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1. (WO1999054784) NANOFABRICATION A STRUCTURE LIBRE UTILISANT UNE EXCITATION MULTIPHOTONIQUE
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

1. A method for the fabrication of a small structure, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of the small structure, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the at least one first portion has a dimension in the Z direction of less than about 500 nanometers.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the at least one portion has dimensions in the X-Y direction of less than about 250 nanometers.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the at least one first portion has a dimension in the Z direction in the range of less than about 300 nanometers.

5. The method of claim 3, wherein the at least one portion has a dimension in the Z direction of less than about 100 nanometers.

6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X, Y, and Z directions of less than about 50 nanometers

7. A method for the fabrication of a small structure, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of the small structure,
wherein the point volume of the first portion has dimensions of less than about 1 micron.

8. The method of claim 6, wherein the point volume of the first portion has at least one dimension of less than about 500 nm.

9. The method of claim 6, wherein the point volume of the first portion has at least one dimension of less than about 250 nm.

10. The method of claim 6, wherein the point volume of the first portion has at least one dimension of less than about 100 nm.

11. The method of claim 6, wherein the point volume of the first portion has at least one dimension of less than about 50 nm.

12. The method of claims 1, wherein the photoactivatable precursor composition comprises photoactivatable precursors selected from the group consisting of photopolymerizable organic monomers, photopolymerizable inorganic monomers, cross-linkers, monomers having at least one olefmic bond, oligomers having at least one olefmic bond, polymers having at least one olefinic bond, olefins, halogenated olefins, acrylates, methacrylates, acrylamides, bisacrylamides, styrenes, epoxides, cyclohexeneoxide, amino acids, peptides, proteins, fatty acids, lipids, nucleotides, oligonucleotides, synthetic nucleotide analogues, nucleic acids, sugars, carbohydrates, cytokines, hormones, receptors, growth factors, drugs, and mixtures thereof.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the photoactivatable precursor composition comprises photoactivatable precursors selected from the group consisting of proteins, fibrinogen, bovine serum albumin, trimethylolpropane triacrylate, and polyurethane precursors.

14. The method of claim 12, wherein the precursor is a protein.

15. The method of claim 12, wherein the precursor composition further comprises a photoinitiator.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the photoinitiator is selected from the group consisting of azo compounds, azobisisobutyronitrile, peroxides, benzoyl peroxide, aliphatic as ketones and diketones, aromatic diketones, benzophenone, 9-fluorenone 2-carboxylic acid, Fe3OH~, Pb2+Cl"), photosensitive dyes, eosin, rose Bengal, erythrosin, photosensitive transition metal derivatives, and Mn2(CO)10 in the presence of organic halides, triarylsulfonium salts with complex metal halide anions, diaryhodonium salts with complex metal halide anions, mixed arene cyclopentadienyl metal salts of complex metal halide anions, and (6-benzene)(5- cyclopentadienyl)Fe(II) hexafluorophosphate.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein activation is in bulk, in solution, adsorbed to a substrate, in suspension, or an emulsion.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein activation is by two-photon , three-photon, or four-photon excitation.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein activation results in polymerization or cross-linking of the precursor composition.

20. An apparatus for fabrication by multi-photon excitation, comprising a photon source in connection with 4pi optics, wherein the 4pi optics comprises a first high NA lens located above a movable stage and a second high NA lens located beneath the movable stage.

21. The apparatus of claim 20, further comprising a second movable stage located between the photon source and the first high NA lens.

22. An apparatus for fabrication by multi-photon excitation, comprising a photon source in connection with near field optics, wherein the near field optics comprises fiber optic couplers in conjunction with a near field fiber optic element for fabrication.

23. The apparatus of claim 22, further comprising an optical microscope as an imaging element.

24. The apparatus of claim 22, wherein the optical element is coupled with a multiple-barrel pipette.

25. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein the optical element is disposed within one of the pipette barrels.

26. The method of claim 1, wherein the first portion is fabrication from a first precursor composition and a second portion is fabricated from a second precursor composition.

27. The method of claim 1, wherein the first portion is fabricated at a first wavelength, and a second portion is fabricated at a second wavelength.

28. A method for entrapping an agent within a construct, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition comprising at least one construct precursor and at least one agent;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of the construct, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers, wherein the agent is entrapped within the construct.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein the agent is selected from the group consisting of growth factors, nucleotides, ions, buffering agents, dyes, proteins, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans, enzymes, nucleotides, liposomes, cells, drugs, and combinations thereof.

30. The method of claim 28, wherein the construct has controlled release properties, controlled degradation properties, controlled diffusivity properties, or a combination thereof.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein diffusion or release properties are controlled by control of the affinity of the agent for the construct, the degree of crosslink density of the construct, the rate of degradation of the construct, the composition of the construct, or a combination thereof.

32. The method of claim 31 , wherein control of the degree of affinity of the agent for the construct is by appropriate selection of backbone and/or crosslink compositions.

33. The method of claim 31, wherein control of the cross-link or polymerization density is by varying illumination time, intensity (photon energy density), constructs spatial dimensions, addition of overlayers without entrapped reagents.

34. A method for entrapping an agent within a construct, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of the construct, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers;
forming the remainder of the construct; and
entrapping the agent within the formed construct.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein the agent is selected from the group consisting of growth factors, nucleotides, ions, buffering agents, dyes, proteins, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans, enzymes, nucleotides, liposomes, cells, drugs,

36. The method of claim 34, wherein the agent is selected from the group consisting of entrapped enzymes that continuously act on molecules which diffuse into the gel or construct before the molecules diffuse out of the gel or construct; enzymes, chelators, or other molecules which act on molecules which diffuse into the gel, and through this action become unable to leave the gel or construct; motile proteins, peptides, or non-biochemical structures which cause the fabricated construct to wiggle, change shape, or change its diffusion properties when specific molecules, ions, or others agents diffuse into the gel; photodynamic molecules which change color, refraction, diffusion, transport, shape, or other physical properties or biochemical activities when illuminated at certain wavelengths, polarizations, or other states of light; entrapped chemoactive molecules which change color, refraction, diffusion, transport or other physical and/or biochemical properties due to the activity of chemical agents which diffuse into a gel or other construct such as ions, pH, and biomolecules; proteins for nano-Ochterlony-like immunodiffusion assays; living cells; or combinations thereof.

37. The method of claim 36, wherein the proteins or cells are entrapped by encapsulation, covalent crosslinking with the construct, or a combination thereof.

38. A method for modifying the surface of a material, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition and a surface;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a construct, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers, and wherein the at least one first portion is covalently linked to the surface.

39. The method of claim 38, wherein the surface is the surface of an integrated chip.

40. The method of claim 39, wherein the surface comprises bovine serum albumin which has been crosslinked by multiphoton excitation, and the construct photoactivatable precursor comprises fibrinogen.

41. The method of claim 39, wherein the modified surface provides a scaffold for tissue cell culture.

42. The method of claim 39, wherein the surface is modified by attachment to at least one motile protein.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein the motile protein is selected from the group consisting of kinesin, micro tubules, actin, axonemes, flagella, or a combination thereof.

44. A method for manufacture of the surface of sensor array chip, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition and a chip surface;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a sensor, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers, and wherein the at least one first portion is covalently linked to the chip surface.

45. A method for provide spatial orientation of an agent, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition and a first agent;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a construct, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers, and wherein the at least one first portion is covalently linked to the agent;
repeating the activation with a second agent, such that the second agent is spatially arrayed relative to the first agent.

46. The method of claim 45, wherein the agent first and second agents are selected from the group consisting of enzymes, antibodies, receptors, ribosomes and combinations thereof.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the first and second agents perform biochemical synthesis, or perform separations.

48. The method of claim 46, wherein the second agent is arrayed by self-assembly, application of electrostatic fields, magnetic fields, shear forces, laser tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and combinations thereof.

49. A method for modifying explanted tissue, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition and explanted tissue;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a construct, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers, and wherein the at least one first portion is covalently linked to the explanted tissue.

50. The method of claim 49, wherein the construct crosslinks the tissue, links chelating agents or antibacterial agents to the tissue, or a combination thereof.

51. A method for the manufacture of a form for multiple production, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a the form, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers.

52. The method of claim 51, wherein the form is a mold, stamper, mask, or mask for photolithography.

53. A method for the manufacture of complex three-dimensional forms, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition which undergoes dynamic shape change upon fabrication;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a the form, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers.

54. A method for the manufacture of complex three-dimensional forms, comprising
providing a photoactivatable precursor composition which undergoes dynamic shape change upon exposure to a change in environment;
activating the precursor composition using multi-photon excitation in at least one first location in the precursor composition to form at least one first portion of a the form, wherein the at least one first portion has dimensions in the X-Y directions of less than about 300 nanometers.

55. The method of claim 54, wherein the change in environment is a change in temperature, solvent, ionic strength, presence of a ligand, or a combination thereof.

56. A device for fabrication by multi-photon excitation at remote locations, comprising
a photon source connected to a first end of single mode optical fiber via a fiber optic coupler and a group velocity delay self-phase modulation compensator; wherein the second end of the optical fiber comprises a lens for multi -photon fabrication.

57. The device of claim 56, wherein the optical fiber is housed in a catheter.

58. The device of claim 57, whrein the catheter further housed at least one reagent tube for dispensing reagent at the site of fabrication.

59. The device of claim 56, whrein the second end of the optical fiber further comprises a cowling.