Traitement en cours

Veuillez attendre...

Paramétrages

Paramétrages

Aller à Demande

1. WO2004099068 - SURFACES DE NANOFIBRES DESTINEES A ETRE UTILISEES DANS DES APPLICATIONS DE SURFACE ACTIVE AMELIOREE

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A substrate comprising: at least a first surface; a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface; and, one or more specific moiety attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

2. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

3. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 500 microns.

4. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 5 microns to at least about 150 microns.

5. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 10 microns to at least about 125 microns.

6. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 50 microns to at least about 100 microns.

7. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron.

8. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 10 nm to at least about 500 nm.

9. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 20 nm to at least about 250 nm.

10. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of
/
nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 40 nm to at least about 200 nm.

11. The substrate of claim 1, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 75 nm to at least about 100 nm.

12. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 0.1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

13. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 500 nanofibers per square micron.

14. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 10 nanofibers per square micron to at least about 250 nanofibers per square micron.

15. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 50 nanofibers per square micron to at least about 100 nanofibers per square micron.

16. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the one or more moiety provides one or more interaction site for one or more analyte.

17. The substrate of claim 16, wherein the moiety comprises one or more specifically interacting moiety.

18. The substrate of claim 16, wherein the moiety comprises one or more non-specifically interacting moiety.

19. The substrate of claim 16, wherein the moiety and the analyte are selected from the group consisting of organic molecules, inorganic molecules, metals, ceramics, proteins, peptides, polypeptides, nucleic acids, nucleic acid analogs, metallo-proteins, chemical catalysts, metallic groups, antibodies, cells, ions, ligands, substrates, receptors, biotin, hydrophobic moieties, alkyl chains from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms in length, phenyl groups, adhesive enhancing groups, and co-factors.

20. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the plurality of nanofibers is grown on an at least second surface and transferred to the first surface.

21. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the plurality of nanofibers is grown on the first surface.

22. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the nanofibers are substantially parallel to the plane of the first surface.

23. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the nanofibers are substantially peφendicular to the plane of the first surface.

24. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the first surface and/or the nanofibers are independently selected from the group consisting of: silicon, glass, quartz, plastic, ceramic, metal, polymers, TiO, ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, HgS, HgSe, HgTe, MgS, MgSe, MgTe, CaS, CaSe, CaTe, SrS, SrSe, SrTe, BaS, BaSe, BaTe, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, InSb, PbS, PbSe, PbTe, AIS, AlP, AlSb, SiOi, SiO2, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyetherketone, polyimide, an aromatic polymer, and an aliphatic polymer.

25. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the one or more moiety is attached to or associated with members of the plurality of nanofibers through a thiol group.

26. The substrate of claim 1 , further comprising a plurality of nanoparticles dispersed among the plurality of nanofibers.

27. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the substrate comprises a microarray, which microarray comprises a first and at least a second region, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface and one or more moiety attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

28. The substrate of claim 27, wherein the first region comprises a different moiety than the at least second region.

29. The substrate of claim 27, further comprising at least a third region, which third region separates the first and second regions, and wherein the at least third region comprises a substantially lower density of nanofibers than the first and second regions, thus providing a buffer region having substantially lower density of nanofibers between the first and second regions.

30. The substrate of claim 29, wherein the first region and at least second region comprise an enhanced surface area that is from about 2x to about 10,000x or more greater in area than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions or than an area of the third region of similar footprint dimensions.

31. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about 5x to about 5000x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

32. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

33. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

34. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

35. The substrate of claim 29, wherein the third region comprises substantially no nanofibers.

36. The substrate of claim 27, further comprising at least a third region, which third region separates the first and at least second regions, and wherein the at least third region comprises a hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity polarity opposite to a
hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity polarity of the nanofibers of the first and second regions, thus providing a barrier region between the first and second regions.

37. The substrate of claim 36, wherein the third region comprises nanofibers comprising one or more hydrophobic or hydrophilic moiety.

38. The substrate of claim 36, wherein the at least third region comprises a continuous wickable flow-path for one or more fluid, which fluid is contained within the third region by a difference in hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity polarity between the third region and the first and at least second regions.

39. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the substrate comprises a separation substrate, which substrate comprises at least a first surface, a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, and one or more specific moiety attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers wherein the nanofibers and/or the moiety separate one or more analyte from one or more sample; and wherein the substrate comprises an enhanced surface area, that is from about 2x to about 10,000x or more greater in area than a substrate of similar footprint dimensions without nanofibers.

40. The substrate of claim 39, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 200 microns; an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron; and, an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

41. The substrate of claim 39, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about 5x to about 5000x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

42. The substrate of claim 39, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

43. The substrate of claim 39, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

44. The substrate of claim 39, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

45. The substrate of claim 39, wherein the one or more moiety and/or the one or more material is selected from the group consisting of organic molecules, inorganic molecules, metals, ceramics, proteins, peptides, polypeptides, nucleic acids, nucleic acid analogs, metallo-proteins, chemical catalysts, metallic groups, antibodies, cells, ions, ligands, substrates, receptors, biotin, hydrophobic moieties, alkyl chains from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms in length, phenyl groups, adhesive enhancing groups, and co-factors.

46. The substrate of claim 39, wherein the specific moiety interacts specifically or nonspecifically with one or more analyte in the material to be separated.

47. The substrate of claim 39, further comprising one or more source of one or more material to be separated and a fluid delivery device which delivers the one or more material to be separated into contact with the separation substrate.

48. The substrate of claim 1, wherein the substrate comprises part of a mass spectrometry device, the substrate comprising: a microarray comprising a first and at least a second region, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface.

49. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises laser desoφtion ionization.

50. The substrate of claim 49, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises MALDI.

51. The substrate of claim 49, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises SELDI.

52. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the microarray comprises a plurality of regions, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached thereto.

53. The substrate of claim 48, wherein each region comprises one or more analyte to be assayed.

54. The substrate of claim 53, wherein substantially each region comprises a different analyte.

55. The substrate of claim 53, wherein the one or more analyte is attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

56. The substrate of claim 55, wherein the one or more analyte is immobilized.

57. The substrate of claim 55, wherein the one or more analyte is dried or lyophilized.

58. The substrate of claim 55, wherein the one or more analyte is comprised within a matrix.

59. The substrate of claim 55, wherein the one or more analyte is not comprised within a matrix.

60. The substrate of claim 53, wherein substantially each region comprises a different analyte to be assayed.

61. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the mass spectrometry device analyzes one or more analyte, which more analyte one or more analyte is selected from the group consisting of organic molecules, inorganic molecules, metals, ceramics, proteins, peptides, polypeptides, nucleic acids, nucleic acid analogs, metallo-proteins, chemical catalysts, metallic groups, antibodies, cells, ions, ligands, substrates, receptors, biotin, hydrophobic moieties, alkyl chains from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms in length, phenyl groups, adhesive enhancing groups, and co-factors.

62. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 200 microns; an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron; and, an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

63. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron.

64. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 10 nm to at least about 500 nm.

65. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 20 nm to at least about 250 nm.

66. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 40 nm to at least about 200 nm.

67. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 50 nm to at least about 150 nm.

68. The substrate of claim 48, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 75 nm to at least about 100 nm.

69. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about 5x to about 5000x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

70. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

71. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

72. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

73. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 0.1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

74. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 500 nanofibers per square micron.

75. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 10 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 250 nanofibers per square micron.

76. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 50 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 100 nanofibers per square micron.

77. The substrate of claim 48, further comprising one or more moiety attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers, which moiety provides one or more interaction site for one or more analyte.

78. The substrate of claim 77, wherein each region comprises one or more moiety for specifically or nonspecifically binding one or more analyte.

79. The substrate of claim 78, wherein substantially each region comprises a different moiety for binding one or more analyte.

80. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the plurality of nanofibers is grown on an at least second surface and transferred to the first surface.

81. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the plurality of nanofibers is grown on the first surface.

82. The substrate of claim 48, wherein the substrate and/or the nanofibers comprise a material independently selected from the group consisting of:
silicon, glass, quartz, plastic, ceramic, metal, polymers, TiO, ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, HgS, HgSerHgTe, MgS, MgSe, MgTe, CaS, CaSe, CaTe, SrS, SrSe, SrTe, BaS, BaSe, BaTe, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, InSb, PbS, PbSe, PbTe, AIS, AlP, AlSb, SiO1 ; SiO2, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyetherketone, polyimide, an aromatic polymer, and an aliphatic polymer.

83. The substrate of claim 1, which substrate comprises an implantable substrate to be implanted into a subject, the substrate comprising: at least a first surface, and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, the plurality of nanofibers providing a scaffold for tissue attachment of the subject to the first surface.

84. The substrate of claim 1, which substrate comprises an implantable substrate to be implanted into a subject, the substrate comprising: at least a first surface, and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, the plurality of nanofibers providing an anti-biofouling surface.

85. The substrate of claim 83 or 84, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises one or more specific moiety.

86. The substrate of claim 85, wherein the moiety comprises hydroxyapatite.

87. The substrate of claim 85, wherein the moiety comprises a coating on one or more nanofiber.

88. The substrate of claim 83 or 84, wherein the nanofibers and/or the substrate comprise TiOx.

89. The substrate of claim 83 or 84, wherein the subject comprises a human, a non-human primate, a mammal, an amphibian, a reptile, a bird, or a plant.

90. The substrate of claim 1, comprising a drug delivery device for introduction of one or more substance into a subject, which substrate comprises: at least a first surface, a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, and a reservoir of the one or more substance comprised amongst the plurality of nanofibers.

91. The substrate of claim 90, wherein the reservoir further comprises one or more storage matrix.

92. The substrate of claim 91, wherein the storage matrix comprises one or more polymer.

93. A system or device comprising: a substrate comprising at least a first surface; a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface; and one or more specific moiety attached to one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

94. The system or device of claim 93, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

95. The system or device of claim 93, further comprising one or more material delivery system.

96. The system or device of claim 95, wherein the material delivery system delivers one or more material into contact with the first surface.

97. The system or device of claim 93, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 200 microns; an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron; and, an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

98. The system or device of claim 93, wherein the one or more moiety provides one or more specific or nonspecific interaction site for one or more analyte.

99. The system or device of claim 93, wherein the moiety and the analyte are selected from the group consisting of organic molecules, inorganic molecules, metals, ceramics, proteins, peptides, polypeptides, nucleic acids, nucleic acid analogs, metallo-proteins, chemical catalysts, metallic groups, antibodies, cells, ions, ligands, substrates, receptors, biotin, hydrophobic moieties, alkyl chains from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms in length, phenyl groups, adhesive enhancing groups, and co-factors.

100. A microarray comprising: a substrate comprising a first and at least a second region, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface and one or more moiety attached to one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

101. The microarray of claim 100, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

102. The microarray of claim 100, wherein the first region comprises a different moiety than the at least second region.

103. The microarray of claim 100, further comprising at least a third region, which third region separates the first and second regions, and wherein the at least third region comprises a substantially lower density of nanofibers than the first and second regions, thus providing a buffer region having substantially lower density of nanofibers between the first and second regions.

104. The microarray of claim 103, wherein the first region and at least second region comprise an enhanced surface area, that is from about 2x to about 10,000x or more greater in area than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions or than an area of the third region of similar footprint dimensions.

105. The microarray of claim 104, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about 5x to about 5000x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

106. The microarray of claim 104, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

107. The microarray of claim 104, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

108. The microarray of claim 104, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

109. The microarray of claim 104, wherein the third region comprises substantially no nanofibers.

110. The microarray of claim 104, wherein the nanofibers within the third region do not comprise a moiety attached to substantially any of the nanofibers.

111. The microarray of claim 100, further comprising at least a third region, which third region separates the first and at least second regions, and wherein the at least third region comprises a hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity polarity opposite to a hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity polarity of the nanofibers of the first and second regions, thus providing a barrier region between the first and second regions.

112. The microarray of claim 111, wherein the third region comprises nanofibers with one or more hydrophobic or hydrophilic moiety.

113. The microarray of claim 111, wherein the at least third region comprises a continuous wickable flow-path for one or more fluid, which fluid is contained within the third region by the difference in hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity polarity between the third region and the first and at least second regions.

114. A method of identifying the presence of at least a first material from a mixture of the first material and at least a second material, the method comprising:
providing a substrate comprising a first and at least a second region, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface and one or more specific moiety attached to one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers, wherein the moiety interacts with the first material, thus, identifying the presence of the material; and, contacting the mixture with the substrate.

115. The method of claim 114, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

116. The method of claim 114, wherein the first region comprises a different specific moiety than the at least second region.

117. The method of claim 114, further wherein the substrate comprises at least a third region, which third region separates the first and second regions, and wherein the at least third region comprises a substantially lower density of nanofibers than the first and second regions, thus providing a buffer region having substantially lower density of nanofibers between the first and second regions.

118. The method of claim 114, further comprising quantifying the presence of the at least first material based on a level of interaction with the one or more moiety.

119. A microarray comprising: a substrate comprising a first and at least a second region, each region comprising an enhanced area silicon surface and one or more specific moiety attached to the enhanced area silicon surface wherein fluorescence from nonspecific binding of one or more analyte to the surface is quenched by proximity to the surface and wherein fluorescence from specific binding of one or more analyte to the surface is not quenched by proximity to the surface.

120. A separation system or device having a separation substrate comprising least a first surface, a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, one or more source of one or more material comprising one or more analyte to be separated, and one or more specific moiety attached to one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers; wherein the substrate comprises an enhanced surface area, which area is from about 2x to about 10,000x or more greater in area than a planar substrate of substantially similar footprint dimensions.

121. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

122. The system or device of claim 120, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 200 microns; an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron, and an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

123. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area, that is from about 5x to about 5000x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

124. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area, that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

125. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area, that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

126. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area, that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

127. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the one or more moiety is selected from the group consisting of organic molecules, inorganic molecules, metals, ceramics, proteins, peptides, polypeptides, nucleic acids, nucleic acid analogs, metallo-proteins, chemical catalysts, metallic groups, antibodies, cells, ions, ligands, substrates, receptors, biotin, hydrophobic moieties, alkyl chains from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms in length, phenyl groups, adhesive enhancing groups, and co-factors.

128. The system or device of claim 120, wherein the specific moiety interacts specifically or nonspecifically with one or more analyte in the material to be separated.

129. The system or device of claim 120, further comprising a fluid delivery device which delivers the one or more material to be separated into contact with the separation matrix.

130. A method to separate at least a first material from a mixture of the first material and at least a second material, the method comprising: providing at least a first surface having a plurality of nanofibers attached thereto, and flowing the mixture through the nanofibers, thus separating the first material from the at least second material.

131. The method of claim 130, wherein separation is based upon a difference in size between the first material and the at least second material.

132. The method of claim 130, wherein separation is based upon a difference in electrical charge of the first material and the at least second material.

133. The method of claim 130, wherein the plurality of nanofibers further comprise one or more specific moiety attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

134. The method of claim 130, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

135. The method of claim 130, wherein the one or more specific moiety is specific for one or more aspect of the first material or second material and wherein separation is based upon selective interaction between the one or more specific moiety of the nanofibers and the one or more aspect of the first or second material.

136. A separation system or device having a separation substrate comprising a plurality of nanofibers attached thereto, wherein the substrate comprises an enhanced surface area, which area is from about 2x to about 10,000x or more greater in area than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions; one or more source of one or more material to be separated; and, a fluid delivery device.

137. The system or device of claim 136, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 200 microns; an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron, and an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

138. The system or device of claim 136, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about 5x to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

139. The system or device of claim 136, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

140. The system or device of claim 136, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

141. The system or device of claim 136, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an area that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

142. The system or device of claim 136, wherein the density and/or arrangement of the nanofibers allows separation of one or more analyte from the material based upon one or more of: the size of the analyte, the electrical charge of the analyte, or the conformation of the analyte.

143. A separation system or device comprising: a separation matrix comprising a plurality of nanofibers, one or more source of one or more material to be separated, and a fluid delivery device.

144. The separation system or device of claim 143, wherein the plurality of nanofibers is not attached to a substrate.

145. The separation system or device of claim 120, 130, or 143, wherein the device comprises a cylindrical column comprising the plurality of nanofibers.

146. The separation system or device of claim 120, 130, or 143, wherein the device comprises a substantially planar substrate comprising the plurality of nanofibers.

147. The separation system or device of claim 120, 130, or 143, wherein one or more of the plurality of nanofibers is crosslinked to one or more other nanofiber of the plurality.

148. The separation system or device of claim 120, 130, or 143, wherein substantially all members of the plurality of nanofibers are crosslinked to one or more other nanofiber of the plurality.

149. A mass spectrometry system or device, comprising: a substrate comprising a first surface having at least a first region which region comprises a plurality of nanofibers disposed thereon and the plurality of nanofibers having at least a first analyte associated therewith; a laser positioned to direct energy at the at least first region to desorb the first analyte from the first region; and a mass spectrometer instrument positioned to receive the at least first analyte desorbed from the substrate.

150. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises MALDI.

151. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises SELDI.

152. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the substrate comprises a plurality of regions, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached thereto.

153. The system or device of claim 152, wherein each region comprises one or more analyte to be assayed.

154. The system or device of claim 153, wherein substantially each region comprises a different analyte to be assayed.

155. The system or device of claim 149 or 152, wherein each region comprises one or more moiety for specifically or nonspecifically binding one or more analyte.

156. The system or device of claim 155, wherein the moiety is an exogenous moiety.

157. The system or device of claim 155, wherein substantially each region comprises a different moiety for binding one or more analyte.

158. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the one or more analyte is selected from the group consisting of organic molecules, inorganic molecules, metals, ceramics, proteins, peptides, polypeptides, nucleic acids, nucleic acid analogs, metallo-proteins, chemical catalysts, metallic groups, antibodies, cells, ions, ligands, substrates, receptors, biotin, hydrophobic moieties, alkyl chains from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms in length, phenyl groups, adhesive enhancing groups, and co-factors.

159. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the substrate and/or the nanofibers comprise a material independently selected from the group consisting of:
silicon, glass, quartz, plastic, ceramic, metal, polymers, TiO, ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, HgS, HgSe, HgTe, MgS, MgSe, MgTe, CaS, CaSe, CaTe, SrS, SrSe, SrTe, BaS, BaSe, BaTe, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, InSb, PbS, PbSe, PbTe, AIS, AlP, AlSb, SiO], SiO2, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyetherketone, polyimide, an aromatic polymer, and an aliphatic polymer.

160. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron.

1 1. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 10 nm to at least about 500 nm.

162. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 20 nm to at least about 250 nm.

163. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 40 nm to at least about 200 nm.

164. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 50 nm to at least about 150 nm.

165. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average diameter of from about 75 nm to at least about 100 nm.

166. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about 5x to about 5000x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

167. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about lOx to about lOOOx greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

168. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about lOOx to about 750x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

169. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the enhanced surface area comprises an enhanced surface area that is from about 250x to about 500x greater than a planar substrate of similar footprint dimensions.

170. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 0.1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

171. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 500 nanofibers per square micron.

172. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 10 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 250 nanofibers per square micron.

173. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises an average density of from about 50 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 100 nanofibers per square micron.

174. The system or device of claim 149, wherein members of the plurality of nanofibers comprise an average length of from about 1 micron to at least about 200 microns; an average diameter of from about 5 nm to at least about 1 micron; and, an average density of from about 1 nanofiber per square micron to at least about 1000 nanofibers per square micron.

175. The system or device of claim 149, wherein the at least first analyte is attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

176. The system or device of claim 175, wherein the analyte is immobilized.

177. The system or device of claim 175, wherein the analyte is dried or lyophilized.

178. The system or device of claim 175, wherein the analyte is comprised within a matrix.

179. The system or device of claim 175, wherein the analyte is not comprised within a matrix.

180. A method of performing mass spectrometry, the method comprising: providing a substrate comprising a first surface having at least a first region which region comprises a plurality of nanofibers disposed thereon and the plurality of nanofibers having at least a first analyte associated therewith; providing a laser positioned to direct energy at the at least first region; providing a mass spectrometer instrument positioned to receive the analyte desorbed from the substrate; and desorbing the first analyte from the first region with the energy from the laser.

181. The method of claim 180, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises MALDI.

182. The method of claim 180, wherein the mass spectrometry analysis comprises SELDI.

183. The method of claim 180, wherein the substrate comprises a plurality of regions, each region comprising at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached thereto.

184. The method of claim 183, wherein each region comprises one or more analyte to be assayed.

185. The method of claim 184, wherein substantially each region comprises a different analyte to be assayed.

186. The method of claim 180 or 183, wherein each region comprises one or more moiety for specifically or nonspecifically binding one or more analyte.

187. The method of claim 183, wherein the at least first analyte is attached to or associated with one or more member of the plurality of nanofibers.

188. The method of claim 187, wherein the analyte is immobilized.

189. The method of claim 187, wherein the analyte is dried or lyophilized.

190. The method of claim 187, wherein the analyte is comprised within a matox.

191. The method of claim 187, wherein the analyte is not comprised within a matrix.

192. An implantable device to be implanted into a subject, which implantable device comprises a substrate, which substrate comprises: at least a first surface, and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, the plurality of nanofibers providing a scaffold for tissue attachment of the subject to the first surface of the device.

193. An implantable device to be implanted into a subject, which implantable device comprises a substrate, which substrate comprises: at least a first surface, and a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, the plurality of nanofibers providing an anti-biofouling surface.

194. The device of claim 192 or 193, wherein the plurality of nanofibers comprises one or more specific moiety.

195. The device of claim 194, wherein the moiety comprises
hydroxyapatite.

196. The device of claim 194, wherein the moiety comprises a coating on one or more nanofiber.

197. The device of claim 192 or 193, wherein the nanofibers and/or the substrate comprise TiOx.

198. The device of claim 192 or 193, wherein the subject comprises a human, a non-human primate, a mammal, an amphibian, a reptile, a bird, or plant.

199. A method of providing tissue attachment of a subject to an implantable device, the method comprising providing a substrate, which substrate comprises at least a first surface and a plurality of nanofibers attached thereto; and implanting or injecting the device into the subject.

200. A method of suppressing the formation of a biofilm on a medical device in a subject, the method comprising providing one or more surface of the medical device, which surface comprises a plurality of nanofibers and which surface comes into contact with the subject.

201. A drug delivery device for introduction of one or more substance into a subject, which device comprises a substrate, which substrate comprises: at least a first surface, a plurality of nanofibers attached to the first surface, and a reservoir of the one or more substance comprised between the members of the plurality of nanofibers.

202. The device of claim 201, wherein the reservoir further comprises one or more storage matrix.

203. The device of claim 202, wherein the storage matrix comprises one or more polymer.