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1. (WO1986003738) COMPOSITIONS ANTI-TUMORALES ET ANTI-VIRALES DE CYCLOHEXADIENONE
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ANTIVIRAL AND ANTITUMOR CYCLOHEXADIENONE COMPOSITIONS

Continuing Application Data

This is a continuation-in-part of U.S.
patent applications Serial No. 682,278 filed December 17, 1984 and Serial No. 744,620 filed June 14, 1985.

Field of the Invention

This invention relates to new
cyclohexadienone derivatives which have useful antiviral and antitumor activity. More particularly, this invention relates to cyclohexadienone
derivatives with antiviral and antitumor activities which are derived from marine organisms, i.e. red alga.

Background of the Invention

Viral diseases inflict man, plants, insects, and animals. The prevention and control of viral diseases have important health and economic
implications.
Viral diseases contribute to inflictions in humans including common colds, herpes and cancer and the importance of their control is obvious. Also important is control of viral diseases in animals for economic reasons as well as the ability of such animals to become virus reservoirs or carriers which facilitate the spreading of viral diseases to
humans. Viral plant diseases have been known to have a disruptive effect on the cultivation of fruit trees, tobacco, and various vegetables. Insect viral diseases are also of interest because of the insects' ability to transfer viral diseases to humans.
The prevention and control of viral diseases is thus of prime importance to man and considerable research has been devoted to antiviral measures.
Certain methods and chemical compositions have been developed which aid in inhibiting, controlling or destroying viruses but new methods and antiviral chemical compositions are needed.
U.S. Patent Nos. 4,162,308 and 4,162, 309 to

Calvin and Ellis describe that water soluble extracts from marine red algae have been found to be effective to inhibit the growth of certain herpes viruses.
U.S. Patent No. 4,162,308 describes water soluble extracts from marine red algae selected from a group consisting of Turnerella mertensiana,
Schizymenia epiphytica, Turnerella pennyi and
mixtures thereof as effective to inhibit the growth of herpes simplex virus, type 1 and type 2, and herpes zoster, and to relieve the pain caused by infection attributable to such viruses.
U.S. Patent 4,162,309 describes the use of water soluble extracts from marine red algae selected from a group consisting of Neodilsea americana and

Neodilsea Integra and mixtures thereof to inhibit the growth of herpes simplex virus, type 1 and type 2, and herpes zoster, and to relieve the pain caused by infection attributable to such viruses. The entire disclosures of U.S. Patent Nos. 4,162,308 and
4,162,309 are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

Crews et al in "Bio-Active Monoterpenes from Red Seaweeds", Phytochemistry Vol. 23 No. 7 Pp.
1449-1451, Pergamon Press Ltd., Great Britain, 1984, describe the bioactivity of seaweed derived
monoterpenes. Crews et al disclose halogenated monoterpenes which are extracted from red algae
Chondrococcus hornemanni with methylene chloride.
The halogenated monoterpenes were shown to be
bioactive in various applications and biotoxic against insects.
In addition to the water soluble red algae extractions described in the above noted U.S. Patent applications to Calvin and Ellis and the halogenated monoterpenes of Crews et al other compounds have been isolated from red algae and marine organisms known as sea hares which are mollusks which diet on red algae. These compounds include halogenated
chamigrenes and have been described in various literature references including P.J. Scheuer, Ed.
Marine Natural Products Volume 1 (Martin) and Volume

5 (Erickson) Academic Press, 1978; 1983, the entire disclosure of this reference is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
The present inventors have also filed patent applications relating to compounds prepared from red algae and extracts of sea hares, which diet on red algae, comprising certain halogenated chamigrenes which show antiviral activity, i.e., U.S. patent application Ser. No. 682,896 filed December 18, 1984 and certain cylcohexadienone compounds which show antiviral and antitumor activity i.e., U.S. patent application serial Nos. 682, 278 and 744,620 filed

December 17, 1984 and June 14, 1985, respectively. The entire disclosure of these three co-pending applications is hereby incorporated herein by
reference.
A furthur co-pending application of the present inventors filed concurrently herewith relates to compounds prepared from red algae and extracts of sea hares, which diet on red algae, comprising certain halogenated chamigrenes which show antitumor activity.
Prevention, control of the growth and regression of tumors in mammals is also of importance to man. Considerable research has been devoted to oncology and antitumor measures. The term tumor refers to abnormal masses of new tissue growth which is discordant with the economy of the tissue of origin or the host's body as a whole. Tumors are common in a variety of mammals and the prevention, control of the growth and regression of tumors in mammals is important to man.
Tumors inflict mammals and man with a variety of disorders and conditions including various forms of cancer and resultant cancerous cachexia. Cancerous cachexia refers to the symptomatic
discomfort that accompanies the infliction of a mammal with a tumor. These symptoms include weakened condition of the inflicted mammal as evidenced by, for example, weight loss. The seriousness of cancer is well known, e.g., cancer is second only to heart and vascular diseases as a cause of death in man.

Considerable research and resources have been devoted to oncology and antitumor measures including chemotherapy. While certain methods and chemical compositions have been developed which aid in inhibiting, remitting or controlling the growth of tumors new methods and antitumor chemical
compositions are needed.

It has now been found that certain
cyclohexadienone compounds derived from extracts of red algae possess useful antiviral and antitumor activity.

Summary of the Invention

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide novel compositions which are useful as antiviral and antitumor agents and a process for producing such novel antiviral and antitumor
compositions.
It is an additional object of the invention to provide a method for inhibiting viruses and tumors utilizing novel antiviral and antitumor compositions, respectively.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth, in part, in the
description which follows and in part will be obvious from this description, or may be learned by the practice of the invention. The objects and
advantages of the invention are realized and obtained by means of the compositions, processes, methods, and the combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
To achieve the objects in accordance with the purposes of the invention, as embodied and fully described here, the invention comprises a composition of the general formula (I) :



wherein both R1 groups are the same or different and are hydrogen or a lower alkyl group, X is a lower alkyl, hydroxy, lower acyloxy, lower alkoxy, fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo group, and R2 is hydroxy, a lower acyloxy group, a halogenated lower acyloxy group or halogen.
In preferred embodiments of the invention, R1 is a methyl group, R2 is an acetyloxy group, and X is methyl, chloro, or bromo.
In a more preferred embodiment of the invention, the invention comprises a composition of the formula:

As embodied and fully described herein, the invention also comprises an antiviral or antitumor composition comprising, as active ingredient, an effective antiviral or antitumor amount of one or more of the compositions according to Formula I or preferably Formula II and a non-toxic
pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
As embodied and broadly described herein, the invention also comprises a process to produce the compounds of Formula I comprising the steps of:
collecting red alga; contacting the alga with a suitable organic solvent to obtain an extract; and isolating a compound of Formula I. Preferably, the process comprises the steps of: collecting red alga, particularly Desmia hornemanni; contacting the alga with a suitable organic first solvent to obtain extract; removing the solvent containing a derivative of the first compound of Formula I, preferably an alcohol derivative of Formula II; isolating the derivative of Formula II by conventional means, preferably chromatography; and acetylating the alcohol derivative to yield the compound of Formula II.
As embodied and fully described herein, the invention further comprises a method for inhibiting viruses or tumors comprising contacting a virus or tumor with an effective antiviral or antitumor amount of one or more compositions of Formula I or
preferably Formula II.
In accordance with the purposes of the invention, as embodied and fully described herein, the invention further comprises a composition of the general formula (III) :



wherein R is:



wherein X1 is an oxygen, X2 is hydrogen halogen, lower alkyl group or alkylsulfenyl group, sulfur or an imine group; Y is oxygen or sulfur; Z is oxygen, sulfur or an imine group; wherein both R1 groups are the same and are hydrogen or a lower alkyl group, R2 is H or a lower alkyl group; and n is from 1 to 5.
In preferred embodiments of the invention, R1 and R2 are methyl groups, and X1 and Y are
oxygen.
In a more preferred embodiment of the invention, the invention comprises compositions of the Formulae:

As embodied and fully described herein, the invention also comprises an antitumor composition comprising, as active ingredient, an effective antitumor amount of one or more of the compositions according to Formula I or III or preferably one of Formula IV, V, VI or VII and a non-toxic
pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
As embodied and broadly described herein, the invention also comprises a process to produce the compounds of Formula III comprising the steps of:
collecting red alga; contacting the alga with a suitable organic solvent to obtain an extract; and synthesizing and isolating a compound of Formula III.
As embodied and fully described herein, the invention further comprises a method for inhibiting tumors comprising contacting a tumor with an
effective antitumor amount of one or more
compositions of Formula I or III or preferably one of Formula IV, V, VI or VII.

As embodied and broadly described herein the invention also comprises a method for treating cancerous cachexia comprising inhibiting, remitting or controlling the growth of tumors or tumor cells which symptomatically cause the conditions of
cancerous cachexia.

It is to be understood that both the
foregoing general and the following detailed
description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not intended to be restrictive of the invention as claimed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

Reference will now be made in detail to present preferred embodiments of the invention, examples of which are illustrated in the following example section.
In accordance with the invention, a
composition is provided of the formula:

wherein both R1 groups are the same or different and are hydrogen or a lower alkyl group, X is a lower alkyl, hydroxy, lower acyloxy, lower alkoxy, fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo group, and R2 is hydroxy, a lower acyloxy group, a halogenated lower acyloxy group or a halogen.
Preferably, the lower alkyl and acyloxy groups have from one to five carbon atoms, more preferably from one to three carbon atoms, and most preferably, the lower alkyl group is methyl and the lower acyloxy group is acetyloxy.
Preferably, X is a methyl, chloro or bromo group, more preferably, X is a chloro group.
More particularly, a preferred embodiment of the invention comprises a composition of the
structure II as indicated below:



Another preferred embodiment of the
invention comprises a composition of the formula as indicated below:

In accordance with the invention an
antiviral composition is provided comprising as active ingredient an effective antiviral amount of one or more of the compositions described above and identified by Formulas I and II and a non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
While effective amounts may vary, as conditions in which the antiviral compositions are used vary, a minimal dosage required for activity is generally between 50 and 200 micrograms against 25-80
plaque-forming units of virus. Useful examples of non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or diluents include, but are not limited to, the
following: ethanol; dimethyl sulfoxide; and glycerol.
In accordance with the invention, a process to produce a compound according to Formula I
comprises the steps of: collecting red alga,
particularly Desmia hornemanni (also known as
Chondrococcus hornemanni); contacting the alga with a suitable organic solvent to obtain an extract of the solvent; and isolating a compound according to
Formula I.
A detailed description and explanation of a preferred embodiment of the .process of the invention to produce the compound according to Formula I is as follows. Red alga, Desmia hornemanni is collected at Cape Zampa, Okinawa. The alga is then contacted with acetone (a first solvent) to obtain an acetone extract from the red alga. The acetone extract is then concentrated by evaporation through either heat or reduced pressure and the acetone residue is contacted with methylene chloride to obtain a
methylene chloride extract.
While acetone and methylene chloride are the presently preferred choices for first and second solvents, other suitable solvents may be substituted for acetone and/or methylene chloride. A suitable first solvent should be capable of extracting a compound according to Formula I from other components of the red alga. Suitable first solvents which may be substituted for acetone include, but are not limited to, the following organic solvents: methyl ethyl ketone; ethyl acetate; methanol; ethanol; and methyl isobutyl ketone. A suitable second solvent should be capable of extracting and separating the compound of Formula I from other components that may be present in the first solvent extract. Suitable second solvents which may be substituted for
methylene chloride include, but are not limited to, the following organic solvents: chloroform;
trichloroethylene; hexane; and lower alkanes.
Different ratios of first to second solvents may be used in the invention as would be known to those skilled in the art.
The methylene chloride extract is removed and concentrated by evaporation of the methylene chloride solvent by either gentle heating or reduced pressure. An alcohol derivative of the compound of Formula II is isolated from the methylene chloride extract by chromatography.
Any suitable chromatography technique may be used, but it has been found that first subjecting the methylene chloride extract to chromatography on a silica gel column, by eluting with hexane-acetone in an approximate ml. ratio of 7:3 hexane to acetone to obtain a major fraction of the alcohol derivative of Formula II and then further separating the major fraction on a thin layer chromatography grade silica gel column by flash chromatography yields the pure alcohol derivative of the compound according to
Formula II. Other eluents and columns may be
substituted as would be known to those skilled in the art.
The alcohol derivative of the compound of Formula II was found to decompose at room temperature in two hours so it is important to carry out the next step as soon as possible.

The alcohol derivative of the compound of Formula II is acetylated with acetic anhydride and pyridine mixture in a ml. ratio of approximately 1:1 of acetic anhydride to pyridine for about ten
minutes. While a mixture of acetic anhydride and pyridine is the present preferred choice of
acetylation agents other suitable agents may be substituted such as, for example: isopropenyl acetate and acetyl chloride substituted for acetic anhydride; and N-methyl morpholine and N-methyl pyrrolidine substituted for pyridine. The excess acetic
anhydride and pyridine is removed by evaporation to yield pure compound according to Formula II.
In accordance with the present invention, virus cells are inhibited in growth or killed by a method comprising contacting a virus with an
effective antiviral amount of one or more
compositions according to Formulas I and/or II. The minimal effective amount as stated above is generally from 50 to 100 micrograms for 25 to 80 plaque forming units of virus cells. The compound of Formulas I and II are active for inhibiting or killing a diverse range of viruses including, but not limited to, the RNA viruses, vesicular stomatitis (herein "VSV), arenaviruses, coronaviruses, influenza viruses and the DNA viruses, herpes simplex-I (herein "HSV-I"), other herpes viruses, adenoviruses and papovaviruses.
The effectiveness of the compositions of the invention for inhibiting virus cells indicates that the compositions of Formulae I and II should also be useful in controlling viral infections in host animals and plants which are caused by a virus which is thus inhibited or destroyed. Viral infections which may be controlled by utilizing compositions of the present invention include, but are not limited to, those caused by RNA viruses such as arenaviruses, coronaviruses, reoviruses, influenza viruses, and viral infections caused by the DNA viruses such as herpes viruses, adenoviruses and papova viruses. The invention may also be useful in controlling common viral infections of plants.
In accordance with the invention, a
composition is provided of the formula:


wherein R is:










Wherein X1 is an oxygen, sulfur or an imine group; X 2 is hydroen, halogen, lower alkyl group, or an alkyl sulfenyl group; Y is oxygen or sulfur; Z is oxygen, sulfur or an imine group;
wherein both R1 groups are the same or different and are hydrogen or a lower alkyl group, R 2 is H or a lower alkyl group; and n is from 1 to 5.
Preferably, the lower alkyl groups have from one to five carbon atoms, more preferably from one to three carbon atoms, and most preferably, the lower alkyl group is methyl.
Preferably, X1 and Y are oxygen.
More particularly, a preferred embodiment of the invention comprises a composition of the
structure IV, V, VI or VII as indicated below:







In accordance with the invention an
antitumor composition is provided comprising as active ingredient an effective antitumor amount of one or more of the compositions described above and identified by Formulas I - VII and a non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
While effective amounts may vary, as conditions in which the antitumor compositions are used vary, a minimal dosage required for activity is generally between 1 and 100 micrograms against 105 tumor cells. Useful examples of non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or diluents include, but are not limited to, the following: ethanol; dimethyl
sulfoxide; and glycerol.
In accordance with the invention, a process to produce a compound according to Formula III comprises the step of: collecting red alga,
particularly Desmia hornemanni (also known as
Chondrococcus hornemanni); contacting the alga with a suitable organic solvent to obtain an extract of the solvent; and synthesizing and isolating a
compound according to Formula III.
A detailed description and explanation of a preferred embodiment of the process of the invention for producing a compound according to Formula III is as follows. Red alga, Desmia hornemanni is collected at Cape Zampa, Okinawa. The alga is then contacted with acetone (a first solvent) to obtain an acetone extract from the red alga. The acetone extract is then concentrated by evaporation through either heat or reduced pressure and the acetone residue contacted with methylene chloride to obtain a methylene
chloride extract.
While acetone and methylene chloride are the presently preferred choices for first and second solvents, other suitable solvents may be substituted for acetone and/or methylene chloride. A suitable first solvent should be capable of extracting a compound according to Formula I from other components of the red alga. Suitable first solvents which may be substituted for acetone include, but are not limited to, the following polar organic solvents:
methyl ethyl ketone; ethyl acetate; methanol;
ethanol; and methyl isobutyl ketone. A suitable second solvent should be capable of extracting and separating the compound of Formula I from other components that may be present in the first solvent extract. Suitable second solvents which may be substituted for methylene chloride include, but are not limited to, the following organic solvents:
chloroform; trichloroethylene; hexane; and lower alkanes. Different ratios of first to second
solvents may be used in the invention as would be known to those skilled in the art.
The methylene chloride extract is removed and concentrated by evaporation of the methylene chloride solvent by either gentle heating or reduced pressure. An alcohol derivative (VIII) of a compound according Formula I is isolated from the methylene chloride extract by chromatography.
The alcohol derivative has the following Formula:


Any suitable chromatography technique may be used, but it has been found that first subjecting the methylene chloride extract to chromatography on a silica gel column, by eluting with hexane-acetone in an approximate ml. ratio of 7:3 hexane to acetone to obtain a major fraction containing a compound of

Formula VIII and then further separating the major fraction on a thin layer chromatography grade silica gel column by flash chromatography yields pure
Formula VIII. Other eluents and columns may be substituted as would be known to those skilled in the art. The compound of Formula VIII was found to decompose at room temperature in two hours so it is important to carry out the next synthesis steps as soon as possible.
Tb prepare the preferred embodiments of the invention according to Formula IV, V, VI and VII the following synthesis steps are taken to prepare these compounds from the compound of Formula VIII and IX.
Compounds according to formula IV and V are synthesized from a halogen derivative of the compound

of Formula I having the Formula:



wherein X3 is Cl or Br.
A compound of Formula IX is obtained by isolating a volatile oil fraction from the methylene chloride extract subjected to chromatography as described above for obtaining the alcohol derivative of Formula I (Formula VIII), and obtaining from said volatile oil fraction a halogen derivative of the compound of Formula I having the Formula IX.
The halogen derivative IX is treated with a base such as potassium hydroxide in methanol (e.g. 10% KOH-methanol) to yield (after isolation, e.g., separation by thin layer chromatography) a major amount of a ketal of formula V and a minor amount of a vinyl ether of Formula IV.
A compound according to Formula VI is obtained by hydrolysis of the ketal of Formula V with, for example, methanol and hydrochloric acid (e.g. 1:1 by volume of MeOH: 5N HCl) .
A compound according to Formula VII is synthesized by treating a compound of Formula VIII, obtained as described above, with a base such as potassium hydroxide and dioxane (e.g. 1:1 by volume of 1% KOH in H2O: dioxane).
In accordance with the present inventi,on, tumors and tumor cells are inhibited by a method comprising contacting a tumor with an effective antitumor amount of one or more compositions
according to Formulae I - VII. The minimal effective amount as stated above is generally from 1 to 100 micrograms for 105 tumor cells. The compound of

Formulae I - VII are active for inhibiting a diverse range of tumors including, but not limited to human lung, colon and mammary tumors such as lung carcinoma A549, ileocecal adenocarcinoma HCT-8, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7.
The effectiveness of the compositions of the invention for inhibiting tumors indicates that the compositions of Formulae I - VII should also be useful in controlling tumors in host animals.
It is therefore apparent that the
compositions of the invention, the processes for producing the compositions of the invention and the methods for utilizing the compositions of the
invention to inhibit viruses and tumors are effective for inhibiting or destroying viruses and tumors and therefore controlling diseases, disorders and
symptomatic discomfort caused by or related to such viruses and tumors in fulfillment of the objects of the invention.

EXAMPLES

The invention will now be illustrated by examples. The examples are not intended to be limiting of the scope of the present invention. In conjunction with the detailed and general description above, the examples provide further understanding of the present invention and outline a process for producing compositions of the invention.
The following examples represent preferred embodiments of the compositions, processes and methods of the invention for satisfying the stated objects of the invention. The starting materials and reagents in the examples whose method of preparation are not indicated, are commercially available from sources known to the art such as chemical supply houses.

EXAMPLE 1
Preparation of Compound (1):



2000 grams of red alga Desmia hornemanni were
collected and placed in a 5000 ml. vessel and 2000 mis. of acetone was added to the vessel and the mixture was vigorously agitated to produce a slurry.
The slurry was filtered to provide an acetone extract. The acetone extract was
concentrated under vacuum at room temperature and admixed with 100 mis. of methylene chloride in a separatory funnel. The methylene chloride fraction was removed and concentrated to give 13.2 gms of crude oil.
The methylene chloride extract was subjected to chromatography on a silica gel column, by eluting with 7:3 hexane-acetone. A major fraction containing the alcohol derivative of Compound (1) illustrated below as Compound (X) :



was further separated on a thin layer chromatography grade silica gel column by flash chromatography to obtain the pure compound of Formula VIII,
[ ] 2D1-87. 2 ° (C 1. 29 , CH2Cl2 ) The compound
of Formula VIII was immediately subjected to
acetylation by admixing 100 milligrams of the
compound of Compound (X) with 0.1 ml. of acetic anhydride and 0.1 ml. of pyridine. Excess acetic anhydride and pyridine was removed by evaporation with gentle heating and under reduced pressure to give an oil which was further purified by
chromatography on silca gel using an eluting solvent of 1:1 of hexane: ethylacetate to give a pure yellow oil of Formula II [ ] 2D1-56.8 (C 0.84, CHCl2) .
The absolute configuration of the compound is not yet known.

EXAMPLE 2
Preparation of Compound (2) and (3)




2000 grams of red alga Desmia hornemanni were
collected and placed in a 5000 ml. vessel and 2000 mis. of acetone was added to the vessel and the mixture was vigorously agitated to produce a slurry.
The slurry was filtered to provide an acetone extract. The acetone extract was
concentrated under vacuum at room temperature and admixed with 100 mis. of methylene chloride in a separatory funnel. The methylene chloride fraction was removed and concentrated to yield 13.2 gms. of crude oil.
The methylene chloride extract was subjected to chromatography on a silica gel column, by eluting with 7:3 hexane-acetone. A volatile oil fraction was obtained which contained a halogen derivative of Formula I illustrated below as Formula IX (wherein X3 is Cl or Br):
A sample of a compound (Y) of Formula IX (47.2 mg) was treated with 10% KOH-MeOH at room temperature for 30 minutes giving a reaction mixture with two major spots on a tic plate (CHCl3). The mixture was separated by a preparative tlc with chloroform to give ketal Composition (3) (Rf=0.3, 18.3 mg 53.4%), and vinyl ether Composition (2)
(Rf=0.5, 8.3 mg, 28.6%)
Ketal (3) has the following
characteristics: oil, λmax (EtOH) 235 nm (E 7900); IR (film) 2960, 2830, 1660, 1635, 1470, 1370, 1270, 1190, 1175, 1150, 1110, 1055, 870 cm-1; 1H NMR
(CCl4) δ7.03 (1H, d, J=3.2 HZ), 6.65 (1H, dd,
J=10.0, 3.2HZ), 6.00 (1H, d, J=10.0 HZ) , 3.06
(6H, s) , 1.50 (3H,s), 1.30 (6H,s).
Vinyl ether (2) had the following
characteristics: oil, λmax (EtOH) 235 (E 6000), 218 nm (614000); IR (film) 2960, 1665, 1625, 1580, 1400,

1285, 1080, 840 cm -1 1H NMR (CCl4) δ 6 . 97 (1H, d
J=3.2 Hz), 6.53 (1H, dd, J=10.0 HZ) , 6.00 (1H, d, J=10 HZ), 5.31 (1H, d, J=2.0 HZ), 4.25 (1H, d,
J=2.0 HZ), 3.53 (3H, s) , 1.30 (6H, s).
EXAMPLE 3
Alternatively, ketal (3) can be produced by treating a sample (9.3 mg) of Compound (Y) in 5 N methanolic KOH (1 ml) allowing it to stand at room temperature for 20 hours. After adding 5.0 ml. water the mixture was extracted with CH2Cl2. The
CH2Cl2 solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give ketal (3) (6.4 mg, 87-97%).
EXAMPLE 4
Preparation of Compound (4) :


Ketal (3) (6.9 mg) produced according to the procedures of either Examples 2 or 3 was dissolved in 0.1 ml of MeOH and 0.1 ml of 5 N HCl. After standing for 10 min the solution was extracted with CHCl3 to give 4.5 mg (79.4%) of (4) as an oil with the
following character istics : λ max (EtOH) 205 ( E 7500 ) , 234 nm ( E 9200 ) ; IR ( f ilm) 2980 , 2940 , 2875 , 1695 , 1665, 1630, 1600, 1400, 1360, 1260, 935, 840 cm-1; 1H NMR (CDCL3) 7.50 (1H, d, J=3.0 HZ) , 6.77
(1H, dd, J=10.0, 3.0 HZ) , 6.12 (1H, d, J=10.0
HZ) , 2.50 (3H, s), 1.33 (6H, s).
EXAMPLE 5 Preparation of epoxide Compound (5) :

A mixture of Compound (X) (157.8 mg) , 2 ml of 1% KOH/H2O, and 2 ml of dioxane was heated under reflux for two hours. After removing dioxane in vacuo the reaction mixture was extracted with
chloroform. The extract was separated on a silica gel column with chloroform to give 62 mg of starting material and 31.8 mg (46.8%) of epoxide (5) as a light yellow oil with the following characteristics: [α]1D8 31.2° (c 0.64, MeOH) ; IR (film) 2975,
2925, 2875, 1670, 1630, 1470, 1420, 1255, 1240, 1130, 915, 105, 880, 820, 800 cm-1; 1H NMR δ 6.57 (1H, dd, J=9.0, 2.0 Hz) , 6.37 (1H, dd, J=2.0, 0.4 HZ) , 5.92 (1H, d, J=9.0 HZ) , 3.62 (1H, m) , 2.83 (1H, dd, J=6.8, 4.3 HZ) , 2.26 (1H, dd, J=6.8, 2.0 HZ) ,
1.25 (3H, s) , 1.18 (3H, s) .

Example 6
Preparation of Composition (6)


2000 grams of red alga Desmia hornemanni were
collected and placed in a 5000 ml. vessel and 2000 mis. of acetone was added to the vessel and the mixture was vigorously agitated to produce a slurry.

The slurry was filtered to provide an acetone extract. The acetone extract was
concentrated under vacuum at room temperature and admixed with 100 mis. of methylene chloride in a separatory funnel. The methylene chloride fraction was removed and concentrated to yield 13.2 gms. of crude oil.
The methylene chloride extract was subjected to chromatography on a silica gel column, by eluting with 7:3 hexane-acetone. A volatile oil fraction was obtained which contains a composition (6).

EXAMPLES 7 and 8
Preparation of compositions (7) and (8)




To 0.34 grams of the oil of Composition (6) 10% KOH in dry methanol (1 ml.) was slowly added with stirring. The mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. The mixture was
chromatographed on a silica gel column by eluting with 15:2 hexane/acetone to give 33.8 mg. of (7) and 190 mg. of a mixture containing (8). Further
separation of a 110 mg. portion of the mixture on a Lobar Si-60 column with 6:1 hexane/ethyl accetate gave 34.3 mg of (8).

Composition (7) was a light yellow oil; IR (Film) 3260, 3060, 2975, 2940, 2875, 2110, 1665, 1630, 1475, 1400, 1380, 1360, 1305, 1255, 1180, 1135, 1085, 985, 950, 930, 910 and 840 cm-1.
Composition (8) was a light yellow oil; IR (film) 3050, 2970, 2940, 2870, 1670, 1640, 1480, 1400, 1380, 1360, 1250, 1200, 1170, 1130, 1020, 960, 910, 840 cm-1.

ANTIVIRAL AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITIES OF THE COMPOUNDS OF THE INVENTION

The following assay method was utilized to illustrate the antiviral effectiveness of compound (1).
Day 1:
1) Remove 75 cm2 culture flasks from
incubator (these were plated the
previous week) .
2) Aspirate medium.
3) Wash with 10 ml PBSA or Puck's Saline.
4) Aspirate.
5) Wash a second time with 10 ml PBSA or
Puck's Saline.
6) Aspirate.
7) Add 2 ml trypsin/EDTA. Incubate until
cells detach (10-20 min).
8) Once detached, shake vigorously and
immediately add 8 ml medium and shake
again.
9) Count cells. (To 0.5 ml cell suspension add 0.1 ml trypan blue.
Wait 5-10 minutes. Count 4 corner
squares and middle square of 5 x 5
array in hemocytometer. Blue cells are
dead. Total count per 10 ml in culture flask = # live cells x 6 x 105).
10) Maintain cell line by adding 3 x 106
cells to another 75 cm2 culture
flask. Bring to 30 ml with fresh
medium.
11) For assay, add 1 x 106 cells to each
well (6 wells per culture dish). Bring
each well to 2 ml with fresh medium.
12) Incubate overnight at 37° C.
Day 2:
1) Aspirate meαium.
2) Add 0.5 of medium containing 200 pfu
HSV-I.
3) Incubate 102 hr with a small amount of
shaking.
4) Add 2 ml MC-4000 to each well.
5) Place disks on surface and push through
(1 mg/disc, 0.5 mg/disc, 0.25 mg/disc,
etc. for crude extracts).
6) Incubate 48 hr. (making sure dishes
remain level).
Day 4:
1) Add 2 ml neutral red medium.
2) Incubate overnight.
Day 5:
1) Read wells, e.g. compound of Formula II 16 (++) where 16 indicates zone of
cytotoxicity as the diameter in mm (6
mm to 16 mm) and (++) indicates the
inhibition of plaque formation:
complete inhibition (+++), a few
plaques around the outside of well
(++), definite inhibition (+),
questionable inhibition (+/-), no
inhibition (-), and no conclusion due
to complete cytotoxicity.
Day 7:
Begin cycle again at Day 1.
II RECIPES CULTURE MEDIUM
1 L GIBCO MEM (plus non-essential a.a.'s with

Earle's Salts).
2.2 g NaHCO3
50 ml calf serum
105 units penicillin
50 mg streptomycin
MC-4000
500 ml CULTURE MEDIUM made to half volume

( twice
as concentrated)
500 ml v/w 4000 cps methyl cellulose
NEUTRAL RED MEDIUM
(ALWAYS MAKE FRESH)
500 ml CULTURE MEDIUM made to half volume

(twice
as concentrated)
500 ml 4% v/w 15 cps methyl cellulose 100 mg neutral red from stock solution
PUCK'S G SALINE SOLUTION
to 1 L distilled H2O add:
8.00 g NaCl
0.40 g KCI
0.15 g KH2PO4
0.29 g Na2HPO4.7H2O
2.0 ml 1% phenol red
1.10 g glucose
autoclave
TRYPSIN-EDTA
for 1 L:
"dissolve" 2g DIFCO 1-250 trypsin plus 0.2g EDTA in 100 ml PUCK'S SALINE.
sterile filter.
add to 900 ml sterile PUCK'S SALINE.
PBSA
to 1 L distilled H2O Add:
8.00 G NaCl
0.20 g KCI
1 . 50 g Na2HPO4.7H2O
0.25 g KH2PO4
autoclave
The results at Day 5 for Composition (1) indicates def ini te ant iviral activi ty 16 ( ++ ) fo r the compound. Compound (1) shows antiviral activity in minimal effective amounts of from 50 to 100
micrograms for 25 to 80 plaque forming units of virus cells.

The following assay method was utilized to illustrate the antitumor effectiveness of compounds

1-7.
1,1210 And P388 MOUSE LEUKEMIA CELL;
ILEOCECAL ADENO CARCINOMA HCT-8; AND LUNG
CARCINOMA A549; CYTOXICITY ASSAY 24-WELL
PLATE SCREENING ASSAY AND TUBE ASSAY PROTOCOL

MATERIALS UTILIZED
Media - Dulbeccos with glucose and pyruvate
(Biologos, Inc) with 10% horse serum, (Biologos, Inc) and 1.0 ug/ml gentamicin (Gibco).
Cells - L1210 and P-388 mouse leukemia cells
(American Type Culture Collection) in media at a concentration of 5x104 cells/ml. Sterile 24-well culture plates (Nunc) for screening or 12 x 75mm glass culture tubes (Becton-Dicxkinson) for tube assay. Microdispenser with 1 to 5 ul increments
(Drummond Scientific Co. Broomall PA).
Finnpipette with 5 to 50 ul increments and
Finnpipette with 50 to 200 ul increments.
PROCEDURE
1. A sample of the composition to be assayed is added to each well or tube in an amount of from 200 ug/ml and 100 ug/ml for screening. For DDC of known active compounds use log concentrations from 100 ug/ml to .01 ug/ml for range-finding assay; when range has been determined, use five concentrations between highest ana lowest active concentrations.

2. Add 2.0 ml of 5 x 104 cell suspension in media to each well or tube. Tubes are loosely covered with parafilm.

3. Incubate in 5% CO2 incubator 48 hours.

4. Visually read plates with inverted microscope, comparing with solvent control. Assign activity as follows:

0 = 90 -100% of control growth
1+ = 75 - 89% of control growth
2+ = 50 - 74% of control growth
3+ = 25 - 49% of control growth
4+ = 25% of control growth

Repeat all positive samples using tube assay.

5. For Tube assays - Mix tube well on vortex and remove 0.5 ml aliquot and add to 9.5 ml nf diluent fluid (Isoton - Coulter) in Accuvette (Coulter) and mix well by inversion immediately before counting, taking care not to produce excessive bubbles. Count on Coulter Counter (Counter is set to count 0.5 ml of the solution; therefore counts may be converted to cell/ml in original assay tube by multiplying count by 40.

Positive control - Vinblastine or Vincristine in aqueous solution.

Final Conc. of Vinblastine or Vincristine control (use 2 ul/assay)

Solution Conc.

Solution Cone. Amt added Final Conc. in test

10 mg/ml 2 ul 10 ug/ml

1 mg/ml 2 ul 1 ug/ml

0.1 mg/ml 2 ul 0.1 ug/ml

0.01 mg/ml 2 ul 0.001 ug/ml

Notes:
For solvents other than water, allow solvent to evaporate from tube or well in hood.

Chloroform and butanol cannot be used in the plastic 24-well plates - use glass tubes.
Always run a solvent control in duplicate in the last two wells of each plate or four tubes for each rack of 72 or less tubes. Also run four wells or tubes with media and cells only per run of plates or tubes. When using volumes of aqueous solutions greater than 200 ul, dry sample and bring up to desired concentration in media.
The results of the above assay show
compounds of formulae II, V, VI and VII are cytotoxic in vitro against P-388 murine leukemia cells showing estimated ID50's (dose which kills 50% of the
cells) of 37, 70, 70 and 5 micrograms per milliliter respectively. Compounds IV, V, VI and VII are cytotoxic in vitro against L-1210 murine leukemia cells showing 15%, 17%, 41% and 25% survival at 200 micrograms per milliliter respectively. Compound VII shows an estimated ID50 of 0.7 micrograms per
milliliter against L-1210 murine leukemia cells. The following table summarizes these results.

5 ug/ml 5 ug/ml 3 ug/ml

The scope of the present invention is not limited by the description, examples, and suggested uses herein and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention. For example, it may be noted that other derivatives of the cyclohexadienones of example 1 such as a
fluorinateα cyclohexadienone may possess antiviral or antitumor activity analogous to those preferred embodiments described above. Further, the
compositions described herein may have other useful applications such as, for example, analgesic
applications. Thus, it is intended that the present invention cover the modifications and variations of this invention provided that they come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents.