Recherche dans les collections de brevets nationales et internationales
Une partie du contenu de cette demande n'est pas disponible pour le moment.
Si cette situation persiste, contactez-nous auObservations et contact
1. (WO1980000862) CYCLE DE CONVERSION D"ENERGIE POUR UN MOTEUR A COMBUSTION INTERNE ET DISPOSITIF POUR EFFECTUER CE CYCLE
Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

CLAIMS

1. A method of converting chemical energy into thermal energy using a rapid dissociative chain reaction process manifesting combustion characteristics between gaseous fuel and oxygen reactants in a variable volume working chamber of a work producing, air breathing engine and wherein individual charges of reactants are cyclically supplied to said working chamber and caused to rapidly react to generate heat for driving a cyclically moveable work producing piston or pistons in said working chamber characterized by:
(a) forming fuel and air charges of varying fuel-air ratio related to the power . demand of the engine, the proportion of total air to total fuel of each charge being varied from stoichiometric at maximum power to excess air at less than maximum power;
(b) increasing by compression the density and activation of the molecules of each charge while controlling the distribution of the fuel and oxygen reactants in the working chamber in such a manner that when the reaction is initiated. substantially all of the fuel is located in the working chamber with a proportion of air that is less than stoichiometric and in sufficient proportion to assure a maximum potential rate of reaction of available reactants. and the balance of the charge, comprising substantially only air, is located in a sustaining air reservoir chamber of substantially fixed volume located adjacent the working chamber and in communication with the latter through a molecular partition area that is variable from a minimum first area when the working chamber is at minimum volume to a second larger area when the working chamber is at greater than minimum volume, said partition area being bounded by surfaces that favor to a maximum extent rebound motion towards the working chamber of gaseous molecules approaching said area from the working chamber or passing through said area towards the working chamber;
(c) initiating reaction of each charge by suitable means and sustaining the reaction in the working chamber while the working chamber is approaching and is at minimum volume and while it is expanding in such a manner that the reaction is carried out at a maximum rate with the proportion of reactants on the excess fuel side of stoichiometric throughout the reaction until the fuel has been depleted to the point that such reaction can no longer be sustained at a desired work producing rate with the reaction being sustained by using as a replenishment source of activated molecular oxygen such oxygen as is naturally diffused through the partition volume into the working chamber; and
(d) exhausting the working chamber near the end of each reaction.

2. The method according to Claim 1, characterized by varying the fuel to air proportion only by varying the quantity of fuel in each charge without varying the total quantity of air.
3. The method according to Claim 2, wherein the piston is connected to a rotary output shaft, characterized by supplying fuel to the working chamber beginning not earlier than 30 to 50° after start of the respective charge intake event.
4.. The method according to Claim 3, characterized by aspirating the entire fuel quantity into the working chamber during each charge intake event.
5. The method according to Claim 3, characterized by injecting at least part of the fuel of each charge directly into the working chamber volume during the compression and activation event, but not later than 30 to 40° before initiation of the reactron.
6. The method according to Claim 3, characterized by injecting the entire fuel quantity of each charge under pressure into the working chamber during the central period of the intake and compression events.
7. The method according to Claim 6, characterized in that said central period is approximately 140° after beginning of the intake event and 120° before the working chamber is at minimum volume.
8. The method according to Claim 5, characterized by compressing and activating each charge to the point at where initiation of the reaction occurs by self-ignition.
9. The method according to Claim 8, characterized in that the process is carried out with a total compression ratio, defined as the ratio of the sum of the maximum working and sustaining chamber volumes to the sum of the minimum working and sustaining chamber volumes, of less than 12:1.
10. The method according to Claim 1, characterized in that the process is carried out with the ratio of the sustaining chamber volume to the minimum working chamber volume between .2 and 1.8.
11. The method according to Claim 1, characterized in that the process is carried out with the width of the partition at its first area not less than .050 in. (1.27mm) and with its width at its second area not greater than .2 in. (5.08mm).
12. The method according to Claim 1, characterized in that the process is carried out with a circular piston in a cylindrical bore and wherein the second partition area is between .05 and .15 times the square of the diameter of the bore.

13. The method according to Claim 1, characterized in that the process is carried out with the partition volume between .10 and .35 times the total sustaining chamber volume when the partition area is at its maximum opening.
14. The method according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the process is carried out with the second partition volume between .10 and

.35 times the total sustaining chamber volume.
15. The method according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the process is carried out with a circular piston reciprocating in a cylindrical bore, and wherein the second partition area is between .05 and .15 times the square of the diameter of the bore.
16. The method according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the process is carried out with the ratio of the sustaining chamber volume to the minim um working chamber volume between .2 and 1.8.
17. The method according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the process is carried out so the following maximum proportions of the products of reaction are obtained in the exhausted reactants at full engine power output: .2 to 3.0 %CO; 100 to 1800 parts per million partially unreacted fuel and 0 to .2%O2.
18. The method according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the process is carried out so the following maximum proportions of the products of reaction are obtained in the exhausted reactants at cruise engine power output: .1 to 1%CO; 50 to 1500 parts per million partially unreacted fuel; and .2 to 3 %O2.
19. The method according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the process is carried out so the following maximum proportions of the products of reaction are obtained in the exhausted reactant at idle engine power output: .20 to 1.0 %CO; 100 to 1000 parts per million partially unreacted fuel; and 2.0 to 4.0%O2.
20. A work producing engine for carrying out the method recited in any of the previous claims, including apparatus for cyclically converting chemical energy into thermal potential and using the resultant heat to cyclically drive a moveable work producing piston in the engine, the conversion of chemical energy to thermal potential occurring by a rapid dissociative chain reaction process manifesting combustion characteristics between gaseous fuel and oxygen reactants, said piston cyclically activating reactant charges supplied to a variable volume working chamber by compressing same after a charge intake event, a working chamber and a moveable piston or pistons associated therewith connected to the engine workoutput means and serving to convert thermally generated gaseous pressure to work during cyclical working chamber expansion events, and means for exhausting reaction products from the working chamber, characterized by:
a) means for supplying fuel and air to the working chamber, including means for independently controlling the proportion of fuel and air in each charge in accordance with the power demand of the engine so that the proportion of oxygent to fuel is variable from stoichiometric at full engine power demand to a proportion in excess of stoichiometric at less than full power demand;
b) a fixed volume sustaining chamber adjacent the working chamber and isolated therefrom except through a restricted area comprising a molecular partition area that is variable from a minimum first area when the working chamber is at minimum volume to a maximum second area when the working chamber is larger than minimum volume, the partition area being defined as the partition width times the partition length, where the partition width is the shortest transverse dimension of said restricted area and the partition length is the length of said restricted area measured along the partition width;
c) a molecular partition volume defined as the partition area times the partition depth, where the partition depth is the straight line distance between the partition width and the back wall of the sustaining chamber in a direction extending normal to the partition width;
d) the boundary surfaces surrounding and defining said working chamber, sustaining chamber and said partition area being configured to favor to a maximum extent molecular rebound motion of molecules in the working chamber in a direction towards the working chamber volume, rebound of gaseous molecules in the sustaining chamber but not in the partition volume towards the interior of the sustaining chamber volume, and rebound of gaseous molecules passing through the partition area from the partition volume into the working chamber towards the central working chamber volume;
e) means for controlling distribution of the reactants during the intake and activation events to cause substantially all of the fuel proportion of each charge to be located and retained in the working chamber during the activation and. reaction events with the proportion of fuel to oxygen being in excess of stoichiometric to a sufficient extent to insure a maximum potential rate of reaction for the available reactants when the reaction is initiated, and to cause the remaining oxygen portion of each charge to be located in the sustaining chamber curing the activation and reaction events; and
f) said molecular partition volume being dimensioned and configured to control the availability of activated oxygen molecules in the working chamber at initiation of and during the reaction process in such a manner that the reaction starts and proceeds to useful completion with the proportion of available fuel, including partially reacted fuel species to oxygen always being in excess of stoichiometric.
21. The engine according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the ratio of the sustaining chamber volume to the minimum working chamber volume is between .2 and 1.8.
22. The engine according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the partition width at its minimum area is not less than .050 inch (1.27mm) and at its maximum area not greater than .20 inch (5.08mm).
23. The engine according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the piston or pistons reciprocate within a cylindrical working chamber and the maximum partition area is between .05 and .15 times the square of the diameter of the working chamber.
24. The engine according to any of the previous claims, characterized in that the partition volume is between .10 and .35 times the total sustaining chamber volume when the partition area is at its maximum.
25. The engine according to Claim 20, wherein said moveable piston or pistons is a single piston reciprocally mounted within a cylindrical bore with the working chamber between a closed head end of the bore and a closed top end of the piston, characterized in that the bore head end includes an inwardly converging sidewall area and a generally concave arcuate end area, the piston including an upper compression seal and a generally concave arcuate top end; the sustaining chamber disposed in the peripheral area of the piston below its top end between said top end and said compression seal; a radial clearance gap between the piston top end and the cylinder wall that constitutes said molecular partition width that varies as the piston top end cyclically approaches and recedes from said converging cylinder sidewall area to vary said partition area, said clearance gap being a minimum when the working chamber is at minimum volume.

26. The engine according to Claim 25, said sustaining chamber clearance gap extending over a continuous portion of the circumference of th e piston.
27. The engine according to Claim 25, characterized in that the peripheral area of the piston end adjacent the gap forms, with the inner cylinder bore sidewall, a converging passageway, with an arcuate surface leading to the gap from the working chamber, the arc of said arcuate surface and the solid angles between the surfaces leading to the gap from the working chamber promoting rebound of activated molecules orignally moving towards the gap from the working chamber back towards said working chamber rather than through the gap towards the sustaining chamber.
28. The engine according to Claim 27, characterized in that the interior walls of the sustaining chamber are generally circular in cross-section as viewed across the depth of the sustaining chamber along its length, with the cylinder sidewall forming the outer interior peripheral wall of the sustaining chamber.
29. The engine according to Claim 28, characterized in that the piston top end surfaces adjacent the partition area diverge sharply away from said partition area on either side thereof.
30. The engine according to Claim 20, wherein said piston or pistons is a single piston reciprocally mounted within a cylindrical bore, characterized in that the working chamber is between a closed head end of the bore and a closed top end of the piston, the bore head end including an inwardly converging sidewall area and a concave arcuate end area, the piston including an upper compression seal and a concave arcuate top end area; the sustaining chamber disposed in the peripheral area of the bore head end; the length of the partition area extending along the periphery of the bore head end; a peripheral area of the piston top end lying adjacent the partition area in partially blocking relationship when the working chamber is at minimum volume and away from the partition area when the working chamber is larger than minimum volume.
31. The engine according to Claim 30, characterized in that the surfaces leading towards the partition area have curvatures and angles therebetween that favor maximum rebound of molecular motion back towards the respective chamber from whence the molecules approached said partition area, except those molecules moving straight through said partition volume.

32. The engine according to Claim 31, characterized in that said piston peripheral top end area projects beyond the remaining piston top end area.
33. The engine according to Claim 20, wherein said piston or pistons are a pair of closed-ended pistons reciprocally mounted within a single cylindrical bore and together between their closed top ends and the bore define said working chamber; the piston top ends each having concave arcuate central portions and respective peripheral top endge portions that are radially spaced from the bore wall to define maximum partition widths; the pistons having a top compression sealing means and said sustaining chamber lying in the peripheral area of the top end of each piston between said peripheral edge portion and said compression sealing means of each piston; the distance between said piston peripheral top edge portions when the working chamber is at minimum volume defining a minimum partition width.
34. The engine according to Claim 33, characterized in that said minimum and maximum partition areas comprise continuous annular openings respectively between the piston peripheral top edge portions, and between the piston top ends and the cylinder bores, respectively, the cylinder bores constituting one of the walls enclosing the sustaining chambers.
35. The engine according to Claim 29, characterized in that said piston or pistons are a pair of closed ended pistons reciprocally mounted within a cylindrical bore and together between their closed top ends and the bore define said working chamber; the piston top ends each having a concave arcuate central portion and a peripheral top area that extends beyond the central portion; the minimum working chamber volume being defined as the volume within the cylinder bore and the piston top ends when said top ends are closest to each other; said sustaining chamber disposed within the bore sidewall and normally in communication with the working chamber through an opening in the sidewall defining said maximum partition area, said opening being located opposite the location of the clearance between the piston peripheral top areas when the working chamber is at minimum volume, said clearance defining the partition width at its minimum area.
36. The engine according to Claims 29, 32, or 35, characterized in that the ratio of the sustaining chamber volume to the minimum chamber volume is between .2 and 1.8; the width of the partition at its minimum area is not less than .050 inch (1.27mm) and at its maximum area not greater than .20 inch (5.08mm); the maximum partition area is between .05 and .15 times the square of the diameter of the working chamber; and the partition volume is between .10 and .35 times the total sustaining chamber volume when the partition area is maximum.