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[ EN ]
Pallet comprising base members and crosswise
members or tubes perpendicularly thereto.

The present invention relates to a pallet comprising two or several base members provided with a number of holes at or at a minor distance from the upper load-bearing horizontal surfaces thereof, through which crosswise members or tubes are inserted under friction so as to unite the base mem-bersto the formation of the pallet. The tubes do not require specific fixation to the base members and are kept in position due to friction and the so-called "drawer effect"; the friction is considerably increased when the pallet is loaded.
The base members in the pallets according to the invention may, however, be united with each other by attaching a board of a suitable material (common board, plywood, etc.), e.g. by gluing, to 'the upper horizontal surfaces of the base members, in which case the above mentioned holes are not required or utilized. Thi.s board then forms the load-bearing plane. When tubes are used to unite the base members the load-bearing parts of the pallet comprise the upper parts of the tubes and the upper surfaces of the base members in combination. If desired or required in view of the dimensions of the goods to be transported the pallets may be provided with one board above the base members or several boards located between the same, which board or boards form a smooth and continuous load-bearing plane.
A pallet of the kind described above is the subject of WO (PCT/SE

85/003-+6) , which is incorporated herein as a reference.
The purpose of the said patent is to achieve a pallet which can be handled by forks from four sides, comprising at least two base members provided with holes near the upper load-bearing surfaces and with recesses in the lower parts, intended to receive the forks of a conventional fork lift truck, which pallet has a very low weight, is cheap, has a great flexibili ty as regards adaptability for different purposes, is not bulky when stored since it can be stored in the form of its separate parts. If desired, this pallet can be destroyed after use by burning without the formation of toxi or otherwise disturbing gases. This pallet can be handled and moved by a fork lift truck from all four sides; the forks can be inserted below the tubes from two sides and through the recesses in the base members from two sides, which is required for rational handling and storage of goods.

The base members for the pallets according to the present invention are in comparison with those previously known extremely cheap when manufactured in bulk and have a very low weight at a sufficient load-bearing capacity and fulfil ail current requirements.
Accordingly, the present invention relates to a pallet comprising base members and, preferably, tubes perpendicularly thereto, especially a disposable pallet, characterized in that it comprises base members manufactured by winding a web material coated with a gluing substance, the width of said web material preferably being equal to the length of the base member, at first around a first spindle, preferably with a rectangular cross-section, the height of which corresponds to the diameter or height of the tubes and the width of which is adapted to the width intended for the base member, the number of turns giving the intended structural stability, to the formation of a first bobbin, whereupon a second spindle is placed below the said first bobbin and in contact with the lower surface-of the said first bobbin, the dimensions of the said second spindle being such that the same together with the said first bobbin essentially completes the intended inner dimensions of the base member, whereupon the web material with a surface-coating of a gluing substance are wound around the structure formed by the said first bobbin and the said second spindle the number of turns required for the intended structural stability to the formation of a second bobbin en-closing.jthe first bobbin, whereupon the web is cut and the spindles removed and in that recesses for the forks of a fork lift truck are provided in the said second bobbin and holes for the said tubes are made through the common two opposite, vertical wall sections of the first and the second bobbin.

The invention is further elucidated below with reference to specific embodi ments shown in the drawings, in which
- Fig. 1 in perspective shows a pallet according to the invention consisting of three base members and seven tubes;
- Fig. 2 is an end view of a finished base member according to the inventio

- Fig. 3 in perspective shows a ready-wound base member before the recesses for the forks of a fork lift truck and the holes for the tubes are made;

- Fig. k in perspective shows the base member of Fig. 3* provided with H--shaped cuts for the recesses;
- Fig. 5 in perspective shows an uncompleted folding of gluing tongues form ed by the cuts shown in Fig. k at the left hand recess for forks;

- Fig. 6 shows a cross section through a finished base member at a recess for forks in which the positions of the gluing tongues are shown. Fig. 6 also shows a stiff tensile-strong band running along the whole length of the base member and below the lower gluing tongues in the base member;
- Fig. 7 a and b show end views in perspective of tubes wound on a spindle, with a circular cross section and with a square cross section;
- Fig. 8 shows in perspective an alternative embodiment of the base members in which rectangular holes have been made for the recesses without leaving folding tongues.
The base members and preferably also the tubes for the pallets according to the invention are made of a web material, preferably a fibrous material, such as carton or paper.
A preferred web material is polyethylene-coated carton, folding carton or a similar material with a thickness in the range of about 0.2 to 1.0 mm, especially about 0.3 ~ 0.5 mm, but the web material is in no way limited thereto. Alternative web materials are obvious to the expert. Such materials should be windable and gluable; they should preferably also have at least a certain degree of wet-strength.
A base member for the pallet according to the invention is manufactured as described below in more detail. The web material is wound around spindles in a manner known per se. The web material, which preferably has a width equal to the length of the base member, is provided with a coating of glue at least on one side thereof and subsequently wound around a first spindle (not shown in the drawings), suitably with a rectangular cross section so as to form a first bobbin 9 (cf. Fig. 2) in the form of a tube with a rectangular cross section corresponding to that of the spindle. The inner height of the bobbin 9 and thus the height of the first spindle preferably corresponds to the outer diameter or height of the tubes intended for connecting the base members 1,2 and 3 with each other. The external width of the bobbin 9 is adapted to the desired inner width of the base member. The number of turns wound in the bobbin 9 is adapted to the Intended or desired structural rigidity of the base member.
Subsequently a second spindle (not shown in the drawings) is placed in contact with the completed first bobbin 9 at the lower surface thereof, cf. Fig. 2. The dimensions of the second spindle are such that It together with the first bobbin 9 essentially completes the inner cross-section dimensions of the base member. A second" bobbin 10 is then wound from the web material around the structure formed by the second spindle and the first bobbin 9. The number of turns wound in the second bobbin 10 is adapted to the required or intended structural rigidity of the base member.
It is thus obvious that the first bobbin 9 and the second bobbin 10, which tightly encloses the first bobbin along three of its surfaces, together form a united laminated structure of a great strength.
Recesses 6 for the forks of a fork lift truck are then made in the said second bobbin 10. Holes 8 for the tubes h are also made through the common O opposite vertical wall sections of the bobbins 9 and 10.
The first bobbin 9 contains usually so many turns of the web material that its wall thickness is within the range 2 - k mm, whereas the second bobbin 10 usually contains so many turns that its wall thickness is within the range 3 " 5 mm. Greater thicknesses are often required for havier loads. 5 When the above mentioned preferred web material is used the first bobbin 9 contains 4 - 8 turns and the second bobbin 10 contains 6 - 12 turns.
According to a preferred embodiment the recesses 6 for the forks of a fork lift truck are formed by making essentially H-shaped cuts 11 (Fig. ) at the positions for the recesses, whereupon the pairs of gluing tongues 12a, Q- 12b;13a,13b (Figs, k and 5) are folded inwards and glued to each other. In this way two rectangular recesses 6 (Fig. 1) for the forks are obtained in the base members 1,2 and 3. in which recesses 6 the upper pair of gluing tongues 12a and 12b form a "roof" in the recess 6 through the base member and a second lower pair of gluing tongues 13a and 13b form a band girder 7 - (Fig. 6) essential ly level with the lower surface of the base member, which girder 7 forms the bottom surface of the recess 6.
Fig. 3 shows a base member before the H-shaped cuts are made in the second bobbin 10, i.e. in the ready-wound state except for t e band girder 14 which is shown attached to the inner lower surface. In Fig. k the H-shaped 0 cuts 11 are indicated by continuous lines, whereas the dotted lines indicate the folding lines for the gluing tongues 12b and 13 b.
Fig. 5 shows an uncompleted folding of gluing tongues 12b, 13b at the left hand recess 6 in Fig. 5.
Figs. 1, 2 and 6 show the finished base members in perspective end view and 5 cross section at the recess resp.

The tubes which connect the base members can be wound in the same manner as the base members with the use of the same web material and may in relation to the desired strength contain 5 ~ 10 turns of the web material or more. The tubes may have any cross section such as a circular or a rectan- 5 gular one.
It is, of course, also possible to use any type of conventional tubes or similar means of any cross section and any kind of material for connecting the base members with each other.
The spindles used for making the bobbins 9 and 10 (as well as the one used

TO for making the tubes) are suitably in a conventional manner expandable so as to facilitate the removal of the same when the winding is completed.
The holes for the tubes k and the H-shaped cuts can be made in different ways, e.g. by pressing, cutting or with a circular saw. The cutting can also be made with a water jet under a very high pressure.
' S According to another' embodiment the above mentioned H-shaped cuts are not made, and then the recesses 6 are cut out form the walls of the second bobbin 10 as shown in Fig. 8 without the formation of gluing tongues. This embodiment is primarily suitable for pallets intended for light loads. It is obvious that the lastmentioned embodiment is somewhat cheaper to manufac

20 ture than the fi rstmentioned one.
Also according to this second embodiment can, however, a greater number of wound turns compensate for the omitted gluing tongues 12a, 12b, 13a and 13b and the strength they give.
So as tofijrther stiffen the base members 1,2,3 the length of the base members can besσπewhat

25 increased above the one intended ibr the finished base member which makes it possi ble to cut out folding tongues 5 "fig 1) which are to be folded into the end spaces of base πemters as shown in Fig. 1.
For increasing the strength of the base members 1,2,3 a preferably stiff tensile-strong band 1-. of the same or a similar material as the one used 30 for the base members can be glued along the inner, lower, horizontal surface of the second bobbin 10 and along the whole length of the base members 1,2,3 as shown in Figs. 2 and 6. The width of this band λ is suitably abou equal to inner width of the base members.
When the H-shaped cuts have been made in a base member according to Fig. 2 35 the gluing tongues 13a, 13b are folded inwards and glued to each other and preferably also to the band 1-4 and the girder 7 will then obtain the configuration shown in Fig. 6.

The dimensions of the pal let* according to the invention can be varied within wide limits. For commercial reasons the length of the base members is usually adapted to current standards, i.e. 1.2 meters and the tubes are the correspondingly 0.8 meters (Eurostandard) . These dimensions may also be 5 switched. The current standard requires a height of the recesses above the floor of about 9 cm. The width of the base members may be varied extensivel in relation to the intended load-bearing capacity; the said width is, however, usually within the range 5 - 10 cm. The crosswise members or tubes have preferably an outer diameter of about 0 - 50 mm, since this range has 10 been shown to give maximum rigidity for a given amount of material.
Suitable glue products, which admit a rapid gluing, are commersial ly available. Thermoplastic glues may be used, e.g. In the emulsion form, optionall boosted by a chelate former, or glues of the hot-melt type.
The lower surfaces of the base members, which rest against the floor or 15 ground, can be provided with a more wear-resistant surface coating, if required. Such a coating may be made with the use of many different materials such as extra layers of the laminate used for the base members or a thicker layer of polyethylene attached thereto by heat-melting or similar.
The invention has been described above with reference to specific embodϊ-20 ments. It is obvious that modifications of the described base members may b made without deviating from the inventive principle. Such modifications are obvious to the expert on the basis of the guidance and description given above and in the enclosed drawings.
The invention is thus not delimited to the specific embodiments in question Z5* but can be varied extensively within the scope of the patent claims.