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1. WO1986003810 - DISPOSITIFS DE FIXATION

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

"SECURING DEVICES"

The present invention relates to securing screw threaded devices in receptive substrates and devices for improving the grip of such devices in receptive substrates e.g. wood or plastic or composite screw

5. receivable materials and to restoring the grip of a screw in a hole made by the screw in such materials after a period of use.
The invention has been developed with the
problems of screw-in rail spikes so called screw- 10. spikes in mind but is not limited in its applicability, it is believed, only to this application
though it will be specifically described with
reference to such an application.
Many wooden sleepers have the rails secured to

15. them via metal chairs which are attached to the
sleepers by screw-spikes which are threaded spikes screwed into predrilled undersize holes in the
sleepers. The sleepers rest on ballast and with the passage of trains of varying weight and length
20. travelling at various speeds the loads vary widely and in time cause displacement of the ballast. It is not known whether this causes or is the sole
cause of loosening of the screw-spikes but in time the screw-spikes come out of the sleeper. This

25. loosening might be thought to be an unscrewing.
However from observations and tests we have carried out we do not think this is the case and think it more likely that the threads of the screw-spikes are riding up over the grooves in the wood of the
30. sleeper. However the invention is not dependent on the accuracy or otherwise of this theory.

The present invention aims to reduce the
tendency of screw-spikes to loosen from railway
sleepers with the passage of trains and time.
Thus according to the present invention a method

5. of increasing the resistance to pull out of a screw screwed into a receptive substrate e.g. wood for
example where the resistance to pull out has dropped from its original as~screwed-in value and which
screw may have at least partially emerged from the

10. hole, comprises unscrewing the screw, e.g. a
screw spike, and removing it from the hole and then a) providing a spiral member, e.g. a metal
spiral, having an outwardly facing pointed profile and having a cross-section such as to fit between

15. adjacent turns of the thread on the screw, and such that the dimension of a turn perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the spiral member (herein
called the radial depth) is greater than the height of the thread of the screw with which that turn will

20. be associated in step c), the spiral member being of intermediately malleable material (as defined
herein), the spiral member being turned inwardly and back down the axis at one end to afford a drive pin, thus being shaped so as to be disconnectably engage- 25. able by a tool inserted down the centre of the
spiral member whereby the force to screw the spiral member into the hole can be exerted from the drive pin or bottom end of the spiral member,
b) locating the spiral member in the threaded 30. hole with its axis along that of the hole and preferably with its turns juxtaposed to or in the threads of the hole, the spiral member at least at this stage having an internal diameter less than
that of the root of the screw,
5. c) and screwing the screw into the hole, the spiral member engaging the hole and the screw
threadly engaging the spiral member with its thread located between turns of the spiral member and
forcing the pointed profile into the substrate.
10. Screw-spikes used in Great Britain have a square head for engagement by a spanner, wrench or other driving tool, and a flange which overlaps the hole through the chair and bears against the top surface of a wood or plastics ferrule which is located in

15. the chair. Below the flange is a plain unthreaded shank which passes through the chair to the threaded portion of the screw-spike. The threads are
relatively widespread e.g. the pitch is typically
12.7 mms (0.5 inches) or 13 mms from thread crest to

20. thread crest. The threads are assymetrical, the upper flank (nearer the head) being inclined at a greater angle (typically 70°) to the longitudinal axis of the screw-spike than the lower flank (which is typically inclined at an angle of 30 J to the

25. longitudinal axis).
The valley or trough region of the screw -spike between threads, which will be called the root
herein, is typically flat or only very slightly
curved rather than being V-shaped as in a metal

30. screw or bolt and the length of the root between threads is typically about 6 mms. The distance, measured at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the screw spike, from the crest of a thread to the line joining the lowest points of the roots between

5. threads will be known herein as the thread height.
This line joining the lowest points of the roots will be known as the root line and may be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the screw-spike or
inclined at a very small angle thereto when the

10. screw-spike is tapered, which is from shank to
bottom end.
The term spiral member used herein includes
spiral members wound around a cylinder i.e. a helix or around a cone so as to be tapered and the pitch

15. between adjacent turns can be the same or different as required to fit the screw with which the spiral member will be used.
It will also be appreciated that the invention extends to a method of increasing the resistance to

20. pull out of a screw screwed into a receptive
substrate e.g. wood which comprises forming a
threaded hole in the wood with the screw, unscrewing the screw and removing it from the hole, and then carrying out steps a), b) and c) set out above.
25. More broadly the invention extends not only to the method but also to the spiral member for use in the method, and to a tool for inserting the spiral member .
The invention also extends to a spiral member of

30. intermediately malleable material (as defined herein), the spiral member being turned inwardly and back down the axis at one end to afford a drive pin, the spiral member preferably being tapered towards the end affording the drive pin.
5. The term "intermediately malleable" as used
herein means a material which when in a triangular profile of 50 to 70° apex angle is of low enough
malleability or great enough hardness to be
capable of the triangular profile being forced into

10. softwood and preferably also into mahogany or jarrah wood, whilst being of greater malleability than
steel and preferably also hard brass wire.
The spiral member is preferably made of an
aluminium alloy, such material is of intermediate

15.- malleability.
The spiral member in step a) desirably has an internal diameter less than that of the shank of the screw and a radial depth (and thus after step c) an external diameter) greater than that of the threads

20. of the screw. This has the consequence that when the screw is threaded into the spiral member in the hole, the inner face or edge of the spiral member is thrust outwardly by the root of the screw against which it bears between the threads, forcing the

25. spiral member out into the wood thereby increasing the grip and in effect reinforcing the hole.
The malleable material of the spiral member is thus preferably sufficiently ductile so as to be
able to accommodate these forces stretching as
30. necessary and allowing sliding movement between the screw and the spiral member.

The spiral member of malleable material has a hardness less than that of steel, and preferably
less than that of phosphor bronze or hard brass
wire, but greater than that of soft wood and
5. preferably greater than that of mahogany, e.g.
having a hardness in the range 30-170 HB preferably 40-80 HB, e.g. 45-60. Such a securing device for screw rail spikes is desirably made of metal having such characteristics, for example aluminium or
10. aluminium alloy, or aluminium alloys.
The ratio of the internal diameter of the spiral member (Dl) to the diameter of the root of the screw (D2) prior to step c) is preferably in the range
0.7:1 to 0.99:1 e.g. 0.75:1 to 0.9:1. The spiral

15. member typically has an internal diameter tapering from 18 mm at its top turn to 12 mms at its bottom turn, while the root of the screw spike tapers less e.g. from 18 to 17 mms or is untapered.
The spiral member desirably has at least two

20. turns, and preferably the spiral member at step c) has at least 50% of the number of turns of the
thread on the screw, and most preferably before use the spiral member has the same number of turns or one more turn or no more than one less turn than the

25. thread of the screw.
The ratio of the radial depth of the spiral
member to the thread height of the screw is
desirably in the range 1.01.1 to 2.5:1 or 1.01 to
2:1 or preferably about 2:1 e.g. 1.5:1 to 2.5:1.

30.

The spiral member is preferably tapered.
Tapering of the spiral member enables the lower
turns of the spiral member to be loose in the hole so that the member can be readily inserted and the

5. upper turns to engage the wood and to some extent to be forced into the wood whilst the spiral member is being inserted or located into the hole i.e. during step b) and before step c). This forcing of the
upper turns into the wood locks the spiral member in

10. the hole sufficiently for the insertion tool to be removed (and here the preferred grooved tool
described below is especially beneficial) so that the screw-spike can be inserted to carry out step
c). If the spiral member was not tapered it would

15. have to be tapped in i.e. an exactly fitting thread cut in the wall of the hole. The spiral member is preferably one where the pitch is the same for
adjacent turns-.
In an alternative arrangement the spiral member

20. is initially of smaller diameter than the hole and a separate screwthreaded tool is used to spread the
spiral member out into the hole. This arrangement is helpful when the chair and rail spike are not
separated by a ferrule and it is wished to avoid

25. moving the chair to give access to the hole in the sleeper .
The bottom end of the spiral member is shaped so as to be disconnectably engageable by a tool inserted down the centre of the spiral member whereby the

30. force to screw the spiral member into the hole can be exerted from the bottom end of the spiral member.

In a preferred form of the invention the cross- section of the spiral member affords an outwardly
facing projection and an inner thrust face adapted to bear against at least a substantial part of the

5. surface of the root of the screw between the threads.
In a preferred form of the invention the
outwardly facing projection is afforded by the
spiral member having a cross-section such that its outer part is triangular.
10. The inner thrust face is desirably disposed
substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spiral member or to a line which will be
parallel to the surface of the root of the screw in step c), and is preferably flat.
15. The spiral member may also or instead have a
cross-section affording at least one longitudinal
thrust face which may be flat and is transverse to and desirably substantially perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis of the spiral member.
20. The invention also extends to a tool for
inserting a spiral member in accordance with the
present invention which comprises a shaft adapted to extend through the spiral with engaging means at its bottom end adapted to fit the bottom end of the
25. spiral and a driving means at its other end and stop means near the drive means adapted to prevent the
shaft penetrating beyond the bottom of the hole in the sleeper, the engaging means enabling the tool to releasably engage the spiral member so as to provide

30. a driving engagement whilst the assembly is being screwed into the sleeper but a non-driving engagement when the tool is screwed out of the hole, by
rotation in the opposite direction.
It will be appreciated that the spiral member

5. and the insertion tool cooperate with each other.
They interact, in the most preferred form, so that the spiral member can be threaded onto the tool
prior to insertion in the hole, the assembly then
screwed into the hole and then the tool screwed out

10. of the hole leaving the spiral member in place.
This may be achieved by making the tool in a
form amounting to a cutdown version of the rail
spike which is to be secured in the worn sleeper by means of the spiral member. Thus the rectangular

15. head and cicular shoulders are unchanged, the shank may be turned-down to reduce its diameter slightly to ensure free passage through the chair, and the shank at its junction with the first turn of the
thread is turned-down sufficiently to prevent it

20. gripping the inside of the hole.
The threads are turned-down to tapered flats, the taper being greater than that of the screw spike with which the spiral member is to be used. A
rectangular groove is formed between each flat. The

25. axial length of the grooves e.g.1/4" (6.3mm) may be such as to provide a clearance on either side of
each turn of the spiral member e.g. the axial length of each groove being desirably 101 or 105 or 110 to
120 or 130 e.g. about 115% of the maximum axial
30. length (e.g. 5.5 mm) of each turn of the spiral member. The depth of each rectangular groove is preferably about 5/64" (2 mm).
It will be appreciated that the reference to
turning down of the screw-spike does not dictate the 5. way in which the tool may be made merely its
form, and that the tool can be made by casting or
from a blank into which a thread is rolled.
Whilst an exact fit could be used it may
facilitate mounting of the spiral member on the tool 10. for there to be some play between the spiral member and the tool in the axial direction.
It may also be desirable for the length of the spiral member to be slightly greater than the length of the corresponding grooves in the tool so that 15. whilst there is some play allowing rapid winding of the spiral member onto the tool nonetheless the
spiral member is gripped between the upper shoulder of the uppermost groove and the lower shoulder of the lowermost groove in which the upper and
20. lowermost turns of the spiral member are nested.
Means are provided to enable the tool to
releasably engage the spiral member so as to provide a driving engagement whilst the assembly is being screwed into the sleeper but a non-driving
25. engagement when the tool is screwed out of the hole, by rotation in the opposite direction.
This is achieved by turning the lower end of the spiral member inwardly then axially upwardly and
providing a corresponding axial hole in the lower 30. end of the tool in which the upturned end of the spiral member can nest and an e.g. axially extending shoulder projecting out from the hole e.g. radially which engages with the inturned end of the spiral member, the free end of which is in effect locked in 5. the axial hole of the tool. The senses of the
shoulder and the inturned portions are arranged to be such that the shoulder engages the inturned end of the spiral member during the screwing-in movement and rotates away from it during the screwing out 10. movement.
The invention enables a spiral member of
malleable material to be inserted rapidly and the insertion tool to be removed very quickly and
moreover using conventional tools such as power 15. wrenches.
In addition the tool does not project up above the level of the rails, except possibly right at the end of the withdrawal cycle.
Thus in the event that the insertion tool has to 20. be left in place while a train is passing there will be little or no danger of the wheels of the train striking the tool.
The invention may be put into practice in
various ways and a number of specific embodiments 25. and certain accessories for use therewith will be described by way of example to illustrate the
invention with reference to the accompanying
drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary partial longitudinal 30. cross-section of a wooden sleeper and shows part of an embodiment of a securing device of the invention in longitudinal cross-section when inserted in an old hole from which a screw-spike has loosened and been removed and with the old screw-spike partly

5. screwed back into the hole, the half of the spike on the left-hand side of the centre line 21 being
omitted so that the whole of the metal spiral can be shown on that side, the retracted surface of the
wood being shown diagrammatically in the right-hand

10. side;
Figure 2A shows in elevation an inserting tool in accordance with the invention for inserting the spiral member;
Figure 2B is an elevation of the lower end of

15.- the tool shown in Figure 2A viewed from the opposite side and showing the interior structure in
cross-section;
Figure 2C is an end view looking up the tool
from the lower end;
20. Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2A and shows the tool of Figure 2 with a spiral member in
accordance with the invention (shown in detail in
Figures 5A and B and 5C and D (A and B differing
from C and D only in profile)) wound onto the tool

25. and the spiral member nearly fully inserted in the old threads in the hole in the sleeper, i.e. just
prior to the stage of the unwinding of the inserting tool which will leave the spiral member in the hole ready for insertion of a spike;
30.

Figure 4 is an end view of the assembly of
Figure 3 seen from below showing how the tool
engages the spiral member during insertion yet is
free to rotate away during tool withdrawal;
5. Figure 5A is a diagrammatic side elevation, the left-hand side in cross-section and the right-hand side in elevation, the spiral member profile being the equilateral triangular profile shown in Figure
1; the preferred arrowhead profile being shown in

10. Figures 3 and 5C and 5D;
Figure 5B is a view looking down the axis of the Figure 5A embodiment of the spiral member from its top end showing the end of the spiral member turned back up the axis of the spiral member;
15. Figures 5C and 5D are enlarged cross-sections
(on different scales) of the preferred profile of
_
the spiral member shown in Figure 3; Figure 5D shows how this embodiment of spiral member fits the screw spike; and
20. Figure 6 is a diagrammatic view showing the
screw-spike fully reinserted in the hole, having
driven the spiral member outwardly into the wood of the sleeper and the axial length of the spiral
member thus having shortened a certain amount,
25. typically about 3/4 of a turn, the spiral member
shown being in the Figure 1 form.
Referring first to Figure 1 a fragmentary portion of a British screw spike 20 is shown in longitudinal section, in the right-hand half of the drawing, the

30. line 21 being the centre line of the spike. The 14.

root 22 of the spike is tapered from top to bottom, the line 23 joining the lowest points of each root between adjacent turns, the root line 23, being
inclined at an angle to the centre line 21. The

5. taper is typically 1 mm in the 4 inches (10.2 cm) length of the screw-threaded portion of the spike, but some screw-spikes are not tapered. The root
carries a single helical thread 26 which engages the sleeper. The thread has an upper face 27 disposed

10. at an angle A of about 70° to the longitudinal axis 21 of the screw-spike and a lower face 28 disposed at an angle B of about 30° to the same axis.
The thread extends out a distance 29 (the radial depth) from the root line 23 of about 3.1 mms or

15. more broadly 2.5-3.5 mms.
The precise dimensions of screw spikes used in some other countries differ from those used in the United Kingdom but are of similar orders of
magnitude. The insert is modified for such other

20. countries to have the same or similar relationship to the spike.
When the screw-spike is first screwed into the wood 35 of the sleeper the wood conforms closely to the surface of the root and the thread on the
25. screw-spike. The condition which obtains after a period of use is shown in diagrammatic form on the right-hand side of Figure 1. Here the surface 36 of the wood which before use contacted or was close to the root 22 has retracted away from the root and the

30. area of wood in contact with the upper surface 27 of the thread has been very severely reduced. The
exact reason why the wood retracts in this way is not known but it may be that it is forced away from the root of the spike by the thread of the spike in 5. the loosening process; also there may be corrosion or rotting of the wood caused by water penetrating between the wood and the metal screw-spike. The
applicants have observed by tests that whilst the screw-spike can be screwed in to a tightness much

10. the same as its original tightness which might be thought to give an adequate grip, nonetheless the resistance of the assembly to the screw-spike being pulled out has been very severely reduced, often to something as low as only 25% of its original value.

15. A straight pull is of course, not the same as the forces which occur between the screw-spike and the sleeper in use but this change is surprising when the screw-spike seems as tightly fixed in the
sleeper.
20. The British screw-spike is typically 7.5 inches (19 cms) long overall (though some are longer e.g. 8 inches (20.3 cms) for special purposes), and the
threaded region tapers from 0.83 inches (2.24 cms) diameter at its bottom end out to 0.95 inches (2.41

25. cms) in diameter where it meets the unthreaded shank which is about -2.2 inches (5.6 cms) long surrounded in use by a plastics sleeve which passes through the chair to a flat bottomed round topped flange the flat bottom of which exerts pressure on the chair

30. via the plastics sleeve. The screw-spike ends in a square head.

The screw-spike is usually made of mild steel which may be zinc coated to reduce corrosion in
use. The pitch of the thread is typically 0.5
inches (1.3 cms); the thread angles and thread
5. height have already been referred to.
Referring again to Figure 1 an embodiment of a spiral member 140 in accordance with the invention is shown in section in the right-hand half of the drawings and in elevation in the left-hand half.

10. The spiral member has a non-circular cross-section of equilateral triangular shape having sides 171,
172, 173, with one side 173 of the triangle, the
inner side, being generally parallel to the line 145 which is inclined to the axis 21 at a greater angle

15. than is the root line 23 of the screw-spike. The side 173 affords an inner thrust face. This inner thrust face 173 bears against the root 22 of the
spike between adjacent threads and as can be seen in Figure 1 is the same size or slightly longer than

20. the length of the root, in the longitudinal
direction of the screw-spike.
The apex 174 of the triangle provides an
outwardly facing projection and a cutting edge to cut into the wall of the hole, the aim being to

25. penetrate into the unaffected wood radially
outwardly of the old thread and provide an enhanced grip. The radial depth 175 of the spiral member in this embodiment (the perpendicular distance)
relative to the centre line from the inner thrust

30. face 173 to the apex 174 is 5.2 mms.

The bottom turn of the spiral member is about 1.5-1.6 cms in internal diameter prior to insertion in a hole. The end of the bottom turn is turned in to the axis 21 and back up inside the spiral as

5. shown in Figure 5A to provide a tool engaging member 182 (not shown in Figure 1) whereby the spiral member can be screwed into the hole from which a
screw-spike has loosened and been removed. A view of a screwing-in tool in use is given in Figure 3.

10. Reinsertion of the screw-spike is also shown in Figure 1.
The screw-spike 20 is shown partly reinserted with its lower end (shown diagrammatically as 60) approaching but not yet contacting the last
15. turns of the spiral member 140. Only the portion of the spike to the right of the centre line 21 is
shown in order to facilitate showing the shape of the turns of the spiral member 140. Figure 6 shows the screw spike fully inserted into the triangular

20. spiral member in the sleeper with a plastics sleeve 57 spacing the unthreaded portion of the shank from the chair 56, the end of the screw spike having pushed the drive pin of the spiral member to one
side.
25. The root 22 forces each turn outwardly into the shallow groove 37 making it deeper and embedding the securing device in the wood of the sleeper. The
threads of the screw-spike cut a new groove 61 in the portion 36 of the wood between each turn of the

30. spiral member.

Figure 6 shows the spiral member inserted in the hole and the screw spike fully reinserted. The
drive pin 182 has been pushed downwardly and to one side by the end of the screw spike. The spiral

5. member has also rotated down the thread in the
sleeper on being forced outwardly into the thread by the screw spike. As shown in Figure 6 it is now of about 7 turns rather than the eight turns shown in
Figure 3 on the tool and in Figure 5A prior to
10. insertion. The top turn 58 of the thread is thus now empty (see Figure 6).
We have found that the pull out strength of such an assembly when fully inserted is of the order of 3 tons in softwood sleepers and 6.0 tons in hardwood

15. sleepers, i.e. the pull out strength is substantially restored or at least restored to the strength of the wood around the hole .
The spiral member may be made by producing e.g.
extruding, the triangular section required (which in

20. this first embodiment has sides 171, 172 and 173
which are 6 mms long and has a radial depth 175 of
5.2 mms) and then coiling it round a mandrel of the required diameter. However in order to get the
inner thrust face flat against the mandrel it is

25. also necessary to twist the triangular section.
Twisting the extruded section around the mandrel alters the cross-section due to stretching at the
outer apex 174; and thus the radial depth after
stretching shrinks somewhat e.g. by about 5 to 10 or

30. 15%.

The triangular metal wire is 20.5 inches (52
cms) long before coiling and to produce seven
clockwise turns of about 2.5 cms internal diameter it must first be twisted clockwise evenly between

5. its ends through 1 1/2 turns (540°). The mandrel is tapered so that the spiral member expands from an internal diameter for the bottom turn of 1.5-1.6 cms to an internal diameter for the top turn of 1.7 cms.
The above described spiral member made of
10. aluminium alloy HE9 was tested for spring action.
Thus it extended 1.75 inches (4.45 cms) in length over 1 second when its top end was held and a weight of 120 lbs (54.5 Kgs) was attached to its bottom
end, and recovered to a length of 5.5 inches (14

15. cms) (from an original length of 11.4 cms from the bottom of the clamp to the bottom of its bottom end) within 1 second of being unloaded, the load having been maintained for 10 minutes. The axial length of the spiral member thus increased significantly.
20. This alloy which is in accordance with BS 1474
No. 6063 TF has a 0.2% proof stress value of 160
MPa, a tensile strength of 135 MPa and an elongation at break of 7%. Its composition is as follows: 0.2- 0.6% Si, 0.35% Fe, 0.1% Cu, 0.1% Mn, 0.45-0.9% Mg,

25. 0.1% Cr, 0.1% Zn, 0.1% Ti, balance aluminium.
Other grades of alloy thought likely to be
useful are set out in Table 1 below with their
physical properties.

30, TABLE 1
0.2% Tensile
Proof stress Strength Elongation

Alloy MPa MPa %

HE9-6063 TB 70 130 14

HΞ30-6082 TB 120 190 14

HE30-5083 0 125 275 13

HE9-6063 TE 110 150 7

Thus more broadly materials with tensile strengths , in the range 130 to 275 and elongations of 7 to 14% are thought likely to be suitable.
As a comparison the spiral member 140 was made of mild steel wire about 5 to 6 mms in diameter and about 10 cms long with the pitch between threads about 1.3 cms i.e. close to, if not the same, as that of the spike with which it will be used.
The spiral, unlike a conventional helical
spring, is tapered from what in use is its top end to its bottom end in a degree similar to that of the , spike with which it will be used.
This spiral member has some spring action
extending 0.25 inches (0.64 cms) in length over 1 second when its top end is held and a weight of 120 lbs (54.5 Kgs) is attached to its bottom end, and recovering to a length of 4.5 inches (11.4 cms) (from an original length of 11.4 cms from the bottom of the clamp to the bottom of its bottom end) within 1 second of being unloaded, the load having been maintained for 10 minutes. It thus did not stretch.

Such devices made of steel are quite heavy and since it is intended that they should be installed by an ordinary railway ganger without needing extra equipment (other than the tool) the weight of the

5. individual devices may be significant, we prefer
lighter metals. Surprisingly we have found that
aluminium is both easier to screw in and gives pull out strengths similar to the otherwise identical
mild steel device when used in round cross-section

10. as described above.
We have found that profiles affording an
outwardly facing projection or cutting edge are less likely to split the wood than do spiral members of round cross-section.
15. We have also found that the spiral member should be made of a material which whilst hard enough to penetrate into the wood, be it the hard, e.g.
mahogany, or soft woods used for sleepers is soft enough or malleable enough to conform to the threads

20. of the spike without jumping a thread.
The spiral member is in effect clamped by the screw thread and the wood into which it is forced and to conform to the threads seems to need to be able to be in effect extruded or drawn by the
25. threads as the spike is screwed in. The spiral
member appears to wind down into the sleeper by
about 3/4 of a turn as the screw-spike is screwed in but also some stretching of the spiral member in
length may be occurring. We are not yet certain

30. exactly what mechanism is involved but we have found that with a mild steel spike and the hard or soft woods used for sleepers in the U.K. the aluminium alloy referred to above performs very well.
Other materials having similar hardness and

5. drawability, ductility, malleability or elongation characteristics to such aluminium alloys are
anticipated to be effective.
Figures 2A to 5B show in more detail the spiral member and a preferred form of insertion tool, and

10. Figures 5C and 5D preferred forms of spiral member.
Referring to Figures 2, 3 and 4 the tool is in a form amounting to a cutdown version of the screw- spike which is to be secured in the worn sleeper by means of the spiral member. Thus the rectangular

15. head 160 and circular shoulders 161 are unchanged, the shank 162 may be turned-down to reduce its
diameter slightly to ensure free passage through the chair, and the shank 163 at its junction with the first turn of the thread is turned-down sufficiently

20. to prevent it gripping the inside of the hole.
The threads are turned-down to tapered flats
164, the taper being greater than that of the screw- spike with which the insert is to be used namely
13-17 or 14-18 mm internal diameter as compared with

25. 16-17 mm, the lower value being at the bottom of the spiral. A rectangular groove 165 is formed between each flat. The axial length of the grooves e.g.1/4" (6.3mm or 7 mm) is preferably such as to provide a clearance on either side of each turn of the spiral

30. member so that the spiral member is relatively loose on the tool e.g. the axial length of each groove
being desirably 101 or 105 or 110 to 120 or 130 e.g. about 115% of the maximum axial length (e.g. 5 mm) of each turn of the spiral member.
5. The depth of each rectangular groove is about
5/64" (2 mm).
The lower end of the spiral member is turned in to the longitudinal axis of the spiral member and bent up and back to lie along the said axis and to

10. extend about 1 turn length back straight up the axis of the spiral member to form a drive pin. This tail 182 of the drive pin is about 6 mms across and the bottom end of the insertion tool has a longitudinal axial hole 166 in it which is a close but free fit

15. for the axial tail of the drive pin of the spiral member e.g. it may be a hole of about 7 mms diameter (see Figure 4). The hole 166 is longer axially than the tail 182 of the drive pin. The bottom end of the insertion tool also has a generally radially

20. extending shoulder 167 extending out from the hole
166 (see Figures 2, 3 and 4). This shoulder engages the in-turned end portion 201 of the drive pin of the spiral member and as shown in Figure 4 is
preferably rounded to ensure that the malleable

25. drive pin of the spiral member is not sheared by the hard metal of the insertion tool.
The shortest length which the tail and axial
hole can be and achieve their desired function is not known but they must be of such length and
30. diameter relative to each other as to generate sufficient clamping action to prevent the shoulder
167 drawing the tail 182 out of the axial hole 166 before the spiral member is fully inserted in the hole with its upper end beneath the surface of the

5. sleeper (so that it is locked in place in the
sleeper, if this locking is not achieved the top
turn would lift and the screw-spike would be more difficult to start in the spiral member).
The effect of friction of the upper turns and

10. the end digging into the wood prevent the spiral
member unwinding when the insertion tool is unwound.
It will be appreciated that if such clamping
does not occur the tail would be drawn out of the hole and thus the malleability of the preferred

15. materials would be such that the spiral member would be deformed to conform to the groove in the
insertion tool and would cease to be screwed in and the insertion tool would merely rotate through the stationary spiral member into the hole.
20. Figure 5C shows in detail and in cross-section a preferred form of profile for the spiral member.
The cross-section in essence is an equilateral
triangle, the apex of the triangle affording the
outwardly facing projection 174 and the base of the

25. triangle the thrust face 173. The height or radial depth 175 of the spiral member is 6.1 mms as
extruded before being wound on the mandrel; after winding it shrinks (as described above) to 5.7 mms.
The base corners of the triangle are chamfered

30. so as to produce an arrowhead shape, the profile thus being symmetrical about the line from the apex to the mid-point of the base which means that the extruded profile can be wound in either sense around the mandrel to form the spiral member. The profile

5. is assymmetrical about a line passing through the mid-point of the line from the apex to the mid-point of the base and parallel to the base. The chamfers 190 and 191 are such that the length of the base or thrust face 173 is 4 mms, the length of each chamfer

10. which is straight is 1.3 mms and the width 192 of the profile at the ends of the chamfers is 5.5 mms. These chamfers afford the longitudinal thrust faces and by being symmetrically disposed permit the
extruded section to be wound in either sense. Only

15. the chamfer facing the drive pin end actually
operates as a longitudinal thrust face in use of the spiral member and this is shown in Figure 5D.
Thus, symmetry is not essential, the only
essential aspect of the profile is that the lower

20. face should correspond to the angle of the upper
face of the screw thread on the screw spike.
Some railway lines have larger holes e.g. the
English Western Region and here the radial depth 175 as extruded is 7.4 mms (i.e. the triangle is
25. isoceles and after twisting has shrunk to 6.9 mms). The base and chamfer dimensions and angles remain as described for Figure 5C. In a modification the tail 182 is made thinner so as to be about 5.7 mms across so as to fit the hole in the tool without need to

30. modify the tool.

As indicated above the distance between crests of adjacent turns of the screw-spike is 12.7 to 13 mms and the thread height is 3.1 mms.
The root length is typically 4 mms and the
5. spiral member thus fits closely between adjacent
turns, the angle of the lower chamfer of the spiral member is the same or closely similar to that of the upper flank of the thread on the screw-spike thus
affording a close fitting longitudinal thrust face

10. and indeed because of the malleability of the
preferred material, aluminium alloy, from which the spiral member is made can deform during insertion of the screw-spike into close conformity with the upper flank of the thread on the screw-spike.
15. The upper chamfer on the spiral member having a steeper angle than the lower flank of the thread
does not make substantial face contact therewith.
The pull out strength when using the profile of
Figure 5C is typically 3.5 tons with softwood and 6.5

20. tons with hardwood.
Some screw-spikes have a shallow curved root
rather than a flat root and the malleability of the preferred spiral member again therefore is of
advantage enabling it to deform to close fitting

25. face contact with such a curved root during
insertion of the screw-spike.