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1. (WO1993017577) GOMME A MACHER AMELIOREE, EXEMPTE DE CIRE, A LIBERATION REGULEE D'AGENT EDULCORANT
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IMPROVED WAX-FREE CHEWING GUMS WITH
CONTROLLED SWEETENER RELEASE

RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a continuation-in-part of copending International Application No. PCT/US92/
11317, (Case No. 1391/1289), filed on December 30, 1992, which in turn is a continuation- in-part of
International Application No. PCT/US92/09615, filed on November 6, 1992, which in turn is a continuation-in-part of PCT/US92/01686, filed on March 3, 1992.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an improved wax- free chewing gum and particularly to wax-free chewing gum products containing controlled release sweeteners .

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
U.S. Patent No. 3,984,574, issued to Comollo, discloses an abhesive chewing gum base in which the non-tack properties were achieved by eliminating conventional chewing gum base ingredients which were found to contribute to chewing gum tackiness, and by substituting non-tacky ingredients in place of the conventional ingredients. Specifically, it was
discovered that three classes of materials account for conventional chewing gum tackiness. These materials are elastomers, resins, and waxes.

Comollo eliminated natural and some synthetic elastomers from chewing gum base, and substituted in their place one or more non-tacky synthetic elastomers such as polyisobutylene, polyisoprene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer and butadiene-styrene copolymer. Comollo also eliminated the tack-producing natural resins and modified natural resins and used instead relatively high amounts of hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils or animal fats. Finally, Comollo completely excluded waxes from the gum base, but included polyvinyl acetate, fatty acids, and mono and diglycerides of fatty acids. Comollo did not teach controlled release of sweeteners with his abhesive chewing gums.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is directed to a wax-free chewing gum containing controlled release
sweeteners. The chewing gum of the invention includes a wax-free chewing gum base comprising quantities of synthetic elastomer, elastomer plasticizer, filler and softener, and, like the gum base of Comollo, is
substantially free of wax. However, the gum base of the invention is not limited to use in a non-tack chewing gum and may, therefore, contain optional quantities of natural elastomer and/or natural resins. The gum base of the invention may also contain optional quantities of minor ingredients such as color and antioxidant.
The use of natural elastomers in the gum base compliments certain chewing gum flavors, such as mint oil, by rounding out the otherwise harsh or grassy notes in the flavor. The presence of natural
elastomers and natural resins in the gum base also contributes to improved chewing gum texture and flavor retention. There is currently a need or desire in the chewing gum industry for gum bases which are devoid or substantially free of hydrocarbon-containing waxes and which contain desired quantities of natural elastomers, natural resins, or both.
When the wax-free gum bases are formulated with water-soluble ingredients, such as, for example, sweeteners, bulking agents, binders, and the like, and flavoring agents, it has been determined that the wax-free gum bases, when formulated into chewing gums, surprisingly produce chewing gums which tend to release certain flavoring ingredients at accelerated rates.
Also, it's been observed that a greater overall
quantity of flavor is released from wax-free gums.
This results not only in a stronger initial flavor impact, but also in a stronger flavor in later stages of chewing. This is taught in U.S. Patent Application 07/997,732, filed December 30, 1992 (Case No.
1391/1282) , which is incorporated herein by reference. To obtain a balanced release of flavor and sweeteners, which balance enhances the consumer's pleasure, it is now important in the wax-free chewing gums of this invention to formulate the wax-free chewing gum with not only the wax-free gum bases of the invention, but also to formulate the chewing gums using flavors and sweeteners which release essentially concurrently.
This requires a controlled sweetener release that provides rapid release to compliment the more rapid release of flavors in wax-free chewing gums, but also provides controlled, and longer term sweetener release, concurrently with stronger flavor release in later stages of the chew, thereby providing consumer pleasure over the life of the chew.
With the foregoing in mind, it is a feature and advantage of the invention to provide a substantially wax- free chewing gum base.
It is also a feature and advantage of the invention to provide a suitably soft gum base in which wax is not needed to soften the gum base.

It is also a feature and advantage of the invention to provide improved chewing gums which contain the wax-free chewing gum base of the invention, which gums contain controlled release sweeteners.
It is also a feature and advantage of the invention to provide improved chewing gums made from said inventive wax-free gum base which does not retain the amount of flavor typical sugarless gums retain after chewing, and in fact releases flavoring
ingredients at a rate greater than observed with a wax containing chewing gum, and to provide sweetener release at comparable rates to flavor release from these wax-free chewing gums, both initially and
throughout the chew.
It is also a feature and advantage of the invention to provide chewing gum products having desirable properties such as flavor quality and
strength, flavor and sweetness retention, sweetness and flavor release profiles which are comparable, or at least similar to one another, controlled rate of both flavor and sweetness release, controlled sweetness release at rates at least comparable to flavor release in the wax-free chewing gums of this invention, as well as breath freshening, dental and oral health properties and good shelf stability.
The foregoing and other features and advantages will become further apparent from the following detailed description of the presently preferred
embodiments, when read in conjunction with the accompanying examples. It should be understood that the detailed description and examples are illustrative rather than limitative, the scope of the present invention being defined by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
PRESENTLY PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
In accordance with the invention, a chewing gum base is provided for use in either non-tack or conventional chewing gum, which may be either bubble gum or regular chewing gum. The chewing gum base of the invention contains about 20 to about 60 weight percent synthetic elastomer, 0 to about 30 weight percent natural elastomer, about 5 to about 55 weight percent elastomer plasticizer, about 4 to about 35 weight percent filler, about 5 to about 35 weight percent softener, and optional minor amounts (about one percent or less) of miscellaneous ingredients such as colorants, antioxidants, etc.
Synthetic elastomers may include, but are not limited to, polyisobutylene with GPC molecular weight of about 10,000 to about 95,000, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (butyl elastomer) , styrene-butadiene
copolymers having styrene-butadiene ratios of about 1:3 to about 3:1, polyvinyl acetate having GPC molecular weight of about 2,000 to about 90,000, polyisoprene, polyethylene, vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate copolymer having vinyl laurate content of about 5 to about 50 percent by weight of the copolymer, and combinations thereof. Preferred combinations include, but are not limited to polyisobutylene and styrene-butadiene, polyisobutylene and polyisoprene, polyisobutylene and isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (butyl rubber) ,
polyisobutylene, styrene-butadiene copolymer, and isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, and all of the above in admixture with polyvinyl acetate, vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate copolymers and mixtures thereof.
Preferred ranges are, for polyisobutylene, 50,000 to 80,000 GPC molecular weight, for styrene-butadiene, 1:1 to 1:3 bound styrene-butadiene, for polyvinyl acetate, 10,000 to 65,000 GPC molecular weight with the higher molecular weight polyvinyl acetates typically used in bubble gum base, and for vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate, vinyl laurate content of 10-45 percent.
Natural elastomers may include natural rubber such as smoked or liquid latex and guayule as well as natural gums such as jelutong, lechi caspi, perillo, sorva, massaranduba balata, massaranduba chocolate, nispero, rosindinha, chicle, gutta hang kang,
chiquibul, crown gum, pendare, venezuelau chicle, leche de vaca, niger gutta, tunu,* chilte and combinations thereof. The preferred natural elastomers are
jelutong, chicle, sorva and massaranduba balata. The preferred elastomers and elastomer concentrations vary depending on whether the chewing gum in which the base is used is abhesive or conventional, bubble gum or regular gum, as discussed below.
Elastomer plasticizers may include, but are not limited to, natural rosin esters such as glycerol esters of partially hydrogenated rosin, glycerol esters of polymerized rosin, glycerol esters of partially dimerized rosin, glycerol esters of rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, pentaerythritol esters of partially hydrogenated rosin, methyl and partially hydrogenated methyl esters of rosin, pentaerythritol esters of rosin; synthetics such as terpene resins derived from alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and/or d-limonene; natural terpene resin; and any suitable combinations of the foregoing. The preferred elastomer plasticizers will also vary depending on the specific application, and on the type of elastomer which is used.- For example, use of terpene resin to wholly or partially replace ester gums will cause the gum base to be less tacky.
The term "wax-free" as used herein refers to the exclusion of waxes which contain mineral
hydrocarbons. Natural waxes such as carnauba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and candellila wax do not contain mineral hydrocarbons and are therefor acceptable for use in the chewing gum base and chewing gums prepared therefrom. However, our gum bases preferably contain from 0-5 weight percent natural wax, and most preferably are free of both mineral
hydrocarbon waxes, i.e. petroleum waxes, and natural waxes .
Fillers/texturizers may include magnesium and calcium carbonate, ground limestone, silicate types such as magnesium and aluminum silicate, clay, alumina, talc, titanium oxide, mono-, di- and tri-calcium phosphate, cellulose polymers, such as wood, and combinations thereof .
Softeners/emulsifiers may include tallow, hydrogenated tallow, hydrogenated and partially
hydrogenated vegetable oils, cocoa butter, glycerol monostearate, glycerol triacetate, lecithin, mono-, di-and triglycerides, acetylated monoglycerides , fatty acids (e.g. stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids), lanolin, diacetin, and combinations thereof. Hydrogenated vegetable oils are generally preferred, either alone or in combination with other softeners.
Colorants and whiteners may include FD&C-type dyes and lakes, fruit and vegetable extracts, titanium dioxide, cocoa powder and combinations thereof.
The wax-free gum base of the invention may also contain optional ingredients such as either natural or synthetic antioxidants .
When the wax- free gum base of the invention is to be used in a regular (non-bubble) gum which has at least some abhesive (reduced tack) characteristics, the base should contain about 10 to about 40 weight percent synthetic elastomer, about 15 to about 30 weight percent elastomer plasticizer, about 5 to about 30 weight percent filler, about 15 to about 35 weight percent softener, 0 to about 1 weight percent colorant and 0 to about 0.1 weight percent antioxidant.

Specific embodiments of the wax-free gum base are provided in Examples 1-30 below.
Table 1: Wax-Free Gum Bases
For Use Li Chewing Gum Having
Some Reduced Tack Characteristics (Examples 1-30)
EXAMPLES 1-5


EXAMPLES 6-10

EXAMPLES 11-15

EXAMPLES 16-20

EXAMPLES 21-25

EXAMPLES 26-30

When the wax-free gum base of the invention is to be used in a regular (non-bubble) gum which does not have abhesive characteristics, the base should contain about 12 to about 30 weight percent natural elastomer, about 20 to about 40 weight percent
synthetic elastomer, about 4 to about 25 weight percent elastomer plasticizer, about 5 to about 25 weight percent filler, about 15 to about 30 weight percent softener, 0 to about 1 weight percent colorant and 0 to about 0.1 weight percent antioxidant. Specific
embodiments of the wax-free gum base fitting this description are provided in Examples 31-55 below:

Table 2: Wax-Free Gum Bases For Use
In Chewing Gum Not Having Reduced Tack (Examples 31-55)
EXAMPLES 31-34


EXAMPLES 35-38

EXAMPLES 39^2

EXAMPLES 43-46

EXAMPLES 47-50

EXAMPLES 51-55

When the wax-free gum base of the invention is to be used in' a bubble gum, the base should contain about 30 to about 60 weight percent synthetic
elastomer, about 5 to about 55 weight percent elastomer plasticizer, about 10 to about 35 weight percent
filler, about 5 to about 25 weight percent softener, 0 to about 1 weight percent colorant and 0 to about 0.1 weight percent antioxidant. Specific embodiments of the wax- free base for use in bubble gum are provided in Examples 56-74 below.

Table 3: Wax-Free Gum
Bases For Use In Bubble Gum

EXAMPLES 56-60


EXAMPLES 61-64

EXAMPLES 65-69

EXAMPLES 70-74


The wax-free gum base of the invention constitutes about 5-95 weight percent of the chewing gum, more typically 10-50 weight percent of the chewing gum, and most commonly 20-35 weight percent of the chewing gum. The gum base is typically prepared by adding an amount of the elastomer, elastomer plasticizers and filler to a heated sigma blade mixer with a front to rear blade speed ratio of typically 2:1. The initial amounts of ingredients are determined by the working capacity of the mixing kettle in order to attain a proper consistency. After the initial ingredients have massed homogeneously, the balance of the elastomer plasticizer, filler, softeners, etc. are added in a sequential manner until a completely homogeneous molten mass is attained. This can usually be achieved in one to four hours, depending on the formulation. The final mass temperature can be between 60°C and 150°C, more preferably between 80°C and 120°C. The completed molten mass is emptied from the mixing kettle into coated or lined pans, extruded or cast into any desirable shape and allowed to cool and solidify.
Although the above method for making base is typical and applies to both chewing and bubble bases, it has been found that there is a preferred method for making the bubble bases described in this invention.
First, all of the polyvinyl acetate and portions of the polyisobutylene and filler are added and blended in a heated sigma blade mixer. Softeners such as glyceryl triacetate and/or acetylated monoglyceride are then added along with a second portion of each of polyisobutylene and filler. The acetylated monoglyceride may be added at the end of the process if desired and still not alter the chewing texture of the gum made from the base.
Next, the rest of the polyisobutylene and filler are added along with the elastomer plasticizer. Finally, the remaining ingredients such as glycerol monostearate and antioxidants may be added. Colorant may be added at any time during the mixing process and is preferably added at the start.
There are some variations to the above described preferred method which in no way limits the method as described. Those skilled in the art of gum base manufacture may be able to appreciate any minor variations .
In producing wax-containing gum bases high in polyvinyl acetate, and particularly those high in high molecular weight polyvinyl acetate, it is necessary to improve blending of the ingredients by removing the heat applied to the sigma blade mixer at some point in the process. This reduces the temperature of the gum base and causes greater compatibility of its
ingredients . In the inventive gum base process for making the inventive gum base free of wax, there is no need to remove the heat applied. The degree of
incompatibility is greatly reduced since there is no wax present. Nevertheless, heat is preferably removed at about 30 minutes to about 90 minutes into the mixing time of the base production process.

THE CHEWING GUMS OF THE INVENTION
In addition to the water-insoluble gum base, a typical chewing gum composition includes a water-soluble bulking agent and one or more flavoring agents. The wax-free gum base of the invention can be used in any typical chewing gum composition.
The water-soluble bulking agent of the chewing gum may include softeners, bulk sweeteners, high-intensity sweeteners, flavoring agents and
combinations thereof. Softeners are added to the chewing gum in order to optimize the chewability and mouth feel of the gum. The softeners, which are also known as plasticizers or plasticizing agents, generally constitute between about .5-15% by weight of the chewing gum. The softeners may include glycerin, lecithin, glycerol monostearate, glycerol triacetate, hydroxylated lecithin, agar, carrageenan, and combinations thereof. Aqueous sweetener solutions, syrups, and the like, such as those containing sorbitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolyzates, corn syrup and combinations thereof, may also be used. as softeners and binding agents in the wax-free chewing gums of this invention.
Bulk sweeteners may constitute between 5-95% by weight of the chewing gum, more typically 20-80% by weight of the chewing gum and most commonly 30-60% by weight of the chewing gum. Bulk sweeteners may include both sugar and sugarless sweeteners and components. Sugar sweeteners may include saccharide containing components including but not limited to sucrose, dextrose, maltose, dextrin, dried invert sugar,
fructose, levulose, galactose, corn syrup solids, high maltose syrup, invert/high fructose syrup, maltotriose, glyceraldehyde, erythrose, xylose, lactose, leucrose, L-sugars, fructooligosaccharide and low calorie
bulking/binding agents such as indigestible dextrin, guar gum hydrolyzate, oligofructose, polydextrose, and the like, alone or in combination. Sugarless
sweeteners include components with sweetening characteristics but are devoid of the commonly known sugars . Sugarless sweeteners include but are not limited to sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolyzates, maltitol, lactitol, erythritol, cellobiitol, and the like, alone or in combination.
High- intensity sweeteners may also be present and are commonly used with sugarless sweeteners. When used, high-intensity sweeteners typically constitute between .001-5% by weight of the chewing gum, preferably between .01-1% by weight of the chewing gum.
Typically, high-intensity sweeteners are at least 20 times sweeter than sucrose. These may include but are not limited to sucralose, aspartame, salts of
acesulfame, alitame, saccharin and its salts, cyclamic acid and its salts, glycyrrhizin, dihydrochalcones, thaumatin, monellin, stevia and the like, alone or in combination.
In this invention, it is advantageous to use at least one controlled release sweetener with other optional active sweetening and bulking ingredients. The controlled release sweetener can be incorporated into the wax-free chewing gum after being modified, such as by encapsulating the sweetener, in order to modify its release. The most common ways of modifying the release of the active sweetening ingredients include spray drying, spray chilling, fluid-bed
coating, coacervation, absorption, extrusion encapsulation, and other standard encapsulating
techniques. The active sweetener ingredient may be modified in a multiple step process comprising any of the processes noted. Encapsulating agents that can be used include polyvinyl acetate, acrylic polymers and copolymers, carboxyvinyl polymer, polyamides,
polystyrene, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, natural waxes, zein, shellac, agar, alginates, a wide range of
cellulose derivatives including ethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, sodium hydroxymethyl cellulose, and
hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, dextrin, gelatin, modified starches,
maltodextrin, gum arabic, xanthan gum, gelatin and pectin.
Controlled release of sweeteners is then obtained by selecting sweeteners that are, by their nature, fast release sweeteners and those which are, by their nature, slow release sweeteners, and blending them with the wax-free gum bases of the invention to obtain the wax-free chewing gum of this invention having both fast flavor release to compliment normally faster flavor release from wax-free chewing gums, and controlled sweetness (slower) release to sustain consumer pleasure during the chew. The blend is accomplished so as to provide controlled total
sweetener release in a way so as to give an available sweetener profile comparable to, or similar to, the flavor profile available to the consumer. This
perception of available flavor and sweetener profile provides enhanced consumer pleasure not only during the initial sweetener and flavor release, but throughout the chew.
Similarly, a sweetener which is normally a fast release sweetener may be modified to become a slow release sweetener, or a normally slow release sweetener may be modified to become a fast release sweetener. These may then be used in those combinations which provide effective sweetness release for the wax-free sweeteners of this invention.
Combinations of sugar and/or sugarless sweeteners may be used in the wax-free chewing gum. The sweetener may also function in the chewing gum in whole or in part as a water-soluble bulking agent.
Additionally, the softener may also provide additional sweetness such as with aqueous sugar or alditol
solutions.
Fast release sweeteners contemplated include such low- intensity sweeteners as sucrose, dried invert sugar, fructose, xylitol, and combinations thereof. Fast release sweeteners also include most high-intensity sweeteners, for example, those sweeteners selected from aspartame, acesulfame K, alitame,
saccharin, cyclamate, used either alone, or in
combination. However, these high-intensity sweeteners may be modified, as will be seen later, to become controlled release (or slow release) sweeteners.
Fast release sweeteners, as contemplated above, release about 60% of their sweetness, or more, in the first five (5) minutes of chewing. Further, the fast release sweeteners normally have a sweetness intensity at least about equal to, or greater than, that provided by sucrose. Therefore, these sweeteners provide a relatively high impact of sweetness during the first three (3) minutes of chewing.
Fast release sweeteners may be found as natural sweeteners or they may be synthesized
sweeteners. They may be treated or modified to provide for rapid or fast sweetness release. For example, sucralose, normally a slow release sweetener, when spray dried with maltodextrin gives a fast release sweetener.
Sweeteners which do not meet the requirements set forth above for fast release sweeteners are
referred to herein as slow release sweeteners . The slow release sweeteners may be natural or synthetic. They may be low sweetness, or high sweetness
ingredients . They may be fast release sweeteners formulated, reacted or modified in such a way as to become slow release sweeteners .
Such slow release sweeteners include, but are not necessarily limited to, sorbitol, mannitol,
dextrose, maltose, corn syrup solids, galactose, dextrin, hydrogenated starch hydrolyzates, maltitol, isomaltitol and the high-intensity sweeteners
sucralose, thaumatin, hydrochalcone and monellin. The slow release, or controlled release sweeteners may also include the encapsulated, agglomerated, or absorbed sweeteners, including, for example, encapsulated high intensity, normally fast release sweeteners.
For example, Yatka, in International
Application No. PCT/US90/06038 (International Publ. No. WO 91/03147) taught a method of controlling release of stevioside in chewing gum. Stevioside, normally a fast release sweetener, was converted into a controlled release (or slow release) sweetener by coating,
encapsulating, agglomerating, entrapping by absorption, or treating by multiple steps of encapsulating,
agglomerating, and absorption. Ingredients such as the encapsulating agents mentioned above may be used.
Yatka, in International Application No.
PCT/US88/04400 (International Publ. No. WO 89/03170) also teaches similar methods of controlling release of Acesulfame K in chewing gums. Also, in International Application No. PCT/US89/01269 (International Publ. No. WO 90/06061) , Yatka demonstrates controlled release of Alitame in chewing gum.
Similar controlled release sweeteners
including sucralose; Yatka, International Application No. PCT/US89/05296 (International Publ. No. WO
90/07859) , Glycyrrhizin; Yatka, International
Application No. PCT/US90/02255 (International Publ. No.

WO 90/07864) ; and Dihydrochalcones; Yatka,
International Application No. PCT/US90/04002
(International Publ. No. 90/13994) have been taught.
In addition to the above International Patent

Applications/Publications, all of which are
incorporated herein by reference, the following U.S. patents have taught various techniques of providing for either slowed release of sweeteners from, or in some cases, modified flavor release from, as providing for improved shelf life of, chewing gums or other
digestible or consumable products:
U.S. Patent No. 4,139,639, Bahosky et al .
U.S. Patent No. 4,230,687, Sair et al .
U.S. Patent No. 4,384,004, Cea et al.
U.S. Patent No. 4,386,106, Merritt et al.
U.S. Patent No. 4,515,769, Merritt et al.
U.S. Patent No. 4,597,970, Sharma et al.
U.S. Patent No. 4,634,593, Stroz et al .
U.S. Patent No. 4,986,991, Yatka et al.
U.S. Patent No. 5,039,530, Yatka et al.
U.S. Patent No. 5,041,294, Patel et al.
U.S. Patent No. 5,100,678, Reed et al.
As those familiar with the art will
recognize, either or both fast release and slow release sweeteners may serve as bulking agents or binders in chewing gum formulations, and the same is true for our wax-free chewing gums. The wax- free chewing gums do, however, preferably contain additional binding agents, since binding is one of the functions served by wax, when present in chewing gums .
Flavoring agents should generally be present in the chewing gum in an amount within the range of about 0.1-15% by weight of the chewing gum, preferably between about 0.2-5% by weight of the chewing gum, most preferably between about 0.5-3% by weight of the chewing gum. Flavoring agents may include essential oils, synthetic flavors or mixtures thereof including but not limited to oils derived from plants and fruits such as citrus oils, fruit essences; peppermint oil, spearmint oil, other mint oils, clove oil, oil of wintergreen, anise and the like. Artificial flavoring agents and components may also be used. Natural and artificial flavoring agents may be combined in any sensorially acceptable fashion.
Optional ingredients such as colors, food acidulants, emulsifiers, pharmaceutical agents,
vitamins, and additional flavoring agents may also be included in chewing gum.
Chewing gum is generally manufactured by sequentially adding the various chewing gum ingredients to any commercially available mixer known in the art. After the ingredients have been thoroughly mixed, the gum mass is discharged from the mixer and shaped into the desired form such as by rolling into sheets and cutting into sticks, extruding into chunks, or casting into pellets. Generally, the ingredients are mixed by first melting the gum base and adding it to the running mixer. The gum base may alternatively be melted in the mixer. Color and emulsifiers can be added at this time.
A softener such as glycerin can be added next along with syrup and part of the bulk portion. Further parts of the bulk portion may then be added to the mixer. Flavoring agents are typically added with the final part of the bulk portion. The entire mixing process typically takes from five to fifteen minutes, although longer mixing times are sometimes required. Those skilled in the art will recognize that variations of this mixing procedure, or other mixing procedures, may be followed.
The following formulas are illustrative of types of products which may be produced. All
ingredient levels are expressed in weight percent.
Examples 75-93 illustrate non-tack and reduced-tack chewing gums of the present invention. As can be seen, there is much latitude in the selection of flavors, sweeteners and ingredient levels.

Examples 75-80 illustrate use of the invention with sugar gums while Examples 81-91 describe sugarless gums. Preferably, the chewing gums manufactured according to the invention will have a combination of slow release and fast release sweeteners, which
combination provides for comparable, or similar
sweetness release profiles when measured with flavor release profiles. Most preferably, the combination is created such that the perceived rate of sweetness release is similar to the perceived rate of flavor release. Sweetener release profile is a measure of the sensory perception of sweetener intensity released per unit time. Flavor release profile is similarly
defined.
Encapsulated sweeteners may be used to extend sweetness and flavor and to protect the sensitive sweeteners from degradation during storage. Certain naturally slow release sweeteners, such as sucralose, . may be encapsulated or codissolved and spray-dried to provide fast release, if the powdered or crystalline sweetener would normally provide for slow release. Low moisture products having moisture levels below 2% are also within the scope of these inventions, for example in Examples 83 and 85 which follow.

Table 4: Sugar-Containing
Non-Tack And Reduced Tack Gums

EXAMPLES 75-80


Table 5: Sugarless Non-Tack
And Reduced Tack Gums

EXAMPLES 81-86


EXAMPLES 87-91



Examples 92 -97 are sugarless products made with the non-reduced-tack bases of the present invention. Examples 98 -103 are equivalent sugar products .

Table 6: Regular Tack Sugarless Gums
EXAMPLES 92-97


Table 7: Regular Tack Sugar Gums
EXAMPLES 98-103


Examples 104-115 are examples of inventive coated pellet gums made with non-wax bases . The gum products of these examples are formed into pellets or balls for subsequent coating. Examples 104-109 are sugar pellets which could be coated with sugar syrups. Such syrups may contain modified starch (0 to 6.0%), compatible flavors and colors (0 to 0.30%), vegetable gums such as gum arable and cellulose derivatives such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (0 to 20%) in
addition to sucrose or starch hydrolyzate in an aqueous solution.
Examples 110-115 are sugarless pellets which can be coated with sugar alcohol solutions such as those of sorbitol, xylitol and palatinit. These syrups may also contain the same modifiers listed above for sugar syrups.

In both cases (sugar and sugarless) dry coating agent (sugar or sugar alcohol) may be added between layers of coating syrup, a process known as dry charging or soft panning.
Coating may be carried out by any suitable process, most often using a conventional pan, side vented pans, high capacity pans such as those made by Driam or Dumouline, or by continuous panning
techniques .

Table 8: Sugar Pellet Gums For Coating
EXAMPLES 104-109


Table 9: Sugarless Pellet Gums For Coating

EXAMPLES 110-115


Inventive bubble gums may be prepared using the bubble gum bases of the present invention such as those listed in Examples 56-74. Illustrative formulations are given as Examples 116-127. Examples 116-121 are sugar bubble gum formulas. Note that Examples 117 and 121 use blends of two inventive bases. This is a technique to optimize processing and texture properties while minimizing the necessity of maintaining different bases for each product and without having additional custom bases compounded. Examples 122-127 are
sugarless bubble gum formulas.

Table 10: Sugar Bubble Gums
EXAMPLES 116-121


Table 11: Sugarless Bubble Gums
EXAMPLES 122-127


While the embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are presently considered to be
preferred, various modifications and improvements can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The scope of the invention is indicated in the appended claims, and all changes that come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are intended to be embraced therein.