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1. (WO2018222348) BATTERIE À MÉTAL ALCALIN DE FORME ADAPTABLE DOTÉE D'UNE ÉLECTRODE POLYMÈRE QUASI-SOLIDE CONDUCTRICE ET DÉFORMABLE
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

We claim:

1. An alkali metal cell comprising:

(a) a quasi-solid cathode containing about 30% to about 95% by volume of a cathode active material, about 5% to about 40% by volume of a first electrolyte containing an alkali salt and an ion-conducting polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent, and about 0.01% to about 30%) by volume of a conductive additive wherein said conductive additive, containing conductive filaments, forms a 3D network of electron-conducting pathways such that the quasi-solid electrode has an electrical conductivity from about 10"6 S/cm to about 300 S/cm;

(b) an anode; and

(c) an ion-conducting membrane or porous separator disposed between the anode and the quasi-solid cathode; wherein the quasi-solid cathode has a thickness no less than 200 μπι.

2. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said anode contains a quasi-solid anode containing about 30%) to about 95% by volume of an anode active material, about 5% to about 40% by volume of a second electrolyte containing an alkali salt and an ion-conducting polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent, and about 0.01% to about 30% by volume of a conductive additive wherein said conductive additive, containing conductive filaments, forms a 3D network of electron-conducting pathways such that the quasi-solid electrode has an electrical conductivity from about 10"6 S/cm to about 300 S/cm; wherein said quasi-solid anode has a thickness no less than 200 μτη.

3. An alkali metal cell comprising:

A) a quasi-solid anode containing about 30% to about 95% by volume of an anode active material, about 5% to about 40% by volume of an electrolyte containing an alkali salt and an ion-conducting polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent, and about 0.01% to about 30%) by volume of a conductive additive wherein said conductive additive, containing conductive filaments, forms a 3D network of electron-conducting pathways such that the quasi-solid electrode has an electrical conductivity from about 10"6 S/cm to about 300 S/cm;

B) a cathode; and

C) an ion-conducting membrane or porous separator disposed between the anode and the quasi-solid cathode; wherein said quasi-solid cathode has a thickness no less than 200 μπι.

The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said first electrolyte contains a quasi-solid polymer electrolyte containing an ion-conducting polymer selected from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) having a molecular weight lower than 1 x 106 g/mole, polypropylene oxide (PPO), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), poly bis-methoxy ethoxyethoxide-phosphazene, polyvinyl chloride,

polydimethylsiloxane, poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP), a sulfonated derivative thereof, a sulfonated polymer, or a combination thereof.

The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said first electrolyte or second electrolyte contains a quasi-solid polymer electrolyte containing an ion-conducting polymer selected from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) having a molecular weight lower than 1 x 106 g/mole, polypropylene oxide (PPO), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), poly bis-methoxy ethoxyethoxide-phosphazene, polyvinyl chloride, polydimethylsiloxane, poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-FIFP), a sulfonated derivative thereof, a sulfonated polymer, or a combination thereof.

The alkali metal cell of claim 3, wherein said electrolyte is a quasi-solid electrolyte containing an ion-conducting polymer selected from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) having a molecular weight lower than 1 x 106 g/mole, polypropylene oxide (PPO), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), poly bis-methoxy ethoxyethoxide-phosphazene, polyvinyl chloride, polydimethylsiloxane, poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-FIFP), a sulfonated derivative thereof, a sulfonated polymer, or a combination thereof.

The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said ion-conducting polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(perfluoro sulfonic acid), sulfonated polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated perfluoroalkoxy derivatives of polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated polysulfone, sulfonated poly(ether ketone), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone), sulfonated polystyrene, sulfonated polyimide, sulfonated styrene-butadiene copolymers, sulfonated poly chloro- trifluoroethylene (PCTFE), sulfonated perfluoroethylene-propylene copolymer (FEP), sulfonated ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE), sulfonated

polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), sulfonated copolymers of polyvinylidenefluoride with hexafluoropropene and tetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated copolymers of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), sulfonated polybenzimidazole (PBI), their chemical derivatives, copolymers, blends and combinations thereof.

8. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said ion-conducting polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(perfluoro sulfonic acid), sulfonated polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated perfluoroalkoxy derivatives of polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated polysulfone, sulfonated poly(ether ketone), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone), sulfonated polystyrene, sulfonated polyimide, sulfonated styrene-butadiene copolymers, sulfonated poly chloro- trifluoroethylene (PCTFE), sulfonated perfluoroethylene-propylene copolymer (FEP), sulfonated ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE), sulfonated

polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), sulfonated copolymers of polyvinylidenefluoride with hexafluoropropene and tetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated copolymers of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), sulfonated polybenzimidazole (PBI), their chemical derivatives, copolymers, blends and combinations thereof.

9. The alkali metal cell of claim 3, wherein said ion-conducting polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(perfluoro sulfonic acid), sulfonated polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated perfluoroalkoxy derivatives of polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated polysulfone, sulfonated poly(ether ketone), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone), sulfonated polystyrene, sulfonated polyimide, sulfonated styrene-butadiene copolymers, sulfonated poly chloro- trifluoroethylene (PCTFE), sulfonated perfluoroethylene-propylene copolymer (FEP), sulfonated ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE), sulfonated

polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), sulfonated copolymers of polyvinylidenefluoride with hexafluoropropene and tetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated copolymers of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), sulfonated polybenzimidazole (PBI), their chemical derivatives, copolymers, blends and combinations thereof.

10. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said conductive filaments are selected from carbon fibers, graphite fibers, carbon nanofibers, graphite nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, needle coke, carbon whiskers, conductive polymer fibers, conductive material-coated fibers, metal nanowires, metal fibers, metal wires, graphene sheets, expanded graphite platelets, a combination thereof, or a combination thereof with non-filamentary conductive particles.

11. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said ion-conducting polymer does not form a matrix in said quasi-solid cathode.

12. The alkali metal cell of claim 3, wherein said ion-conducting polymer does not form a matrix in said quasi-solid anode.

13. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said electrode maintains an electrical conductivity from about 10"3 S/cm to about 10 S/cm.

14. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said conductive filaments are bonded together by a resin at points of intersection between the conductive filaments.

15. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said quasi-solid cathode contains about 0.1% to about 20% by volume of a conductive additive.

16. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said quasi-solid cathode contains about 1% to about 10%) by volume of a conductive additive.

17. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein the quantity of the active material is about 40%> to about 90% by volume of the electrode material.

18. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein the quantity of the active material is about 50%> to about 85%o by volume of the electrode material.

19. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said first electrolyte is in a supersaturated state.

20. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said first electrolyte or second electrolyte is in a supersaturated state.

21. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said solvent is selected from water, an organic solvent, an ionic liquid, or a mixture of an organic solvent and an ionic liquid.

22. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said first electrolyte or second electrolyte contains a solvent selected from water, an organic solvent, an ionic liquid, or a mixture of an organic solvent and an ionic liquid.

23. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said alkali metal cell is a lithium metal cell, lithium- ion cell, or lithium-ion capacitor cell and said anode active material is selected from the group consisting of:

(a) particles of lithium metal or a lithium metal alloy;

(b) natural graphite particles, artificial graphite particles, mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), carbon particles, needle coke, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, carbon fibers, and graphite fibers;

(c) silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and cadmium (Cd);

(d) alloys or intermetallic compounds of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, or Cd with other elements, wherein said alloys or compounds are stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric;

(e) oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides, phosphides, selenides, and tellurides of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, Mn, or Cd, and their mixtures or composites;

(f) prelithiated versions thereof;

(g) prelithiated graphene sheets; and

combinations thereof.

24. The alkali metal cell of claim 23, wherein said prelithiated graphene sheets are selected from prelithiated versions of pristine graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, graphene fluoride, graphene chloride, graphene bromide, graphene iodide, hydrogenated graphene, nitrogenated graphene, boron-doped graphene, nitrogen-doped graphene, chemically functionalized graphene, a physically or chemically activated or etched version thereof, or a combination thereof.

25. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said alkali metal cell is a sodium metal cell, sodium- ion cell, or sodium-ion capacitor and said anode active material contains an alkali

intercalation compound selected from petroleum coke, carbon black, amorphous carbon,

activated carbon, hard carbon, soft carbon, templated carbon, hollow carbon nanowires, hollow carbon sphere, titanates, NaTi2(P04)3, Na2Ti307, Na2C8H404, Na2TP, NaxTi02 (x = 0.2 to 1.0), Na2C8H404, carboxylate based materials, C8¾Na204, C8H604, C8H5Na04, C8Na2F4O ,Ci0H2Na O8, Ci H406, Ci H Na 08, or a combination thereof

26. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said alkali metal cell is a sodium metal cell, sodium- ion cell, or sodium-ion capacitor and said anode active material is selected from the group consisting of:

a) particles of sodium metal or a sodium metal alloy;

b) natural graphite particles, artificial graphite particles, mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), carbon particles, needle coke, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, carbon fibers, and graphite fibers;

c) sodium-doped silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), and mixtures thereof;

d) sodium-containing alloys or intermetallic compounds of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Ti, Co, Ni, Mn, Cd, and their mixtures;

e) sodium-containing oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides, phosphides, selenides, tellurides, or antimonides of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Fe, Ti, Co, Ni, Mn, Cd, and mixtures or composites thereof;

f) sodium salts;

g) graphene sheets pre-loaded with sodium ions; and combinations thereof.

27. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said alkali metal cell is a lithium metal cell or

lithium-ion cell and said cathode active material contains a lithium intercalation compound selected from the group consisting of lithium cobalt oxide, doped lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel oxide, doped lithium nickel oxide, lithium manganese oxide, doped lithium manganese oxide, lithium vanadium oxide, doped lithium vanadium oxide, lithium mixed- metal oxides, lithium iron phosphate, lithium vanadium phosphate, lithium manganese phosphate, lithium mixed-metal phosphates, metal sulfides, and combinations thereof.

28. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said alkali metal cell is a lithium metal cell or lithium-ion cell and said cathode active material contains a lithium intercalation compound or lithium-absorbing compound selected from an inorganic material, an organic or polymeric material, a metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide, or a combination thereof.

29. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide is selected from a lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium vanadium oxide, lithium-mixed metal oxide, lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganese phosphate, lithium vanadium phosphate, lithium mixed metal phosphate, transition metal sulfide, or a combination thereof.

30. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said inorganic material is selected from sulfur, sulfur compound, lithium polysulfide, transition metal dichalcogenide, a transition metal trichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

31. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said inorganic material is selected from TiS2, TaS2, MoS2, NbSe3, Mn02, Co02, an iron oxide, a vanadium oxide , or a combination thereof.

32. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide contains a

vanadium oxide selected from the group consisting of V02, LixV02, V205, LixV205, V308, LixV308, LixV307, V4O9, LixV40 , V60i3, LixV60i3, their doped versions, their derivatives, and combinations thereof, wherein 0.1 < x < 5.

33. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide is selected from a layered compound LiM02, spinel compound LiM204, olivine compound L1MPO4, silicate compound Li2MSi04, tavorite compound L1MPO4F, borate compound LiMB03, or a combination thereof, wherein M is a transition metal or a mixture of multiple transition metals.

34. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said inorganic material is selected from: (a)

bismuth selenide or bismuth telluride, (b) transition metal dichalcogenide or trichalcogenide,

(c) sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium, cobalt, manganese, iron, nickel, or a transition metal; (d) boron nitride, or (e) a combination thereof.

35. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said organic material or polymeric material is selected from poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS), a lithium oxocarbon, 3,4,9, 10- perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide), pyreiie- 4,5,9, 10-tetraone (PYT), polymer-bound PYT, quino(triazene), redox-active organic material, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyanoethylene (TC E), 2,3,6,7,10, 11- hexamethoxytriphenylene (HMTP), poly(5 -amino- 1,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone) (PADAQ), phosphazene disulfide polymer ([( PS2)3]«), lithiated 1,4,5, 8-naphthalenetetraol

formaldehyde polymer, hexaazatrinaphtylene (HATN), hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT(CN)6), 5-Benzylidene hydantoin, isatine lithium salt, pyromellitic diimide lithium salt, tetrahydroxy-p-benzoquinone derivatives (THQLi4), N,N'-diphenyl-2,3,5,6- tetraketopiperazine (PHP), N,N'-diallyl-2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (AP), N,N'-dipropyl- 2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (PPvP), a thioether polymer, a quinone compound, 1,4- benzoquinone, 5,7, 12,14-pentacenetetrone (PT), 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-l,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADDAQ), 5-amino-l,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADAQ), calixquinone, Li4C606, Li2C606, Li6C606, or a combination thereof.

36. The alkali metal cell of claim 35, wherein said thioether polymer is selected from

poly[methanetetryl-tetra(thiomethylene)] (PMTTM), poly(2,4-dithiopentanylene) (PDTP), a polymer containing poly(ethene-l, l,2,2-tetrathiol) (PETT) as a main-chain thioether polymers, a side-chain thioether polymer having a main-chain consisting of conjugating aromatic moieties, and having a thioether side chain as a pendant, Poly(2-phenyl-l,3- dithiolane) (PPDT), poly(l,4-di(l,3-dithiolan-2-yl)benzene) (PDDTB),

poly(tetrahydrobenzodithiophene) (PTHBDT), poly[l,2,4,5-tetrakis(propylthio)benzene] (PTKPTB, or poly[3,4(ethylenedithio)thiophene] (PEDTT).

37. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said organic material contains a phthalocyanine compound selected from copper phthalocyanine, zinc phthalocyanine, tin phthalocyanine, iron phthalocyanine, lead phthalocyanine, nickel phthalocyanine, vanadyl phthalocyanine, fluorochromium phthalocyanine, magnesium phthalocyanine, manganous phthalocyanine, dilithium phthalocyanine, aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, cadmium phthalocyanine,

chlorogallium phthalocyanine, cobalt phthalocyanine, silver phthalocyanine, a metal-free phthalocyanine, a chemical derivative thereof, or a combination thereof.

38. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said lithium intercalation compound or lithium- absorbing compound is selected from a metal carbide, metal nitride, metal boride, metal dichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

39. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said lithium intercalation compound or lithium- absorbing compound is selected from an oxide, dichalcogenide, trichalcogenide, sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, iron, or nickel in a nanowire, nanodisc, nanoribbon, or nanoplatelet form.

40. The alkali metal cell of claim 28, wherein said lithium intercalation compound or lithium- absorbing compound is selected from nanodiscs, nanoplatelets, nanocoating, or nanosheets of an inorganic material selected from: (a) bismuth selenide or bismuth telluride, (b) transition metal dichalcogenide or trichalcogenide, (c) sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium, cobalt, manganese, iron, nickel, or a transition metal; (d) boron nitride, or (e) a combination thereof; wherein said discs, platelets, or sheets have a thickness less than 100 nm.

41. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said alkali metal cell is a sodium metal cell or

sodium-ion cell and said cathode active material contains a sodium intercalation compound or sodium-absorbing compound selected from an inorganic material, an organic or polymeric material, a metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide, or a combination thereof.

42. The alkali metal cell of claim 41, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide is selected from a sodium cobalt oxide, sodium nickel oxide, sodium manganese oxide, sodium vanadium oxide, sodium-mixed metal oxide, sodium/potassium-transition metal oxide, sodium iron phosphate, sodium/potassium iron phosphate, sodium manganese phosphate,

sodium/potassium manganese phosphate, sodium vanadium phosphate, sodium/potassium vanadium phosphate, sodium mixed metal phosphate, transition metal sulfide, or a combination thereof.

43. The alkali metal cell of claim 41, wherein said inorganic material is selected from sulfur, sulfur compound, lithium polysulfide, transition metal dichalcogenide, a transition metal trichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

44. The alkali metal cell of claim 41, wherein said inorganic material is selected from TiS2, TaS2, MoS2, NbSe3, Mn02, Co02, an iron oxide, a vanadium oxide , or a combination thereof.

45. The alkali metal cell of claim 41, wherein said cathode active material contains a sodium

intercalation compound selected from NaFeP04, Na(i-X)KxP04, Na0 7FeP0 , Nai 5VOP0 Fo 5, Na3V2(P04)3, Na3V2(P04)2F3, Na2FeP04F , NaFeF3, NaVP04F, Na3V2(P04)2F3,

Nai 5VOP04Fo 5, Na3V2(P04)3, NaV60i5, NaxV02, Na0 33V205, NaxCo02,

Na2/3[Nii/3Mn2/3]02, Nax(Fei/2Mni/2)02, NaxMn02, λ-Μη02, NaxK(i-x)Mn02, Na0.44MnO2,

Na0.44MnO2/C, Na4Mn90i8, NaFe2Mn(P04)3, Na2Ti307, Nii/3Mni/3Coi/302, Cuo.56Ni0.44HCF, NiHCF, NaxMn02, NaCr02, Na3Ti2(P04)3, NiCo204, Ni3S2/FeS2, Sb204, Na4Fe(CN)6/C, NaVi-xCrxP04F, SezSy (y/z = 0.01 to 100), Se, alluaudites, or a combination thereof, wherein x is from 0.1 to 1.0.

46. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material constitutes an electrode active material mass loading greater than 15 mg/cm2.

47. The alkali metal cell of claim 2, wherein said anode active material constitutes an electrode active material mass loading greater than 20 mg/cm2.

48. The alkali metal cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode active material constitutes an electrode active material mass loading greater than 30 mg/cm2.

49. A method of preparing an alkali metal cell having a quasi-solid electrode, the method

comprising:

(a) combining a quantity of an active material, a quantity of an electrolyte, and a conductive additive to form a deformable and electrically conductive electrode material, wherein said conductive additive, containing conductive filaments, forms a 3D network of electron- conducting pathways and said electrolyte contains an alkali salt and an ion-conducting polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent;

(b) forming the electrode material into a quasi-solid electrode, wherein said forming includes deforming the electrode material into an electrode shape without interrupting said 3D network of electron-conducting pathways such that the electrode maintains an electrical conductivity no less than 10"6 S/cm;

(c) forming a second electrode; and

(d) forming an alkali metal cell by combining the quasi-solid electrode and the second

electrode

50. The method of claim 49, wherein said quasi-solid electrode contains 30% to 95% by volume of said active material, 5% to 40% by volume of said electrolyte, and 0.01% to 30% by volume of said conductive additive.

51. The method of claim 49, wherein said electrolyte contains a quasi-solid polymer electrolyte containing an ion-conducting polymer selected from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) having a molecular weight lower than 1 x 106 g/mole, polypropylene oxide (PPO), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), poly bis- methoxy ethoxyethoxide-phosphazene, polyvinyl chloride, polydimethylsiloxane, poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP), a sulfonated derivative thereof, a sulfonated polymer, or a combination thereof.

52. The method of claim 49, wherein said ion-conducting polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(perfluoro sulfonic acid), sulfonated polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated perfluoroalkoxy derivatives of polytetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated polysulfone, sulfonated poly(ether ketone), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone), sulfonated polystyrene, sulfonated polyimide, sulfonated styrene-butadiene copolymers, sulfonated poly chloro- trifluoroethylene (PCTFE), sulfonated perfluoroethylene-propylene copolymer (FEP), sulfonated ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE), sulfonated

polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), sulfonated copolymers of polyvinylidenefluoride with hexafluoropropene and tetrafluoroethylene, sulfonated copolymers of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), sulfonated polybenzimidazole (PBI), their chemical derivatives, copolymers, blends and combinations thereof.

53. The method of claim 49, wherein said conductive filaments are selected from carbon fibers, graphite fibers, carbon nanofibers, graphite nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, needle coke, carbon whiskers, conductive polymer fibers, conductive material-coated fibers, metal nanowires, metal fibers, metal wires, graphene sheets, expanded graphite platelets, a combination thereof, or a combination thereof with non-filamentary conductive particles.

54. The method of claim 49, wherein said ion-conducting polymer does not form a matrix in said quasi-solid cathode.

55. The method of claim 49, wherein said electrode maintains an electrical conductivity from 10" 3 S/cm to 10 S/cm.

56. The method of claim 49, wherein said quasi-solid cathode contains 0.1% to 20% by volume of a conductive additive.

57. The method of claim 49, wherein said quasi-solid cathode contains 1% to 10% by volume of a conductive additive.

58. The method of claim 49, wherein the quantity of the active material is 40% to 90% by

volume of the electrode material.

59. The method of claim 49, wherein the quantity of the active material is 50% to 85% by

volume of the electrode material.

60. The method of claim 49, wherein said step of combining includes dispersing said conductive filaments into a liquid solvent to form a homogeneous suspension prior to adding said active material in said suspension and prior to dissolving said alkali metal salt and said ion- conducting polymer in said liquid solvent of said suspension.

61. The method of claim 49, wherein said steps of combining and forming the electrode material into a quasi-solid electrode include dissolving a lithium salt or sodium salt and said polymer in a liquid solvent to form an electrolyte having a first salt/polymer concentration and subsequently removing portion of said liquid solvent to increase the salt/polymer

concentration to obtain a quasi-solid polymer electrolyte having a second salt/polymer concentration higher than the first concentration and higher than 2.5 M.

62. The method of claim 60, wherein said removing does not cause precipitation or crystallization of said salt or said polymer, and said electrolyte is in a supersaturated state.

63. The method of claim 60wherein said liquid solvent contains a mixture of at least a first liquid solvent and a second liquid solvent and the first liquid solvent is more volatile than the second liquid solvent and wherein said removing portion of said liquid solvent includes removing said first liquid solvent.

64. The method of claim 49, wherein said step of forming a second electrode includes (A)

combining a quantity of a second active material, a quantity of an electrolyte, and a conductive additive to form a second deformable and electrically conductive electrode material, wherein said conductive additive, containing conductive filaments, forms a 3D network of electron-conducting pathways and said electrolyte contains an alkali salt and an ion-conducting polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent; and (B) forming the second deformable and conductive electrode material into a second quasi-solid electrode, wherein said forming includes deforming the second deformable and conductive electrode material into an electrode shape without interrupting said 3D network of electron-conducting pathways such that the second electrode maintains an electrical conductivity no less than 10"6 S/cm.

65. The method of claim 49, wherein said solvent is selected from water, an organic solvent, an ionic liquid, or a mixture of an organic solvent and an ionic liquid.

66. The method of claim 49, wherein said alkali metal cell is a lithium metal cell, lithium-ion cell, or lithium-ion capacitor cell and said active material is an anode active material selected from the group consisting of:

(a) particles of lithium metal or a lithium metal alloy;

(b) natural graphite particles, artificial graphite particles, mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), carbon particles, needle coke, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, carbon fibers, and graphite fibers;

(c) silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and cadmium (Cd);

(d) alloys or intermetallic compounds of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, or Cd with other elements, wherein said alloys or compounds are stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric;

(e) oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides, phosphides, selenides, and tellurides of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, Mn, or Cd, and their mixtures or composites;

(f) prelithiated versions thereof;

(g) prelithiated graphene sheets; and

combinations thereof.

67. The method of claim 66, wherein said prelithiated graphene sheets are selected from

prelithiated versions of pristine graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, graphene fluoride, graphene chloride, graphene bromide, graphene iodide, hydrogenated graphene, nitrogenated graphene, boron-doped graphene, nitrogen-doped graphene, chemically functionalized graphene, a physically or chemically activated or etched version thereof, or a combination thereof.

68. The method of claim 49, wherein said alkali metal cell is a sodium metal cell, sodium-ion cell, or sodium-ion capacitor and said active material is an anode active material containing an alkali intercalation compound selected from petroleum coke, carbon black, amorphous carbon, activated carbon, hard carbon, soft carbon, templated carbon, hollow carbon nanowires, hollow carbon sphere, titanates, NaTi2(P04)3, Na2Ti307, Na2C8H404, Na2TP, NaxTi02 (x = 0.2 to 1.0), Na2C8H404, carboxylate based materials, C8H4Na204, C8H604, C8H5Na04, C8Na2F404,CioH2Na408, Ci4H406, Ci4H4Na408, or a combination thereof

69. The method of claim 49, wherein said alkali metal cell is a sodium metal cell, sodium-ion cell, or sodium-ion capacitor and said active material is an anode active material selected from the group consisting of:

a) particles of sodium metal or a sodium metal alloy;

b) natural graphite particles, artificial graphite particles, mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), carbon particles, needle coke, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, carbon fibers, and graphite fibers;

c) sodium-doped silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), and mixtures thereof;

d) sodium-containing alloys or intermetallic compounds of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Ti, Co, Ni, Mn, Cd, and their mixtures;

e) sodium-containing oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides, phosphides, selenides, tellurides, or antimonides of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn, Al, Fe, Ti, Co, Ni, Mn, Cd, and mixtures or composites thereof;

f) sodium salts;

g) graphene sheets pre-loaded with sodium ions; and combinations thereof.

70. The method of claim 49, wherein said alkali metal cell is a lithium metal cell or lithium-ion cell and said cathode active material contains a lithium intercalation compound selected from the group consisting of lithium cobalt oxide, doped lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel oxide, doped lithium nickel oxide, lithium manganese oxide, doped lithium manganese oxide, lithium vanadium oxide, doped lithium vanadium oxide, lithium mixed-metal oxides, lithium iron phosphate, lithium vanadium phosphate, lithium manganese phosphate, lithium mixed-metal phosphates, metal sulfides, and combinations thereof.

71. The method of claim 49, wherein said alkali metal cell is a lithium metal cell or lithium-ion cell and said cathode active material contains a lithium intercalation compound or lithium- absorbing compound selected from an inorganic material, an organic or polymeric material, a metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide, or a combination thereof.

72. The method of claim 71, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide is selected from a

lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium vanadium oxide, lithium-mixed metal oxide, lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganese phosphate, lithium vanadium phosphate, lithium mixed metal phosphate, transition metal sulfide, or a combination thereof.

73. The method of claim 71, wherein said inorganic material is selected from sulfur, sulfur compound, lithium polysulfide, transition metal dichalcogenide, a transition metal trichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

74. The method of claim 71, wherein said inorganic material is selected from TiS2, TaS2, MoS2, NbSe3, Mn02, Co02, an iron oxide, a vanadium oxide , or a combination thereof.

75. The method of claim 71, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide contains a vanadium oxide selected from the group consisting of V02, LixV02, V205, LixV205, V308, LixV308, LixV307, V4O9, LixV409, V60i3, LixV60i3, their doped versions, their derivatives, and combinations thereof, wherein 0.1 < x < 5.

76. The method of claim 71, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide is selected from a

layered compound LiM02, spinel compound LiM204, olivine compound L1MPO4, silicate compound Li2MSi04, tavorite compound L1MPO4F, borate compound LiMB03, or a combination thereof, wherein M is a transition metal or a mixture of multiple transition metals.

77. The method of claim 71, wherein said inorganic material is selected from: (a) bismuth

selenide or bismuth telluride, (b) transition metal dichalcogenide or trichalcogenide, (c) sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium, cobalt, manganese, iron, nickel, or a transition metal; (d) boron nitride, or (e) a combination thereof.

78. The method of claim 71, wherein said organic material or polymeric material is selected from poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS), a lithium oxocarbon, 3,4,9, 10-peiylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide), pyrene-4,5,9, 10-tetraone (PYT), polymer-bound PYT, quino(triazene), redox-active organic material,

tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyanoethylene (TC E), 2,3,6,7, 10, 11- hexamethoxytriphenylene (HMTP), poly(5 -amino- 1,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone) (PADAQ), phosphazene disulfide polymer ([( PS2)3]«), lithiated 1,4,5, 8-naphthalenetetraol

formaldehyde polymer, hexaazatrinaphtylene (HATN), hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT(CN)6), 5-benzylidene hydantoin, isatine lithium salt, pyromellitic diimide lithium salt, tetrahydroxy-p-benzoquinone derivatives (THQLi4), N,N'-diphenyl-2,3,5,6- tetraketopiperazine (PHP), N,N'-diallyl-2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (AP), N,N'-dipropyl- 2,3,5,6-tetraketopiperazine (PPvP), a thioether polymer, a quinone compound, 1,4- benzoquinone, 5,7, 12,14-pentacenetetrone (PT), 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-l,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADDAQ), 5-amino-l,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADAQ), calixquinone,

Li4C606, Li2C606, Li6C606, or a combination thereof.

79. The method of claim 78, wherein said thioether polymer is selected from poly[methanetetryl- tetra(thiomethylene)] (PMTTM), poly(2,4-dithiopentanylene) (PDTP), a polymer containing poly(ethene-l, l,2,2-tetrathiol) (PETT) as a main-chain thioether polymers, a side-chain thioether polymer having a main-chain consisting of conjugating aromatic moieties, and having a thioether side chain as a pendant, poly(2 -phenyl- 1, 3 -dithiolane) (PPDT), poly(l,4- di(l,3-dithiolan-2-yl)benzene) (PDDTB), poly(tetrahydrobenzodithiophene) (PTHBDT), poly[l,2,4,5-tetrakis(propylthio)benzene] (PTKPTB, or poly[3,4(ethylenedithio)thiophene] (PEDTT).

80. The method of claim 71, wherein said organic material contains a phthalocyanine compound selected from copper phthalocyanine, zinc phthalocyanine, tin phthalocyanine, iron phthalocyanine, lead phthalocyanine, nickel phthalocyanine, vanadyl phthalocyanine, fluorochromium phthalocyanine, magnesium phthalocyanine, manganous phthalocyanine, dilithium phthalocyanine, aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, cadmium phthalocyanine, chlorogallium phthalocyanine, cobalt phthalocyanine, silver phthalocyanine, a metal-free phthalocyanine, a chemical derivative thereof, or a combination thereof.

81. The method of claim 71, wherein said lithium intercalation compound or lithium-absorbing compound is selected from a metal carbide, metal nitride, metal boride, metal

dichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

82. The method of claim 71, wherein said lithium intercalation compound or lithium-absorbing compound is selected from an oxide, dichalcogenide, trichalcogenide, sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium,

vanadium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, iron, or nickel in a nanowire, nanodisc, nanoribbon, or nanoplatelet form.

83. The method of claim 71, wherein said lithium intercalation compound or lithium-absorbing compound is selected from nanodiscs, nanoplatelets, nanocoating, or nanosheets of an inorganic material selected from: (a) bismuth selenide or bismuth telluride, (b) transition metal dichalcogenide or trichalcogenide, (c) sulfide, selenide, or telluride of niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, titanium, cobalt, manganese, iron, nickel, or a transition metal; (d) boron nitride, or (e) a combination thereof; wherein said discs, platelets, or sheets have a thickness less than 100 nm.

84. The method of claim 49, wherein said alkali metal cell is a sodium metal cell or sodium-ion cell and said cathode active material contains a sodium intercalation compound or sodium- absorbing compound selected from an inorganic material, an organic or polymeric material, a metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide, or a combination thereof.

85. The method of claim 84, wherein said metal oxide/phosphate/sulfide is selected from a

sodium cobalt oxide, sodium nickel oxide, sodium manganese oxide, sodium vanadium oxide, sodium-mixed metal oxide, sodium/potassium-transition metal oxide, sodium iron phosphate, sodium/potassium iron phosphate, sodium manganese phosphate,

sodium/potassium manganese phosphate, sodium vanadium phosphate, sodium/potassium vanadium phosphate, sodium mixed metal phosphate, transition metal sulfide, or a combination thereof.

86. The method of claim 84, wherein said inorganic material is selected from sulfur, sulfur

compound, lithium polysulfide, transition metal dichalcogenide, a transition metal trichalcogenide, or a combination thereof.

87. The method of claim 84, wherein said inorganic material is selected from TiS2, TaS2, MoS2, NbSe3, Mn02, Co02, an iron oxide, a vanadium oxide , or a combination thereof.

88. The method of claim 49, wherein said active material contains a sodium intercalation

compound selected from NaFeP04, Na(i-X)KxP04, Na0 7FeP04, Nai.5VOPO4F0.5,

Na3V2(P04)3, Na3V2(P04)2F3, Na2FeP04F , NaFeF3, NaVP04F, Na3V2(P04)2F3,

Nai 5VOPO4F0 5, Na3V2(P04)3, NaV60i5, NaxV02, Na0 33V205, NaxCo02,

Na2/3[Nii/3Mn2/3]02, Nax(Fei/2Mni/2)02, NaxMn02, λ-Μη02, NaxK(i-x)Mn02, Na0.44MnO2, Na0.44MnO2/C, Na4Mn90i8, NaFe2Mn(P04)3, Na2Ti307, Nii/3Mni/3Coi/302, Cuo.56Nio.44HCF, NiHCF, NaxMn02, NaCr02, Na3Ti2(P04)3, NiCo204, Ni3S2/FeS2, Sb204, Na4Fe(CN)6/C, NaVi-xCrxP04F, SezSy (y/z = 0.01 to 100), Se, alluaudites, or a combination thereof, wherein x is from 0.1 to 1.0.

89. The method of claim 49, wherein said active material constitutes an electrode active material mass loading greater than 15 mg/cm2.

90. The method of claim 49, wherein said active material constitutes an electrode active material mass loading greater than 25 mg/cm2.

91. The method of claim 49, wherein said active material constitutes an electrode active material mass loading greater than 45 mg/cm2.