Traitement en cours

Veuillez attendre...

Paramétrages

Paramétrages

1. WO2005065837 - APPAREIL ET METHODE POUR TRAITER DES MATIERES PARTICULAIRES ET GAZEUSES, ET LEURS UTILISATIONS

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR HANDLING PARTICULATE AND
GASEOUS MATERIALS, AND USES THEREOF

The present invention relates to an apparatus rapid reduction of liquids to tiny fog droplets or solids to fine dust particles. The invention also relates to a use of the apparatus.

Further the invention ralates to a process for increasing the reaction speed or reaction rate between species of a gas and a feed of liquid, or a gas and a feed of solid matter/reactant, in a reaction tank.

The invention also relates to a process for removing CO2 in an exhaust gas and/or for desalination of a liquid, such as sea water, where the liquid is sprayed onto a flow of the gas thus creating a reaction between the gas and the liquid

A preferred use of the methods and apparatus is also disclosed.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
More particularly, the present invention relates to rapid reduction of liquids to tiny fog droplets or solids to fine dust particles in an apparatus by hitting tiny amounts of this material many hundreds of times every second with a very strong force by very high speed rotating arms. The force, f = m.a = m • v2, shows that the force increase with square of speed, s, and thus the force at high speed is very strong when hitting particles at rest, a = 0. Many types of liquid and solids can be reduced in this manner. This including reducing large quantities of seawater with ammonia to fine droplets for efficient removal of most salt by CO2 in scrubber/clarifier 1 in the invention of desalination of seawater as disclosed in US-patent nr. 6.180.012 (corresponding to NO patent application 2000 31003), and further salt removal by reducing the liquid to fine droplets again before it enters a scrubber/clarifier 2 and then before it enters scrubber/clarifier 3 for removal of virtually all salt. A reaction tank inludes a process chamber having a top plate and a cylindrical wall above a clahfier with a cylindrical wall connected to a conical bottom with a sump pit. The entrance pipe with numerous dispersing spary outlets is supplying sea water mixed with ammonia. The entrance duct is supplying combustion exhaust with CO2 gas to the process chamber. The exit duct is removing remnant exhaust gas. The over flow weir 15 and the over flow pipe are discharging sea water with salt removed. The splash boards and the ring over flow cover are catching and splashing the water for addiional salt removal. The pipe conveyor is removing the under flow from the pit by air injection, which mixes and tightens the material from the pit and sprays it out into the separator to separate the materials with different specific graviy. The air is removed at the top of the separator.

Further, if no desalinated water is needed, the scrubber/clarifier size and flow can be reduced by using increased percentage of salt NaCI in the the influen water, and even high concentrations of waste salt brine can be used. Dissolved NaOH in water, and reduced to tiny droplets can be sprayed into the scrubber where exhaust with CO2 reacts with Sodium (Na) producing NaHCO3 with no free CO2 gas. Pn oil rigs and ships, high concentration of NaOH can be used to remove the CO2 from the gas in the oil flow, and from equipment and motors onboard thus obtaining zero emmision as required by many countries, such as Norway, by 2005.

Reference is also made to EPC patent No. 1. 146.948, International patent application PCT/BR95/00050, and US 4.874.400.

The intention of the present apparatus patent shows a unique method to make fine droplets by entering into it large quantity seawater that is hit 30 times per sec by two 4 ft wide plates mounted on a fast rotating axle at 4 ft diameter, smashing the seawater is into fine droplets. Any larger droplets bounce back and forth between walls and rotating plates repeatedly reducing their size until all are fine droplets leaving the apparatus.

However the method of abovementioned publication PCT/BR95/00050, is not concerning the removing of exhaust CO2 from combustion gases.

The present invention for desalination of seawater discloses a unique method for removing CO2, wherein the seawater is mixed with an alkali, preferably ammonium that the Cl-ion in the salt attach to, forming the salt compound, NaCLNH4OH, which is a compound of combined Cl-ion and Na-ions in the water after adding ammonia. The seawater with salt compounds are pumped as fine droplets into the top of a chamber, where exhaust with CO2 also enters from a power plant. The solid products formed by this process, may be extracted.

For the process mentioned above, the of tiny resulting salt solids are efficiently collected on a cathode of an exhaust pipe.

Said apparatus with very high speed impact force relates also to rapid reduction of solids, cement clinker, coal, ore or many other matter, to very fine dust or droplets at lower cost and energy consumption, than by existing methods, such as hammer mills, with falling balls hitting clinkers at low speed many times to reduce it to dust.

World wide energy consumption is increasing and most of it is produced by the combustion of oil, coal, wood and other organic material, and their exhaust emission is polluting the environment. Environmental scientist from all over the world are strongly recommending a reduction in existing emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) , for its bad greenhouse effect on the environment. For this reason the present invention is very important, by providing a practical apparatus for reducing to tiny fog droplets large quantities seawater for the process of CO2 removal, and reducing other liquid, and solids to tiny particles faster with lower energy consumption and at less cost than by other methods.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION
The apparatus according to claim 1 is characterised by a compact housing with an axle assembly inside, bearings on the side walls and motor on the outside; said axle has two or more paddle blades and the fast rotating tips smash a tiny amounts of feed entering every tiny fraction of a second, for instant reduction of liquid feed to tiny fog droplets, or solids feed to tiny dust particles, with low energy consumption and little pollution. The further features of the apparatus are given in claims 2-9.

According to another aspect, the apparatus is used for reduction of liquid or solids to tiny fog droplets or fine dust particles in order to increasing the reaction speed or reaction rate between species of a gas and a liquid, or a gas and a solid matter/reactant, in a process for removing CO2 in an exhaust gas and/or for desalination of a liquid, such as sea water, where the liquid is sprayed onto a flow of the gas thus creating a reaction between the gas and the liquid.

The process for increasing the reaction speed or reaction rate between species of a gas and a feed of liquid, or a gas and a feed of solid matter/reactant, in a reaction tank, is characterised in that before conducting the liquid or solid matter into the reaction tank, it is subjected to atomizing for providing of liquid feed to tiny fog droplets, or solids feed to tiny dust particles. The further prefered features are given in claims 12-14.

The process for removing CO2 in an exhaust gas and/or for desalination of a liquid, such as sea water, where the liquid is sprayed onto a flow of the gas thus creating a reaction between the gas and the liquid, is characterised in that the liquid is made alkaline and processed as given in any of claims 11-14 before it is reacted with the gas. Further features are given in claims 16-20

According to a preferred use the apparatus and methods as claimed previously, for application on oil rigs and ships, in that high concentrations of dissolved NaOH are forced into a scrubber for removal of the entering C02 from the gas stream and from the exhaust and thus obtain zero CO2 emission.

The above and other objects and advantages are obtained in accordance with the present invention comprising a practical apparatus that perform instant reduction of liquid to tiny fog droplets or solids to tiny dust particles; said apparatus is compact, with lower energy consumption and less pollution during operation, then existing methods. Down time, repair or maintenance of said apparatus will be low, even when employed continuously for instant reduction of large quantity of feed in a speedy highly efficient and economical manner.

Said apparatus comprises a small housing made of welded steel plates, bolted to a foundation. A single axle inside has it's bearings mounted on the side walls, and it's motor mounted on the outside, with direct, geared or belt coupling to the very high speed rotating axle. Two or more paddle blades are welded to said axle with clearance at the side walls, said blades can be shorter, each with an adjustable outer paddle blade. The liquid or solid feed enters at the top, flows fast down a tall steep adjustable shoot with protrusion into said housing where entering feed is hit at high speed and tiny amount every tiny fraction of a second by said very fast rotating paddle tips are instantly reducing liquid feed to tiny fog droplets or solid feed to tiny dust particles. Said shoot is as wide as the paddle blades, when said rotating tip diameter change said protruding shoot must also be changed to be near but not touch said tips. Any remaining larger droplets or particles bounce rapidly back and fort against walls, guide plates and said rotating tips until they all are reduced, and said fog or dust are moved out though a pipe at the bottom of said housing. Part of a side wall is removable for installing and rebuilding said axle assembly.

By changing the height of said shoot the influent of total feed can be increased or decreased and obtain the desired speed of the feed being smashed. The tip speed and impact force can also be changed by changing the diameter of said rotating tips. Said rotating speed is normally very fast and can when needed be increased to ultra fast speed, with corresponding increase in the impact force. The optimum capacity of said apparatus can be found in this manner described for the desired quantities and most efficient reduction for specific feeds.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS
The improved reduction apparatus or plant, in accordance with the present invention, provide instant reduction of tiny amount of feed by a strong hit every tiny fraction of a second by a very fast speed impact force, reducing liquid to tiny fog droplets or solids to tiny dust particles.

The very tiny salt molecules, NaCI in seawater are held together by H20 molecules each side, the connections are so strong and tiny, that salt remains suspended after the reduction in said apparatus of seawater, in the very tiny fog droplets. These fog droplets of seawater are very important and will be used to great advantage in my invention of Desalination of Seawater process, where ammonia gas (NH3) will be added to said seawater fog with very large surface to weight ratio. The aggressive Cl-atom in NaCI will then most efficiently find and connect to NH3 and form the compound (NaCI- NH 0H), which weaken the internal bond in NaCI. When the seawater fog with the compound is sprayed into a scrubber the entering CO2 in exhaust is seeking and connecting to the Na atom in said compound. This further weaken the bond in NaCI and is braking up the CO2, and said compound into two solids plus the seawater with salt removed. NaOH can also be used to brake up CO2, but not as efficient and without desalination of seawater.

By changing the height of said shoot the influent of total feed can be increased or decreased and obtain the desired speed of the feed being smashed. The tip speed and impact force can also be changed by changing the diameter of said rotating tips. Said rotating speed is normally very fast and can when needed be increased to ultra fast speed, with corresponding increase in the impact force. The optimum capacity of said apparatus can be found in this manner described for the desired quantities and most efficient reduction for specific feeds.

In the present process without needed desalinated water, the scrubber/clarifier size can be reduced by increasing salt, NaCI to 21 or 22 percent in the influent seawater and the 5 equivalent ammonia connected to the salt. Dissolved NaOH can be mixed in or be a substitute before all is reduced to tiny droplets being sprayed in to the scrubber. Also exhaust enters with CO2, which connect to both Na's and CO2 disappear as a free gas.

Employment of said reduction apparatus greatly improves and speeds up my process of desalination of seawater and is saving energy use and cost. Any combustible feed must be carefully tested to avoid fire in said apparatus, and protective measure must be added before allowing reduction of it in said apparatus. Gas such as C02 can be used as a filling in said apparatus for the protection of combustible solids being reduced, and this gas can be recovered from the dust particles and recycled.

The enormous capacity, efficiency and strength of the present invention with said apparatus can be shown by the following example : feed falls 5 m, assume a 1 m wide steel housing having an axle with 2 paddle blades 0.9 m wide, and an adjustable tip diameter of 0.50 m rotating at 30 cy / second. The tip speed (V) is the length traveled per second, which is V = 0.5 x 3.14 x 30 = 47 m/sec Assuming further.a tall steep 0.9 m wide shoot with an adjustable protrusion into said housing, where seawater as feed enters at the top at 2000 m3/hr (0.555 m3 per second). The feed falls 5 m and enters said housing at a speed of 9,9 m/sec and a volume of 0.056 m3/sec (56 l/sec).

Every 0.0167 second the fast spinning paddle tips are smashing 0.00094 m3 (0.94 liter) seawater, which is 11 gram per cm length of the tip of said paddle blades. The 11 gram seawater is smashed by said tips at a 47 m/sec with a 37 kg impact force, turning the 11 gram seawater into fog droplets. All of fog exit through a large exit pipe in the bottom of said housing.

In above example, said speed of 47 m/sec = 169 km/hr.= 100 mph which is the equivalent speed at the end of a free fall without any air friction from a height calculated to be: h = V2 /2g = 47212 • 9.8 = 112 m height.

This comparison illustrate clearly the enormity of the speed and impact force produced in the apparatus for instant reduction of liquid and solids.

The present invention has been disclosed with respect to certain preferred embodiments and it shall be understood that various modifications and variations thereof, obvious to those skilled in the art, will be included within the scope of the appended claims.