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1. (WO2018224927) STRUCTURE MEMRISTIVE
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CLAIMS

1. A method of fabricating a memristive structure for symmetric modulation between resistance states, the method comprising:

forming a first electrode and a second electrode over an insulating substrate;

forming an anode contacting the first and second electrodes;

forming an ionic conductor over the anode;

forming a cathode over the ionic conductor;

forming a third electrode over the cathode; and

enabling bidirectional transport of ions between the anode and cathode resulting in a resistance adjustment of the memristive structure, the anode and the cathode being formed from metastable materials.

2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the resistance adjustment involves resistance switching for maintaining the symmetric modulation between the resistance states.

3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first, second, and third electrodes are formed from inert metals.

4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the metastable materials are metastable phase separated mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) whose conductivity is dependent on a concentration of an intercalated mobile ion.

5. The method of claim 1 , wherein electrical pulses are applied between the first electrode and the third electrode or between the second electrode and the third electrode to enable a write operation.

6. The method of claim 1 , wherein electrical pulses are applied between the first and second electrodes to enable a read operation.

7. The method of claim 1 , wherein the movement of the ions is enabled by application of a voltage to enable read and write operations to occur simultaneously.

8. The method of claim 1 , wherein a chemical potential difference of ions between the anode and the cathode is maintained near zero.

9. A memristive structure for symmetric modulation between resistance states, the structure comprising: a first electrode and a second electrode formed over an insulating substrate;

an anode contacting the first and second electrodes;

an ionic conductor formed over the anode;

a cathode formed over the ionic conductor; and

a third electrode formed over the cathode;

wherein the anode and the cathode are formed from metastable materials enabling bidirectional transport of ions between the anode and cathode resulting in a resistance adjustment of the memristive structure.

10. The structure of claim 9, wherein the resistance adjustment involves resistance switching for maintaining the symmetric modulation between the resistance states.

11. The structure of claim 9, wherein the first, second, and third electrodes are formed from inert metals.

12. The structure of claim 9, wherein the metastable materials are metastable phase separated mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) whose conductivity is dependent on a concentration of an intercalated mobile ion.

13. The structure of claim 9, wherein electrical pulses are applied between the first electrode and the third electrode or between the second electrode and the third electrode to enable a write operation.

14. The structure of claim 9, wherein electrical pulses are applied between the first and second electrodes to enable a read operation.

15. The structure of claim 9, wherein the movement of the ions is enabled by application of a voltage to enable read and write operations to occur simultaneously.

16. The structure of claim 9, wherein a chemical potential difference of ions between the anode and the cathode is maintained near zero.

17. A memristive structure for symmetric modulation between resistance states, the structure comprising: an ionic conducting layer formed between a metastable anode and a metastable cathode; and electrodes formed adjacent the metastable anode and cathode;

wherein bidirectional transport of ions between the metastable anode and cathode results in resistance switching for maintaining the symmetric modulation between the resistance states.

18. The structure of claim 17, wherein the electrodes are formed from inert metals and the metastable anode and cathode are metastable phase separated mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) whose conductivity is dependent on a concentration of an intercalated mobile ion.

19. The structure of claim 17, wherein electrical pulses are applied between the electrodes to enable a write operation and a read operation.

20. The structure of claim 17, wherein a chemical potential difference of ions between the metastable anode and cathode is maintained near zero.