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1. (WO2013052669) PRODUCTION ET RÉSISTANCE CONTRE LE PEROXYDE D'HYDROGÈNE GÉNÉTIQUEMENT INDUCTIBLE
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

GENETICALLY INDUCIBLE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE RESISTANCE AND

PRODUCTION CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/544,165 filed October 6, 2011, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF FEDERAL RESEARCH SUPPORT

[0002] This invention was made, in part, with government support awarded by United States Department of Agriculture grant number 2006-35318-17445.

Accordingly, the United States government has certain rights in this invention.

SUBMISSION OF SEQUENCE LISTING

[0003] The Sequence Listing associated with this application is filed in electronic format via EFS-Web and is hereby incorporated by reference into the specification in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0004] All publications cited in this application are herein incorporated by reference.

[0005] H202 is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) commonly used as a general biocide in wastewater treatment and for cleaning of algal bioreactors prior to restarting batch cultures. H202 cannot be used to control microbial pests in large-scale algal cultures because the desired cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae are naturally very sensitive to H202, especially cyanobacteria. H202 is a small, non-polar molecule soluble in both water and lipids. Applied exogenously, H202 is believed to kill cells by diffusing rapidly through biological membranes and generating highly destructive hydroxyl radicals (ΟΗ·) through Fenton chemistry. H202 is also known to directly inhibit thiol-modulated enzymes that participate in photosynthesis and other cellular metabolism. For example, concentrations of H202 as low as 10 μΜ decreased photosynthetic carbon fixation by 50% in plant chloroplasts. Exogenous H202 also inhibits turnover of the Dl protein at the translation step of protein synthesis. Dl is part of the core of the Photosystem II (PSII) complex and Dl turnover is necessary for repair of the daily photodamage incurred by PSII. H202 is a simple molecule but its effect on cells can be complex. One reason for this is that, in addition to entering freely into cells from exogenous sources, H202 is produced endogenously by aerobic metabolism, for example during beta-oxidation of fatty acids or photorespiration.

Moreover, H202 is a signaling molecule known to activate the SoxR and OxyR regulons and to trigger genes for programmed cell death.

[0006] Consistent with its inhibition of metabolism and triggering of cell death, various organisms, including humans and bacteria, utilize H202 secretion to defend themselves from pathogens and competitors. A common example is human neutrophils that secrete an "oxidative burst" of lethal H202 to kill invading bacteria that they encounter in blood and tissues.

[0007] H202 is a broad-spectrum biocide effective against unwanted microbes of all kinds. It degrades spontaneously to oxygen (02) and water (H20), leaving no residual activity. H202 can be applied cheaply at large scales by means of dry compounds that release H202 when dissolved in water. Broad-spectrum algaecides with this mode of action are already in use for control of algal blooms in natural waters, e.g. PAK™27.

[0008] The foregoing examples of the related art and limitations related therewith are intended to be illustrative and not exclusive. Other limitations of the related art will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon a reading of the specification.

SUMMARY

[0009] It is to be understood that the present invention includes a variety of different versions or embodiments, and this Summary is not meant to be limiting or all-inclusive. This Summary provides some general descriptions of some of the embodiments, but may also include some more specific descriptions of other embodiments.

[0010] An embodiment of the present invention may comprise DNA constructs for the expression of proteins in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of an organism, where the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. Such DNA constructs may be represented as Pro-CAT, Pro-CAT-SM, Pro-Ribo-CAT or Pro-Ribo-CAT-SM wherein Pro is an inducible and/or constitutive promoter, CAT is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein such as a catalase, SM is a selectable marker such as a fluorescent protein sequence and Ribo is an optional transcription element.

[0011] An embodiment may further comprise a transgenic unicellular organism having a DNA construct stably integrated into the organism's genome under conditions suitable for an expression of the DNA construct in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, wherein the DNA construct expresses a protein in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, and wherein the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein.

[0012] An embodiment of the present invention may further comprise a method for producing a transgenic unicellular organism expressing a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein which comprises growing a transgenic unicellular organism having a DNA construct stably integrated into a genome under conditions suitable for an expression of the DNA construct in the transgenic unicellular organism, wherein the DNA construct expresses a protein in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, and wherein the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein.

[0013] An embodiment of the present invention may comprise DNA constructs for the expression of proteins in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of an organism, where the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide production protein. Such DNA constructs may be represented as Pro-HPP, Prol-HPP-Pro2-SM, Pro-Ribo-HPP, Prol-Ribo-HPP-Pro2-SM, or ProCY-CYBB-CYBA-ProSM-SM wherein Prol, Pro2 and ProCY are inducible and/or constitutive promoters, HPP is a hydrogen peroxide production protein, CYBB-CYBA is a cytochrome hydrogen peroxide production protein complex, SM is a selectable marker such as a fluorescent protein sequence and Ribo is an optional transcription element.

[0014] An embodiment may further comprise a transgenic unicellular organism having a DNA construct stably integrated into the organism's genome under conditions suitable for an expression of the DNA construct in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, wherein the DNA construct expresses a protein in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, and wherein the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide production protein.

[0015] An embodiment of the present invention may further comprise a method for producing a transgenic unicellular organism expressing a hydrogen peroxide production protein which comprises growing a transgenic unicellular organism having a DNA construct stably integrated into a genome under conditions suitable for an expression of the DNA construct in the transgenic unicellular organism, wherein the DNA construct expresses a protein in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, and wherein the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide production protein.

[0016] An embodiment of the present invention may comprise one or more DNA constructs for the expression of proteins in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of an organism, where the expressed proteins are a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and hydrogen peroxide production protein. Such DNA constructs may be represented as ProCAT-CAT-ProHPP-HPP wherein ProCAT and ProHPP are inducible and/or constitutive promoters, CAT is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and HPP is a hydrogen peroxide production protein.

[0017] An embodiment may further comprise a transgenic unicellular organism having a DNA construct stably integrated into the organism's genome under conditions suitable for an expression of the DNA construct in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, wherein the DNA construct expresses a protein in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, and wherein the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and a hydrogen peroxide production protein.

[0018] An embodiment of the present invention may further comprise a method for producing a transgenic unicellular organism expressing a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and a hydrogen peroxide production protein which comprises growing a transgenic unicellular organism having a DNA construct stably integrated into a genome under conditions suitable for an expression of the DNA construct in the transgenic unicellular organism, wherein the DNA construct expresses a protein in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, and wherein the expressed protein is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and a hydrogen peroxide production protein.

[0019] As used herein, "at least one," "one or more," and "and/or" are open-ended expressions that are both conjunctive and disjunctive in operation. For example, each of the expressions "at least one of A, B and C," "at least one of A, B, or C," "one or more of A, B, and C," "one or more of A, B, or C" and "A, B, and/or C" means A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, or A, B and C together.

[0020] As used herein, "sometime" means at some indefinite or ^determinate point of time. So for example, as used herein, "sometime after" means following, whether immediately following or at some indefinite or indeterminate point of time following the prior act.

[0021] Various embodiments of the present invention are set forth in the Detailed Description as provided herein and as embodied by the claims. It should be understood, however, that this Summary does not contain all of the aspects and embodiments of the present invention, is not meant to be limiting or restrictive in any manner, and that the invention(s) as disclosed herein is/are understood by those of ordinary skill in the art to encompass obvious improvements and modifications thereto.

[0022] Additional advantages of the present invention will become readily apparent from the following discussion, particularly when taken together with the

accompanying drawings and sequence listings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0023] To further clarify the above and other advantages and features of the present invention, a more particular description of the invention is rendered by reference to specific embodiments thereof which are illustrated in the appended drawings. It is appreciated that these drawings depict only typical embodiments of the invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope. The invention is described and explained with additional specificity and detail through the use of the

accompanying drawings in which:

[0024] Figure 1 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Pro-CAT that includes (from 5' to 3'), promoter and a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence.

[0025] Figure 2 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Pro-CAT-SM that includes (from 5' to 3'), promoter; hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence and a second promoter and selectable marker.

[0026] Figure 3 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Pro-Ribo-CAT that includes (from 5' to 3'), a promoter, an optional regulator element, and a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence.

[0027] Figure 4 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Pro-Ribo-CAT-SM that includes (from 5' to 3'), a promoter, an optional regulator element, a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence and a selectable marker coding sequence.

[0028] Figure 5 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Pro-HPP that includes (from 5' to 3'), a promoter and a hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence.

[0029] Figure 6 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Prol -HPP-Pro2-SM that includes (from 5' to 3'), a first promoter; a hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence a second promoter and a selectable marker.

[0030] Figure 7 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Pro-Ribo-HPP that includes (from 5' to 3'), a promoter, an optional regulator element, and a hydrogen peroxide production and resistance protein coding sequence.

[0031] Figure 8 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as Prol-Ribo-HPP-Pro2-SM that includes (from 5' to 3'), a first promoter, an optional regulator element, a hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence a second promoter and a selectable marker coding sequence.

[0032] Figure 9 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as ProCY-CYBB-CYBA-ProSM-SM that includes (from 5' to 3'), a first promoter, the CYBB cytochrome hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence, the CYBA cytochrome hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence, a second promoter and a selectable marker coding sequence.

[0033] Figure 10 is a map of a DNA construct, represented as ProCAT-CAT-ProHPP-HPP that includes (from 5' to 3'), a first promoter, a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence, a second promoter, and a hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence.

[0034] Figure 11 is a graph showing the dose-response curves for two strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 exposed to varying

concentrations of exogenous ¾(¾. One of the strains lacks catalase activity and its great sensitivity to exogenous H2O2 validates the strategy of overexpressing catalase to achieve H202 resistance.

[0035] The drawings are not necessarily to scale.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEQUENCE LISTINGS

[0036] SEQ ID NO: 1 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), transcript variant 2, mRNA sequence (GENBANK Accession number NM_001143836).

[0037] SEQ ID NO: 2 discloses the protein sequence for the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), transcript variant 2, mRNA sequence (GENBANK Accession number NP_001 137308.1).

[0038] SEQ ID NO: 3 discloses the nucleic acid sequence of the Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655 catalase chromosome (GENBANK Accession No.:

NC_000913).

[0039] SEQ ID NO: 4 discloses the protein sequence of the Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655 catalase chromosome (GENBANK Accession No.:

YP_025308.1).

[0040] SEQ ID NO: 5 discloses the nucleic acid sequence of the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (GENBANK Accession No.: 162463248).

[0041] SEQ ID NO: 6 discloses the protein sequence of the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (GENBANK Accession No.: NP_001 105704).

[0042] SEQ ID NO: 7 discloses the nucleic acid sequence of the Bos taurus cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide (CYBB) (GENBANK Accession No.:

NM_174035).

[0043] SEQ ID NO: 8 discloses the protein sequence of the Bos taurus cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide (CYBB) (GENBANK Accession No.: NP_776460).

[0044] SEQ ID NO: 9 discloses the nucleic acid sequence of the Bos taurus cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide (CYBA) (GENBANK Accession No.:

NMJ74034).

[0045] SEQ ID NO: 10 discloses the protein sequence of the Bos taurus cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide (CYBA) (GENBANK Accession No.: NPJ776459).

[0046] SEQ ID NO: 11 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the THI4 riboswitch alt. spliced exon with 5' Notl and 3' Ndel.

[0047] SEQ ID NO: 12 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the paromomycin resistance marker (aph Vlllsr) w/ upstream Hsp70A/RbcS2 promoter and intron 1.

[0048] SEQ ID NO: 13 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the paromomycin resistance marker (GENBANK Accession number AF182845.2).

[0049] SEQ ID NO: 14 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the PSAD promoter.

[0050] SEQ ID NO: 15 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the RbcS2 promoter flanked by enhancer elements of Hsp70A and RbcS2 intron 1 ("Hsp70A/RbcS2").

[0051] SEQ ID NO: 16 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the NIT1 promoter (GENBANK Accession Number Y07648.2).

[0052] SEQ ID NO: 17 discloses the nucleic acid sequence for the CYC6 promoter (GENBANK Accession Number XM_002955348).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0053] Embodiments of the present invention include DNA constructs as well as methods for integration of the DNA constructs into photosynthetic unicellular organisms for the expression of hydrogen peroxide (H202) resistance as well as proteins for the production of hydrogen peroxide or a combination of both resistance to and production of hydrogen peroxide proteins. Transgenic cells are engineered to highly express cytosolic catalases and for increased ¾02 resistance. Embodiments also include DNA constructs as well as methods of integration of the DNA constructs into photosynthetic organisms for the heterologous and endogenous expression of H202 production. Hydrogen peroxide producing enzymes/oxidases are also expressed in the cytosol and peroxide is left to diffuse outside the cell. Oxidases include but are not limited to NADPH oxidases, cytochromes, pyruvate oxidases, and flavoprotein oxidases. A "construct" is an artificially constructed segment of DNA that may be introduced into a target unicellular organism.

[0054] As used herein, the term "expression" includes the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product, such as the expression of hydrogen peroxide production and resistance proteins in the cell wall of unicellular organisms as well as the cell membrane cytoplasm or any organelle. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as rRNA genes or tRNA genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life, i.e., eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and viruses, to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, up-regulation, RNA splicing, translation, and post translational modification of a protein.

[0055] As shown in Figure 1, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein is generally represented as Pro-CAT 100, where starting at the 5' UTR 102 an inducible or constitutive transcriptional promoter such as RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) and the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as Promoter (Pro) 104 with a transcription start site 106. CAT 110 is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein such as the E. coli catalase (KatE) (SEQ. ID NO: 3) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 108 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 114 provides the transcription termination on the 3 'UTR 116. The Pro-CAT construct 100 may

include a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 112 or reporter tag to allow for identification of the protein. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the promoter is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. The DNA construct Pro-CAT 100 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein, including expression in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytosol or organelles of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to

cyanobacteria or eukaryotic green algae including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0056] As used herein "operably linked" refers to the association of nucleic acid sequences on a single nucleic acid fragment so that the function of one is affected by the other. For example, a promoter is operably linked with a coding sequence when it is capable of affecting the expression of that coding sequence (i.e., that the coding sequence is under the transcriptional control of the promoter). Coding sequences can be operably linked to regulatory sequences in sense or antisense orientation.

[0057] As shown in Figure 2, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein with a selectable marker is generally represented as Pro-CAT-SM 200, where starting at the 5' UTR 102 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as Promoter (Pro) 104 with a transcription start site 106. CAT 1 10 is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein such as the E. coli catalase (CAT) (SEQ. ID NO: 3), where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 108 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. SM, 202 is a selectable marker such as a bleomycin (Ble) resistance marker, a hygromycin resistance marker, the

paromomycin resistance marker (aph VHIsr) (SEQ ID NO: 12 or SEQ ID NO: 13) or a fluorescent fusion protein yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), a red fluorescent protein (mRFP). A stop codon and 3 ' cassette restriction site 1 14 provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 1 16. The Pro-CAT-SM 200 may include a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 112 or reporter tag. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the selectable marker coding sequence. The DNA construct Pro-CAT-SM 200 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane, inner face of the membrane and cytoplasm of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria or green algae including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp.,

Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp.,

Pleurochrysis spp. Scenedesmus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0058] As shown in Figure 3, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein with a translational regulator is generally represented as Pro-Ribo-CAT 300, where starting at the 5' UTR 102 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as Promoter (Pro) 104 with a transcription start site 106. Ribo, 302 is an optional translational regulator such as THI4 nboswitch (SEQ ID NO: 1 1). CAT 110 is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein such as the E. coli catalase (CAT) (SEQ. ID NO: 3) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 108 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. A stop codon

and 3' cassette restriction site 114 provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 116. The Pro-Ribo-CAT 300 may include a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 112 or reporter tag for the identification of the protein. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the translational regulator coding sequence and the translational regulator coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. The DNA construct Pro-Ribo-CAT 300 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular photosynthetic organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp.,

Pleurochrysis spp. Scenedesmus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0059] As shown in Figure 4, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein with a translational regulator and a selectable marker is generally represented as Pro-Ribo-CAT-SM 400, where starting at the 5' UTR 102 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as Promoter (Pro) 104 with a transcription start site 106. Ribo, 302 is an optional translation regulator such as THI4 riboswitch (SEQ ID NO: 11). CAT 1 10 is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein such as the E. coli catalase (KatE) (SEQ. ID NO: 3) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 108 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein. SM, 202 is a selectable marker such as the paromomycin resistance marker (aph VHIsr) (SEQ ID NO: 12 or SEQ ID NO: 13) or a fluorescent fusion protein yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), a cyan fluorescent

protein (CFP), a red fluorescent protein (mRFP). A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 114 is provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 116. The Pro-Ribo-CAT-SM 400 may include a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 1 12 or reporter tag. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the translational regulator coding sequence. The translational regulator coding sequence is operably linked to the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence is operably linked to the selectable marker coding sequence. The DNA construct Pro-Ribo-CAT-SM 400 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaenaflos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp. and

Sargassum spp.

[0060] As shown in Figure 5, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide production protein is generally represented as Pro-HPP 500, where starting at the 5' UTR 102 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PS AD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as Promoter (Pro) 104 with a transcription start site 106. HPP 502 is a hydrogen peroxide production protein such as the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) (SEQ ID NO: 1), the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (SEQ IS NO: 5), or the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO:9) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 108 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein. A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 114 is provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 116. The Pro-HPP 500 may include a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 112 or reporter tag. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide production protein. The DNA construct Pro-HPP 500 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide production protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp,. Scenedesmus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0061] As shown in Figure 6, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide production protein with a selectable marker is generally represented as Prol-HPP-Pro2-SM 600, where starting at the 5' UTR 602 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as first promoter (Prol) 604 with a transcription start site 606. HPP 502 is a hydrogen peroxide production protein such as the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) (SEQ ID NO: 1), the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (SEQ IS NO: 5), or the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO:9) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 608 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein. A peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 610 or reporter tag is used to identify the protein. Second promoter (Pro2) 612 is an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a

promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) and SM, 202 is a selectable marker such as a fluorescent fusion protein yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), a red fluorescent protein (mRFP). A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 614 is provides the transcription termination on the 3 'UTR 616. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the first promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide production protein and the hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence is operably linked to the second promoter which is operably linked to the selectable marker coding sequence. The DNA construct Prol-HPP-Pro2-SM 600 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular photosynthetic organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide production protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp.,

Scenendesumus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0062] As shown in Figure 7, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide production protein with a translational regulator is generally represented as Pro-Ribo-HPP 700, where starting at the 5' UTR 102 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as Promoter (Pro) 104 with a transcription start site 106. Ribo, 302 is a translational regulator such as THI4 riboswitch (SEQ ID NO: 11). HPP 502 is a hydrogen peroxide production protein such as the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) (SEQ ID NO: 1), the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (SEQ IS NO: 5), or the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID

NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO: 9) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 108 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein. A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 114 is provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 1 16. The Pro-Ribo-HPP 700 may include a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 1 12 or reporter tag for the identification of the hydrogen peroxide production protein. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the translational regulator coding sequence and the translational regulator coding sequence is operably linked to the hydrogen peroxide production protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide production protein. The DNA construct Pro-Ribo-HPP 700 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide production protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp.,

Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp., Scenedesemus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0063] As shown in Figure 8, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide production protein with a translational regulator and a selectable marker is generally represented as Prol-Ribo-HPP-Pro2-SM 800, where starting at the 5' UTR 602 an inducible transcriptional promoter such as the NITl inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as First Promoter (Prol) 604 with a transcription start site 606. Ribo, 302 is a translational regulator such as THI4 riboswitch (SEQ ID NO: 11). HPP 502 is a hydrogen peroxide production protein such as the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) (SEQ ID NO: 1), the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (SEQ IS NO: 5), or the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO:9) where a Flag

3 x tag 610 or reporter tag is attached on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein. Second Promoter (Pro2) 610 is an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) and SM, 202 is a selectable marker such as a fluorescent fusion protein yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), a red fluorescent protein (mRFP). A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 614 is provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 616. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the first promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the translational regulator coding sequence, the translational regulator coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide production protein and the hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence is operably linked to the 5' end of the second promoter coding sequence and the second promoter is operably linked to the 5' end of the selectable marker coding sequence. The DNA construct Prol-Ribo-HPP-Pro2-SM 800 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide production protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp.,

Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0064] As shown in Figure 9, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide production protein complex with a selectable marker is generally represented as ProCY-CYBB-CYBA-ProSM-SM 900, where starting at the 5' UTR 902 an inducible or constitutive transcriptional promoter such as RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14), the NIT1 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) or the CYC6

promoter (SEQ ID NO: 17) is provided as ProCY 904 with a transcription start site 906. CYBB 910 is first hydrogen peroxide production protein of the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 7) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 908 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein 910. A cleavage site 912 operably links the CYBB hydrogen peroxide protein with CYBA 914 which is second hydrogen peroxide production protein of the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 9) where the protein 914 has a restriction site and stop codon 916 on the 3 ' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein complex where a reporter tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 918 or reporter tag identifies the location of the protein complex 910 and 914. ProSM 920 is a promoter such as RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) the PS AD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14), the NITl promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) or the CYC6 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 17) with a transcription start site 922. SM, 926 is a species specific selectable marker such as the paromomycin resistance marker (aph VHIsr) (SEQ ID NO:12 or SEQ ID NO: 13) where the selectable marker has a restriction site and start codon 924 on the 5' end of the selectable marker. A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 928 provides the transcription termination on the 3'UTR 930. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the first promoter is operably linked to the 5' end of the CYBB hydrogen peroxide production protein sequence encoding the CYBB hydrogen peroxide production protein and the CYBB hydrogen peroxide production protein coding sequence is operably linked to cleavage site which is operably linked to the 5' end of the CYBA hydrogen peroxide production protein sequence encoding the CYBA hydrogen peroxide protein which is operably linked to a second promoter which is operably linked to a selectable marker. The DNA construct ProCY-CYBB-CYBA-ProSM-SM 900 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular photosynthetic organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide production protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp., Pleurochrysis spp. Scenedesemus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0065] As shown in Figure 10, a construct for expression of a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and a hydrogen peroxide production protein is generally represented as ProCAT-CAT-ProHPP-HPP 1000, where starting at the 5' UTR 1002 an inducible or constitutive transcriptional promoter such as RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) and the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as ProCAT 1004 with a transcription start site 1006. CAT 1 10 is a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein such as the E. coli catalase (KatE) (SEQ. ID NO: 3) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 1008 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein 110. A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 1014 provides the transcription termination and a reporter peptide tag allows for identification of the protein 1012. The construct further includes an inducible transcriptional promoter such as NIT1 inducible promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) and CYC6 inducible promoters (SEQ ID NO: 17), constitutive promoters such as the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15) or a promoter with an associated regulatory element promoter such as the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14) is provided as ProHPP 1016 with a transcription start site 1018. HPP 502 is a hydrogen peroxide production protein such as the Homo sapiens NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) (SEQ ID NO: 1), the Zea mays superoxide dismutase4 (sod4) (SEQ IS NO: 5), or the cytochrome b245 protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO: 9) where the protein has a restriction site and start codon 1020 on the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide production protein 502. A stop codon and 3' cassette restriction site 1022 provides the transcription termination on the 3 'UTR 1026 a second reporter tag which may be a peptide tag such as the FLAG 3x tag 1024 or reporter tag is used to identify the hydrogen peroxide production protein. Each of these components is operably linked to the next, i.e., the first promoter is operably linked to the 5' end of the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein sequence encoding the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein, the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein coding sequence is operably linked to the second promoter coding sequence. The second promoter coding sequence is operably linked to the hydrogen peroxide production coding sequence. The DNA construct ProCAT-CAT-ProHPP-HPP 1000 is then integrated into a photosynthetic unicellular organism such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and organisms expressing the hydrogen peroxide resistance protein and the hydrogen peroxide production protein, including expression in the outer plasma membrane of the organism, are then generated including but not limited to cyanobacteria including but not limited to Arthrospira spp., Spirulina spp., Calothrix spp., Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon spp., Anadaena spp., Gleotrichia spp., Oscillatoria spp., Nostoc spp., Synechococcus elongatus 7942, Synechococcus spp., Synechosystis spp. PCC 6803, Synechosystis spp., Spirulina plantensis, Chaetoceros spp., Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spp., Cyclotella spp., Didymosphenia spp., Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella spp., Botryococcus braunii, Botryococcus spp., Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., Hantscia spp., Hematococcus spp., Isochrysis spp., Laminaria spp., Navicula spp.,

Pleurochrysis spp. Scenedesemus spp. and Sargassum spp.

[0066] Generally, the DNA that is introduced into an organism is part of a construct. A construct is an artificially constructed segment of DNA that may be introduced into a target organism tissue or organism cell. The DNA may be a gene of interest, e.g., a coding sequence for a protein, or it may be a sequence that is capable of regulating expression of a gene, such as an antisense sequence, a sense suppression sequence, or a miRNA sequence. As used herein, "gene" refers to a segment of nucleic acid. A gene can be introduced into a genome of a species, whether from a different species or from the same species. The construct typically includes regulatory regions operably linked to the 5' side of the DNA of interest and/or to the 3' side of the DNA of interest. For example, a promoter is operably linked with a coding sequence when it is capable of affecting the expression of that coding sequence (i.e., that the coding sequence is under the transcriptional control of the promoter). Coding sequences can be operably linked to regulatory sequences in sense or antisense orientation. A cassette containing all of these elements is also referred to herein as an expression cassette. The expression cassettes may additionally contain 5' leader sequences in the expression cassette construct. (A leader sequence is a nucleic acid sequence containing a promoter as well as the upstream region of a gene.) The regulatory regions (i.e., promoters, transcriptional regulatory regions, translational regulatory regions, and translational termination regions) and/or the polynucleotide encoding a signal anchor may be native/analogous to the host cell or to each other. Alternatively, the regulatory regions and/or the polynucleotide encoding a signal anchor may be heterologous to the host cell or to each other. The expression cassette may additionally contain selectable marker genes. See U.S. Patent No. 7,205,453 and U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. 2006/0218670 and 2006/0248616.

Targeting constructs are engineered DNA molecules that encode genes and flanking sequences that enable the constructs to integrate into the host genome at targeted or random locations. Publicly available restriction proteins may be used for the development of the constructs. Targeting constructs depend upon homologous recombination to find their targets.

[0067] The expression cassette or chimeric genes in the transforming vector typically have a transcriptional termination region at the opposite end from the transcription initiation regulatory region. The transcriptional termination region may normally be associated with the transcriptional initiation region from a different gene. The transcriptional termination region may be selected, particularly for stability of the mRNA, to enhance expression. Illustrative transcriptional termination regions include the NOS terminator from Agrobacterium Ti plasmid and the rice a-amylase terminator.

Promoters

[0068] A promoter is a DNA region, which includes sequences sufficient to cause transcription of an associated (downstream) sequence. The promoter may be regulated, i.e., not constitutively acting to cause transcription of the associated sequence. If inducible, there are sequences present therein which mediate regulation of expression so that the associated sequence is transcribed only when an inducer molecule is present. The promoter may be any DNA sequence which shows transcriptional activity in the chosen cells or organisms. The promoter may be inducible or constitutive. It may be naturally-occurring, may be composed of portions of various naturally-occurring promoters, or may be partially or totally synthetic. Guidance for the design of promoters is provided by studies of promoter structure, such as that of Harley and Reynolds, Nucleic Acids Res., 15, 2343-61 (1987). Also, the location of the promoter relative to the transcription start may be optimized. Many suitable promoters for use in algae, plants, and photosynthetic bacteria are well known in the art, as are nucleotide sequences, which enhance expression of an associated expressible sequence.

[0069] While the RbcS2 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 15), the PSAD promoter (SEQ ID NO: 14), the NIT1 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 16) the CYC6 promoter (SEQ ID NO: 17) and the riboswitch translational regulator (SEQ ID NO: 12) or the regulatory region upstream of the protein coding sequences are examples of promoters that may be

used, a number of promoters may be used including but not limited to prokaryotic lac and Ptrc promoters and eukaryotic. Promoters can be selected based on the desired outcome. That is, the nucleic acids can be combined with constitutive, tissue-preferred, or other promoters for expression in the host cell of interest. Translational enhancing sequences and outer membrane trafficking signal peptide sequences are assembled around NOX4 as necessary (and is species specific) for proper protein expression and localization to the outer membrane.

Hydrogen Peroxide Resistant and Production Proteins

[0070] H2O2 is a simple molecule but its effect on cells can be complex. One reason for this is that, in addition to entering freely into cells from exogenous sources, H2O2 is produced endogenously by aerobic metabolism, for example during beta-oxidation of fatty acids or photorespiration. Moreover, H2O2 is a signaling molecule known to activate the SoxR and OxyR regulons, inhibit metabolism and trigger programmed cell death. Various organisms, including humans and bacteria, utilize H2O2 secretion to defend themselves from pathogens and competitors. A common example is human neutrophils that secrete an "oxidative burst" of lethal H2O2 to kill invading bacteria that they encounter in blood and tissues. As noted earlier, H2O2 degrades

spontaneously to H2O and O2 in water. In cells, H2O2 degradation is highly accelerated by peroxidase and catalase enzymes. Catalases degrade H2O2 at one of the fastest enzymatic rates known but with a relatively low affinity for the substrate. Peroxidases have a higher affinity for H2O2 but require electron donors and are thereby integrated with cellular energy metabolism. For example, ascorbate pools in chloroplasts can be higher than 1 mM owing to the need for supplying ascorbate peroxidases with reducing power acquired from photosynthetic electron transport. Heterologous peroxidase expression would require linking the peroxidases with electron donors, native or otherwise, and create the risk of interfering with normal cell functions and compromising growth.

[0071] For genetic engineering of resistance to exogenous H2O2, catalases are better tools because of their high rates of H2O2 degradation and their lack of integration with other cellular metabolism. Even the relatively poor affinity of catalases for H2O2 can be an advantage because heterologous catalase expression is thereby less likely to interfere with positive functions of H2O2 in gene regulation.

Catalases for Hydrogen Peroxide Resistance

[0072] Catalases are enzymes found in many living organisms. Catalases provide resistance to hydrogen peroxide by decomposing hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

A. E. coli katE catalase

[0073] The E. coli KatE gene (SEQ ID NO: 3) contains the HPII catalase and provides resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The HPII catalase possesses enzymes that serve to decompose hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen which intern protects host cells from the hydrogen peroxide.

[0074] Additional catalases that may be used to express hydrogen peroxide resistance in photosynthetic unicellular organisms includes but is not limited to the CAT2 catalase 2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (GENBANK Accession No. NC_003075, Gene ID: 829661), the catl catalasel [Zea mays] (GENBANK Gene ID: 542369), the CAT1 catalase/peroxidase [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii] (GENBANK Gene ID: 5722404), and the CAT2 catalase/peroxidase [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii]

(GENBANK Gene ID: 5715669).

Hydrogen peroxide production proteins

A. Human NOX4 Protein

[0075] The human Nox4 (SEQ ID NO: 1) protein is a transmembrane bound NADPH oxidase which produces hydrogen peroxide. Nox4 is relatively unique among the Nox family of proteins in that it constitutively produces large amounts of hydrogen peroxide without concomitant superoxide preformation. Nox4 also requires no regulatory mechanisms for activity such as subunit assembly, cytosolic activation factors or Rac-type GTPases and activity is believed to occur without post translational modifications such as glycoslylation.

B. Zea mays superoxide dismutase (SOD4)

The Zea mays SOD4 gene produces superoxide dismutase enzymes (SEQ ID NO:5) that generate hydrogen peroxide by catalyzing the redox reaction of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

C. Cytochrome

[0076] Cytochrome b245 is a protein complex composed of cytochrome b alpha and beta chain CYBB (SEQ ID NO:7) and CYBA (SEQ ID NO:9). Cytochrome b245 is a component of the membrane-bound oxidase of phagocytes that generates hydrogen peroxide. It is the terminal component of a respiratory chain that transfers single electrons from cytoplasmic NADPH across the plasma membrane to molecular oxygen on the exterior. Cytochrome b245 participates in the regulation of cellular pH and is blocked by zinc. Cytochrome b245 is made of two subunits: a light chain and a heavy chain. The sequences for both subunits (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO:9) must be expressed in tandem to assemble a functional cytochrome

Vector construction, transformation, and heterologous protein expression

[0077] As used herein plasmid, vector or cassette refers to an extrachromosomal element often carrying genes and usually in the form of circular double-stranded DNA molecules. Such elements may be autonomously replicating sequences, genome integrating sequences, phage or nucleotide sequences, linear or circular, of a single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA, derived from any source, in which a number of nucleotide sequences have been joined or recombined into a unique construction which is capable of introducing a promoter fragment and DNA sequence for a selected gene product along with an appropriate 3' untranslated sequence into a cell.

[0078] An example of an expression vector is a Chlamydomonas expression vector designated pSI105, derivatives of the vectors described herein may be capable of stable transformation of many photosynthetic unicells, including but not limited to unicellular algae of many species, photosynthetic bacteria, and single photosynthetic cells, e.g. protoplasts, derived from the green parts of plants. Vectors for stable transformation of algae, bacteria, and plants are well known in the art and can be obtained from commercial vendors. Expression vectors can be engineered to produce heterologous and/or homologous protein(s) of interest (e.g., antibodies, mating type agglutinins, etc.). Such vectors are useful for recombinantly producing the protein of interest. Such vectors are also useful to modify the natural phenotype of host cells (e.g., expressing a hydrogen peroxide production protein and a hydrogen peroxide resistance protein).

[0079] To construct the vector, the upstream DNA sequences of a gene expressed under control of a suitable promoter may be restriction mapped and areas important for the expression of the protein characterized. The exact location of the start codon of the gene is determined and, making use of this information and the restriction map, a vector may be designed for expression of a heterologous protein by removing the region responsible for encoding the gene's protein but leaving the upstream region found to contain the genetic material responsible for control of the gene's expression. A synthetic oligonucleotide is preferably inserted in the location where the protein sequence once was, such that any additional gene could be cloned in using restriction endonuclease sites in the synthetic oligonucleotide (i.e., a multicloning site). An unrelated gene (or coding sequence) inserted at this site would then be under the control of an extant start codon and upstream regulatory region that will drive expression of the foreign (i.e., not normally present) protein encoded by this gene. Once the gene for the foreign protein is put into a cloning vector, it can be introduced into the host organism using any of several methods, some of which might be particular to the host organism. Variations on these methods are described in the general literature. Manipulation of conditions to optimize transformation for a particular host is within the skill of the art.

[0080] The basic transformation techniques for expression in photosynthetic unicells are commonly known in the art. These methods include, for example, introduction of plasmid transformation vectors or linear DNA by use of cell injury, by use of biolistic devices, by use of a laser beam or electroporation, by microinjection, or by use of Agrobacterium tumifaciens for plasmid delivery with transgene integration or by any other method capable of introducing DNA into a host cell.

[0081] In some embodiments, biolistic plasmid transformation of the chloroplast genome can be achieved by introducing regions of chloroplast DNA flanking a desired nucleotide sequence, allowing for homologous recombination of the exogenous DNA into the target chloroplast genome. Plastid transformation is routine and well known in the art (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,451,513, 5,545,817, and 5,545,818; WO 95/16783; McBride et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 91:7301-7305, 1994). In some instances one to 1.5 kb flanking nucleotide sequences of chloroplast genomic DNA may be used. Using this method, point mutations in the chloroplast 16S rRNA and rpsl2 genes, which confer resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin, can be utilized as selectable markers for transformation and can result in stable homoplasmic transformants, at a frequency of approximately one per 100 bombardments of target cells (Svab et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Set, USA 87:8526-8530, 1990).

[0082] Biolistic microprojectile-mediated transformation also can be used to introduce a polynucleotide into photosynthetic unicells for nuclear integration. This method utilizes microprojectiles such as gold or tungsten, which are coated with the desired polynucleotide by precipitation with calcium chloride, spermidine or polyethylene glycol. The microprojectile particles are accelerated at high speed into cells using a device such as the BIOLISTIC PD- 1000 particle gun. Methods for the

transformation using biolistic methods are well known in the art. Microprojectile mediated transformation has been used, for example, to generate a variety of transgenic organisms. Transformation of photosynthetic unicells also can be transformed using, for example, biolistic methods as described above, protoplast transformation, electroporation of partially permeabilized cells, introduction of DNA using glass fibers, the glass bead agitation method, and the like. Transformation frequency may be increased by replacement of recessive rRNA or r-protein antibiotic resistance genes with a dominant selectable marker, including, but not limited to the bacterial aadA gene (Svab and Maiiga, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA 90:913-917, 1993).

[0083] The basic techniques used for transformation and expression in

photosynthetic organisms are known in the art. These methods have been described in a number of texts for standard molecular biological manipulation (see Packer & Glaser, 3988, "Cyanobacteria", Meth. EnzymoL, Vol. 167; Weissbach & Weissbach, 1988, "Methods for plant molecular biology," Academic Press, New York, Sambrook, Fritsch & Maniatis, 1989, "Molecular Cloning: A laboratory manual," 2nd edition Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.; and Clark M S, 1997, Plant Molecular Biology, Springer, N.Y.). These methods include, for example, biolistic devices (See, for example, Sanford, Trends In Biotech. (1988) 6: 299-302, U.S. Pat. No. 4,945,050); electroporation (Fromm et al., Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. (USA) (1985) 82: 5824-5828); use of a laser beam, electroporation, microinjection or any other method capable of introducing DNA into a host cell (e.g., an NVPO).

[0084] Other transformation methods are available to those skilled in the art, such as direct uptake of foreign DNA constructs (see EP 295959), techniques of electroporation (see Fromm et al. (1986) Nature (London) 319:791) or high-velocity ballistic bombardment with metal particles coated with the nucleic acid constructs (see Kline et al. (1987) Nature (London) 327:70, and see U.S. Pat. No:4,945,050).

[0085] To confirm the presence of the transgenes in transgenic cells, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification or Southern blot analysis can be performed using methods known to those skilled in the art. Expression products of the transgenes can be detected in any of a variety of ways, depending upon the nature of the product, and include Western blot and enzyme assay. One particularly useful way to quantitate protein expression and to detect replication in different photosynthetic unicellular organisms is to use a reporter gene, such as GUS. Once transgenic organisms have been obtained, they may be grown to produce organisms or parts having the desired phenotype.

Use of a Selectable Marker fSM)

[0086] A selectable marker can provide a means to obtain photosynthetic unicells that express the marker and, therefore, can be useful as a component of a vector. Examples of selectable markers include, but are not limited to, those that confer antimetabolite resistance, for example, dihydrofolate reductase, which confers resistance to methotrexate; neomycin phosphotransferase, which confers resistance to the aminoglycosides neomycin, kanamycin and paromycin (SEQ ID NO: 12 and SEQ ID NO: 13); hygro, which confers resistance to hygromycin, trpB, which allows cells to utilize indole in place of tryptophan; hisD, which allows cells to utilize histinol in place of histidine; mannose-6-phosphate isomerase which allows cells to utilize mannose; ornithine decarboxylase, which confers resistance to the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, 2-(difluoromemyl)-DL-ornithine; and deaminase from Aspergillus terreus, which confers resistance to Blasticidin S. Additional selectable markers include those that confer herbicide resistance, for example, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene, which confers resistance to phosphinothricin, a mutant EPSPV-synthase, which confers glyphosate resistance, a mutant acetolactate synthase, which confers imidazolione or sulfonylurea resistance, a mutant psbA, which confers resistance to atrazine, or a mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase, or other markers conferring resistance to an herbicide such as glufosinate. Selectable markers include polynucleotides that confer dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) or neomycin resistance for eukaryotic cells and tetracycline; ampicillin resistance for prokaryotes such as E. coli; and bleomycin, gentamycin, glyphosate, hygromycin, kanamycin, methotrexate, phleomycin, phosphinotricin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamide and sulfonylurea resistance in plants.

[0087] Fluorescent peptide (FP) fusions allow analysis of dynamic localization patterns in real time. Over the last several years, a number of different colored fluorescent peptides have been developed and may be used in various constructs, including yellow FP (YFP), cyan FP (CFP), red FP (mRFP) and others. Some of these peptides have improved spectral properties, allowing analysis of fusion proteins for a longer period of time and permitting their use in photobleaching experiments. Others are less sensitive to pH, and other physiological parameters, making them more suitable for use in a variety of cellular contexts. Additionally, FP -tagged

proteins can be used in protein-protein interaction studies by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). High-throughput analyses of FP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis have been performed by overexpressing cDNA-GFP fusions driven by strong constitutive promoters. A standard protocol is to insert the mRFP tag or marker at a default position of ten amino acids upstream of the stop codon, following methods established for

Arabidopsis (Tian et al. High through put fluorescent tagging of full-length

Arabidopsis gene products in plants. PlantPhysiol. 135 25-38). Although useful, this approach has inherent limitations, as it does not report tissue-specificity, and overexpression of multimeric proteins may disrupt the complex. Furthermore, overexpression can lead to protein aggregation and/or mislocalization.

[0088] In order to tag a specific gene with a fluorescent peptide such as the red fluorescent protein (mRFP), usually a gene ideal for tagging has been identified through forward genetic analysis or by homology to an interesting gene from another model system. For generation of native expression constructs, full-length genomic sequence is required. For tagging of the full-length gene with an FP, the full-length gene sequence should be available, including all intron and exon sequences. A standard protocol is to insert the mRFP tag or marker at a default position of ten amino acids upstream of the stop codon, following methods known in the art established for photosynthetic unicells. The rationale is to avoid masking N-terminal targeting signals (such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention or peroxisomal signals). In addition, by avoiding the N-terminus, disruption of N-terminal targeting sequences or transit peptides is avoided. However, choice of tag insertion is case-dependent, and it should be based on information on functional domains from database searches. If a homolog of the gene of interest has been successfully tagged in another organism, this information is also used to choose the optimal tag insertion site.

[0089] Flag tags or reporter tags/epitopes, such as artificial genes with 5' and 3 ' restriction sites and C-terminal 3X FLAG tags are another mechanism to allow for analysis of the location and presence of a gene. The C-terminal FLAG tag/epitope allows screening of transformants and analysis of protein expression by standard Western blot using commercially available anti-FLAG M2 primary antibody.

Linker

[0090] A flexible linker peptide may be placed between proteins such that the desired protein is obtained. A cleavable linker peptide may also be placed between proteins such that they can be cleaved and the desired protein obtained. An example of a flexible linker may include (GSS)2, which is a flexible linker added by the reverse primer.

Transcription Terminator

[0091] The transcription termination region of the constructs is a downstream regulatory region including the stop codon TGA and the cassette restriction site of the sequence. Alternative transcription termination regions which may be used may be native with the transcriptional initiation region, may be native with the DNA sequence of interest, or may be derived from another source. The transcription termination region may be naturally occurring, or wholly or partially synthetic. Convenient transcription termination regions are available from the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the octopine synthase and nopaline synthase transcription termination regions or from the genes for beta-phaseolin, the chemically inducible plant gene, pIN.

Growing a transgenic unicellular organism

[0092] A variety of methods are available for growing photosynthetic unicellular organisms. Cells can be successfully grown in a variety of media including agar and liquid, with shaking or mixing. Long term storage of cells can be achieved using plates and storing a 10-15°C. Cells may be stored in agar tubes, capped and grown in a cool, low light storage area. Photosynthetic unicells are usually grown in a simple medium with light as the sole energy source including in closed structures such as photobioreactors, where the environment is under strict control. A photobioreactor is a bioreactor that incorporates a light source.

[0093] While the techniques necessary for growing unicellular organisms are known in the art, an example method of growing unicells may include using a liquid culture for growth including 100 μΐ of 72hr liquid culture used to inoculate 3ml of medium in 12 well culture plates that are grown for 24 hrs in the light with shaking.

[0094] Another example may include the use of 300ul of 72hr liquid culture used to inoculate 5ml of medium in 50ml culture tubes where the unicells cultures are grown for 72 hrs under light with shaking. Cultures are vortexed and photographed.

Cultures are then left to settle for 10 min and photographed again.

[0095] The practice described herein employs, unless otherwise indicated, conventional techniques of chemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, recombinant DNA, genetics, immunology, cell biology, cell culture and transgenic biology, which are within the skill of the art. See, e.g., Maniatis, et al., Molecular Cloning, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1982); Sambrook, et al., Molecular Cloning, 2nd Ed. , Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1989); Sambrook and Russell, Molecular Cloning, 3rd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (2001); Ausubel, et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons (including periodic updates) (1992); Glover, DNA Cloning, IRL Press, Oxford (1985); Russell, Molecular biology of plants: a laboratory course manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1984); Anand, Techniques for the Analysis of Complex Genomes, Academic Press, NY (1992); Guthrie and Fink, Guide to Yeast Genetics and

Molecular Biology, Academic Press, NY (1991); Harlow and Lane, Antibodies, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1988); Nucleic Acid Hybridization, B.D. Hames & S.J. Higgins eds. (1984); Transcription And

Translation, B.D. Hames & S.J. Higgins eds. (1984); Culture Of Animal Cells, R.I. Freshney, A.R. Liss, Inc. (1987); Immobilized Cells And Enzymes, IRL Press (1986); B. Perbal, A Practical Guide To Molecular Cloning (1984); the treatise, Methods In Enzymology, Academic Press, Inc., NY); Methods In Enzymology, Vols. 154 and 155, Wu, et al., eds.; Immunochemical Methods In Cell And Molecular Biology, Mayer and Walker, eds., Academic Press, London (1987); Handbook Of Experimental

Immunology, Volumes I-IV, D.M. Weir and C.C. Blackwell, eds. (1986); Riott, Essential Immunology, 6th Edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1988); Fire, et al., RNA Interference Technology: From Basic Science to Drug Development, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2005); Schepers, RNA Interference in Practice, Wiley VCH (2005); Engelke, RNA Interference (RNAi): The Nuts & Bolts of siRNA Technology, DNA Press (2003); Gott, RNA Interference, Editing, and

Modification: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology), Human Press, Totowa, NJ (2004);and Sohail, Gene Silencing by RNA Interference: Technology and Application, CRC (2004).

EXAMPLES

[0096] The following examples are provided to illustrate further the various applications and are not intended to limit the invention beyond the limitations set forth in the appended claims.

Example 1 - Use of Selectable Marker to quantify hydrogen peroxide resistance

[0097] The cell wall-deficient CC-400 cwl5 mt+ strain of C. reinhardtii is used as genetic background for transformations. Cultures are maintained on liquid and solid (1.5% agar) tris-acetate-phosphate (TAP) growth medium (Gorman & Levine 1965) under continuous 60 μΕηι-28-1 cool white fluorescent light at 25C. Liquid cultures for physiological analyses, such as catalase assays, are grown under the same conditions except that lighting is on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark, which is more consistent with outdoor growing conditions than is continuous light.

[0098] Standard methods for generating recombinant DNA expression vectors and expressing heterologous proteins in C. reinhardti are employed (see Sambrook and Russell 2001 and Heitzer and Zschoernig 2007). C. reinhardtii codon bias, as described by Fuhrman and Hegemann (1997), is used by adapting the E. coli catalase (KatE) (open reading frame (ORF)). (Additional catalases that may be used to express hydrogen peroxide resistance in photosynthetic unicellular organisms include but are not limited to the CAT2 catalase 2 [Arabidopsis thaliana ] (GENBANK Accession No. NC_003075, Gene ID: 829661), catl catalasel [Zea mays]

(GENBANK Gene ID: 542369), the CAT1 catalase/peroxidase [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii] (GENBANK Gene ID: 5722404), and the CAT2 catalase/peroxidase [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii] (GENBANK Gene ID: 5715669)). Artificial genes with 5' and 3' restriction sites and C-terminal 3X FLAG tags are synthesized using a service provider such as GenScnpt Corporation, Piscataway, New Jersey. Restriction sites are used to ligate and clone the synthesized ORF and fusion sequences into the C. reinhardtii expression vector pChlamy_l, which is available from Life

Technologies Corporation, Grand Island, New York. The pChlamy_l vector systems harbor effective selection markers and are optimized for transgene expression in C. reinhardtii. Public domain expression vectors based on the pS1105 system (Couso et al. 2011) are also available for C. reinhardtii and are utilized for later stages of this project. For localization of the catalase to the inner face of the plasma membrane, an N-terminal GPI anchor sequence for a membrane anchoring protein domain are added to the 5' end of the transgene coding sequence. The C-teiminal FLAG tag/epitope

allows screening of transformants and analysis of protein expression by standard Western blot using commercially available anti-FLAG M2 primary antibody.

Chromogenic detection of primary antibody is mediated by an anti-mouse alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody and NBT-BCIP substrate.

Transformations are done according to the nuclear glass bead method (Kindle 1990) (this is the method used for each transgene).

[0099] Transformed lines of C. reinhardtii that show evidence of heterologous catalase expression in Western blots are grown to 106 cells/ml in liquid medium and tested for in vivo catalase activity using an assay based on the initial rate of 02 evolution in response to addition of exogenous H202 to intact cells (Thomas et al. 1998). 02 evolution is measured in a Clark-type 02 electrode. The assay is simple and fast, allowing Km and Vmax values for total catalase activity to be determined in cell suspensions with relative ease. The assay is also sensitive enough that replica-plated single colonies of transformants can be suspended in solution and their catalase activity measured accurately, allowing early screening for catalase activity before possible decay of transgene expression can occur. Untransformed and empty vector control strains therefore exhibit background catalase activity (this is the assay for catalase expressing strains).

[00100] Analyses of growth is made for all transformed lines with addition of the H202-based algaecide PAK™27 from Morgan & Associates, Inc. (Peroxygen Solutions), Greensboro, North Carolina, over a range of concentrations, from benign to completely lethal. Growth are tested in 10 ml liquid batch cultures. The cultures are grown in 25x200mm culture tubes slanted at 15° on an orbital shaker set to 150 rpm.

[00101] Liquid cultures for growth experiments are started from replica plated cultures on agar slants and grown to saturation under unstressed conditions (108 cells/ml or more). The cultures are then diluted to approximately 0.5 x 106 cells/ml with fresh medium and returned to unstressed conditions. After 24 h adjustment to the dilution, PAK™27 doses are applied and cell density measured at 24 h intervals over 72 h by apparent absorbance at 750 nm (A750), which is proportional to light scattering and linear with cells/ml (Thomas 1998). Growth rates for the different tubes are calculated as hours required for cell doubling averaged over 72 h.

Example 2 - Expression of the NOX4 protein for hydrogen peroxide production in C. reinhardtii

[00102] The cell wall-deficient CC-400 cwl5 mt+ strain of C. reinhardtii is used as genetic background for transformations. Cultures are maintained on liquid and solid (1.5% agar) tris-acetate-phosphate (TAP) growth medium under continuous 60 μΕπι-2s- 1 cool white fluorescent light at 25C. Liquid cultures for physiological analyses, such as oxidase assays, are grown under the same conditions except that lighting is on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark, which is more consistent with outdoor growing conditions than is continuous light.

[00103] Standard methods for generating recombinant DNA expression vectors and expressing heterologous proteins in C. reinhardtii are employed. C reinhardtii codon bias, as described by Fuhrman and Hegemann (1997), is used by adapting the human Nox4 (SEQ ID NO: 1) protein (open reading frame (ORF)). Artificial genes with 5' and 3' restriction sites and C-terminal 3X FLAG tags are synthesized using a service provider such as GenScript. Restriction sites are used to ligate and clone the synthesized ORF and fusion sequences into the C. reinhardtii expression vector pChlamy_l, which is available from Life Technologies Corporation. The pChlamy_l vector systems harbor effective selection markers and are optimized for transgene expression in C. reinhardtii. Public domain expression vectors based on the pS1105 system are also available for C. reinhardtii and are utilized for later stages of this project. For localization of catalase to the inner face of the plasma membrane, an N-terminal GPI anchor sequence for a membrane anchoring protein domain are added to the 5' end of the transgene coding sequence. The C-terminal FLAG tag/epitope allows screening of transformants and analysis of protein expression by standard Western blot using commercially available anti-FLAG M2 primary antibody. Chromogenic detection of primary antibody is mediated by an anti-mouse alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody and NBT-BCIP substrate. Transformations are done according to the nuclear glass bead method.

[00104] Transformed lines of C. reinhardtii that show evidence of heterologous oxidase expression in Western blots are grown to 106 cells/ml in liquid medium and tested for in vivo oxidase activity using an assay based on the initial rate of 02 evolution in response to addition of exogenous H202 to intact cells. 02 evolution is measured in a Clark-type 02 electrode. The assay is simple and fast, allowing Km and Vmax values for total oxidase activity to be determined in cell suspensions with relative ease. The assay is also sensitive enough that replica-plated single colonies of transformants can be suspended in solution and their oxidase activity measured accurately, allowing early screening for oxidase activity before possible decay of transgene expression can occur. Untransformed and empty vector control strains therefore exhibit background oxidase activity (this is the assay for oxidase expressing strains).

[00105] Analyses of growth is made for all transformed lines with addition of the H202 based algaecide PAK™27 over a range of concentrations, from benign to completely lethal. Growth are tested in 10 ml liquid batch cultures. The cultures are grown in .25x200mm culture tubes slanted at 15° on an orbital shaker set to 150 rpm.

[00106] Liquid cultures for growth experiments are started from replica plated cultures on agar slants and grown to saturation under unstressed conditions (108 cells/ml or more). The cultures are then diluted to approximately 0.5 x 106 cells/ml with fresh medium and returned to unstressed conditions. After 24 h adjustment to the dilution, PAK™27 doses are applied and cell density measured at 24 h intervals over 72 h by apparent absorbance at 750 nm (A750), which is proportional to light scattering and linear with cells/ml. Growth rates for the different tubes are calculated as hours required for cell doubling averaged over 72 h.

Example 3 - Expression of the SOD4 protein for hydrogen peroxide production in C. reinhardtii

[00107] The cell wall-deficient CC-400 cwl5 mt+ strain of C. reinhardtii is used as genetic background for transformations. Cultures are maintained on liquid and solid (1.5% agar) tris-acetate-phosphate (TAP) growth medium under continuous 60 μΕηι-2s- 1 cool white fluorescent light at 25C. Liquid cultures for physiological analyses, such as oxidase assays, are grown under the same conditions except that lighting is on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark, which is more consistent with outdoor growing conditions than is continuous light.

[00108] Standard methods for generating recombinant DNA expression vectors and expressing heterologous proteins in C. reinhardtii are employed. C. reinhardtii codon bias, as described by Fuhrman and Hegemann (1997), is used by adapting the maize SOD4 (SEQ ID NO: 5) protein (open reading frame (ORF)). Artificial genes with 5' and 3' restriction sites and C-terminal 3X FLAG tags are synthesized using a service provider such as GenScript. Restriction sites are used to ligate and clone the synthesized ORF and fusion sequences into the C. reinhardtii expression vector

pChlamy_l, which is available from Life Technologies Corporation. The pChlamy_l vector systems harbor effective selection markers and are optimized for transgene expression in C. reinhardtii. Public domain expression vectors based on the pSl 105 system are also available for C. reinhardtii and are utilized for later stages of this project. For localization of the oxidase to the inner face of the plasma membrane, an N-terminal GPI anchor sequence for a membrane anchoring protein domain are added to the 5' end of the transgene coding sequence. The C-terminal FLAG tag/epitope allows screening of transformants and analysis of protein expression by standard Western blot using commercially available anti-FLAG M2 primary antibody.

Chromogenic detection of primary antibody is mediated by an anti-mouse alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody and NBT-BCIP substrate.

Transformations are done according to the nuclear glass bead method.

[00109] Transformed lines of C. reinhardtii that show evidence of heterologous oxidase expression in Western blots are grown to 106 cells/ml in liquid medium and tested for in vivo oxidase activity using an assay based on the initial rate of 02 evolution in response to addition of exogenous H202 to intact cells. 02 evolution is measured in a Clark-type 02 electrode. The assay is simple and fast, allowing Km and Vmax values for total oxidase activity to be determined in cell suspensions with relative ease. The assay is also sensitive enough that replica-plated single colonies of transformants can be suspended in solution and their oxidase activity measured accurately, allowing early screening for oxidase activity before possible decay of transgene expression can occur. Untransformed and empty vector control strains therefore exhibit background oxidase activity (this is the assay for oxidase expressing strains).

[00110] Analyses of growth is made for all transformed lines with addition of the H202-based algaecide PAK™27 over a range of concentrations, from benign to completely lethal. Growth are tested in 10 ml liquid batch cultures. The cultures are grown in 25x200mm culture tubes slanted at 15° on an orbital shaker set to 150 rpm.

[00111] Liquid cultures for growth experiments are started from replica plated cultures on agar slants and grown to saturation under unstressed conditions (108 cells/ml or more). The cultures are then diluted to approximately 0.5 x 106 cells/ml with fresh medium and returned to unstressed conditions. After 24 h adjustment to the dilution, PAK™27 doses are applied and cell density measured at 24 h intervals over 72 h by apparent absorbance at 750 nm (A750), which is proportional to light

scattering and linear with cells/ml. Growth rates for the different tubes are calculated as hours required for cell doubling averaged over 72 h.

Example 4 - Expression of the cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide (CYBB and CYBA) protein complex for hydrogen peroxide production in C. reinhardtii

[00112] The cell wall-deficient CC-400 cwl5 mt+ strain of C. reinhardtii is used as genetic background for transformations. Cultures are maintained on liquid and solid (1.5% agar) tris-acetate-phosphate (TAP) growth medium under continuous 60 μΕπι-2s- 1 cool white fluorescent light at 25C. Liquid cultures for physiological analyses, such as oxidase assays, are grown under the same conditions except that lighting is on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark, which is more consistent with outdoor growing conditions than is continuous light.

[00113] Standard methods for generating recombinant DNA expression vectors and expressing heterologous proteins in C. reinhardtii are employed. C. reinhardtii codon bias is used by adapting the cytochrome (CYBB and CYBA) protein complex (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO:9) protein (open reading frame (ORF)). Artificial genes with 5' and 3' restriction sites and C-terminal 3X FLAG tags are synthesized using a service provider such as GenScript. Restriction sites are used to ligate and clone the synthesized ORF and fusion sequences into the C. reinhardtii expression vector pChlamy l, which is available from Life Technologies Corporation. The pChlamy l vector systems harbor effective selection markers and are optimized for transgene expression in C. reinhardtii. Public domain expression vectors based on the pS1105 system are also available for C. reinhardtii and are utilized for later stages of this project. For localization of the oxidase to the inner face of the plasma membrane, an N-terminal GPI anchor sequence for a membrane anchoring protein domain are added to the 5' end of the transgene coding sequence. The C-terminal FLAG tag/epitope allows screening of transformants and analysis of protein expression by standard Western blot using commercially available anti-FLAG M2 primary antibody.

Chromogenic detection of primary antibody is mediated by an anti-mouse alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody and NBT-BCIP substrate.

Transformations are done according to the nuclear glass bead method.

[00114] Transformed lines of C. reinhardtii that show evidence of heterologous oxidase expression in Western blots are grown to 106 cells/ml in liquid medium and tested for in vivo oxidase activity using an assay based on the initial rate of 02 evolution in response to addition of exogenous H202 to intact cells. 02 evolution is measured in a Clark-type O2 electrode. The assay is simple and fast, allowing Km and Vmax values for total oxidase activity to be determined in cell suspensions with relative ease. The assay is also sensitive enough that replica-plated single colonies of transformants can be suspended in solution and their oxidase activity measured accurately, allowing early screening for oxidase activity before possible decay of transgene expression can occur. Untransformed and empty vector control strains therefore exhibit background oxidase activity (this is the assay for oxidase expressing strains).

[00115] Analyses of growth is made for all transformed lines with addition of the H202-based algaecide PAK™27 over a range of concentrations, from benign to completely lethal. Growth are tested in 10 ml liquid batch cultures. The cultures are grown in 25x200mm culture tubes slanted at 15° on an orbital shaker set to 150 rpm.

[00116] Liquid cultures for growth experiments are started from replica plated cultures on agar slants and grown to saturation under unstressed conditions (108 cells/ml or more). The cultures are then diluted to approximately 0.5 x 106 cells/ml with fresh medium and returned to unstressed conditions. After 24 h adjustment to the dilution, PAK™27 doses are applied and cell density measured at 24 h intervals over 72 h by apparent absorbance at 750 nm (A750), which is proportional to light scattering and linear with cells/ml. Growth rates for the different tubes are calculated as hours required for cell doubling averaged over 72 h.

Example 5. Dose response data collected for 2 strains of cvanobacteria exposed to exogenous H9O2

[00117] These experiments generate dose response curves for growth versus H202-based algaecide concentration. The curves are used to determine the EC50 for growth, which is the "Effective Concentration" of a stressor, in this case H202, that inhibits growth rate by 50% relative to unstressed controls. EC50 for growth rate is determined from non-linear regression curves fitted to growth rate data from 5-7 experimental replicates at 5 to 7 stress doses. To fit curves, non-linear regressions are applied to the dose response data and the fit of the regression curve to the log-logistic equation will be F-tested. Other parameters can be calculated from the regression curve, including EC90, EC 10, and the slope of the curve as it passes through the EC50 value, which can suggest mechanisms by which the stressor inhibits growth. PAK™ includes several inactive ingredients intended to maximize the biocidal effect of H202. To confirm that heterologous catalase expressors are resistant to H202 and not to the inactive ingredients, EC50 values for pure H202 is also determined for comparison.

[00118] Figure 1 1 shows an example of dose response data collected for 2 strains of cyanobacteria exposed to exogenous H202. One of these strains was a wild type (WT) and one was an insertional null mutant for the major cyanobacterial catalase encoded by the katG gene. Visually, it is clear from the data that the strain lacking KatG was much more sensitive to exogenous H202 than the wild type. Non-linear regression analysis of these data quantified the difference between strains, indicating that normal presence of KatG in the wild type conferred nearly a 2-fold resistance to exogenous H202 relative to the null mutant lacking catalase activity. These data prove that catalase activity confers resistance to exogenous H202.

Example 6 - Expression of hydrogen peroxide resistance and hydrogen peroxide production in C. reinhardtii

For the expression of both hydrogen peroxide resistance and hydrogen peroxide production traits in photosynthetic unicellular organisms, individual lines of photosynthetic unicellular organisms, each possessing either the resistance or the production trait are identified and selected using the methods discussed above.

Pedigree breeding, or a similar technique may be used to combine favorable genes, namely hydrogen peroxide resistance with hydrogen peroxide production into a totally new photosynthetic unicellular organism. Two organisms which possess the traits are crossed to produce an Fi (filial generation 1). Selection of desirable individual organisms may begin as early as the Fj generation, and additional selection can occur for one or more generations. Once a progeny organism is selected as having desirable traits, such as the resistance and production traits, additional lines of organisms may be developed from the same original population.

[00119] While a number of exemplary aspects and embodiments have been discussed above, those of skill in the art will recognize certain modifications, permutations, additions and sub-combinations thereof. It is therefore intended that the following appended claims and claims hereafter introduced are interpreted to include all such modifications, permutations, additions, and sub-combinations as are within their true spirit and scope.

Industrial Applications

[00120] Renewable liquid fuels and other low-cost commodities can be derived from microalgae and these can ultimately be cost-competitive with petroleum-derived

alternatives. Key technological breakthroughs must occur first, however. One of these is that control of unwanted microorganisms in large-scale cultures of algae must become cheap, effective, and environmentally. Microbial pests limit productivity of large-scale algal cultures by competing with desired algae for light and nutrients or by grazing on them . For example, rotifers and other grazers have been shown to lower algal culture concentrations by 90% in only two days and by 99% over several days. A second breakthrough needed to make algal products cost-competitive with petroleum products is that water and nutrient costs for large-scale algal cultures must be reduced. Current estimates put these costs at 10-30% of total production costs. One solution to this problem is utilization of sewage and other wastewaters from municipal and industrial sources but these typically contain microbial pests and organic contaminants. Recycling of used culture water after algal harvesting will also be necessary to minimize the consumption of water by algal biomass production but this presents a similar problem because used culture water can be heavily contaminated with microbial pests and organic wastes, some of which inhibit algal growth.

[00121] Production of low cost commodities by terrestrial agriculture would not be possible without the use of sophisticated herbicides and pesticides for control of unwanted plants, animals, fungi, and insects. In contrast, chemical management of pests in large-scale algal cultures is a very poorly developed technology. Existing algaecides approved for control of algal blooms in managed bodies of water (are a starting point for improvement. These are largely based on copper (Cu) and can be highly effective, with the benefit that Cu is initially very toxic to cyanobacteria and to animal grazers but has a low residual activity. Cu is a micronutrient and is detoxified in natural waters by biological sequestration. In some cases, however, addition of Cu to large-scale algal cultures could affect downstream processes, such as the use of algal biomass for aquaculture feeds. Shrimp and other crustaceans, for example, are extremely sensitive to Cu. Presence of Cu could also be harmful to downstream catalysts used for refining of algal biomass, some of which may be sensitive to transition metals (Mitchell 1980), or to biological water treatments used for recycling culture water.

[00122] Alternatives to Cu-based algaecides include recently developed products that generate H202 when dissolved in water. H202 is a broad-spectrum biocide that oxidizes organic pollutants in addition to killing microbes and has little residual activity owing to the fact that it quickly and spontaneously decomposes to H20 and

02. A possible disadvantage of some H202-based algaecides is that their active ingredient is sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (2Na2C03-3H202). These would add Na+ to culture water and could be problematic for water recycling over time because unavoidable evaporative losses tend to increase dissolved salt concentrations in large-scale algal. Na+ accumulation could be avoided, however, with new H202-based algaecides that use K+ as counter-ion instead of Na+. K is a macronutrient for plants and algae and would be rapidly consumed in large-scale algal cultures by algal growth. Similarly, accumulation of carbonate (CO3) ion from use of 2K2CC>3-3H202 could be problematic but injection of carbon dioxide gas (C02) for pH management, already common in algal biomass production systems, would tend to convert CO3 to dissolved bicarbonate ion (HCO3") and C02, both of which are consumed by algal photosynthesis. Thus, with simple adjustments to their formulation, H202-based algaecides could be applied at relatively high rates to treat pests in large-scale algal cultures or to clean equipment and leave no long-term residues at all, though for a short time after use, H202 levels in the water would be high.

[00123] The foregoing discussion of the invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. The foregoing is not intended to limit the invention to the form or forms disclosed herein. In the foregoing Detailed Description for example, various features of the invention are grouped together in one or more embodiments for the purpose of slxeamlining the disclosure. This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed invention requires more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive aspects lie in less than all features of a single foregoing disclosed embodiment. Thus, the following claims are hereby incorporated into this Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment of the invention.

[00124] Moreover, though the description of the invention has included description of one or more embodiments and certain variations and modifications, other variations and modifications are within the scope of the invention (e.g., as may be within the skill and knowledge of those in the art, after understanding the present disclosure). It is intended to obtain rights which include alternative embodiments to the extent permitted, including alternate, interchangeable and/or equivalent structures, functions, ranges or acts to those claimed, whether or not such alternate, interchangeable and/or equivalent structures, functions, ranges or acts are disclosed herein, and without intending to publicly dedicate any patentable subject matter.

[00125] The use of the terms "a," "an," and "the," and similar referents in the context of describing the invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. The terms "comprising," "having," "including," and "containing" are to be construed as open-ended terms (i.e., meaning "including, but not limited to,") unless otherwise noted. Recitation of ranges of values herein are merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range, unless otherwise indicated herein, and each separate value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. For example, if the range 10-15 is disclosed, then 11, 12, 13, and 14 are also disclosed. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., "such as") provided herein, is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention unless otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element as essential to the practice of the invention.