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1. WO2004095950 - PROCEDE DE TRAITEMENT DE L'AIL

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[ EN ]

PROCESSING METHOD FOR GARLIC

Technical Field
The present invention relates to a method for processing soft garlic or powdered garlic, in which an original flavor and odor of garlic are removed and sugar in garlic is increased. More particularly, the present invention relates to the method for processing soft garlic requiring a preliminary treatment of raw garlic to semi-dry and to saccharify the raw garlic before directly steaming the raw garlic. For powdered garlic, the soft garlic is dried and then compressed.
The method for processing garlic includes preliminary treating raw garlic to semi-dry and to saccharify the raw garlic for about 12 hours at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C without adding extra additives so that the raw garlic contains less than about 50% of moisture by weight; steaming the preliminary- treated garlic for about 30 to about 60 minutes at a temperature of about 90 to about 110°C; and primarily drying the steamed raw garlic at a temperature of about 55 to about 75 °C to obtain the steamed raw garlic containing about 15 to about 25 % of moisture by weight, or secondarily drying the primarily dried garlic at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C so that the primarily dried garlic contains about 6 to about 7% of moisture by weight. The garlic is processed by the above-mentioned method, thereby being prevented from losing nutriments of the garlic. The garlic is also improved in taste since the garlic contains more sugar compared to unprocessed garlic, and the original odor of the garlic is reduced.

Background Art
Chief ingredients of garlic are protein, sugar, fiber and ash. About 1% of the chief ingredients is volatile essential oil, out of which about 60% of the essential oil is diallyl disulfide and remaining portion includes sulfur compounds such as allyl propyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, allicin, etc. It has been known that the innate odor of garlic result from enzymes in the cell of the garlic, which are decomposited by allinase and are converted into allicin that has a strong odor and spicy flavor.
Therefore, the garlic generally has been used as flavorings for food since the strong odor and the spicy flavor of the garlic have not been preferred.
Conventional methods such as solvent extraction method, high pressure treatment, heat treatment, deodorization treatment, enzyme treatment, etc., have been known as methods for processing odorless garlic.
However, garlic products processed by the conventional methods have many problems such as loss of nutrients due to high temperature treatment, evolving odor during passing through digestive tract after eating the garlic as a result of an incomplete odorless reaction, production of harmful chemical residue due to carbonization of garlic, etc. Further, methods that use additives are not preferred.
According to the conventional methods, a method for producing odorless garlic juice, which includes steaming pulverized garlic for about 2 to about 5 minutes at a temperature of about 50 to about 65°C and cooling the pulverized garlic for about 5 to about 10 minutes at a temperature of about 5 to about 10°C, is disclosed in Korea Patent Laid open publication number 2002-72805. In addition, a method for producing powered garlic, which includes steaming garlic for about 5 to about 7 minutes at a temperature of about 100 to about 105 °C so that the tissue of the garlic is softened and enzymes are inactivated and drying the steamed garlic for about 10 to about 12 hours at a temperature of about 75 to about 85°C, is disclosed in Korea Patent Laid open publication number 2000-60990. A method of removing the odors of garlic, which includes heating and drying garlic by indirect heating at a temperature of about 120 °C until the heated and dried garlic contains about 3 to about 4 % of moisture by weight using a red short property of garlic, is disclosed in Korea Patent Laid open Registration number 319046. Furthermore, a method of pulverizing garlic, which includes drying garlic in a vacuum drier at a temperature of about 30 to about 40°C until the dried garlic contains about 3 to about 4 % of moisture by weight, is disclosed in Korea Patent Laid open publication number

2002-7817. A method of deriving appropriate browning of garlic, which includes roasting garlic for 4 hours in a drier at a temperature of about 150°C and removing inadequate odors from the essential oil contents of the garlic, is disclosed in Korea

Patent Laid open Publication number 2002-93692.
The garlic prepared by the conventional methods above, however, may be poor in flavor due to low sugar content. Further, the method of removing odors from garlic by steaming raw garlic, which is described in the Korea Patent Laid-open publication numbers 2002-72805 and 2000-60990, may not effectively remove the bad odor of garlic. Furthermore, the garlic processed by the conventional methods still has a problem of low sugar content and not being preferred by people due to still remaining odors.

Disclosure of the Invention
Technical problem
The present invention provides a method for processing soft garlic or powdered garlic that is good for direct consumption since flavors of the garlic are improved by heightening sugar content in the garlic so that the garlic has a sweet taste.
The present invention also provides a method for processing garlic without the loss of nutrients in the garlic while strong odor and flavor of the garlic are removed without using additives.
The present invention still provides a method for processing garlic that may not contain harmful chemical residue of garlic produced by carbonization of garlic.

Technical solution
The present invention includes preliminary treating raw garlic to semi-dry and to saccharify the raw garlic for about 12 hours at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C so that the garlic contains less than about 50% of moisture by weight, steaming the preliminary treated raw garlic for about 30 to about 60 minutes at a temperature of about 90 to about 110°C, and primarily drying the steamed raw garlic at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C so as to obtain the steamed raw garlic containing about 15 to about 25 % of moisture by weight, or secondarily drying the primarily dried garlic at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C so that the primarily dried garlic contains about 6 to about 7% of moisture by weight. The garlic according to the present invention has a characteristic of maintaining the effective nutrients in the garlic and an improved taste due to more sugar in the garlic compared to unprocessed garlic, and the original odor of the garlic is removed.
The method of processing garlic according to the present invention includes a preliminary treatment step of semi-drying and saccharifying raw garlic for about 12 hours so that the raw garlic contains less than about 50% of moisture by weight at the temperature of about 55 to about 75°C.
Accordingly, the preliminary treatment of the garlic prevents the garlic from losing the effective nutrients within the garlic during steaming, and improves flavors of the garlic by removing the original odor and flavor of garlic and by increasing the sugar content in the garlic.

Hereinafter, the present invention is described in detail in each following step.
1. The preliminary treatment
A preliminary treatment according to the present invention includes semi-drying and saccharifying raw garlic that is cleaned and stripped for about 12 hours at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C so that the raw garlic contains less than about 50% of moisture by weight, preferably about 30 to about 50% of moisture by weight.
In the preliminary treatment of the present invention, garlic is saccharified by heating the raw garlic so that starch present in the raw garlic is hydrolyzed by a-amylase as much as possible so as to be saccharified to monosaccharide or low molecule- saccharide by optimizing a condition for activity of the α-amylase in garlic. To saccharify the starch in the raw garlic to monosaccharide or low molecule-saccharide, the raw garlic is heated for about 12 hours at the temperature of about 55 to about 75 °C.
The preliminary treatment semi-dries the raw garlic such that the raw garlic contains less than about 50% of moisture by weight, preferably about 30 to about 50% of moisture by weight. As a result, the raw garlic maximally contains effective nutrients of garlic and an amount of the effective nutrients of the raw garlic is minimized from flowing out with moisture in the garlic when the raw garlic is directly streamed.
The temperature of about 55 to about 75°C in the preliminary treatment is an appropriate temperature range for simultaneously performing the semi-drying process and the saccharification of the raw garlic. The raw garlic after undergoing the preliminary treatment is preferred to contain about 50 % or less of moisture by weight, more preferably about 30 to about 50 % of moisture by weight. When the raw garlic contains equal to or greater than 50 % of moisture by weight, the effective nutrients in the garlic may flow out with the moisture in greater quantity. When the raw garlic contains equal or less than 30 % of moisture by weight, time for a steaming process to semi-dry the garlic may be too long.

2. The steaming A steaming process according to the present invention includes steaming a preliminary- treated raw garlic for about 30 to about 60 minutes at a temperature of about 90 to about 110°C in order to remove offensive odor and flavor of garlic.
Generally, a large amount of acryl amide is produced when cooking garlic at a temperature greater than or equal to about 120°C.
The steaming process in the present invention includes steaming an inside of garlic sufficiently for removing sickening odors and flavors from garlic. According to the present invention, a steaming temperature is set up at about 90 to about 110°C so as to prevent formation of harmful materials as a result of carbonization that may occur during high temperature treatments such as baking garlic, roasting garlic, etc. An adequate steaming time is required for sufficiently steaming the inside of the garlic, preferably about 30 to about 60 minutes.

3. The drying
A drying process according to the present invention includes primarily drying steamed raw garlic so that the steamed raw garlic contains about 15 to about 25% of moisture by weight. The drying process may further include secondarily drying the primarily-dried raw garlic through natural drying or compressing primarily-dried raw garlic so that the primarily-dried raw garlic contains about 6 to about 7% of moisture by weight.
A natural drying method may be used in the drying process of the present invention. The natural drying method, however, has a problem that drying time may take too long. Accordingly, a hot wind-drying method that is performed at a temperature of about 55 to about 75°C is preferable in the drying process. Dried garlic is soft garlic, and contains about 5 to about 25% of moisture by weight and high sugar content. The dried garlic may not have loss of contents of the garlic, original odor and flavor remaining in the garlic. Thus, the dried garlic is preferable for direct eating, and may be used for healthy foods.
Compressed or powdered garlic having about 6 to about 7% of moisture by weight may be prepared by further drying the garlic at a temperature of 55 to 75 °C after the primary drying.
A secondarily drying process according to the present invention uses the dried garlic that is dried in the primarily drying process and contains about 15 to about 25% of moisture by weight, or the garlic compressed by a roller compressor. The secondarily processed garlic may be used as it is or in a form of powder after compressing the secondarily dried garlic. When the powdered garlic is used for making tea, floating residue materials may hardly remained in a teacup due to a high solubility of the garlic. Accordingly, the powdered garlic may be used for cool tea since the powdered garlic easily dissolves in cool water as well as in hot water. Alternatively, the secondarily processing garlic may be used in a form of pills.
As above-mentioned, the present invention provides the soft garlic or the powdered garlic that is good for direct eating since flavor of the garlic is improved by heightening the sugar content of the garlic to bring out sweet taste, the method of processing the garlic, which may not destruct effective materials in garlic when offensive odor and flavor of the garlic are removed, without using additives to raw garlic, and the method of processing the garlic that may not contain harmful chemical residues in garlic due to carbonizing the garlic.

Best Mode For Carrying Out the Invention
The preferred examples of the present invention will be described in more detail in below.

Example 1 : Producing samples of processed garlic
Korean garlic was used in this example. The garlic was peeled, and about 2 Kg of the garlic was semi-dried and saccharified for about 12 hours at a temperature of about 65°C using a drier so that the garlic contained about 50% of moisture by weight.
Then, the dried garlic was steamed in a known-steaming machine for about 40 minutes at a temperature of about 100°C.
Soft garlic was obtained by drying the steamed garlic at a temperature of about 65 °C using the drier so that the garlic contained about 17% of moisture by weight (Sample 1).
The dried garlic was pulverized into powder by using the drier at a temperature of about 65 °C after compressing the dried garlic in sample 1 using a roller compressor so that the dried garlic contained about 6.7% of moisture by weight (Sample 2).

Example 2: Comparing sugar content and concentration
The sugar content and concentration of lOOg of raw garlic processed in

Example 1 (Sample 1), lOOg of raw garlic (Control 1), garlic processed by steaming lOOg of raw garlic for about 5 minutes at a temperature of about 100°C and dried directly for about 12 hours at a temperature of about 85 °C without the preliminary treatment (Control 2), and garlic processed by baking lOOg of raw garlic for about 4 hours at a temperature of about 150°C (Control 3) were compared.

[Table 1]
Comparison of sugar content



[Table 2]
Comparison of sugar concentration


[The rate of sweetness corresponding to sugar concentration according to sugar substitution (source: doo-san encyclopedia) ]
Sucrose: Glucose: Fructose = 1.0: 0.6: 1.0 -1.5
The garlic processed by the preliminary treatment to semi-dry and to saccharify in the present invention contained high sugar content and high sugar concentration in comparison with the controls as shown in Table 1 and Table 2.

Example 3: Sensory evaluation of garlic's flavor
An experiment of synthetic sensory evaluation of garlic's flavor was performed on 14 individuals by using Sample 2 of Example 1 and Controls 1, 2 and 3 of Example 2 according to flavor profile method.

Garlic was pulverized, 100 ml of water was added per l.Og of the garlic, and sufficiently stirred. Subsequently, the flavor profile method was performed by setting intensity for flavors and odors of each sample with preference-measured method of a 9-level using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method, wherein the odor was measured by shaking a cup containing a sample to have the sample to be easily volatile and quickly inhaled, and the taste was measured by cutting the sample to a thickness of about 2 mm to have the sample uniformly contact a front region of a tongue in the mouth.

The results are shown in Table 3 and Table 4.

[Table 3]
Flavor test


[Table 4]
Odor test


In Table 3 and Table 4, 1 to 3: Poor, 4 to 6: Normal, 7 to 8: Good, 9: Very good. As shown in Table 3 and Table 4, the flavor of the garlic processed according to the present invention was greatly improved compared with the controls.