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The present invention relates to a building block having cavities therein which contain a heat-insulating plastics material, and a method for manufacturing such a building block .
The requirement that external main walls of buildings shall have good heat-insulating properties has been accentuated by rising energy costs. Additional and supplementary insulation is provided to an increasing extent in order to reduce the heat losses through external main walls.
The heat insulation of external main walls can be provided in different manners with different building materials. A satisfactory heat-insulating wall structure is obtained e.g. with building blocks constructed as hollow blocks of concrete, light concrete or lightweight clinker concrete; the building blocks of the wall structure are then dressed e.g. with facade brick an air space being left between the building blocks and the bricks.
In order to improve the heat-insulating properties of hollow blocks it has been proposed to mount separate panels of a heat-insulating plastics material such as polystyrene or urethane resin in the individual
cavities of the hollow block. It has also been proposed to fill the cavities of hollow lightweight clinker blocks with an insulating material, preferably foamed polyurethane, the material being injected into the cavities in liquid form and allowed to set therein.
In order that the finished wall structure shall obtain the required tensile properties a binder has to be used in horizontal joints between the building blocks. Although the heat-insulating properties of the building blocks are satisfactory and have been further improved by the insertion of a heat-insulating
plastics material into cavities in the building
blocks, the heat-insulating properties of the
existing joints between the building blocks are
inferior to those of the building blocks as such, which results in cold bridges in the joints.
It has been proposed to eliminate such cold bridges by arranging ribs of heat-insulating
material such as foamed plastics material in the joints between the blocks.
The object of the invention is to facilitate the manufacture of the building block of the kind initially referred to, which is heat-insulated by means of plastics material, the occurrence of cold bridges in the horizontal joints between the building blocks in the wall structure composed thereof
simultaneously being effectively prevented.
This is achieved by providing, according to the invention, a building block of the kind referred to having the characteristics appearing from claim 1.
An advantage of this building block, beside the simplified manufacture of the building block and the improved heat-insulating properties of the building block as such and the wall structure composed thereof, is that the building block can be handled and used in the same manner as conventional building blocks without applying a special technique, special joint material or special implements when the wall is
under construction.
The invention also provides a method of manufactur ing the building block having the characteristics appearing from claim 2.
The invention will be described in more detail below reference being made to the accompanying draw ings in which FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a hollow block
and a moulded body of heat-insulating plastics
material to be inserted' into the cavities of the hollow block,
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the finished
hollow block according to the invention with the plastics body inserted into the cavities, and
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of two building
blocks according to the invention, laid one upon the other, a horizontal joint being provided
between the blocks.
The building block 10 in FIG. 1 has parallel-epipedic form and preferably is made of cement
-stabilized elastic granulate such as lightweight clinker, which imparts to the building block per se excellent heat-insulating properties. In a flat side

11 of the block there are provided perpendicularly from this side into the block extending blind holes

12 and 13 which are arranged in several rows. The blind holes 12 are of substantially rectangular cross
-sectional form with curved ends and extend in the longitudinal direction of the row, the holes of one row being displaced in relation to the holes of
adjacent rows a distance corresponding to half the pitch of the holes. The blind holes 13 are circular and are arranged at the ends of each second row of holes. Since the holes are bottom holes, the flat side of the building block opposite to the flat side 11 is completely intact, but it is within the scope of the invention to provide the building block with through holes instead of blind holes. Moreover, the holes can have another form and distribution than that shown. The hollow block can be manufactured according to know methods.
According to the invention, a separate unitary body 14 to be combined with the hollow block is
injection moulded of heat-insulating plastics
material, preferably foamed urea-formaldehyde resin or foamed styrene resin. The injection moulded body 14 comprises a flat panel 15 which is substantially congruent with the flat side 11 of the hollow block 10 and is planar and smooth at one side thereof while a number of cores 16 and 17 project from the other planar side of the panel 15. These cores correspond as to form and spacing with the rectangular and
cylindrical holes 12 and 13, respectively, in the hollow block 10. The body 14 is inserted with the cores 16 and 17 into the respective bottom holes as indicated by an arrow in FIG. 1, the fit between the cores and the holes being such that the body can be pressed into the hollow block to be anchored therein by a light pressure against the panel 15, the cores being slightly deformed thereby. When the injection moulded body 14 is located with the cores 16 and 17 inserted into the bottom holes 12 and 13, respectively, the lower side of the panel 15 engaging the hollow block 10, a narrow strip of the panel 15 is removed along each of the longitudinal edges of the hollow block 10 e.g. by milling away the panel in this region or by cutting away said panel by means of a heated wire carried along the flat side 11. The building block will then have the appearance shown in FIG. 2, a region 18 for joint material being provided between the edge of the panel 15 and the edge of the building block extending in parallel therewith, on the flat side 11 of the block. The building block is now ready to be used in a wall structure.
It should be mentioned that the panel 15 may have from the beginning a width which is less than the width of the hollow block such that no part of the panel need be removed when the injection moulded body 14 has been inserted into the hollow block.
In a wall structure consisting of several building blocks according to the invention, laid one upon the other the panel 15 forms a heat-insulating spacer in the horizontal joints between two adjacent blocks as shown in FIG. 3. Because the panel 15 has a width which is less than the width of the building block 10 a gap 19 is obtained between the blocks in the region 18 along the opposite longitudinal sides of the block and this gap is filled with mortar 20 deposited in the region 18 before the blocks are placed one upon the other, for the interconnection of the blocks. However, it is also possible to fill said gap 19 with adhering strips or rods.
In vertical joints between adjacent building blocks heat-insulating panels of the same material as the body 14 may be located. The panels thus located in the joints between the building blocks prevent effectively that the joints form cold bridges in the wall structure between the outside cold surface and the inside warm surface thereof, while the pressure load between the blocks is received by the joint material provided in the gaps 19.