l.OOE+00 2.56E-05 1.02E-02

Prkcq -2.79 0.99731 l.OOE+00 1.68E-04 3.68E-02

Epg5 -2.79 0.99622 l.OOE+00 7.06E-05 2.00E-02

Gss -2.79 0.99969 l.OOE+00 2.74E-04 4.17E-02

Cnotll -2.80 0.99704 l.OOE+00 1.68E-04 3.68E-02

Hipk2 -2.80 0.99722 l.OOE+00 2.51E-05 1.02E-02

C330027C09Rik -2.80 0.99439 l.OOE+00 1.80E-05 9.79E-03

Man2al -2.80 0.99812 l.OOE+00 2.04E-05 9.79E-03

Chmp5 -2.82 0.99418 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.00E-03

PcgfS -2.86 0.99811 l.OOE+00 9.34E-06 7.00E-03

Nampt -2.87 0.99887 l.OOE+00 2.54E-04 4.17E-02

Eril -2.88 0.99964 l.OOE+00 2.67E-04 4.17E-02

Pbrml -2.89 0.99881 l.OOE+00 8.38E-06 7.00E-03

Atg5 -2.89 0.99974 l.OOE+00 4.12E-04 4.63E-02

Ube2h -2.90 0.99771 l.OOE+00 9.34E-06 7.00E-03

Gabpbl -2.91 0.99907 l.OOE+00 7.06E-05 2.00E-02

Gpil -2.91 0.9971 l.OOE+00 1.41E-05 9.42E-03

Uspl9 -2.92 0.99969 l.OOE+00 1.81E-04 3.68E-02

Brd7 -2.94 0.99974 l.OOE+00 1.68E-04 3.68E-02

Jmjd6 -2.95 0.99505 l.OOE+00 1.41E-05 9.42E-03

Tgifl -2.97 0.99906 l.OOE+00 7.11E-05 2.00E-02

Fisl -2.98 0.99995 l.OOE+00 1.85E-04 3.68E-02

Cflar -2.98 0.99875 l.OOE+00 7.21E-05 2.00E-02

Ptpnll -2.99 0.99917 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

Maea -3.00 0.99946 l.OOE+00 6.97E-05 2.00E-02

Hdac5 -3.00 0.99969 l.OOE+00 2.04E-05 9.79E-03

Mprip -3.01 0.99923 l.OOE+00 9.82E-06 7.00E-03

Itgav -3.02 0.99936 l.OOE+00 7.21E-05 2.00E-02

Crkl -3.06 0.99974 l.OOE+00 2.56E-05 1.02E-02

Arid2 -3.06 0.99902 l.OOE+00 1.89E-05 9.79E-03

Memol -3.07 0.99995 l.OOE+00 7.26E-05 2.00E-02

Serpinb9 -3.08 0.99831 l.OOE+00 2.04E-05 9.79E-03

Kritl -3.08 0.99902 l.OOE+00 9.82E-06 7.00E-03

Srrd -3.13 0.99964 l.OOE+00 9.34E-06 7.00E-03

Sox4 -3.17 0.99996 l.OOE+00 1.75E-05 9.79E-03 Wdr26 -3.17 0.99969 l.OOE+00 2.61E-05 1.02E-02

Tiparp -3.18 0.99969 l.OOE+00 9.34E-06 7.00E-03

Nodk -3.18 0.99764 l.OOE+00 1.20E-06 3.54E-03

Tkl -3.18 0.99974 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.00E-03

Tcofl -3.20 0.99865 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.00E-03

Nprl2 -3.20 0.99969 l.OOE+00 9.34E-06 7.00E-03

Ptpn2 -3.22 0.99902 l.OOE+00 8.38E-06 7.00E-03

Gale -3.22 0.99996 l.OOE+00 7.35E-05 2.00E-02

Spnsl -3.24 0.99995 l.OOE+00 2.56E-05 1.02E-02

Uspl8 -3.28 0.99964 l.OOE+00 1.68E-06 4.33E-03

Psme2 -3.29 0.99974 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

Tceal -3.31 0.99925 l.OOE+00 1.20E-06 3.54E-03

Fitm2 -3.33 0.99917 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

Ypel5 -3.36 0.9993 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.00E-03

Crebl -3.40 0.99964 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

Rela -3.45 0.99924 l.OOE+00 2.39E-07 1.24E-03

Fodd -3.45 0.99995 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

Psmel -3.53 0.99996 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.00E-03

Ikbkb -3.57 1 l.OOE+00 1.20E-06 3.54E-03

Cd274 -3.70 0.99995 l.OOE+00 2.39E-07 1.24E-03

Otulin -3.73 0.99995 l.OOE+00 2.39E-07 1.24E-03

Psmb8 -3.93 1 l.OOE+00 2.39E-07 1.24E-03

Table 8: List of top candidate genes enriched in OT-I screen (FDR<0.05)

LogFC, Log2 fold change; FDR, False Discovery rate. FDR and p value calculated by MaGeCK.


Cs 1.20 7.18E-07 1.06E-03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Ubr5 1.15 4.96E-05 4.66E-02 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00

Kctd5 1.07 2.39E-07 3.81E-04 9.96E-01 l.OOE+00

Hnrnphl 1.06 1.17E-05 1.43E-02 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Wdr24 1.04 3.59E-06 4.95E-03 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00

OlfreOO 0.99 3.28E-05 3.23E-02 9.90E-01 l.OOE+00

Lrrc8a 0.91 3.23E-05 3.23E-02 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00

Noo30 0.89 1.46E-05 1.68E-02 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00

Sult6bl 0.86 8.86E-06 1.14E-02 9.81E-01 l.OOE+00

Cep57ll 0.84 2.47E-05 2.68E-02 9.90E-01 l.OOE+00

Table 9: List of top candidate genes depleted in OT-I screen (FDR<0.05)

LogFC, Log2 fold change; FDR, False Discovery rate. FDR and p value calculated by

MaGeCK.


Scyll -1.88 9.89E-01 l.OOE+00 2.86E-04 4.22E-02

Gramdlb -1.90 9.75E-01 l.OOE+00 2.43E-04 4.22E-02

Rnd2 -1.91 7.48E-01 l.OOE+00 2.96E-04 4.22E-02

Olfr220 -1.91 9.79E-01 l.OOE+00 2.96E-04 4.22E-02

Olfr969 -1.91 8.31E-01 l.OOE+00 2.96E-04 4.22E-02

Osgepll -1.91 9.40E-01 l.OOE+00 2.21E-04 4.11E-02

Rbbp4 -1.92 9.89E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Alg3 -1.94 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 3.08E-04 4.22E-02

Rbckl -1.96 9.30E-01 l.OOE+00 2.85E-05 1.65E-02

Ylpml -1.97 5.12E-01 l.OOE+00 2.86E-04 4.22E-02

Ssu72 -1.98 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 2.75E-04 4.22E-02

Cyld -1.98 9.94E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Mclr -1.99 9.90E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Anp32b -1.99 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 2.47E-04 4.22E-02

Ccs -1.99 9.94E-01 l.OOE+00 2.85E-04 4.22E-02

Hsdl7bl2 -2.00 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 2.37E-04 4.22E-02

Prl2c3 -2.01 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 1.53E-04 3.50E-02

Ankrd46 -2.02 9.90E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Ikbkg -2.03 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 3.08E-04 4.22E-02

Ddx20 -2.03 9.89E-01 l.OOE+00 2.85E-04 4.22E-02

Aktl -2.04 6.94E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Exoc7 -2.05 9.85E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Larp4 -2.06 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 2.24E-04 4.11E-02

Ubtdl -2.07 9.71E-01 l.OOE+00 1.42E-04 3.41E-02

Brwd3 -2.09 9.92E-01 l.OOE+00 3.08E-04 4.22E-02

Nudcd2 -2.09 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 8.02E-05 2.15E-02

Ppcs -2.09 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 1.40E-04 3.41E-02

Mrps21 -2.09 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.24E-04 4.11E-02

Gnb2 -2.09 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 7.40E-05 2.15E-02

Chic2 -2.09 9.95E-01 l.OOE+00 3.90E-05 1.65E-02

Fnbp4 -2.09 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Plpp2 -2.10 9.93E-01 l.OOE+00 2.85E-04 4.22E-02

Tripll -2.11 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.96E-04 4.22E-02

Ccna2 -2.12 9.89E-01 l.OOE+00 1.53E-04 3.50E-02

Brinp2 -2.12 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 2.86E-04 4.22E-02

Hnrnpf -2.12 9.84E-01 l.OOE+00 3.57E-05 1.65E-02

Ccdcl34 -2.12 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.90E-05 1.65E-02

PrdmlO -2.14 9.83E-01 l.OOE+00 2.80E-05 1.65E-02

Smarcel -2.15 9.88E-01 l.OOE+00 7.06E-05 2.15E-02

Tmed2 -2.15 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 2.75E-04 4.22E-02

Usp24 -2.15 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.02E-04 4.22E-02

Ipoll -2.17 9.95E-01 l.OOE+00 2.96E-04 4.22E-02 Arf6 -2.18 9.94E-01 l.OOE+00 2.96E-04 4.22E-02

Prrc2a -2.19 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 2.20E-04 4.11E-02

Rhbdl2 -2.19 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 2.10E-04 4.11E-02

Lman2 -2.20 9.93E-01 l.OOE+00 3.67E-04 4.99E-02

Parn -2.22 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 9.27E-05 2.37E-02

Tvp23b -2.24 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Vmnlrl67 -2.25 7.30E-01 l.OOE+00 8.12E-05 2.15E-02

Med7 -2.25 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 7.73E-05 2.15E-02

Prkcq -2.26 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Gne -2.27 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 8.02E-05 2.15E-02

Aip -2.27 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Crocc -2.27 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 8.02E-05 2.15E-02

Uggtl -2.31 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 3.02E-04 4.22E-02

Atr -2.32 9.95E-01 l.OOE+00 7.45E-05 2.15E-02

Ccnc -2.33 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.20E-04 4.11E-02

Rerl -2.34 9.93E-01 l.OOE+00 7.40E-05 2.15E-02

Ckslb -2.34 9.94E-01 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.22E-03

Ptorl -2.35 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 3.71E-05 1.65E-02

Dlst -2.35 9.92E-01 l.OOE+00 2.80E-05 1.65E-02

Ubr4 -2.35 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 3.86E-05 1.65E-02

Ddx42 -2.35 9.89E-01 l.OOE+00 8.38E-06 7.22E-03

C330007P06Rik -2.35 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.69E-04 4.22E-02

Vps29 -2.37 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Atgl3 -2.37 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.88E-04 4.22E-02

Rabla -2.39 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 1.53E-04 3.50E-02

Rad51d -2.39 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 4.19E-05 1.67E-02

Otulin -2.39 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Gpaal -2.40 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 8.02E-05 2.15E-02

Pihldl -2.41 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 8.02E-05 2.15E-02

Nrbf2 -2.41 8.58E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

BC030336 -2.42 9.89E-01 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.22E-03

Nepro -2.43 9.96E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Rbm34 -2.44 9.90E-01 l.OOE+00 6.47E-06 7.22E-03

Ireb2 -2.44 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Sgoll -2.44 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 1.53E-04 3.50E-02

Ugp2 -2.45 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.29E-04 4.15E-02

Arf3 -2.46 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

Itgav -2.47 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 3.86E-05 1.65E-02

Ube2n -2.47 9.96E-01 l.OOE+00 3.62E-05 1.65E-02

Mcll -2.48 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 1.42E-04 3.41E-02

Map3k7 -2.48 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 3.57E-05 1.65E-02

Vpsll -2.49 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02 Birc2 -2.49 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 3.62E-05 1.65E-02

Vmnlr202 -2.50 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.71E-04 4.22E-02

Rela -2.51 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-04 4.11E-02

N4bpl -2.54 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.80E-05 1.65E-02

Slc35al -2.55 9.96E-01 l.OOE+00 6.47E-06 7.22E-03

Gm7534 -2.57 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.86E-05 1.65E-02

TmedlO -2.58 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 8.02E-05 2.15E-02

Tlcdl -2.58 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Sptlc2 -2.62 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 6.94E-06 7.22E-03

Sepsecs -2.62 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 4.19E-05 1.67E-02

Pigk -2.62 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 6.94E-06 7.22E-03

Sptlcl -2.64 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 3.14E-05 1.65E-02

Asnsdl -2.65 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.86E-05 1.65E-02

Gpx4 -2.65 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 8.07E-05 2.15E-02

Ubo6 -2.66 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 7.02E-05 2.15E-02

Vps33a -2.67 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 7.42E-06 7.22E-03

Tmx2 -2.67 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 8.38E-06 7.22E-03

Cwc27 -2.68 9.95E-01 l.OOE+00 1.92E-06 5.45E-03

Chtf8 -2.69 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 7.45E-05 2.15E-02

Kmt2d -2.69 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.76E-05 1.65E-02

Atg5 -2.69 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 3.90E-05 1.65E-02

Dsccl -2.70 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 2.63E-06 5.45E-03

Atp6vlh -2.71 9.98E-01 l.OOE+00 6.94E-06 7.22E-03

Slc7all -2.73 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.71E-05 1.65E-02

Gss -2.74 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.21E-04 4.11E-02

Pigu -2.78 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.63E-06 5.45E-03

Stubl -2.79 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 7.18E-07 4.95E-03

Coir -2.82 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.85E-05 1.65E-02

Aprt -2.83 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.80E-05 1.65E-02

Alg8 -2.84 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 2.16E-06 5.45E-03

Ei24 -2.85 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 4.14E-05 1.67E-02

Mtchl -2.87 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.22E-03

Eefsec -2.91 9.97E-01 l.OOE+00 2.39E-07 2.48E-03

Traf3 -2.94 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 7.90E-06 7.22E-03

Uspl8 -2.95 9.99E-01 l.OOE+00 3.71E-05 1.65E-02

Vps4b -2.97 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.90E-05 1.65E-02

Traf2 -2.98 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 6.47E-06 7.22E-03

Pigs -3.01 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.75E-05 1.65E-02

Fitm2 -3.03 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.63E-06 5.45E-03

Megf8 -3.14 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.16E-06 5.45E-03

Eril -3.18 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 6.47E-06 7.22E-03

Rnf31 -3.40 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.16E-06 5.45E-03 Ptpn2 -3.63 l.OOE+00 l.OOE+00 2.39E-07 2.48E-03

Example 3: Pathway identification and clinical correlations

Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to identify known gene sets/pathways for genes corresponding to enriched or depleted gRNA (Tables 10 and 1 1). Pathway analysis based on the most significant hits indicates that multiple pathways regulate the sensitivity to T cell-mediated killing. The enriched hits from the screen recaptured essential pathways required for T cell-mediated killing. In addition to interferon and antigen presentation pathways, a number of negative regulators of Ras/MAPK pathways were identified among enriched gRNAs, including Nfl (inhibitor of Ras activation) (Ratner et al. (2015) Nat. Rev. Cancer 15:290-301) and Dusp6 (phosphatase that dephosphorylates Erkl/2 downstream of Ras) (Messina et al. (2011) Oncogene 30:3813-3820), as well as Spredl (Phoenix et al. (2010) Genes Dev. 24:45-56), Rasa2 (Arafe et al. (2015) Nat.

Genet. 47: 1408-1410;, and SPOP (Li ei or/. (2014) Cancer Cell 25:455-468j (Figure 5A). These data indicate that Ras pathway activation increases resistance to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. This hypothesis is supported by the clinical finding that BRAF inhibition in patients with melanoma (which is upstream of the Ras pathway) is associated with CD8 T cell infiltration. Ras pathway activation is very common among human cancers and may not only promote tumor cell growth but also attenuate tumor immunity. Braf is

immediately downstream of Ras, and small molecule inhibitors of mutant BRAFV600E elicit stronger cytotoxic T cell responses in melanoma patients and murine tumor models

(Frederick et al. (2013) Clin. Cancer Res. 19: 1225-1231 ; Ebert et al. (2016) Immunity 44:609-621 ; Koy a et al. (2012) Cancer Res. 72:3928-3937).

Table 10: Gene sets (Hallmark and KEGG gene sets) significantly enriched (FDR<0.05) in Pmel-1 or OT-I screen

Gene sets related to Fig. 5 A are highlighted.


KEGG NATURAL KILLER CELL MEDIATED CYTOTOXICITY Pmell 5.31E-05 2.17E-03

HALLMARK_COMPLEMENT Pmell 2.28E-04 6.00E-03

HALLMARK ! N FLAM MATORY RESPONSE Pmell 2.28E-04 6.00E-03

KEGG TOLL LI KE RECEPTOR SIG NALI NG PATHWAY Pmell 4.79E-04 1.12E-02

KEGG CYTOKINE CYTOKINE RECEPTORJNTERACTION Pmell 6.78E-04 1.47 E-02

KEGG MAPK SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 6.78E-04 1.47 E-02

KEGG UBIQUITIN MEDIATED PROTEOLYSIS Pmell 1.15E-03 2.13E-02

KEGG PATHWAYSJN CANCER Pmell 1.45E-03 2.63E-02

HALLMARK APO PTOSIS Pmell 1.79E-03 3.10E-02

KEGG LEISH MANIA INFECTION OT-I 1.25E-10 1.02 E-07

KEGG JAK STAT SIG NALI NG PATHWAY OT-I 6.09E-09 2.48E-06

HALLMARK ALLOGRAFT REJECTION OT-I 2.18E-08 5.94E-06

HALLMARK IL6 J AK STAT3 SIG NALI NG OT-I 7.30E-06 1.49 E-03

HALLMARK INTERFERON GAMMA RESPONSE OT-I 8.76E-05 8.94E-03

KEGG PANCREATIC CANCER OT-I 4.27E-04 3.87E-02

Table 11 : Gene sets (Hallmark and KEGG gene sets) significantly depleted (LFC>2, FDR q<0.05) in Pmel-1 or OT-I screens

Gene sets related to Fig.5 A are highlighted.


KEGG NEUROTROPHIN SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 1.29E-05 1.46E-04

KEGG FOCAL ADHESION Pmell 1.88E-05 2.01E-04

KEGG AMINO SUGAR AND NUCLEOTIDE SUGAR METABOLISM Pmell 3.04E-05 3.12E-04

KEGG TOLL LI KE RECEPTOR SIG NALI NG PATHWAY Pmell 6.08E-05 5.98E-04

HALLMARK PEROXISOME Pmell 6.67E-05 6.30E-04

KEGG NOD LIKE RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 1.18E-04 1.07E-03

KEGG CHEMOKINE SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 1.28E-04 1.12E-03

KEGG_EPITHELIAL_CELL_SIGNALING_IN_HELICOBACTER_PYLORI_ Pmell 1.69E-04 1.33E-03 INFECTION

HALLMARK ESTROGEN RESPONSE EARLY Pmell 1.70E-04 1.33E-03

HALLMARK ! N FLAM MATORY RESPONSE Pmell 1.70E-04 1.33E-03

KEGG B CELL RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 2.47E-04 1.88E-03

KEGG REGU LAT 10 N O F ACT 1 N_C YTOS K E L ETO N Pmell 2.57E-04 1.89E-03

KEGG PEROXISOME Pmell 2.87E-04 2.06E-03

KEGG FC GAMMA R MEDIATED PHAGOCYTOSIS Pmell 6.58E-04 4.57E-03

KEGG MAPK SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 7.84E-04 5.29E-03

KEGG ENDOCYTOSIS Pmell 9.09E-04 5.96E-03

KEGG PROTEASOM E Pmell 9.72E-04 6.20E-03

HALLMARK REACTIVE OXIGEN SPECIES PATHWAY Pmell 1.03E-03 6.41E-03

HALLMARK GLYCOLYSIS Pmell 1.35E-03 7.96E-03

HALLMARK HYPOXIA Pmell 1.35E-03 7.96E-03

KEGG NON HOMOLOGOUS END JOINING Pmell 1.42E-03 8.18E-03

KEGGJNSULIN SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 2.35E-03 1.32E-02

KEGG_P53_SIGNALING_PATHWAY Pmell 2.77E-03 1.52E-02

HALLMARK FATTY ACID METABOLISM Pmell 3.92E-03 2.06E-02

HALLMARK UV RESPONSE UP Pmell 3.92E-03 2.06E-02

KEGG NICOTINATE AND NICOTINAMIDE METABOLISM Pmell 4.20E-03 2.15E-02

KEGG ECM RECEPTORJNTERACTION Pmell 4.81E-03 2.42E-02

KEGG ERBB SIGNALING PATHWAY Pmell 5.31E-03 2.61E-02

KEGG ANTIGEN PROCESSING AND PRESENTATION Pmell 5.66E-03 2.72E-02

KEGG REGULATION OF AUTOPHAGY Pmell 8.79E-03 3.97E-02

KEGG_SMALL_CELL_LUNG_CANCER OT-I 1.44E-11 3.39E-09

KEGG G LYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL GPI ANCHOR BIOSYN OT-I 2.58E-07 3.01E-05 THESIS

KEGG ADIPOCYTOKINE SIGNALING PATHWAY OT-I 3.83E-07 3.01E-05

KEGG RIGJ LIKE RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY OT-I 5.12E-07 3.02E-05

KEGG PATHWAYSJN CANCER OT-I 6.51E-07 3.07E-05

KEGG_APOPTOSIS OT-I 1.50E-06 5.89E-05

HALLMARK PROTEIN SECRETION OT-I 2.30E-06 7.77E-05

KEGG T CELL RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY OT-I 4.12E-06 1.21E-04

KEGG TOLL LI KE RECEPTOR SIG NALI NG PATHWAY OT-I 7.61E-05 2.00E-03

HALLMARK_PI3K_AKT_MTOR_SIGNALING OT-I 8.52E-05 2.01E-03

KEGG UBIQUITIN MEDIATED PROTEOLYSIS OT-I 2.44E-04 5.24E-03

KEGG MAPK SIGNAUNG PATHWAY OT-I 3.06E-04 5.68E-03

KEGG_ACUTE_MYELOID_LEUKEMIA OT-I 3.13E-04 5.68E-03

KEGG NOD UKE RECEPTOR SIGNAUNG PATHWAY OT-I 3.44E-04 5.81E-03

KEGG_EPITHELIAL_CELL_SIGNALING_IN_HELICOBACTER_PYLORI_ OT-I 4.52E-04 7.11E-03 INFECTION

KEGG PANCREATIC CANCER OT-I 4.92E-04 7.26E-03

KEGG CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA OT-I 5.57E-04 7.73E-03

KEGG B CELL RECEPTOR SIGNAUNG PATHWAY OT-I 6.02E-04 7.90E-03

KEGG CHEMOKINE SIGNAUNG PATHWAY OT-I 8.14E-04 1.01E-02

KEGG PROSTATE CANCER OT-I 9.91E-04 1.13E-02

KEGG FOCAL ADHESION OT-I 1.00E-03 1.13E-02

HALLMARK UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE OT-I 1.97E-03 2.11E-02

KEGG_SPHINGOUPID_METABOUSM OT-I 3.46E-03 3.55E-02

KEGG AMINO SUGAR AND NUCLEOTIDE SUGAR METABOUSM OT-I 4.18E-03 4.11E-02

HALLMARK_DNA_REPAIR OT-I 4.37E-03 4.13E-02

HALLMARK APO PTOSIS OT-I 5.32E-03 4.69E-02

KEGG GLUTATHIONE METABOUSM OT-I 5.36E-03 4.69E-02

Analysis of depleted gRNAs revealed a number of resistance pathways to T cell mediated killing (Figs.3C and 5 A and Table 11). Importantly, a number of pathways whose inactivation sensitized tumor cells to T cell-mediated killing were also identified. Three major signaling pathways were identified: F-kB pathway (Zhang et al. (2017) Cell 168: 37-57) (including Otulin, Rela, Ikbkg, Ikbkb, Rnf31 and Sharpin), mTORCl pathways (including Rraga, Rragc and Lamtorl which are required for mTORCl recruitment to lysosomes (¾ancak et al. (2010) Cell 141 :290-303^)), and RIG-I like receptor signaling pathway (including Tbkl, Fadd, Atg5 and multiple components overlapped with NF-kB pathway). In addition, depleted gRNA enriched in two major metabolic pathways were also identified: glycolysis (including Nsdhl, Gne, Gale, Eroll and Cd44) and

nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism (including Nadk and Nampi). Moreover, all three unique components of a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, referred to as the PBAF complex (Kadoch et al. (2015) Sci. Adv.1 :el500447; Lemon et al. (2001) Nature 414:924-928), were also strongly depleted (Arid2, Pbrml and Brd7), providing strong evidence that the presence of this complex conferred resistance to T cell-mediated killing (Fig.5A). The NF-kB pathway was also identified as a resistance mechanism by Manguso et al (2017) Nature 547:413-418). Control experiments demonstrated that inactivation of such genes did not merely increase sensitivity to cell death; inactivation of representative genes (Otulin, Dusp6 or Nfl) in B16F10-Cas9 cells did not render them more sensitive to

doxorubicin induced cell death (Fig. 11). The majority of identified genes (253 of 313 genes) were validated in a secondary screen (Fig. 12) which also confirmed the major pathways described above (Fig. 13).

Several different approaches were used to investigate the clinical relevance of these findings. First, it was determined whether the entire set of genes from both Pmell and OT-I screens were associated with a survival benefit in patients with melanoma using a TCGA dataset. It was found that both the OT-I and Pmell gene sets were associated with improved survival, indicating that these genes sets reflect immunological mechanisms that are also relevant in humans (Fig. 5B). Second, it was determined whether these genes sets were associated with enhanced CD8 T cell infiltration into human cancers. Both Pmell and OT-I gene sets were both strongly associated with increased CD8 T cell infiltration into many human cancers, in particular melanoma (SKCM), head and neck squamous carcinoma (UNSC), kidney cancer (KTRC), and lung adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma (LUAD and LUSC) (Figs. 5C and 6). Third, the potential clinical impact of inactivating mutation of the SWI/S F complex was examined. Since ARID2 gene inactivation is rather common in patients with melanoma, TCGA data were examined to determine whether inactivation of this gene conferred a survival benefit in the presence of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. RNA-seq data were used to infer the level of CD8 T cell infiltration based on expression of genes that are specifically expressed in this immune cell population. The melanoma cases in the TCGA database which were the top and bottom quartile in terms of CD8 T cell infiltration were first identified. For both of these patient populations, the survival benefit of ARID2 expression level was assessed. It was determined that ARID2 did not confer a survival benefit in melanoma patients with a low density of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. However, a substantial survival benefit was observed for patients with low ARID2 expressing tumors with a high degree of CD8 T cell infiltration (Fig. 5D). These data indicate that low level of ARID2 enhances immune mediated control of melanoma growth. Similar results were obtained for BRD7 mutant melanomas, but the number of cases with this mutation was smaller compared to ARID2.

Example 4: Validation of PBAF complex

The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin accessibility for transcription factors. The BAF version of SWI/SNF induces dissociation of polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2) (Kadoch et al. (2017) Nat. Genet. 49:213-222), but the PBAF complex

may operate through a different biochemical mechanism. The major forms of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, referred to as BAF and PBAF, share core subunits, but they can be distinguished by the presence of ARTD1A/B in the BAF (BRG1 -associated factors) complex, as well as ARID2, PBRM1 and BRD7 in the PBAF complex (Fig. 7 A) (Kadoch et al. (2015) Sci. Adv. 1 :el500447). In order to validate the role of PBAF complex in regulating sensitivity to T cell-mediated killing, B16F10 tumor cell lines were generated in which each of these three genes encoding the unique members of the PBAF complex were individually mutated by CRISPR/Cas9. Western blotting experiments confirmed greatly diminished levels of these corresponding proteins in the three mutant cell lines (Fig. 7B). Inactivation of Arid2 diminished protein levels of Brd7 and Pbrml, consistent with a prior study (Yan et al. (2005) Genes Dev. 19: 1662-1667), while inactivation of Pbrml did not affect protein levels of Arid2 or Brd7. Partial complexes with some chromatin remodeling activity may therefore remain in some of these knockout cell lines. Co-culture of Arid2, Pbrml or Brd7 mutant tumor cells with cytotoxic T cells resulted in enhanced depletion of PBAF mutant cell lines compared to B 16F 10 tumor cells transduced with a control gRNA (referred to as control B16F10 tumor cells) in a three-day co-culture assay (Fig. 7C).

However, inactivation of Arid2, Pbrml or Brd7 genes did not alter cell proliferation over a two-week period (Fig. l4A).

B16F10 tumor cells are resistant to checkpoint blockade with PD-1 and/or CTLA-4 antibodies. Accordingly, it was asked whether inactivation of the PBAF complex by loss of Pbrml would enhance the sensitivity of B 16F10 tumor cells to checkpoint blockade with PD-1 and CTLA-4 antibodies. Checkpoint blockade was ineffective when administered to mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 tumors transduced with a control gRNA. However, checkpoint blockade conferred significant therapeutic benefit in mice with i¾rw/-mutant B16F10 tumors compared mice with WT B 16F10 tumors (Figs. 7D -7E and 14B-14C).

Significantly increased numbers of CD45+ immune cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, as well as granzyme B+ CD8 T cells were present in
compared to control B16F10 tumors treated with PD-1 plus CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade (Figs. 71 and 14D). Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of sorted CD45+ immune cells showed that gene expression signatures associated with productive anti -tumor immunity (IFNy response, IFNa response and TNFa signaling via NF-κΒ) were significantly enriched in Pbrml deficient compared to control B16F10 tumors for both myeloid cells (dendritic cells and Ml -like macrophages) as well as lymphoid cells (T cells and NK cells) (Figs. 15A-15C). These single cell data also identified an increased percentage of dendritic cells and a higher ratio of tumor-inhibitory Ml -like macrophages to tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages in Pbrml deficient compared to control B16F10 tumors (Fig. 15D). Thus, inactivation of Pbrml not only sensitizes tumor cells to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity but also results in a more favorable tumor microenvironment. This result is significant because inactivating mutations in genes encoding the three unique members of the PBAF complex are quite common in human cancers.

TCGA RNA-seq datasets and TIMER (Li et al. (2016) Genome Biol. 17: 174) were used to examine the relevance of the CRIPSR screen (Figs. 5B-5C and 6A-6B) and PBAF complex in human cancers. It was found that the mRNA levels of Arid2 and Pbrml negatively correlates with T cell cytotoxicity markers granzyme B and perforin mRNA levels across many cancer types in the TCGA database (Figs. 8A-8D and Table 12), indicating that lower expression of ARID2 and PBRMl is correlated with higher cytotoxic activity contributed by CD8 T cells (Figs. 8G-8H) in human cancers. These clinical data support the hypothesis that Arid2 and Pbrml suppress anti -tumor immunity. Since both T cell infiltration level and cytotoxicity could contribute to granzyme B expression, the correlation of the ratio of GZMB/CD8A with ARID2 and PBRMl expression in melanoma patients was calculated. A consistently strong negative correlation of GZMB/CD8A ratio to ARID2 and PBRMl expression was found, indicating that ARID2 negatively correlates with T cell cytotoxicity rather than T cell infiltration in melanoma patient. This correlation was not merely explained by the degree of CD8 T cell infiltration because ARID2 and PBRMl mRNA levels were also negatively associated with the GZMB/CD8A ratio (Figs. 8E-8F). In addition, it was found that low ARID2 mRNA levels were associated with a substantial survival benefit in melanoma patients, but only for those tumors with a higher degree of infiltration by CD8 T cells (based on CD8 expression) (Fig. 5D). These data indicate that ARID2 and PBRMl affect tumor immunity in a variety of human cancers.

Table 12: Correlation of ARID2 or PBRMl mRNA expression level (tumor purity adjusted) to GZMB or PRF1 mRNA expression level in TCGA data

Cor., Spearman's correlation; p, p value calculated by TIMER (Li et al. (2016) Genome Biol. 17:174


BLCA -0.326 1.42E-10 -0.277 6.25E-08 -0.277 6.79E-08 -0.228 9.69E-06

BRCA -0.29 1.01E-20 -0.251 8.88E-16 -0.188 2.29E-09 -0.156 7.40E-07

CESC -0.216 2.89E-04 -0.178 2.98E-03 -0.245 3.70E-05 -0.131 2.94E-02

COAD -0.09 7.15E-02 -0.021 6.75E-01 -0.047 3.49E-01 -0.078 1.19E-01

DLBC -0.058 7.17E-01 -0.03 8.53E-01 0.077 6.34E-01 0.077 6.31E-01

ESCA -0.119 l.llE-01 -0.059 4.35E-01 -0.12 1.09E-01 0.036 6.34E-01

GBM -0.191 2.52E-02 -0.189 2.73E-02 -0.148 8.47E-02 -0.115 1.81E-01

HNSC -0.081 7.40E-02 0.07 1.22E-01 0.02 6.54E-01 0.16 3.65E-04

KICH -0.23 6.56E-02 -0.072 5.70E-01 -0.29 1.92E-02 -0.18 1.52E-01

KIRC -0.295 1.12E-10 -0.142 2.17E-03 -0.183 8.07E-05 -0.049 2.91E-01

KIRP -0.108 8.36E-02 -0.074 2.37E-01 -0.139 2.54E-02 -0.06 3.40E-01

LGG -0.122 7.65E-03 -0.074 1.06E-01 -0.044 3.38E-01 -0.003 9.46E-01

UHC -0.073 1.74E-01 -0.047 3.81E-01 -0.098 6.82E-02 -0.025 6.47E-01

LUAD -0.014 7.54E-01 -0.02 6.58E-01 -0.085 5.95E-02 0.001 9.81E-01

LUSC -0.07 1.29E-01 -0.013 7.76E-01 -0.028 5.46E-01 0.056 2.19E-01

MESO -0.194 7.49E-02 -0.177 1.05E-01 -0.355 8.67E-04 -0.273 1.14E-02

OV -0.227 3.14E-04 -0.215 6.55E-04 -0.268 1.77E-05 -0.186 3.20E-03

PAAD -0.013 8.70E-01 0.092 2.32E-01 0.191 1.22E-02 0.238 1.73E-03

PCPG -0.305 6.26E-05 -0.122 1.16E-01 -0.283 2.10E-04 0.091 2.43E-01

PRAD -0.204 2.87E-05 -0.146 2.80E-03 -0.155 1.47E-03 -0.086 7.86E-02

READ -0.152 7.36E-02 -0.075 3.79E-01 -0.255 2.41E-03 -0.294 4.35E-04

SARC -0.433 1.34E-12 -0.381 7.34E-10 -0.147 2.12E-02 -0.133 3.80E-02

SKCM -0.078 9.65E-02 0 9.95E-01 -0.083 7.46E-02 0.002 9.62E-01

STAD -0.036 4.81E-01 0.027 6.03E-01 -0.13 1.11E-02 0.039 4.51E-01

TGCT -0.182 2.76E-02 -0.129 1.19E-01 -0.254 2.76E-03 0.035 6.70E-01

THCA -0.268 1.84E-09 -0.191 2.06E-05 -0.215 1.58E-06 -0.122 6.93E-03

THYM -0.42 3.01E-06 -0.35 1.24E-04 -0.476 7.77E-08 -0.242 9.21E-03

UCEC -0.164 4.76E-03 -0.157 6.93E-03 -0.224 1.08E-04 -0.204 4.28E-04

UVM 0.093 4.20E-01 -0.028 8.08E-01 -0.071 5.40E-01 -0.17 1.39E-01

Example 5: TNF signaling in T cell mediated killing of tumor cells

Experiments are performed to determine whether TNF signaling in tumor cells confers resistance to T cell mediated killing, and to determine whether a major source of TNF alpha originates from activated cytotoxic T cells. In vitro experiments are carried out by co-culturing B16-Ova tumor cells with OT-I T cells that recognize the Ova antigen, and monitoring T cell mediated killing of tumor cells over a time course of 4-48 hours. This experiment is performed in the presence of a TNF alpha neutralizing antibody or isotype control antibody. The same experimental design is also used to examine Pbrml-mutant and wild type tumor cells to determine if the PBAF complex impacts sensitivity to TNF-alpha.

Other mutant tumor cells can be tested as well, including mutants in which key signaling molecules in the TNF pathway have been inactivated, such as Rela. B16F10 tumor cells are treated with TNF alpha for 4-12 hours and RNA-seq is performed. Transcriptional profiles of wild type and mutant tumor cells, including Pbrml mutant cells, are compared. These in vitro experiments are followed by in vivo experiments. B16F10 tumor cells are implanted into C57BL/6 mice. Mice are treated with PD-1 or PD-l+CTLA-4 antibodies, in the presence of TNF alpha neutralizing antibody or isotype control antibody. The experiment can also be performed with Pbrml mutant or WT tumor cells. Additional mutants can also be tested, such as tumors with mutations in Rela, a key signaling molecule in the TNF pathway.

Example 6: Regulation of IFNy and mTORCl pathways by the PBAF complex

To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the PBAF complex regulates the sensitivity of B 16F10 tumor cells to T cell-mediated killing, the transcriptome of PBAF deficient B 16F 10 cells was examined by RNA-seq. Arid2- and i¾rw/-deficient B 16F 10 cells shared similar gene expression profiles (Fig. 16A-B), consistent with their critical role in the PBAF complex. The transcriptome of Brd7 mutant B16F 10 cells was more distinct, indicating that Brd7 may also have PBAF-independent functions (Fig. 16A). mRNAs for a number of metabolic pathways were concordantly downregulated in Arid2 and Pbrml mutant cells compared to control B16F10 tumor cells, in particular gene sets associated with mTORCl activation and cholesterol homeostasis (Fig. 16C-D and Fig. 17). mTORCl was also a major resistance pathway for T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the CRISPR/Cas9 screen (Fig. 5A).

Silencing of BAF200 (Arid2) with a siRNA was shown to reduce the expression of Interferon Induced Transmembrane Protein 1 (IFITM1) by IFNa, but not other interferon-regulated genes (Yan et al. (2005) Genes Dev. 19: 1662-1667). It was systematically examined whether the PBAF complex regulates gene expression in response to IFNy, given the importance of this T cell-derived cytokine for tumor immunity (Gao et al. (2016) Cell 167:397-404). RNA-seq analysis showed that gene sets related to IFNy and IFNa response were significantly enriched among genes concordantly upregulated in Arid2- and Pbrml -deficient cells compared to B16F10 control cells treated with IFNy (Figs. l8A-18B), indicating that Arid2 and Pbrml suppressed the expression of IFNy responsive genes. Many of the IFNy responsive genes suppressed by Arid2 and Pbrml were relevant to innate

immunity or encoded chemokines (Cxcl9 and CxcllO) (Fig. 18C) (Groom et al. (2011) Immunol. Cell Biol. 89:207-215). i¾rw/-deficient tumor cells also secreted substantially larger amounts of Cxcl9 and CxcllO compared to control B16F10 cells following

IFNy stimulation (Figs. l8D-18F) which are key chemokines for recruitment of effector T cells that express the Cxcr3 chemokine receptor (Groom et al. (2011) Immunol. Cell Biol. 89:207-215).
cells had significantly increased surface levels of H2-Kb over a range of IFNy concentrations compared to control B 16F10 cells. Also, all three mutants showed increased surface levels of PD-L1 in response to IFNy (Fig. 19). Brd7- and Pbrml-deficient cells only showed enhanced surface expression of PD-L1 but not H2-Kb in response to IFNy stimulation (Fig. 19) which is believed to be due to partial complexes that retain some activity. These data demonstrate that Arid2 and Pbrml attenuate the responsiveness of B16F10 tumor cells to IFNy, a key cytokine for the interaction of tumor cells and T cells.

Example 7: The PBAF complex regulates chromatin accessibility of IFNy induced genes

The major function of the SWI/S F complex is to regulate chromatin accessibility for transcription factors. ATAC-seq was therefore performed to directly assess chromatin accessibility in ^rwy-deficient and control B 16F10 tumor cells with and without

IFNy treatment for 24 hours. Following IFNy treatment, a substantially larger number of genomic sites were accessible in ^rwy-deficient than control B16F10 cells, consistent with the RNA-seq data (Fig. 20A). Sites in cluster 1 (648 sites) were more accessible prior to IFNy treatment in Pbrml deficient compared to control cells, indicating that the corresponding genes were poised to respond to IFNy (Figs. 20B-20 and 21A). Also, 2,708 sites (cluster III) showed enhanced accessibility following IFNy exposure in Pbrml mutant compared to control B 16F10 cells, but their accessibility was similar between the two cell lines in the absence of IFNy (Figs. 20B-20C and 2 IB). Motif and target gene prediction analysis suggests these sites were highly enriched with IRF motifs and associated with IFN regulated genes (Figs. 21C-21E). Thus, inactivation of Pbrml enhances chromatin accessibility for transcription factors at promoters/enhancers of many IFNy induced genes.

These data demonstrate that resistance to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is regulated by many genes and pathways in tumor cells. The corresponding gene products represent targets for immunotherapy because inactivating mutations sensitize tumor cells to T cell- mediated attack. The interaction between T cells and tumor cells is dynamically regulated at many levels, including innate immune and metabolic pathways within tumor cells. The PBAF complex is of particular interest because it regulates chromatin accessibility for both IFNy and mTORCl pathways within tumor cells and thereby increases resistance to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

The PBAF complex is a tumor suppressor and inactivating mutations in any of the three unique genes of this complex {PBRMl, ARID2 and BRD7) are known to occur in a variety of human cancers (Kadoch et al. (2015) Sci. Adv. l :e 1500447). For example, inactivating mutations in PBRMl are prevalent in clear cell renal cancer (-41% of patients) (Varela et al. (2011) Nature 469:539-542). A study by Miao et al demonstrated that PBRMl mutations in metastatic renal cancers are associated with improved clinical responses to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade (Miao et al. (2017) Science 359:801-806). Mutations in ARID2 and BRD7 are also observed in a variety of other human cancers, including ARID2 mutations in melanoma (Hodis et al. (2012) Cell 150:251-263 Human tumors with inactivating mutations in PBRMl, ARID2 and BRD7 are therefore believed to be more sensitive to PD-1 blockade, as well as to other forms of immunotherapy in which cytotoxic T cells serve as the main effector mechanism, including cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell therapies. The results described herein provide a mechanistic understanding for these exciting clinical findings by demonstrating that PBAF-deficient tumor cells are more sensitive to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. It is also demonstated herein that PBAF-deficient tumor cells produce higher levels of chemokines (Cxcl9 and CxcllO) in response to IFNy, resulting in more efficient recruitment of effector T cells into tumors (Groom et al. (2011) Immunol. Cell Biol. 89:207-215).

Incorporation by Reference

All publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each individual publication, patent or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. In case of conflict, the present application, including any definitions herein, will control.

Also incorporated by reference in their entirety are any polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences which reference an accession number correlating to an entry in a public database, such as those maintained by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR)

on the World Wide Web and/or the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) on the World Wide Web.

Equivalents

Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.