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1. (WO2004070169) MOTEUR ROTATIF
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

WE CLAIM:

1. A rotary apparatus able to produce mechanical energy from pressurized fluid flow such as hydraulic, steam, pneumatic, and from Stirling cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto and Diesel internal combustion cycles and to pump, vacuum and compress, generally referred to as a Quasiturbine, and comprising:
- a casing having an internal contoured housing wall, including two lateral side covers;
- pivoting blades consecutively pivoted one to the other at their ends, the pivot axes parallel 610 and each blade carrying an inwardly directed power transfer slot;
- an assembly of said pivoting blades and joints forming a X, Y, θ variable-shape rotor rolling inside said housing wall about a central axis;
- a calculation method for the housing contour wall family of curves, and selection criteria to meet the pressure-volume engine PV diagram;
- the said lateral side covers each carrying an annular track on their inner surface;
- a set of contour seals in contact with the said housing wall, and a system of lateral seals in contact with the said lateral side covers;
- chambers of variable volume, each limited by two successive contour seals, and extending along the inner surface of the housing wall, and the outer surface of the said pivoting blades;

620 - said pivoting blade carrying a combustion chamber cavity;
- a set of ports in the said housing for intakes and exhausts;
- a set of ports in the said lateral side covers for intakes and exhausts;
- A set of ports through the said pivoting blade, connecting the said chamber to the central area;
- an ignition flame transfer slot-cavity;
- a compression ratio tuner;
- a set of clutch centrifuge weights inside the said rotor;
. - a set of annular power sleeves located inside the said rotor;
- Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) within the said rotor;
630 - a mechanical tangential differential linking the said annular power sleeves to the power disk and the power shaft;
-wherein all consecutive compressions housing areas' are occurring repetitively in the same housing areas, and all consecutive expansions are- also occurring repetitively at different intermediate housing areas;
- wherein the two compression housing areas are opposed, as well as the two opposed expansion housing areas;
- wherein each successive compression stroke and expansion stroke start and end simultaneously;
- wherein the distance between two consecutive contour seals stays almost constant during a 640 revolution of the said rotor;
- wherein the contour seals stay almost perpendicular to the said housing contour wall at all time;
- wherein the said mechanical differential prevents the wheel-bearings axes rotational harmonic to reach the said power shaft;
- wherein the said rotor and said mechanical tangential differential centers of mass are immobile during rotation;
- wherein the said chamber volume is asymmetric from mid-value, and the pressure pulse is short and increases and decreases linearly near the top dead center;
- wherein a Quasiturbine Internal Combustion cycle (QTIC) results from the said pressure 650 pulse characteristic;
- wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) is 45 degrees out of phase with the said outward rotor chambers; and
- wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) can be alternately pressurized to make an Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ), driving the said rotor from its interior;
- Wherein the direction of rotation can be reversed, reversing the direction of the flow.

2. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said contoured housing wall is generally shaped like a rounded corner parallelepiped, with four areas of maximum curvature and four intermediate areas of minimum curvature, and wherein the complexity of the housing 660 contour wall makes the radius of curvature to slightly fluctuate within one single quadrant.

3. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein to permit higher eccentricity of the said rotor, the calculated housing wall is lobed shaped, with six areas of maximum curvature and six intermediate areas of minimum curvature.

4. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the mathematical contour profile of the said housing wall is one of a family of curves requiring only symmetry about the center of the contour wall and not through the x- or y- axis, and the method for calculating the said housing contour profile, including for large eccentricity lobed solutions and limit cases, referred the 670 following calculation steps: - First, select the diamond-shaped rotor eccentricity which imposes and defines at design the x- and y- axes blade pivot profile coordinates, while the square said rotor configuration defines the 45 degrees pivot profile coordinates;
- A set of possible blade pivot profile is first calculated;
- Empirical blade pivot profile radius in the 0 - 45 degrees interval is first assumed linear, and modulated by at least a two parameters function which does not change the 0 and 90 degree area tangenciality;
- In the case of the perpendicular x- and y- axes, the 45 - 90 degrees interval is a simple Pythagoras lozenge-diamond mapping of the 0 - 45 degrees interval, with slope continuity in

680 the 45 degrees area, otherwise oblique lozenge mapping is appropriate;
- The corresponding set of possible housing wall is obtained by enlarging the said blade pivot profile by one pivot radius all around;
- Wherein from the set of possible housing walls, the selection of an optimum engine application housing wall is done such as the final said chamber expansion volume equals the volume generated by the movement of the tangential surface of push, in order to meet the pressure-volume standard engine PV diagram; and
- Wherein the method applies for all values, positive, negative or null of the eccentricity, the pivot diameters alike or not, and the x- and y- arbitrary axes angle.

690 5. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the lateral side covers have:
- multiple notches on their periphery for thermal fins;
- an annular track on their inner surface for the pivoting blade wheel-bearings, the tracks not necessarily circular except if the pivoting blade wheel-bearings are located on the axis of two successive pivots;
- a bearing holder on the engine axis for the power shaft;
- a large aperture on one lateral side cover on the engine axis, permitting the power disk and the power shaft to slide in-and-out the casing without dismantling the engine;
- a bearing-cap fitting the large aperture, and holding a bearing and the power shaft; and
- volume modulator ports outside the periphery of the annular track, for the Modulated Inner 700 Rotor Volumes (MIRV).

6. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the pivoting blade comprises:
- an outward surface shaped to insure free rotation of the rotor within the housing wall for all angles of rotation;
- an outward surface being cave-cut to enlarge the combustion chamber when required;
- a check-valve port made radially through the said pivoting blade, and linking the said combustion chambers to the central engine area;

- said check- valve port allowing chamber intake enhancement by centrifuge force;
- a power transfer slot extending inwardly toward the central rotor area;
710 - a receptacle space within the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV), on both side of the said transfer slot, to locate the centrifuge clutch weights; and
- An all directions but axial strong pivoting joint at the said pivoting blades ends.

7. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said ports are radial housing ports for a spark plug, a compression ratio tuner, and for intake and exliaust ports located near where the contour seals stand at top dead center.

8. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said ports are lateral side cover ports for a spark plug, a compression ratio tuner, and for intake and exhaust ports located on the pivoting

720 blade pivots path, near the blade pivot positions when at top dead center.

9. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said intake and exhaust ports comprise:
- Several removable intake and exhaust plugs, which are used to convert the two parallel compression and expansion circuits into a sole serial circuit;
- Two quasi-independent circuits used in parallel with all plugs removed for operation as a two stroke rotary internal combustion engine, a fluid energy converter, a compressor, a vacuum pump and a flow meter; and
- Two quasi-independent circuits used in serial by plugging intermediate ports, to make a four 730 stroke internal combustion rotary engine.

10. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said intake and exhaust ports have different locations for different applications, and wherein:
- Symmetrically opposed said ports with respect to engine center are used for fluid energy converter, compressor and two strokes engine applications;
- Said symmetrically opposed ports are slightly moved toward the high-pressure zone, to take advantage of the pivoting blade port obstruction during port-seal crossing, preventing momentarily free intake-to-exhaust flow;
- Said intake port for internal combustion engine is an arc-shaped like opening in an angular 740 suction zone in relation to the forward contour seal, and extending further to account for fluid flow time delay;
- Said check-valve port made radially through the said pivoting blade, permits chamber central intake enhancement by the centrifuge force;
- Said exhaust port for internal combustion engine is shaped as an elongated angular opening, extending to account for fluid flow time delay and inertial exhausting; and
- Said sparkplug and compression ratio tuner are located in the high-pressure zone, anywhere in between the pivoting blade contour seals when at top dead center horizontal position, extending further to account for fluid flow time delay.

750 11. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said pivoting blade joint comprises:
- A male and a female part at the respective ends of the said pivoting blade;
- Two female parts at both ends of the same said pivoting blades, while said male parts are at both ends of the two complementary pivoting blades of the said rotor;
- the male part made cylindrical with two different radiuses of curvature, having an underneath holding finger so that four and more pivoting blades can be firmly assembled together;
- the male part acting as a rubbing pad against the housing wall to guide the rotor deformation into proper diamond shape, having provision for hard metal insert to allow for material like plastic, ceramic, glass or others;
760 - the female part having an arm extension also holding two different radiuses of curvature;
- An in-joint seal within a groove located in and along the said female part; and
- the joint having a provision for an in-joint bearing, linking friction-free the cylindrical male part to the female part.

12. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said transfer slot comprises:
- A pivoting blade wheel-bearings shaft parallel to the engine axis, near mid-way between the said blade pivots;
- A cylindrical wheel-bearings shaft holder fitting tightly with the wheel-bearings shaft and the transfer slot;
770 - The extremities of the said wheel-bearings shaft each carrying one wheel-bearings rolling on the said lateral side cover annular track; and
- An attachment space on the said wheel-bearings shaft for one of the said annular power sleeves bearing ears, allowing driving of the central power disk and power shaft.

13. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, having a set of contour seals each located in a linear groove extending along the engine axis within the said pivoting blade male joint and comprising:
- A gate type seal plate made as a back spring-loaded sliding;
- A gate type seal plate made as a back spring-loaded sliding in fit contact simultaneously 780 with the housing contour wall and the lateral side covers; and
- A contour seal damper made of a rubber band lying in the bottom of the groove on which the said contour seal and spring are sited.

14. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, having a system of lateral seals carried by the said pivoting blades and comprising:
- A curved groove and a curved seal in contact with the said lateral side covers; and
- A moon-like shaped groove and pellet seal on each side of the said male joint.

15. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said lateral seals include:
790 - A moon-like shaped groove and pellet seal on each side of the said male joint; and
- An almost elliptic pivots path groove and static back-pressured ring in each side cover, which by design is in permanent contact with the rotor.

16. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the lubrication can be suppressed, and comprising:
- A favorable geometry where lubricant is not needed for cooling;
- A favorable geometry where no internal parallax forces exist;
- A favorable geometry where no -seal is under internal stress, and subject to hydrogen fragilisation; and
800 - Said contour seals and lateral seals system made of very hard material for operation without lubricant.

17. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said annular power sleeves comprises:
- An empty annular ring concentric with the engine axis, with an interior receptacle for the said tangential mechanical differential and the power disk;
- Two opposed small bearing-rings, each linked to a pivoting blade wheel-bearings axis;
- Multiple grooves on the inner surface of the said empty annular ring, for torque transfer to the said tangential differential washers;
810 - A set of seals carried by the said empty annular ring, to leak proof the inner area from the outer area;
- Wherein the two said annular power sleeves are inserted co-linearly 90 degrees apart within the Quasiturbine, each one making a relative back and forth rotation not at constant angular speed; and
- Wherein the load-pressure on two opposed said pivoting blades when in the fluid energy converter mode is canceled out by the annular power sleeves, generally suppressing the need for the said wheel-bearings and the annular track.

18. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said clutch centrifuge weights 820 comprise:
- A plurality of said clutch centrifuge weights located in-between the said pivoting blade and the annular power sleeves;
- The said clutch centrifuge weights pivoting around the closest wheel-bearings axes;
- A plurality of friction clutch pads located on the outer surface of the annular power sleeves, where the rotation is not at constant angular speed;
- A plurality of friction clutch pads located on the inside surfaces of the said annular power sleeves, where the rotation is not at constant angular speed;
- A plurality of friction clutch pads located on the surface of the said power disk, where the rotation is at constant angular speed;
830 - A plurality of friction clutch pads located outside the Quasiturbine engine, but driven by the inside said clutch centrifuge weights; and
- A clutch pads locking mechanism to permit to crank the engine by the said power shaft for starting.

19. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) comprises:
- A triangular shaped-like chamber defined by the inward joint of two successive said pivoting blades and the outer surface of the annular power sleeves, and extending from one respective pivoting blade wheel-bearings axis to the other;
840 - Wherein the Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) are 45 degrees out of phase with the said outward rotor chambers;
- Wherein the said triangular shaped-like chamber has a minimum volume at open diamond corner angles and a maximum volume at closed angles;
- Wherein the rotation of the said rotor expels the gas-liquid enclosed in the maximum volume, and intakes similar content from the minimum volume configuration;
- Wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) can act as a compressor- ventilator, and as a second stage low-flow high-pressure compressor mode;
- Wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) can ventilate the rotor inside area through two independent top and bottom circuits by either pulsing, parallel and opposite

850 flow directions;
- Wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) can circle air-liquid coolant through the engine block and in the rotor central area, providing an integral cooling active circuit;
- Wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) can provide the pressure fluctuation required to operate a standard carburetor fuel diaphragm pump;

- Wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) works in both directions of rotation, upon reversing the direction of the flow; and
- Wherein very high-pressure can be obtained from the pivoting blades scissor-effect, such as to drive a Diesel fuel pump or other device.
860
20. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) can work as a compressor, a pump and an oscillating engine, without rotation but simply by successive oscillating deformation of the said rotor diamond-shaped, by using an alternating piston, external fluid pressure or otherwise.

21. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said pivoting blade Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) can act as an Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ), and comprises:
- A triangular shaped-like chamber defined by the inward joint of two successive said 870 pivoting blades and the outward surface of the annular power sleeves, and extending from one respective pivoting blade wheel-bearings axes to the other;
- Wherein the said triangular shaped-like chamber has a minimum volume at open diamond corner angles, and maximum volume at closed angles;
- Wherein a pressure in the minimum volume configuration of the said chamber provokes the said rotor to rotate 90 degrees toward a maximum volume configuration;
- Wherein successive said triangular shaped-like chamber pressurizations can continuously drive the said rotor in an engine mode; and
- Wherein the said Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ) mode leaves the rotor outward areas free for compressor, pump and other uses.
880
22. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said mechanical tangential differential comprises:
- A large diameter power disk concentric to, and carrying the power shaft, and having a plurality of radially extending pins receptacles;
- A set of differential washers carrying two washer-pins inserted into the said radially extending pins;
- The said power disk external surface shape as part of a sphere of same diameter and the differential washer shaped accordingly to permit perfect sitting on the power disk spherical surface.
890 - The said two washer-pins of the differential washers fitting into the said annular power sleeves interior grooves and steps;
- A play in-between the said power disk external diameter and the said annular power sleeves internal diameter to permit the said differential washers to rotate slightly around the said radially extending pins;
- A curvature of the said power disk perimeter surface along the axial direction, to give room for the rotation of the said differential washers;
- A design permitting the sliding in-and-out of the said tangential differential assembly through one of the Quasiturbine said lateral side covers central aperture without dismantling the engine; and
900 - Wherein the said mechanical tangential differential prevents the said pivoting blades rotational harmonic to reach the said power disk and power shaft.

23. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said central shaft comprises:
- A central shaft collinear with the central housing axis, crossing the two said lateral side covers and supported by bearings in at least one of the lateral side covers;
- A central shaft coupling mechanism composed of the said power disk and the said mechanical tangential differential;
- Wherein the shaft coupling mechanism is made as a sliding plug-in unit, easily slide in-and- out without dismantling the engine;
910 - Wherein the said mechanical tangential differential coupling mechanism removes the RPM harmonic modulation on the shaft;
- Wherein the shaft gives full power takeoff at both of its ends;
- Wherein the said power disk and power shaft are not mandatory for engine operation and can be removed;
- Wherein the central shaft can be a very large diameter thin wall tube shaft carrying an axial thrust bearing at least at one end, and an engine crank starting device at either ends, enclosing accessories like propellers screw, electrical components, generator, gearbox shaft and similar; and
- Wherein several Quasiturbines possibly in different modes, can be stacked side-by-side on a 920 single common said power shaft through simple ratchet coupling for torque addition.

24. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein in engine mode, the said ignition flame transfer slot-cavity comprises:
- A cut into the housing contour wall, located nearby where the forward contour seal stands at maximum chamber pressure, such as to allow a flame transfer from one said chamber to the next following chamber, to permit continuous combustion; and
- Wherein the said ignition flame transfer slot-cavity allows the injection of high-pressure hot burning gas into the next ready to fire chamber, producing a dynamically enhanced compression ratio.

930
25. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein in engine mode, the high-tech fuel gases and hydrogen fuel capability comprise:
- Multi facing said intake ports located axially one each side of the engine, and easily accessible to permit independent and stratified admission of fuel and air;
- Multi side-by-side said intake ports located radially on the housing contour wall, and easily accessible to permit independent and stratified admission of fuel and air;
- Said pivoting blades, wheel-bearings and annular tracks made very strong; and
- An intake chamber area kept cold, such as to permit direct high-tech fuel gas and hydrogen backfire-proof intake and engine photo-detonation mode if require.
940
26. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the said Quasiturbine Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle comprises:
- A fast and linear pressure-compression raising-falling Quasiturbine characteristic near top dead center;
- A continuous atmospheric air pressure intake without butterfly valve restriction;
- A fuel vaporized, sprayed, and mixed directly into the said continuous atmospheric air pressure intake without synchronization means;
- A compression of the said fuel mixture to standard pressure level, and a uniform combustion triggered by a sparkplug;
950 - A said compression ratio tuner made of a small adjustable threaded piston, to replace the sparkplug at very high compression ratio;
- A compression of the said fuel mixture to the Diesel-like pressure level by the short fast raising-falling Quasiturbine pressure pulse, and a uniform combustion driven by the adiabatic high temperature and radiation conditions;
- At very high-pressure, a photo-detonation engine mode made possible, where no sparkplug or otherwise synchronization mean is needed;
- A volume variation near top dead center without said pivoting blade mass momentum transfer, to well resist the photo-detonation knocking; and
- A heavy construction of the said rotor pivoting blades for inertial smooth-out of the photo-960 detonation knocking.

27. A rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein thermalization comprises:
- The said cylindrical shape male joint of the pivoting blade being in direct mechanical contact with the said housing contour wall, thereby increasing the combustion chamber walls thermalization, heat transportation and dissipation;

- At least one of the two lateral side covers having a large central hole exposing the pivoting blades central area of the rotor, thus eliminating the so called internal engine parts, and so improving the cooling and reducing the need for lubricant thermal role; and
- A forced liquid and gas ventilation by the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) in the area between the said pivoting blades and the said annular power sleeves.

k A -V & A