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1. (WO2018157254) DOSAGE À BASE DE CELLULES ET KITS D'ÉVALUATION DE L'ACTIVITÉ ANTICHOLINERGIQUE SÉRIQUE
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method for determining the level of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype-1 (Ml receptor) anticholinergic activity in a blood serum sample, the method comprising:

removing protein from the blood serum sample by treatment with perchloric acid (PCA) to produce a PCA-treated serum sample;

incubating the PCA-treated serum sample with a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing the Ml receptor and an Ml receptor ligand;

detecting an amount of binding of the Ml receptor ligand to the Ml receptor and comparing the amount of binding to a standard to determine the level of Ml receptor anticholinergic activity in the blood serum sample.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the Ml receptor ligand is [3H] quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H-QNB), [3H] N-methyl-scopolamine (3H-NMS) or [3H] pirenzepine (3H-PZP).

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the Ml receptor ligand is 3H-QNB or 3H-NMS.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the blood serum sample is derived from a patient or subject that exhibits one or more signs or symptoms of high or elevated Ml receptor anticholinergic activity, is suspected of having high or elevated blood levels of Ml receptor anticholinergic activity, exhibits no symptoms of high Ml receptor anticholinergic activity, or wherein the level of anticholinergic activity is unknown.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein the standard is atropine.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein binding of atropine to the Ml receptor is performed to generate one or more standard curves.

7. The method of claim 5 wherein binding of atropine to the Ml receptor is performed under essentially the same conditions as the Ml receptor binding to the Ml ligand.

8. The method of claim 5 wherein the level of Ml receptor anticholinergic activity is expressed as atropine equivalents.

9. The method of claim 4, wherein a high or elevated Ml receptor anticholinergic activity is equivalent to or higher than 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, or 140 pmol/mL atropine, and optionally associated with an age, a minimum age or an age range.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the standard is atropine and the level of Ml receptor anticholinergic activity in the blood serum sample is calculated on the basis of the amount of atropine that would provide a substantially similar or identical degree of inhibition of the specific binding of the Ml receptor ligand to the Ml receptor.

11. The method of claim 4, wherein one or more signs or symptoms comprise one or more cognitive side effects or non-cognitive side effects such as, but not limited to dementia, memory loss, cognitive decline, decrease in global cognitive functioning, psychomotor speed, decrease in visual and/or declarative memory, implicit learning or communication ability, confusion, disorientation, agitation, euphoria or dysphoria, respiratory depression, inability to concentrate, inability to sustain a train of thought, incoherent speech, irritability, wakeful myoclonic jerking, unusual sensitivity to sudden sounds, illogical thinking, photophobia, visual disturbances, visual, auditory, or other sensory hallucinations, orthostatic hypotension, urinary problems and/or kidney failure, salivary problems such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, hypohydrosis, dizziness and the like.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the Ml receptor is a human Ml receptor or rat Ml receptor.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the ratio of the membrane preparation : treated serum sample is about 0.27 g : 1 L and the Ml ligand is employed in the amount of about 0.16 nM.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein binding employs a buffer comprising 20 mM HEPES, 100 mM NaCI and 10 mM MgCI2 adjusted to a pH of 7.4.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein the PCA-treated serum sample, membrane preparation, Ml ligand and buffer are mixed at about 0°C and the incubating step is performed at about 24°C for about 60-120 min.

16. The method of claim 1, wherein after the step of incubating and before the step of detecting, an unbound Ml ligand is removed by filtering the membrane preparation on a filter with a pore size suitable for filtering unbound Ml ligand and retaining the Ml receptor followed by rinsing the membrane preparation.

17. The method of claim 1, performed in a multiwell plate.

18. A method for assessing anticholinergic activity of a sample, the method comprising:

obtaining a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing rat muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (Ml receptor);

incubating the treated serum sample with the membrane preparation and an Ml ligand;

detecting an amount of binding of the Ml ligand to the Ml receptor and comparing the amount of binding to a standard.

19. A method for assessing anticholinergic activity of a serum sample, the method comprising:

removing protein from the serum sample by treatment with perchloric acid to produce a treated serum sample;

culturing cells expressing rat muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (Ml receptor);

obtaining a membrane preparation from the cells;

incubating the treated serum sample with the membrane preparation and an Ml ligand, wherein the Ml ligand is 3H-QNB or 3H-NMS;

removing unbound Ml ligand;

detecting an amount of binding of the Ml ligand to the Ml receptor and comparing the amount of binding to a standard.

20. A method of modulating serum anticholinergic activity in a patient or subject receiving medication, the method comprising:

obtaining a serum sample from the patient;

removing protein from the serum sample by treatment with perchloric acid to produce a treated serum sample;

obtaining a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing rat muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (Ml receptor);

incubating the treated serum sample with the membrane preparation and an Ml ligand;

detecting an amount of binding of the Ml ligand to the Ml receptor and comparing the amount of binding to a standard; and

modulating the dosage and/or type of the medication.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the method further comprises repeating the steps before the modulating step to determine if the change in the dosage and/or type of the medication modulated the serum anticholinergic activity.

22. A method of modulating serum anticholinergic activity of a patient receiving medication and exhibiting one or more signs of cognitive side effects, the method comprising:

obtaining a serum sample from the patient;

removing protein from the serum sample by treatment with perchloric acid to produce a treated serum sample;

obtaining a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing rat muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (Ml receptor);

incubating the treated serum sample with the membrane preparation and an Ml ligand;

detecting an amount of binding of the Ml ligand to the Ml receptor and comparing the amount of binding to a standard; and

modulating the dosage and/or type of the medication to decrease the serum anticholinergic activity.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the method further comprises repeating the steps before the modulating step to determine if the change in the dosage and/or type of the medication decreased the serum anticholinergic activity.

24. A kit for assessing or determining anticholinergic activity comprising one or more of the following components in any combination: cells expressing an Ml receptor, one or more cell culture media, one or more cell wash media, one or more buffers, protein concentration assay determination reagent(s), one or more anticholinergic compounds or compositions, atropine, one or more multiwell plates, Ml membrane preparations adhered to a plate or other substrate, one or more filtration membranes, scintillation fluid, one or more Ml ligands, deproteinization solution, perchloric acid, perchloric acid neutralization solution, data analysis software, serum containing one or more

anticholinergic compounds or compositions, glassware, centrifuge tubes, instructions for performing an anticholinergic assay or any combination thereof.

25. A kit for assessing anticholinergic activity of a serum sample, the kit comprising:

perchloric acid to remove protein from the serum sample to produce a treated serum sample;

perchloric acid neutralizing solution;

a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing rat muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (Ml receptor); and

an Ml ligand.

26. The kit of claim 25, wherein the kit further comprises one or more multiwell plates, or one or more multi-well plates comprising a filter with a pore size capable of filtering unbound Ml ligand and retaining the Ml receptor, and buffer.

27. The kit of claim 26, wherein the kit further comprises scintillation fluid.

28. A kit for assessing anticholinergic activity of a serum sample, the kit comprising:

perchloric acid to remove protein from the serum sample to produce a treated serum sample; perchloric acid neutralizing solution;

an Ml ligand;

buffer- one or more multi-well plates comprising, in each well, a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing rat muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (Ml receptor), or one or more multi-well plates comprising a filter with a pore size capable of filtering unbound Ml ligand and retaining the Ml receptor, both or a combination thereof.

29. The kit of claim 28, wherein the kit further comprises scintillation fluid.

30. A method for identifying a subject as being at risk of having or developing cognitive impairment, the method comprising:

providing a blood serum sample from the subject;

removing protein from the blood serum sample by treatment with perchloric acid (PCA) to produce a PCA-treated serum sample;

incubating the PCA-treated serum sample with a membrane preparation from cultured cells expressing the Ml receptor and an Ml receptor ligand; and

detecting an amount of binding of the Ml receptor ligand to the Ml receptor and comparing the amount of binding to a standard to determine a level of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype-1 (Ml receptor) anticholinergic activity in the blood serum sample;

wherein an elevated level of Ml anticholinergic activity in the blood serum sample as compared to a healthy control level identifies the subject as being at risk of having or developing cognitive impairment.

31. The method of claim 30, further comprising a step of:

subjecting the subject identified as being at risk of having or developing cognitive impairment to a Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB-AD) to further assess cognitive impairment of the subject.

32. The method of claim 30 or 31, wherein the subject is a subject being treated with at least one drug having anticholinergic properties.

33. The method of any one of claims 30-32, wherein the cognitive impairment is in the spatial working memory cognitive domain.