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1. WO2007103867 - PRÉPARATIONS SOUS FORME DE COMPRIMÉ ET PROCÉDÉS ASSOCIÉS

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TABLET FORMULATIONS AND PROCESSES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is directed to pharmaceutical formulations of pharmacological active agents that are estrogen receptor modulators, and processes for their preparation. The present invention is further directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention and processes for their preparation.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The pleiotropic effects of estrogens in mammalian tissues have been well documented, and it is now appreciated that estrogens affect many organ systems [Mendelsohn and Karas, New England Journal of Medicine 340: 1801-181 1 (1999), Epperson, et al., Psychosomatic Medicine 61 : 676-697 (1999), Crandall, Journal of Women's Health & Gender Based Medicine 8: 1 155-1 166 (1999), Monk and Brodaty, Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 1 1 : 1-10 (2000), Hum and Macrae, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 20: 631-652 (2000), Calvin, Maturitas 34: 195-210 (2000), Finking, et al., Zeitschrift fur Kardiologie 89: 442-453 (2000), Brincat, Maturitas 35: 107-1 17 (2000), Al-Azzawi, Postgraduate Medical Journal 77: 292-304 (2001 ), each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. Estrogens can exert effects on tissues in several ways, and the most well characterized mechanism of action is their interaction with estrogen receptors leading to alterations in gene transcription. Estrogen receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors and belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Other members of this family include the progesterone, androgen, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Upon binding ligand, these receptors dimerize and can activate gene transcription either by directly binding to specific sequences on DNA (known as response elements) or by interacting with other transcription factors (such as AP1 ), which in turn bind directly to specific DNA sequences [Moggs and Orphanides, EMBO Reports 2: 775-781 (2001 ), Hall, et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry 27 '6: 36869-36872 (2001 ), McDonnell, Principles of Molecular Regulation 351-361 (2000), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. A class of "co regulatory" proteins can also interact with the ligand-bound receptor and further modulate its transcriptional activity [McKenna, et al., Endocrine Reviews 20: 321-344 (1999), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. It has also been shown that estrogen receptors can suppress NFκB-mediated transcription in both a ligand-dependent and independent manner [Quaedackers, et al., Endocrinology 142: 1 156- 1 166 (2001 ), Bhat, et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 67:

233-240 (1998), Pelzer, et al., Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications

286: 1 153-7 (2001 ), each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety].

Estrogen receptors can also be activated by phosphorylation. This phosphorylation is mediated by growth factors such as EGF and causes changes in gene transcription in the absence of ligand [Moggs and Orphanides, EMBO Reports 2: 775-781 (2001 ), Hall, et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 36869-36872 (2001 ), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety].
A less well-characterized means by which estrogens can affect cells is through a so-called membrane receptor. The existence of such a receptor is controversial, but it has been well documented that estrogens can elicit very rapid non-genomic responses from cells. The molecular entity responsible for transducing these effects has not been definitively isolated, but there is evidence to suggest it is at least related to the nuclear forms of the estrogen receptors [Levin, Journal of Applied Physiology 91 : 1860-1867 (2001 ), Levin, Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 10: 374-377 (1999), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety].
Two estrogen receptors have been discovered to date. The first estrogen receptor was cloned about 15 years ago and is now referred to as ERa [Green, et al., Nature 320: 134-9 (1986), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. The second form of the estrogen receptor was found comparatively recently and is called ERβ [Kuiper, et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 5925-5930 (1996), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. Early work on ERβ focused on defining its affinity for a variety of ligands and indeed, some differences with ERa were seen. The tissue distribution of ERβ has been well mapped in the rodent and it is not coincident with ERa. Tissues such as the mouse and rat uterus express predominantly ERa, whereas the mouse and rat lung express predominantly ERβ [Couse, et al., Endocrinology 138: 4613-4621 (1997), Kuiper, et al., Endocrinology 138: 863-870 (1997), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. Even within the same organ, the distribution of ERa and ERβ can be compartmentalized. For example, in the mouse ovary, ERβ is highly expressed in the granulosa cells and ERa is restricted to the thecal and stromal cells [Sar and Welsch, Endocrinology 140: 963-971 (1999), Fitzpatrick, et al., Endocrinology 140: 2581-2591 (1999), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. However, there are examples where the receptors are coexpressed and there is evidence from in vitro studies that ERa and ERβ can form heterodimers [Cowley, et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry 272: 19858-19862 (1997), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety].
A large number of compounds have been described that either mimic or block the activity of 17β-estradiol. Compounds having roughly the same biological effects as 17β-estradiol, the most potent endogenous estrogen, are referred to as "estrogen receptor agonists". Those which, when given in combination with 17β-estradiol, block its effects are called "estrogen receptor antagonists". In reality there is a continuum between estrogen receptor agonist and estrogen receptor antagonist activity and indeed some compounds behave as estrogen receptor agonists in some tissues and estrogen receptor antagonists in others. These compounds with mixed activity are called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) and are therapeutically useful agents (e.g. EVISTA®) [McDonnell, Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 7: S10-S15 (2000), Goldstein, et al., Human Reproduction Update 6: 212-224 (2000), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. The precise reason why the same compound can have cell-specific effects has not been elucidated, but the differences in receptor conformation and/or in the milieu of coregulatory proteins have been suggested.
It has been known for some time that estrogen receptors adopt different conformations when binding ligands. However, the consequence and subtlety of these changes has been only recently revealed. The three dimensional structures of ERa and ERβ have been solved by co-crystallization with various ligands and clearly show the repositioning of helix 12 in the presence of an estrogen receptor antagonist that sterically hinders the protein sequences required for receptor-coregulatory protein interaction [Pike, et al., EMBO 18: 4608-4618 (1999), Shiau, et al., Cell 95: 927-937 (1998), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. In addition, the technique of phage display has been used to identify peptides that interact with estrogen receptors in the presence of different ligands [Paige, et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96: 3999-4004 (1999), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety]. For example, a peptide was identified that distinguished between ERa bound to the full estrogen receptor agonists 17β-estradiol and diethylstilbesterol. A different peptide was shown to distinguish between clomiphene bound to ERa and ERβ. These data indicate that each ligand potentially places the receptor in a unique and unpredictable conformation that is likely to have distinct biological activities.
The preparation of exemplary ERβ selective ligands, including 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (ERB-041 ), is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,794,403, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As mentioned above, estrogens affect a panoply of biological processes. In addition, where gender differences have been described (e.g., disease frequencies, responses to challenge, etc.), it is possible that the explanation involves the difference in estrogen levels between males and females. Given the importance of these compounds as pharmaceutical agents, it can be seen that effective formulations for delivery of the compounds is of great import. This invention is directed to these, as well as other, important ends.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
Figure 1 depicts X-Ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns for the monohydrate (upper) and anhydrate (lower) crystal forms of the active pharmacological agent, 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.
Figure 2 depicts a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram of the monohydrate crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.
Figure 3 depicts a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the monohydrate crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.
Figure 4 depicts a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram of the anhydrous crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.

Figure 5 depicts a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the anhydrous crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.
Figure 6 depicts a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) isotherm plot for the monohydrate crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.
Figure 7 depicts a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) isotherm plot for the anhydrous crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol.

Figure 8 depicts the mean plasma levels of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol in dogs following a single oral dose of 2 x 75 mg formulations.
Figure 9 depicts the dissolution of ERB-041 tablet formulations made by direct blend and wet granulation techniques.
Figure 10 depicts the dissolution of ERB-041 tablets made by wet granulation techniques comprising different amounts of wetting agent component.
Figure 1 1 depicts the compression profiles of ERB-041 tablets.
Figure 12 depicts the dissolution of ERB-041 tablet formulations after one to three months of storage.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides pharmaceutical formulations comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I:


I
wherein:
Ri is hydrogen, hydroxyl, halogen, Ci_e alkyl, Ci_e trifluoroalkyl, Cs-β cycloalkyl,

Ci-6 alkoxy, Ci_6 trifluoroalkoxy, Ci_6 thioalkyl, Ci_6 sulfoxoalkyl, Ci_6 sulfonoalkyl, C6-io aryl, -NO2, -NR5R6, -N(R5)COR6, -CN, -CHFCN, -CF2CN, C2_7 alkynyl, C2_7 alkenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 to 4 heteroatoms selected from O, N and S; wherein said alkyl or alkenyl moieties are optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluoroalkyl, trifluoroalkoxy, -COR5, -CO2R5, -NO2, CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6;
R2 and R2a are each, independently, hydrogen, hydroxyl, halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-4 alkoxy, C2.7 alkenyl, C2.7 alkynyl, Ci-6 trifluoroalkyl, or Ci_6 trifluoroalkoxy; wherein said alkyl or alkenyl moieties are optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluoroalkyl, trifluoroalkoxy, -COR5, -CO2R5, -NO2, CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6;

R3, R33, and R4 are each, independently, hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, alkenyl of 2-7 carbon atoms, C2.7 alkynyl, halogen, C1^ alkoxy, C^6 trifluoroalkyl, or C^6 trifluoroalkoxy; wherein said alkyl or alkenyl moieties are optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluoroalkyl, trifluoroalkoxy, -COR5, -CO2R5, -NO2,

CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6;
R5, R6 are each, independently hydrogen, C^6 alkyl, or C6.10 aryl;
X is O, S, or NR7; and
R7 is hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, or C6-10 aryl, -COR5, -CO2R5 Or -SO2R5;
or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising:
(i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 30% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, up to about 40% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) a wetting agent component comprising from about 0.5% to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
with the proviso that when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
The present invention further provides pharmaceutical formulations comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I above, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising:
(i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 38% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) a wetting agent component comprising from 1.3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
with the proviso that when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
The present invention further provides pharmaceutical formulations comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I above, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising: (i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 38% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.5% to 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) a wetting agent component comprising from about 1.3% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
with the proviso that when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
The present invention further provides processes for preparing the pharmaceutical formulation of the invention comprising:
(a) mixing the active pharmacological agent with the first diluent/filler component, the disintegrant component, and the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, to form an initial mixture; and
(b) granulating the initial mixture with an aqueous solution comprising the wetting agent component to form a granulated mixture.
The present invention further provides processes for preparing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention comprising:
(i) mixing the active pharmacological agent with at least a portion of the first diluent/filler component to form a first mixture;
(ii) mixing the first mixture with the remainder of the first diluent/filler component, if any, the disintegrant component, and the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, to form the initial mixture;

(iii) granulating the initial mixture with an aqueous solution comprising the wetting agent component to form a granulated mixture
(iv) drying the granulated mixture to form a dried granulated mixture;
(v) mixing the optional lubricant component, if present, with the at least a portion of the dried granulated mixture; and
(vi) mixing the mixture from (v) with the remainder of the dried granulated mixture, if any.
The present invention further provides processes for preparing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention comprising:
(i) mixing the first diluent/filler component, the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, the disintegrant component, the binder component, the wetting agent component, and the active pharmacological agent to form a first mixture; and
ii) optionally granulating the first mixture.
The present invention further provides tablets comprising the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention.
The present invention further provides processes for producing the tablets of the invention comprising compressing the pharmaceutical formulation of the invention.
The present invention further provides products of the processes of the invention.
In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent is 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The present invention provides a pharmaceutical formulation comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I:


I
wherein:
Ri is hydrogen, hydroxyl, halogen, C1-6 alkyl, Ci_6 trifluoroalkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, Ci_6 alkoxy, Ci_6 trifluoroalkoxy, Ci_6 thioalkyl, Ci_6 sulfoxoalkyl, Ci_6 sulfonoalkyl, C6-io aryl, -NO2, -NR5R6, -N(R5)COR6, -CN, -CHFCN, -CF2CN, C2_7 alkynyl, C2_7 alkenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 to 4 heteroatoms selected from O, N and S; wherein said alkyl or alkenyl moieties are optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluoroalkyl (e.g., CrC6 trifluoroalkyl), trifluoroalkoxy (e.g., C1-C6 trifluoroalkoxy), -COR5, -CO2R5, -NO2, CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6;
R2 and R2a are each, independently, hydrogen, hydroxyl, halogen, C1-6 alkyl,

Ci-4 alkoxy, C2.7 alkenyl, C2.7 alkynyl, Ci_6 trifluoroalkyl, or Ci_6 trifluoroalkoxy; wherein said alkyl or alkenyl moieties are optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluoroalkyl (e.g., C1-C6 trifluoroalkyl), trifluoroalkoxy (e.g., CrC6 trifluoroalkoxy), -COR5, -CO2R5, -NO2, CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6;
R3, R3a, and R4 are each, independently, hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, alkenyl of 2-7 carbon atoms, C2.7 alkynyl, halogen, Ci_4 alkoxy, Ci_6 trifluoroalkyl, or Ci_6 trifluoroalkoxy; wherein said alkyl or alkenyl moieties are optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluoroalkyl (e.g., CrC6 trifluoroalkyl), trifluoroalkoxy (e.g., CrC6 trifluoroalkoxy), -COR5, -CO2R5, -NO2, CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6;
R5, R6 are each, independently hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, or C6_i0 aryl;
X is O, S, or NR7; and
R7 is hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, or C6.10 aryl, -COR5, -CO2R5 Or -SO2R5;
or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising:
(i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 30% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, up to about 40% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;

(v) a wetting agent component comprising from about 0.5% to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
with the proviso that when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
The present invention further provides a pharmaceutical formulation comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I above, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising:
(i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 38% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) a wetting agent component comprising from 1.3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
with the proviso that when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
The present invention further provides a pharmaceutical formulation comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I above, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising:
(i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 38% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.5% to 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) a wetting agent component comprising from about 1.3% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
with the proviso that when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
The present invention further provides "class B" pharmaceutical formulations comprising:
(a) a pharmaceutically effective amount of an active pharmacological agent having Formula I above, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and
(b) a carrier or exicipient system comprising:
(i) a first diluent/filler component comprising from about 38% to about 95% by weight of the formulation;

(ii) an optional second diluent/filler component comprising, when present, up to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iii) a disintegrant component comprising from about 0.01 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) a binder component comprising from about 0.01 % to about

20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) a wetting agent component comprising from about 0.01 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) an optional lubricant component comprising, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
wherein the ratio of the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 2:1 to about 1 :1 ; and
the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 5:1 to 1 : 1. These particular pharmaceutical formulations are labeled "class B" pharmaceutical formulations to distinguish them from the other pharmaceutical formulations of the invention.
Certain features of the invention are described herein in embodiments. It is emphasized that certain features of the invention, which are, for clarity, described herein in the context of separate embodiments, can also be provided in combination in a single embodiment, unless otherwise specified. Conversely, various features of the invention which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, can also be provided separately or in any suitable subcombination, unless otherwise specified. For example, some of the embodiments herein describe individual weight percentages for each component in the pharmaceutical formulations, while other embodiments herein describe the chemical composition of the components of the pharmaceutical formulations; these embodiments can also be provided in any suitable combination or subcombination, as well as being provided separately in a single embodiment, unless otherwise specified.
In some embodiments, X is O.
In some embodiments, Ri is alkenyl of 2-3 carbon atoms, which is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, -CN, halogen, trifluroalkyl, trifluoroalkoxy, -COR5, -CO2Rs, -NO2, CONR5R6, NR5R6 or N(R5)COR6.

In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent is 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.01 % to about 80% by weight of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
At various places in the present specification, substituents of compounds of the invention are disclosed in groups or in ranges. It is specifically intended that the invention include each and every individual subcombination of the members of such groups and ranges. For example, the term "Ci-6 alkyl" is specifically intended to individually disclose methyl, ethyl, C3 alkyl, C4 alkyl, C5 alkyl, and C6 alkyl.
The term "n-membered" where n is an integer typically describes the number of ring-forming atoms in a moiety where the number of ring-forming atoms is n. For example, piperidinyl is an example of a 6-membered heterocycloalkyl ring and 1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene is an example of a 10-membered cycloalkyl group.
As used herein, the term "alkyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a saturated hydrocarbon group that may be straight-chain or branched. In some embodiments, the alkyl group contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms. Examples of alkyl moieties include, but are not limited to, chemical groups such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, ferf-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl; higher homologs such as 2-methyl-1 -butyl, n-pentyl, 3-pentyl, n-hexyl, 1 ,2,2-trimethylpropyl, n-heptyl, n-octyl, and the like.
As used herein, the term "alkylene", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a divalent alkyl linking group. Examples of alkylene groups include, but are not limited to, ethan-1 ,2-diyl, propan-1 ,3-diyl, propan-1 ,2-diyl, butan-1 ,4-diyl, butan-1 ,3-diyl, butan-1 ,2-diyl, 2-methyl-propan-1 ,3-diyl, and the like.
As used herein, the term "alkenyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to an alkyl group having one or more double carbon-carbon bonds. Example alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethenyl, n-propenyl, isopropenyl, n-butenyl, sec-butenyl, and the like. In some embodiments, the alkenyl moiety contains 2 to 7 carbon atoms.

As used herein, the term "alkynyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to an alkyl group having one or more triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Example alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethynyl, propyn-1-yl, propyn-2-yl, and the like. In some embodiments, the alkynyl moiety contains 2 to 7 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "alkoxy", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a group of formula -O-alkyl. In some embodiments, the alkoxy group contains 1 to 6. In some embodiments, the alkoxy group contains 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "aryl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a monocyclic or polycyclic (e.g., having 2, 3 or 4 fused or covalently linked rings) aromatic hydrocarbon moiety, such as, but not limited to, phenyl, 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, anthracenyl, phenanthrenyl, and the like. In some embodiments, the aryl group contains 6 to 10 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "carboxyl" refers to a group of formula -C(O)OH.
As used herein, the term "cycloalkyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a non-aromatic cyclic hydrocarbon moiety, which may optionally contain one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds as part of the ring structure. Cycloalkyl groups can include mono- or polycyclic (e.g., having 2, 3 or 4 fused or covalently linked rings) ring systems. Also included in the definition of cycloalkyl are moieties that have one or more aromatic rings fused (i.e., having a bond in common with) to the cycloalkyl ring, for example, benzo derivatives of pentane, pentene, hexane, and the like. In some embodiments, the cycloalkyl group contains 3 to 8 carbon atoms. One or more ring-forming carbon atoms of a cycloalkyl group can be oxidized to form carbonyl linkages. Example cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, cyclohexadienyl, cycloheptatrienyl, norbomyl, norpinyl, norcamyl, adamantyl, and the like.
As used herein, the term "halogen", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to chloro, bromo, fluoro or iodo, preferably fluoro.
As used herein, the term "heterocyclic ring" refers to a saturated, partially unsaturated, or aromatic ring having 1 to 4 heteroatoms selected from oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Examples of suitable heterocyclic rings include, but are not limited to furanyl, pyranyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, thioxazolyl, thienyl or piperidinyl rings. In some embodiments, the heterocyclic ring has 5 to 6 ring members.
As used herein, the term "hydroxyl" refers to a group of formula -OH.
As used herein, the term "sulfoxoalkyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a group of formula -S(O)-alkyl, wherein the sulfur and oxygen atoms are bonded via a double bond. In some embodiments, the sulfoxoalkyl group contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "sulfonoalkyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a group of formula -S(O)2-alkyl, wherein the sulfur atom is bonded to the two oxygen atoms via double bonds. In some embodiments, the sulfonoalkyl group contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "thioalkyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a group of formula -S-alkyl. In some embodiments, the thioalkyl group contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "trifluoroalkyl", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to an alkyl group substituted by three fluorine atoms. In some embodiments, the trifluoroalkyl moiety contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms. In some embodiments, the trifluoroalkyl group is trifluoromethyl.
As used herein, the term "trifluroalkoxy", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to a group of formula -O-alkyl, wherein the alkyl portion of the moiety is substituted by three fluorine atoms. In some embodiments, the trifluoroalkoxy group contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms.
As used herein, the term "optionally substituted" refers to optional substitution with 1 or more substitutents (e.g. by 1 , 2 or 3 substituents), which may be the same or different. When the alkyl or alkenyl moieties are substituted, they may be substituted with 1 or more substituents (e.g. by 1 , 2 or 3 substituents), as defined above which may be the same or different.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 38% to about

95% by weight of the formulation;
(ii) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;

(iii) the disintegrant component comprises from about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(iv) the binder component comprises from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(v) the wetting agent component comprises from about 0.5% to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(vi) the optional lubricant component comprises, when present, from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about

80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises up to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from about 1 % to about 7% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about

0.1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 50% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about

80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;

(e) the wetting agent component comprises from about 1 % to about 7% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.01 % to about 50% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 7% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from 1.3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about

50% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from 1.5% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;

(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 40% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 60% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from 1.5% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about 60% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from 1.5% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and (g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 60% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about 60% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 10% to about 30% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments: (a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 50% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises from about 40% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(b) the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises from about 5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises from about 3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(d) the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises from 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation;
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation; and
(g) the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 35% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.01 % to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.01 % to about 75% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.01 % to about 50% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 50% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 40% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 30% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 0.1 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 40% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 35% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 10% to about 30% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the active pharmacological agent comprises about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 30% to about 95% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 38% to about 95% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 40% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 40% to about 60% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 60% to about 80% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 45% to about 55% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 65% to about 75% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 51.5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the first diluent filler component comprises from about 71.5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises up to about 40% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises up to about 30% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises up to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises up to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises from about 10% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises from about 5% to about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises from about 5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises about 15% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent filler component, when present, comprises about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional second diluent/filler component, when present, comprises about 25% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 0.01 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 7% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises from about 2% to about 6% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises about 6% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 0.01 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 7% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 6% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 0.5% to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 0.01 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 0.01 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 0.1 % to about 20% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 0.1 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1.3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1.3% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1.5% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1.5% to about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1.3% to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1 % to about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1 % to about 7% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1 % to about 6% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 1 % to about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises about 3% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises from about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.01 % to about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.01 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.01 % to about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.01 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 2% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises from about 0.1 % to about 1 % by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises about 0.5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
It will be understood that the weight percentages set forth for the components of the pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein are the percentages that each component will comprise of a final pharmaceutical formulation, without reference to any surface covering, such as a tablet coating or capsule. The remainder of the final formulation will be comprised of the active pharmacological agent(s).
In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises from about 1 mg to about 200 mg of the active pharmacological agent. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises from about 1 mg to about 10 mg of the active pharmacological agent. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises from about 10 mg to about 50 mg of the active pharmacological agent. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises from about 50 mg to about 100 mg of the active pharmacological agent. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises from about 100 mg to about 200 mg of the active pharmacological agent.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 15% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metal alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, Poloxamer 188, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, and docusate sodium, then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 7% or about 6% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metallic alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, and docusate sodium then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 15% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metallic alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, and docusate sodium then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 10% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metallic alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, and docusate sodium then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 8% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metallic alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, and docusate sodium then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 7% or about 6% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.

In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metallic alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, and docusate sodium then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 5% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, when the pharmaceutical formulation comprises one or more ingredients selected from metallic lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, metallic alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glyceride of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, and docusate sodium then the sum of the amounts of the ingredients does not exceed about 4% by weight of the pharmaceutical formulation.
In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 5:1 to about 1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is 5:1 to about 1.5:1 , about 5:1 to about 2:1 , about 5:1 to about 2.5:1 , or about 5:1 to about 3:1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is 4:1 to about 1.5:1 , about 4:1 to about 2:1 , about 4:1 to about 2.5:1 , or about 4:1 to about 3:1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 3:1 to about 1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 2:1 to about 1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 3:1 to about 1.5:1 , about 3:1 to about 2:1 , about 2.5:1 to about 1 :1 , or about 2.5:1 to about 1.5:1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 6:1 to about 1 :6, about 6:1 to about 5:1 , about 6:1 to about 4:1 , about 6:1 to about 3:1 , about 6:1 to about 2:1 , or about 6:1 to about 1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 5:1 , about 4:1 , about 3:1 , or about 2:1.
In some embodiments, the ratio of the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 3:1 to about 1 :3. In some embodiments, the ratio of the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 3:1 to about 1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 2:1 to about 1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 3:1 to about 1 :2, about 3:1 to about 1.5:1 , or about 2.5:1 to about 1.5:1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component is about 1 :1 to about 1 :3, about 1 :1.5 to about 1 :3, about 1 :2 to about 1 :3, or about 1 :2.5 to about 1 :3. In some embodiments, the ratio of the binder component to the wetting agent component is about to about 1 :1 , about 2:1 , about 1 :2, about 3:1 , or about 1 :3.
In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 6:1 :1 to about 1 :1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 5:1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 4:1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 3:1 :1. In some embodiments, the ratio of the disintegrant component to the binder component to the wetting agent component is about 2:1 :1.
In some embodiments, the ratio of wetting agent component to binder component is either 3:1 or less; or the pharmaceutical formulation comprises at least about 5% of microcrystalline cellulose, calcium phosphate, starch, pregelatinized starch, metal aluminosilicate, or metal carbonate. In some embodiments, the ratio of wetting agent component to binder component is either 2:1 or less; or the pharmaceutical formulation comprises at least about 5% of microcrystalline cellulose, calcium phosphate, starch, pregelatinized starch, metal aluminosilicate, or metal carbonate. In some embodiments, the ratio of wetting agent component to binder component is either 1 :1 or less; or the pharmaceutical formulation comprises at least about 5% of microcrystalline cellulose, calcium phosphate, starch, pregelatinized starch, metal aluminosilicate, or metal carbonate. As used in conjunction with a ratio term, the term "less" refers to a lower ratio (i.e., 2:1 is less than 3:1 ).
In some embodiments, each optional component is present in the formulation. In some embodiments, each component comprises only one material.
In some embodiments, each component comprises a different material.
As used herein, the term "first diluent/filler component" refers to one or more substances that act to dilute the active pharmacological agent to the desired dosage and/or that act as a carrier for the active pharmacological agent. In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler component comprises one or more filler substances. In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler component comprises one or more diluent substances. In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler component is one or more substances that are diluents and fillers. In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler component comprises at least one substance that improves the mechanical strength and/or compressibility of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention.
In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler component comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, sodium starch glycolate, pregelatinized starch, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate.
In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler comprises mannitol or lactose.
In some embodiments, the first diluent/filler comprises mannitol.
As used herein, the term "second diluent/filler component" refers to one or more substances that act to dilute the active pharmacological agent to the desired dosage and/or that act as a carrier for the active pharmacological agent. In some embodiments, the second diluent/filler component comprises one or more filler substances. In some embodiments, the second diluent/filler component comprises one or more diluent substances. In some embodiments, the second diluent/filler component is one or more substances that are diluents and fillers. In some embodiments, the second diluent/filler component comprises at least one substance that improves the mechanical strength and/or compressibility of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention.
In some embodiments, the second optional diluent/filler component, when present, comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate.
In some embodiments, the second optional diluent/filler component, when present, comprises microcrystalline cellulose.
As used herein, the term "disintegrant component" refers to one or more substances that encourage disintegration in water (or water containing fluid in vivo) of a pharmaceutical composition comprising the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises one or more of croscarmellose sodium, carmellose calcium, crospovidone, alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, calcium alginate, an ion exchange resin, an effervescent system based on food acids and an alkaline carbonate component, clay, talc, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, cellulose floe, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, calcium silicate, a metal carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, calcium citrate, or calcium phosphate.
In some embodiments, the disintegrant component comprises croscarmellose sodium.
As used herein, the term "binder component" refers to one or more substances that increase the mechanical strength and/or compressibility of a pharmaceutical composition comprising the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. In some embodiments, the binder component comprises one or more of polyvinylpyrrolidone, copovidone, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, crosslinked poly(acrylic acid), gum arabic, gum acacia, gum tragacanath, lecithin, casein, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, or kaolin.

In some embodiments, the binder component comprises polyvinylpyrrolidone.

In some embodiments, the binder component comprises povidone K12, K17, K25, K30, K60, K90, or K120.
In some embodiments, the binder component comprises povidone K25.
In some embodiments, the binder component does not comprise kaolin. In some embodiments, the binder component does not comprise hydroxypropylcellulose or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.
In some embodiments of the class B pharmaceutical formulations only, the binder component comprises one or more of polyvinylpyrrolidone, copovidone, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, crosslinked poly(acrylic acid), gum arabic, gum acacia, gum tragacanath, lecithin, casein, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, kaolin, cellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, starch, maltodextrin, dextrins, microcrystalline cellulose, or sorbitol.
As used herein, the term "wetting agent component" refers to one or more substances that increase the water permeability of pharmaceutical compositions comprising the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. In another aspect, the term, "wetting agent component" refers to one or more substances that increase dissolution of the active pharmacological agent in water (or water containing fluid in vivo). In yet another aspect, the term "wetting agent component" refers to one or more substances that increase the bioavailability of the active pharmacological agent after administration of the pharmaceutical compositions and formulations of the invention.
In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises one or more of metallic lauryl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glycerides of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, polyethoxylated sterol, polyethoxylated cholesterol, polyethoxylated glycerol fatty acid ester, polyethoxylated fatty acid ester, sulfosuccinate, taurate, or docusate sodium.
In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises one or more of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, stearoyl macrogol glycerides, linoleoyl macrogol glycerides, oleoyl macrogol glycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, polyethoxylated glycerol fatty acid ester, polyethoxylated fatty acid ester, or docusate sodium. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises metal alkyl sulfate. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises metallic lauryl sulfate. In some embodiments, the wetting agent component comprises sodium lauryl sulfate.
As used herein, the term "lubricant component" refers to one or more substances that aids in preventing sticking to the equipment of the pharmaceutical formulations during processing and/or that improves powder flow of the formulation during processing. In some embodiments, the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises one or more of stearic acid, metallic stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate, fatty acid, fatty alcohol, fatty acid ester, glyceryl behenate, mineral oil, vegetable oil, paraffin, leucine, silica, silicic acid, talc, propylene glycol fatty acid ester, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyalkylene glycol or sodium chloride. In some embodiments, optional lubricant component, when present, comprises metallic stearate. In some embodiments, optional lubricant component, when present, comprises one or more of zinc stearate, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, or sodium stearate. In some embodiments, optional lubricant component, when present, comprises magnesium stearate.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, sodium starch glycolate, pregelatinized starch, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate;

(b) the second optional diluent/filler component, when present, comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises one or more of croscarmellose sodium, carmellose calcium, crospovidone, alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, calcium alginate, an ion exchange resin, an effervescent system based on food acids and an alkaline carbonate component, clay, talc, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, cellulose floe, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, calcium silicate, a metal carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, calcium citrate, or calcium phosphate;
(d) the binder component comprises one or more of polyvinylpyrrolidone, copovidone, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, crosslinked poly(acrylic acid), gum arabic, gum acacia, gum tragacanath, lecithin, casein, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, or kaolin;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises one or more of metallic lauryl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glycerides of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, stearoyl macrogol glycerides, linoleoyl macrogol glycerides, oleoyl macrogol glycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, polyethoxylated sterol, polyethoxylated cholesterol, polyethoxylated glycerol fatty acid ester, polyethoxylated fatty acid ester, sulfosuccinate, taurate, or docusate sodium; and
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises one or more of stearic acid, metallic stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate, fatty acid, fatty alcohol, fatty acid ester, glyceryl behenate, mineral oil, vegetable oil, paraffin, leucine, silica, silicic acid, talc, propylene glycol fatty acid ester, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyalkylene glycol or sodium chloride.
In some embodiments: (a) the first diluent/filler component comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, sodium starch glycolate, pregelatinized starch, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate;
(b) the second optional diluent/filler component, when present, comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises one or more of croscarmellose sodium, carmellose calcium, crospovidone, alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, calcium alginate, an ion exchange resin, an effervescent system based on food acids and an alkaline carbonate component, clay, talc, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, cellulose floe, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, calcium silicate, a metal carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, calcium citrate, or calcium phosphate;
(d) the binder component comprises one or more of polyvinylpyrrolidone, copovidone, crosslinked poly(acrylic acid), lecithin, casein, polyvinyl alcohol, or gelatin;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises one or more of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, stearoyl macrogol glycerides, linoleoyl macrogol glycerides, oleoyl macrogol glycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, polyethoxylated glycerol fatty acid ester, polyethoxylated fatty acid ester, or docusate sodium; and
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises one or more of stearic acid, metallic stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate, fatty acid, fatty alcohol, fatty acid ester, glyceryl behenate, mineral oil, vegetable oil, paraffin, leucine, silica, silicic acid, talc, propylene glycol fatty acid ester, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyalkylene glycol or sodium chloride.
In some embodiments:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises mannitol;
(b) the second optional diluent/filler component, when present, comprises microcrystalline cellulose;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises croscarmellose sodium;
(d) the binder component comprises polyvinylpyrrolidone;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises sodium lauryl sulfate; and
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises magnesium stearate.
In some embodiments of the class B pharmaceutical formulations only:
(a) the first diluent/filler component comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, sodium starch glycolate, pregelatinized starch, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate;
(b) the second optional diluent/filler component, when present, comprises one or more of mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, sorbitol, xylitol, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, a calcium phosphate, a metal carbonate, a metal oxide, or a metal aluminosilicate;
(c) the disintegrant component comprises one or more of croscarmellose sodium, carmellose calcium, crospovidone, alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, calcium alginate, an ion exchange resin, an effervescent system based on food acids and an alkaline carbonate component, clay, talc, starch, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, cellulose floe, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, calcium silicate, a metal carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, calcium citrate, or calcium phosphate;
(d) the binder component comprises one or more of polyvinylpyrrolidone, copovidone, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, crosslinked poly(acrylic acid), gum arabic, gum acacia, gum tragacanath, lecithin, casein, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, kaolin, cellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, starch, maltodextrin, dextrins, microcrystalline cellulose, or sorbitol;
(e) the wetting agent component comprises one or more of one or more of metallic lauryl sulfate, polyethylene glycol, glycerides of fatty ester, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether, metal alkyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative, sugar ester of fatty acid, polyglycolized glyceride, quaternary ammonium amine compound, lauroyl macrogol glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides, stearoyl macrogol glycerides, linoleoyl macrogol glycerides, oleoyl macrogol glycerides, polyethoxylated vegetable oil, polyethoxylated sterol, polyethoxylated cholesterol, polyethoxylated glycerol fatty acid ester, polyethoxylated fatty acid ester, sulfosuccinate, taurate, or docusate sodium; and
(f) the optional lubricant component, when present, comprises one or more of stearic acid, metallic stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate, fatty acid, fatty alcohol, fatty acid ester, glyceryl behenate, mineral oil, vegetable oil, paraffin, leucine, silica, silicic acid, talc, propylene glycol fatty acid ester, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyalkylene glycol or sodium chloride.
As will be appreciated, some components of the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention can possess multiple functions. For example, a given component can act as both a diluent/filler and a disintegrant. In some such cases, the function of a given component can be considered singular, even though its properties may allow multiple functionality.
As used herein, the term "alginic acid" refers to a naturally occurring hydrophilic colloidal polysaccharide obtained from the various species of seaweed, or synthetically modified polysaccharides thereof.
As used herein, the term "sodium alginate" refers to a sodium salt of alginic acid and can be formed by reaction of alginic acid with a sodium containing base such as sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. As used herein, the term "potassium alginate" refers to a potassium salt of alginic acid and can be formed by reaction of alginic acid with a potassium containing base such as potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate. As used herein, the term "calcium alginate" refers to a calcium salt of alginic acid and can be formed by reaction of alginic acid with a calcium containing base such as calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. Suitable sodium alginates, calcium alginates, and potassium alginates include, but are not limited to, those described in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Suitable sodium alginates, include, but are not limited to, Kelcosol (available from ISP), Kelfone LVCR and HVCR (available from ISP), Manucol (available from ISP), and Protanol (available from FMC Biopolymer).
As used herein, the term "calcium silicate" refers to a silicate salt of calcium. As used herein, the term "calcium phosphate" refers to monobasic calcium phosophate, dibasic calcium phosphate or tribasic calcium phosphate.
Cellulose, cellulose floe, powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, carboxyethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, and carboxymethyl cellulose calcium include, but are not limited to, those described in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. As used herein, cellulose refers to natural cellulose. The term "cellulose" also refers to celluloses that have been modified with regard to molecular weight and/or branching, particularly to lower molecular weight. The term "cellulose" further refers to celluloses that have been chemically modified to attach chemical functionality such as carboxy, hydroxyl, hydroxyalkylene, or carboxyalkylene groups. As used herein, the term "carboxyalkylene" refers to a group of formula -alkylene-C(O)OH, or salt thereof. As used herein, the term "hydroxyalkylene" refers to a group of formula -alkylene-OH.
Suitable powdered celluloses for use in the invention include, but are not limited to Arbocel (available from JRS Pharma), Sanacel (available from CFF GmbH), and Solka-Floc (available from International Fiber Corp.).
Suitable microcrystalline celluloses include, but are not limited to, the Avicel pH series (available from FMC Biopolymer), Celex (available from ISP), Celphere (available from Asahi Kasei), Ceolus KG (available from Asahi Kasei), and Vivapur (available from JRS Pharma).
As used herein, the term "silicified microcrystalline cellulose" refers to a synergistic intimate physical mixture of silicon dioxide and microcrystalline cellulose. Suitable silicified microcrystalline celluloses include, but are not limited to, ProSolv (available from JRS Pharma).
As used herein, the term "carboxymethylcellulose sodium" refers to a cellulose ether with pendant groups of formula Na+ O-C(O)-CH2-, attached to the cellulose via an ether linkage. Suitable carboxymethylcellulose sodium polymers include, but are not limited to, Akucell (available from Akzo Nobel), Aquasorb (available from Hercules), Blanose (available from Hercules), Finnfix (available from Noviant), Nymel (available from Noviant), and Tylose CB (available from Clariant).
As used herein, the term "carboxymethylcellulose calcium" refers to a cellulose ether with a pendant groups of formula -CH2-O-C(O)-O' 14 Ca2+, attached to the cellulose via an ether linkage.
As used herein, the term "carboxymethylcellulose" refers to a cellulose ether with pendant carboxymethyl groups of formula HO-C(O)-CH2-, attached to the cellulose via an ether linkage. Suitable carboxymethylcellulose calcium polymers include, but are not limited to, Nymel ZSC (available from Noviant).
As used herein, the term "carboxyethylcellulose" refers to a cellulose ether with pendant carboxymethyl groups of formula HO-C(O)-CH2-CH2-, attached to the cellulose via an ether linkage.
As used herein, the term "hydroxyethylcellulose" refers to a cellulose ether with pendant hydroxyethyl groups of formula HO-CH2-CH2-, attached to the cellulose via an ether linkage. Suitable hydroxyethylcelluloses include, but are not limited to,

Cellosize HEC (available from DOW), Natrosol (available from Hercules), and Tylose

PHA (available from Clariant).
As used herein, the term "methylhydroxyethylcellulose" refers to a cellulose ether with pendant methyloxyethyl groups of formula CH3-O-CH2-CH2-, attached to the cellulose via an ether linkage. Suitable methylhydroxyethylcelluloses include, but are not limited to, the Culminal MHEC series (available from Hercules), and the

Tylose series (available from Shin Etsu).

As used herein, the term "hydroxypropylcellulose", or "hypomellose", refers a cellulose that has pendant hydroxypropoxy groups, and includes both high- and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose. In some embodiments, the hydroxypropylcellulose has about 5% to about 25% hydroxypropyl groups. Suitable hydroxypropylcelluloses include, but are not limited to, the Klucel series (available from Hercules), the Methocel series (available from Dow), the Nisso HPC series (available from Nisso), the Metolose series (available from Shin Etsu), and the LH series, including LHR-1 1 , LH-21 , LH-31 , LH-20, LH-30, LH-22, and LH-32 (available from Shin Etsu).
As used herein, the term "methyl cellulose" refers to a cellulose that has pendant methoxy groups. Suitable methyl celluloses include, but are not limited to Culminal MC (available from Hercules).
As used herein, the term "ethyl cellulose" refers to a cellulose that has pendant ethoxy groups. Suitable ethyl celluloses include, but are not limited to Aqualon (available from Hercules).
As used herein, the term "caprylocaproyl macrogolglyceride" refers to a polyglycolized glyceride synthesized predominately from a mixture of capric acid and caprylic acid or from compounds derived predominately from a mixture of capric acid and caprylic acid, although other fatty acids or compounds derived from other fatty acids may used in the synthesis as well. Suitable caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides include, but are not limited to, Labrasol™ (available from Gattefosse).
As used herein, the term "carmellose calcium" refers to a crosslinked polymer of carboxymethylcellulose calcium.
As used herein, the term "copovidone" refers to a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate, wherein the vinyl acetate monomers may be partially hydrolyzed. Suitable copovidone polymers include, but are not limited to

Kollidon VA 64 (available from BASF, Luviskol VA (available from BASF, Plasdone

S-630 (available from ISP), and Majsao CT (available from Cognis).
As used herein, the term "croscarmellose sodium" refers to a crosslinked polymer of carboxymethylcellulose sodium.
As used herein, the term "crospovidone" refers to a crosslinked polymer of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Suitable crospovidone polymers include, but are not limited to Polyplasdone XL-10 (available from ISP) and Kollidon CL and CL-M (available from BASF).
As used herein, the term "crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)" refers to a polymer of acrylic acid which has been crosslinked. The crosslinked polymer may contain other monomers in addition to acrylic acid. Additionally, the pendant carboxy groups on the crosslinked polymer may be partially or completely neutralized to form a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the polymer. In some embodiments, the crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) is neutralized by ammonia or sodium hydroxide. Suitable crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) polymers include, but are not limited to, the Carbopol series (available from Noveon).
As used herein, the term "an effervescent system based on food acids and an alkaline carbonate component" refers to a excipient combination of food acids and alkaline carbonates that releases carbon dioxide gas when administered. Suitable effervescent systems are those that those utilizing food acids (such as citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, adipic acid, ascorbic acid, aspartic acid, erythorbic acid, glutamic acid, and succinic acid) and an alkaline carbonate component (such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, potassium carbonate, ammonium carbonate, etc.).
As used herein, the term "fatty acid", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to an aliphatic acid that is saturated or unsaturated. In some embodiments, the fatty acid in a mixture of different fatty acids. In some embodiments, the fatty acid has between about eight to about thirty carbons on average. In some embodiments, the fatty acid has about eight to about twenty-four carbons on average. In some embodiments, the fatty acid has about twelve to about eighteen carbons on average. Suitable fatty acids include, but are not limited to, stearic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, erucic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, capric acid, caprylic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, hydroxystearic acid, 12-hydroxystearic acid, cetostearic acid, isostearic acid, sesquioleic acid, sesqui-9-octadecanoic acid, sesquiisooctadecanoic acid, benhenic acid, isobehenic acid, and arachidonic acid, or mixtures thereof.
As used herein, the term "fatty acid ester" refers to a compound formed between a fatty acid and a hydroxyl containing compound. In some embodiments, the fatty acid ester is a sugar ester of fatty acid. In some embodiments, the fatty acid ester is a glyceride of fatty acid. In some embodiments, the fatty acid ester is an ethoxylated fatty acid ester.
As used herein, the term "fatty alcohol", employed alone or in combination with other terms, refers to an aliphatic alcohol that is saturated or unsaturated. In some embodiments, the fatty alcohol in a mixture of different fatty alcohols. In some embodiments, the fatty alcohol has between about eight to about thirty carbons on average. In some embodiments, the fatty alcohol has about eight to about twenty-four carbons on average. In some embodiments, the fatty alcohol has about twelve to about eighteen carbons on average. Suitable fatty alcohols include, but are not limited to, stearyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, palmityl alcohol, palmitolyl acid, cetyl alcohol, capryl alcohol, caprylyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, linolenyl alcohol, arachidonic alcohol, behenyl alcohol, isobehenyl alcohol, selachyl alcohol, chimyl alcohol, and linoleyl alcohol, or mixtures thereof.
As used herein, the term "gelatin" refers to any material derived from boiling the bones, tendons, and/or skins of animals, or the material known as agar, derived from seaweed. The term "gelatin" also refers to any synthetic modifications of natural gelatin. Suitable gelatins include, but are not limited to, Byco (available from Croda Chemicals) and Cryogel and lnstagel (available from Tessenderlo), and the materials described in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "glycerides of fatty acid" refers to mono-, di- or triglycerides of fatty acids. The glycerides of fatty acid may be optionally substituted with sulfonic acid groups, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Suitable fatty acids for deriving glycerides of fatty acids include, but are not limited to, those described herein. Glycerides of fatty acids useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to, Glyceryl monomyristate: Nikkol™ MGM (available from Nikko); Glyceryl monooleate: Peceol™ (available from Gattefosse), Hodag™ GMO-D, Nikkol™ MGO (Nikko); Glycerol monooleate/linoleate, Olicine™ (available from Gattefosse); Glycerol monolinoleate, Maisine™ 35-1 (Gattefosse), MYVEROL™ 18-92, Myverol™ 18-06 (available from Eastman); Glyceryl ricinoleate, Softigen™ 701 (available from Goldschmidt), Hodag™ GMR-D (available from Calgene), Aldo™ MR (available from Lonza); Glyceryl monolaurate: ALDO MLD (available from Lonza), Hodag™ GML (available from Calgene); Glycerol monopalmitate: Emalex™ GMS-P (available from Nihon); Glyceryl behenate, Compritol™ 888 ATO (Gattesfosse); Glyceryl monooleate: Aldo MO (available from Lonza), Atlas™ G-695 (available from Uniqema), Monomuls™ 90-018 (available from Cognis), Perceol™ (available from Gattefosse), Stepan™ GMO (available from Stepan Products), Rylo™ series (available from Danisco), Dimodan™ series (available from Danisco), Emuldan™ (available from Danisco) ADM™ DMG-40, 70, and 100 (available from ADM); Glycerol monostearate: Imwitor™ 900 (available from Sasol), Lipo™ GMS 410, 450, and 600 (available from Lipo Chemicals), Rita™ GMS (available from Rita Corp.), Stepan™ GMS (available from Stepan Products), Tegin™ (available from Goldschmidt), Kessco™ GMS (available from Akzo Nobel), Capmul™ GMS (available from Abitec), Myvaplex™ (available from Eastman), Cutina™ GMS, Aldo MS (available from Lonza), Nikkol™ MGS series (available from Nikko); Glyceryl plamitostearate: Precirol™ ATO J (available from Gattefosse); Glyceryl monodioleate: Capmul™ GMO-K (available from Abitec); Glyceryl palnitic/stearic: Cutina™ MD-A, ESTAGEL-G18; Glyceryl acetate: Lanegin™ EE (available from Grunau GmbH); Glyceryl laurate, Monomuls™ 90-45 (available from Cognis), Aldo™ MLD (available from Lonza); Glyceryl citrate/lactate/oleate/linoleate; Glyceryl caprylate: Capmul™ MCMC8 (available from Abitec); Glyceryl capryl ate/cap rate: Capmul™ MCM (available from Abitec); Caprylic acid mono, diglycerides; Caprylic/capric glycerides; Mono- and diacetylated monoglycerides, Myvacet™ 9-45, 9-40, and 9-08 (available from Eastman), Lamegin™ (available from Brenntag); Glyceryl monostearate, Aldo™ MS (available from Lonza), Lipo™ GMS (Lipo Chem.); Myvaplex™ (available from Eastman), Lactic acid esters of mono, diglycerides, Lamegin™ GLP (available from Brenntag); Glyceryl dilaurate: Capmul GDL (available from Abitec); Glyceryl dioleate: Capmul™ GDO (available from Abitec); and Glycerol esters of fatty acids: Gelucire® 39/01 , 33/01 , and 43/01 (available from Gattefosse). Other suitable glycerides of fatty acids include, but are not limited to, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl monoisostearate, glyceryl monomyristate, glyceryl monooleate, diglyceryl monostearate, glyceryl behenate, and diglyceryl monoisostearate.
As used herein, the term "gum arabic" refers to natural, or synthetically modified, arabic gum. As used herein, the term "gum tragacanath" refers to natural, or synthetically modified, tragacanath gum. As used herein, the term "gum acacia" refers to natural, or synthetically modified, acacia gum. As used herein, the term "casein" refers to natural, or synthetically modified casein. As used herein, the term "kaolin" refers to natural, or synthetically modified, kaolin clay. Suitable gum arabic, gum tragacanath, gum acacia, casein, and kaolin include, but are not limited to, those described in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "ion-exchange resin" refers to an ion-exchange resin that is pharmaceutically acceptable and that can be weakly acidic, weakly basic, strongly acidic or strongly basic. Suitable ion-exchange resins include, but are not limited to Amberlite™ IRP64, IRP88 and IRP69 (available from Rohm and Haas) and Duolite™ AP143 (available from Rohm and Haas). In some embodiments, the ion-exchange resin is a crosslinked polymer resin comprising acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or polystyrene sulfonate, or salts thereof. In some embodiments, the ion-exchange resin is polacrilex resin, polacrilin potassium resin, or cholestyramine resin. As used herein, the term "lauroyl macrogol glyceride" refers to a polyglycolized glyceride synthesized predominately from lauric acid or from compounds derived predominately from lauric acid, although other fatty acids or compounds derived from other fatty acids may used in the synthesis as well. Suitable lauroyl macrogol glycerides include, but are not limited to, Gelucire® 44/14 (available from Gattefosse).
As used herein, the term "lecithin" refers to a naturally occurring or synthetic lecithin, or phospholipid, which may be suitably refined. Suitable lecithins include, but are not limited to lecithins derived from egg or soy phosphatides, such as egg lecithin, egg phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, plant monogalactosyl diglycerides (hydrogenated) or plant digalactosyl diglyceride (hydrogenated) and the like. Other useful lecithins include, but are not limited to phosphatidylcholine and its derivatives, phosphatidylethanolamine and its derivatives, phosphatidylserine and its derivatives, or a polymeric lipid wherein a hydrophilic polymer is conjugated to the lipid headgroup. Further suitable lecithins include, but are not limited to dihexanoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, dioctanoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, didecanoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, didodecanoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, ditetradecanoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, dihexadecanoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, dioctadecanoyl-L- alpha-lecithin, dioleoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, dilinoleoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, alpha-palmito, beta-oleoyl-L-alpha-lecithin, L-alpha-glycerophosphoryl choline and the like. Commercially available lecithins useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to LSC 5050 and 6040 (available from Avatar Corp.), Phosal™ 50 PG and 53 MCT (available from American Lecithin, Inc.), Phospholipon™ 100H, 9OG, 9OH and 80 (available from American Lecithin, Inc.), sunflower based lecithins, Lecistar™ Sun 100 and 200 (available from StemChemie), soybean based lecithins, Greencithin™ (available from StemChemie), and soy based lecithins, Yellothin™ (available from StemChemie), as well as those listed in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "linoleoyl macrogolglyceride" refers to a polyglycolized glyceride synthesized predominately from linoleic acid or from compounds derived predominately from linoleic acid, although other fatty acids or compounds derived from other fatty acids may used in the synthesis as well. Suitable linoleoyl macrogolglycerides include, but are not limited to, Labrafil™ M 2125 CS (available from Gattefosse).
Suitable mannitols include, but are not limited to, PharmMannidex (available from Cargill), Pearlitol (available from Roquette), and Mannogem (available from SPI Polyols).
As used herein, the term "metallic alkyl sulfate" refers to a metallic salt formed between inorganic base and an alkyl sulfate compound. In some embodiments, the metallic alkyl sulfate has about eight carbons to about eighteen carbons. In some embodiments, metallic alkyl sulfate is a metallic lauryl sulfate. In some embodiments, the metallic alkyl sulfate is sodium lauryl sulfate.
As used herein, the term "metal aluminosilicate" refers to any metal salt of an aluminosilicate, including, but not limited to, magnesium aluminometasilicate. Suitable magnesium aluminosilicates include, but are not limited to Neusilin (available from Fuji Chemical), Pharmsorb (available from Engelhard), and Veegum (available from RT. Vanderbilt Co., Inc.). In some embodiments, the metal aluminosilicate is bentonite.
As used herein, the term "metal carbonate" refers to any metallic carbonate, including, but not limited to sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and magnesium carbonate, and zinc carbonate.

As used herein, the term "metal oxide" refers to any metallic oxide, including, but not limited to, calcium oxide or magnesium oxide.
As used herein, the term "metallic stearate" refers to a metal salt of stearic acid. In some embodiments, the metallic stearate is calcium stearate, zinc stearate, or magnesium stearate. In some embodiments, the metallic stearate is magnesium stearate.
As used herein, the term "mineral oil" refers to both unrefined and refined (light) mineral oil. Suitable mineral oils include, but are not limited to, the Avatech™ grades (available from Avatar Corp.), Drakeol™ grades (available from Penreco), Sirius™ grades (available from Shell), and the Citation™ grades (available from Avater Corp.).
As used herein, the term "oleoyl macrogol glycerides" refers to a polyglycolized glyceride synthesized predominately from oleic acid or from compounds derived predominately from oleic acid, although other fatty acids or compounds derived from other fatty acids may used in the synthesis as well. Suitable oleoyl macrogol glycerides include, but are not limited to, Labrafil™ M 1944 CS (available from Gattefosse).
As used herein, the term "polyethoxylated castor oil", refers to a compound formed from the ethoxylation of castor oil, wherein at least one chain of polyethylene glycol is covalently bound to the castor oil. The castor oil may be hydrogenated or unhydrogenated. Synonyms for polyethoxylated castor oil include, but are not limited to polyoxyl castor oil, hydrogenated polyoxyl castor oil, mcrogolglyceroli ricinoleas, macrogolglyceroli hydroxystearas, polyoxyl 35 castor oil, and polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil. Suitable polyethoxylated castor oils include, but are not limited to, the Nikkol™ HCO series (available from Nikko Chemicals Co. Ltd.), such as Nikkol HCO-30, HC-40, HC-50, and HC-60 (polyethylene glycol-30 hydrogenated castor oil, polyethylene glycol-40 hydrogenated castor oil, polyethylene glycol-50 hydrogenated castor oil, and polyethylene glycol-60 hydrogenated castor oil, Emulphor™ EL-719 (castor oil 40 mole-ethoxylate, available from Stepan Products), the Cremophore™ series (available from BASF), which includes Cremophore RH40, RH60, and EL35 (polyethylene glycol-40 hydrogenated castor oil, polyethylene glycol-60 hydrogenated castor oil, and polyethylene glycol-35 hydrogenated castor oil, respectively), and the Emulgin® RO and HRE series (available from Cognis PharmaLine). Other suitable polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives include those listed in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "polyethoxylated cholesterol" refers to a compound, or mixture thereof, formed from the ethoxylation of cholesterol. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 2 to about 200 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 2 to about 100 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 2 to about 50 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 5 to about 30 oxyethylene units.
As used herein, the term "polyethoxylated fatty acid ester" refers to a monoester or diester, or mixture thereof, derived from the ethoxylation of a fatty acid. The polyethoyxylated fatty acid ester can contain free fatty acids and polyethylene glycol as well. Fatty acids useful for forming the polyethoxylated fatty acid esters include, but are not limited to, those described herein. Suitable polyethoxylated fatty acid esters include, but are not limited to, Emulphor™ VT-679 (stearic acid 8.3 mole ethoxylate, available from Stepan Products), the Alkasurf™ CO series (available from Alkaril), macrogol 15 hydroxystearate, Solutol™ HS15 (available from BASF), and the polyoxyethylene stearates listed in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term, "polyethoxylated sorbitan ester" refers to a compound, or mixture thereof, derived from the ethoxylation of a sorbitan ester. As used herein, the term "sorbitan ester" refers to a compound, or mixture of compounds, derived from the esterification of sorbitol and at least one fatty acid. Fatty acids useful for deriving the polyethoyxlated sorbitan esters include, but are not limited to, those described herein. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 2 to about 200 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 2 to about 100 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 4 to about 80 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 4 to about 40 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the compound or mixture has about 4 to about 20 oxyethylene units. Suitable polyethoxylated sorbitan esters include, but are not limited to the Tween™ series (available from Uniqema), which includes Tween 20 (POE(20) sorbitan monolaurate), 21 (POE(4) sorbitan monolaurate), 40 (POE(20) sorbitan monopalmitate), 60 (POE(20) sorbitan monostearate), 6OK (POE(20) sorbitan monostearate), 61 (POE(4) sorbitan monostearate), 65 (POE(20) sorbitan tristearate), 80 (POE(20) sorbitan monooleate), 8OK (POE(20) sorbitan monooleate), 81 (POE(5) sorbitan monooleate), and 85 (POE(20) sorbitan trioleate). As used herein, the abbreviation "POE" refers to polyoxyethylene. The number following the POE abbreviation refers to the number of oxyethylene repeat units in the compound. Other suitable polyethoxylated sorbitan esters include the polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters listed in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "polyethoxylated sterol" refers to a compound, or mixture of compounds, derived from the ethoxylation of sterol molecule. Suitable polyethoyxlated sterols include, but are not limited to, PEG-24 cholesterol ether, Solulan™ C-24 (available from Amerchol); PEG-30 cholestanol, Nikkol™ DHC (available from Nikko); Phytosterol, GENEROL™ series (available from Henkel); PEG-25 phyto sterol, Nikkol™ BPSH-25 (available from Nikko); PEG-5 soya sterol, Nikkol™ BPS-5 (available from Nikko); PEG-10 soya sterol, Nikkol™ BPS-10 (available from Nikko); PEG-20 soya sterol, Nikkol™ BPS-20 (available from Nikko); and PEG-30 soya sterol, Nikkol™ BPS-30 (available from Nikko). As used herein, the term "PEG" refers to polyethylene glycol.
As used herein, the term "polyethoxylated vegetable oil" refers to a compound, or mixture of compounds, formed from ethoxylation of vegetable oil, wherein at least one chain of polyethylene glycol is covalently bound to the the vegetable oil. In some embodiments, the fatty acids has between about twelve carbons to about eighteen carbons. In some embodiments, the amount of ethoxylation can vary from about 2 to about 200, about 5 to 100, about 10 to about 80, about 20 to about 60, or about 12 to about 18 of ethylene glycol repeat units. The vegetable oil may be hydrogenated or unhydrogenated. Suitable polyethoxylated vegetable oils, include but are not limited to, Cremaphor™ EL or RH series (available from BASF), Emulphor™ EL-719 (available from Stepan products), and Emulphor™ EL-620P (available from GAF).
As used herein, the term "polyethylene glycol" refers to a polymer containing ethylene glycol monomer units of formula -0-CH2-CH2-. Suitable polyethylene glycols may have a free hydroxyl group at each end of the polymer molecule, or may have one or more hydroxyl groups etherified with a lower alkyl, e.g., a methyl group. Also suitable are derivatives of polyethylene glycols having esterifiable carboxy groups. Polyethylene glycols useful in the present invention can be polymers of any chain length or molecular weight, and can include branching. In some embodiments, the average molecular weight of the polyethylene glycol is from about 200 to about 9000. In some embodiments, the average molecular weight of the polyethylene glycol is from about 200 to about 5000. In some embodiments, the average molecular weight of the polyethylene glycol is from about 200 to about 900. In some embodiments, the average molecular weight of the polyethylene glycol is about 400. Suitable polyethylene glycols include, but are not limited to polyethylene glycol-200, polyethylene glycol-300, polyethylene glycol-400, polyethylene glycol-600, and polyethylene glycol-900. The number following the dash in the name refers to the average molecular weight of the polymer. In some embodiments, the polyethylene glycol is polyethylene glycol-400. Suitable polyethylene glycols include, but are not limited to the Carbowax™ and Carbowax™ Sentry series (available from Dow), the Lipoxol™ series (available from Brenntag), the Lutrol™ series (available from BASF), and the Pluriol™ series (available from BASF).
As used herein, the term "polyglycolized glycerides" refers to the products formed from the esterifi cation of polyethylene glycol, glycerol, and fatty acids; the transesterification of glycerides and polyethylene glycol; or the ethoxylation of a glyceride of a fatty acid. As used herein, the term "polyglycolized glycerides" can, alternatively or additionally, refer to mixtures of monoglycerides, diglycerides, and/or triglycerides with monoesters and/or diesters of polyethylene glycol. Polyglycolized glycerides can be derived from the fatty acids, glycerides of fatty acids, and polyethylene glycols described herein. The fatty ester side-chains on the glycerides, monoesters, or diesters can be of any chain length and can be saturated or unsaturated. The polyglycolized glycerides can contain other materials as contaminants or side-products, such as, but not limited to, polyethylene glycol, glycerol, and fatty acids.
In some embodiments, the polyglycolized glyceride is lauroyl macrogol glycerides, stearoyl macrogol glycerides, linoleoyl macrogol glycerides, oleoyl macrogol glycerides, or caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides.
As used herein, the term "polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether" refers to a monoalkyl or dialkylether of polyoxyethylene, or mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene-alkyl ether is a polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether.
As used herein, the term "polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether" refers to an monoether or diether, or mixtures thereof, formed between polyethylene glycol and a fatty alcohol. Fatty alcohols that are useful for deriving polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers include, but are not limited to, those defined herein. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 2 to about 200 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 2 to about 100 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 4 to about 50 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 4 to about 30 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether comprises ethoxylated stearyl alcohols, cetyl alcohols, and cetylstearyl alcohols (cetearyl alcohols). Suitable polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers include, but are not limited to, the Brij™ series of surfactants (available from Uniqema), which includes Brij 30, 35, 52, 56, 58, 72, 76, 78, 93Veg, 97, 98, and 721 , the Cremophor™ A series (available from BASF), which includes Cremophor A6, A20, and A25, the Emulgen™ series (available from Kao Corp.), which includes Emulgen 104P, 123P, 210P, 220, 320P, and 409P, the Ethosperse™ (available from Lonza), which includes Ethosperse 1A4, 1A12, TDAa6, S 120, and G26, the Ethylan™ series (available from Brenntag), which includes Ethylan D252, 253, 254, 256, 257, 2512, and 2560, the Plurafac™ series (available from BASF), which includes Plurafac RA20, RA30, RA40, RA43, and RA340, the Ritoleth™ and Ritox™ series (available from Rita Corp.), the Volpo™ series (available from Croda), which includes Volpo N 10, N 20, S2, S10, C2, C20, CS10, CS20, L4, and L23, and the Texafor™ series, which includes Texafor A1 P, AP, A6, A10, A14, A30, A45, and A60. Other suitable polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers include, but are not limited to, polyethylene glycol (13)stearyl ether (steareth-13), polyethylene glycol (14)stearyl ether (steareth-14), polyethylene glycol (15)stearyl ether (steareth-15), polyethylene glycol (16)stearyl ether (steareth-16), polyethylene glycol (17)stearyl ether (steareth-17), polyethylene glycol (18)stearyl ether (steareth-18), polyethylene glycol (19)stearyl ether (steareth-19), polyethylene glycol (20)stearyl ether (steareth-20), polyethylene glycol (12)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-12), polyethylene glycol (13)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-13), polyethylene glycol (14)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-14), polyethylene glycol (15)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-15), polyethylene glycol (16)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-16), polyethylene glycol (17)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-17), polyethylene glycol (18)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-18), polyethylene glycol (19)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-19), polyethylene glycol (20)isostearyl ether (isosteareth-20), polyethylene glycol (13)cetyl ether (ceteth-13), polyethylene glycol (14)cetyl ether (ceteth-14), polyethylene glycol (15)cetyl ether (ceteth-15), polyethylene glycol (16)cetyl ether (ceteth-16), polyethylene glycol (17)cetyl ether (ceteth-17), polyethylene glycol (18)cetyl ether (ceteth-18), polyethylene glycol (19)cetyl ether (ceteth-19), polyethylene glycol (20)cetyl ether (ceteth-20), polyethylene glycol (13)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-13), polyethylene glycol (14)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-14), polyethylene glycol (15)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-15), polyethylene glycol (16)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-16), polyethylene glycol (17)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-17), polyethylene glycol (18)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-18), polyethylene glycol (19)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-19), polyethylene glycol (20)isocetyl ether (isoceteth-20), polyethylene glycol (12)oleyl ether (oleth-12), polyethylene glycol (13)oleyl ether (oleth-13), polyethylene glycol (14)oleyl ether (oleth-14), polyethylene glycol (15)oleyl ether (oleth-15), polyethylene glycol (12)lauryl ether (laureth-12), polyethylene glycol (12)isolauryl ether (isolaureth-12), polyethylene glycol (13)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-13), polyethylene glycol (14)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-14), polyethylene glycol (15)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-15), polyethylene glycol (16)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-16), polyethylene glycol (17)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-17), polyethylene glycol (18)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-18), polyethylene glycol (19)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-19), and polyethylene glycol (20)cetylstearyl ether (ceteareth-20). The numbers following the "polyethylene glycol" term refer to the number of oxyethylene repeat units in the compound. Blends of polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers with other materials are also useful in the invention. A non- limiting example of a suitable blend is Arlacel™ 165 or 165 VEG (available from Uniqema), a blend of glycerol monostearate with polyethylene glycol-100 stearate. Other suitable polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers include those listed in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "polyoxyethylene-glycerol fatty ester" refers to ethoxylated fatty acid ester of glycerine, or mixture thereof. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 2 to about 200 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 2 to about 100 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 4 to about 50 oxyethylene units. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene portion of the molecule has about 4 to about 30 oxyethylene units. Suitable polyoxyethylene-glycerol fatty esters include, but are not limited to, PEG-20 glyceryl laurate, Tagat™ L (Goldschmidt); PEG-30 glyceryl laurate, Tagat™ L2 (Goldschmidt); PEG-15 glyceryl laurate, Glycerox™ L series

(Croda); PEG-40 glyceryl laurate, Glycerox™ L series (Croda); PEG-20 glyceryl stearate, Capmul™ EMG (ABITEC), Aldo MS-20 KFG (Lonza); PEG-20 glyceryl oleate, Tagat™ 0 (Goldschmidt); PEG-30 glyceryl oleate, Tagat™ 02 (Goldschmidt).

As used herein, the term "polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer" refers to a copolymer that has both oxyethylene monomer units and oxypropylene monomer units. Suitable polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymers for use in the invention can be of any chain length or molecular weight, and can include branching. The chain ends may have a free hydroxyl groups or may have one or more hydroxyl groups etherified with a lower alkyl or carboxy group. The polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymers can also include other monomers which were copolymerized and which form part of the backbone. For example, butylene oxide can be copolymerized with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide to form polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymers useful in the present invention. In some embodiments, the polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer is a block copolymer, wherein one block is polyoxyethylene and the other block is polyoxypropylene. Suitable polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymers include, but are not limited to, the Pluronic® series of surfactants (available from BASF), and which consist of the group of surfactants designated by the CTFA name of Poloxamer 108, 124, 188, 217, 237, 238, 288, 338, 407, 101 , 105, 122, 123, 124, 181 , 182, 183, 184, 212, 231 , 282, 331 , 401 , 402, 185, 215, 234, 235, 284, 333, 334, 335, and 403. Other suitable polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymers include, but are not limited to, DowFax® Nonionic surfactants (available from Dow Chemical), the DowFax® N-Series surfactants (available from Dow Chemical), Lutrol™ surfactants (available from BASF), and Synperonic™ surfactants (available from Uniqema).
As used herein, the term "polyvinyl alcohol" refers to a polymer formed by partial or complete hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate. Suitable polyvinyl alcohols include, but are not limited to, the Airvol series (available from Air Products), the Alcotex series (available from Synthomer), the Elvanol series (available from DuPont), the Gelvatol series (available from Burkard), and the Gohsenol series (available from Gohsenol).
As used herein, the term "polyvinylpyrrolidone" refers to a polymer of vinylpyrrolidone. In some embodiments, the polyvinylpyrrolidone contains one or more additional polymerized monomers. In some embodiments, the additional polymerized monomer is a carboxy containing monomer. In some embodiments, the polyvinylpyrrolidone is povidone. In some embodiments, the polyvinylpyrrolidone has a molecular weight between 2500 and 3 million. In some embodiments, the polyvinylpyrrolidone is povidone K12, K17, K25, K30, K60, K90, or K120. In some embodiments, the polyvinylpyrrolidone is povidone K25. Suitable polyvinylpyrrolidone polymers include, but are not limited to, the Kollidone™ series (available from BASF) and the Plasdone™ series (available from ISP).
As used herein, the term "propylene glycol fatty acid ester" refers to an monoether or diester, or mixtures thereof, formed between propylene glycol or polypropylene glycol and a fatty acid. Fatty acids that are useful for deriving propylene glycol fatty alcohol ethers include, but are not limited to, those defined herein. In some embodiments, the monoester or diester is derived from propylene glycol. In some embodiments, the monoester or diester has about 1 to about 200 oxypropylene units. In some embodiments, the polypropylene glycol portion of the molecule has about 2 to about 100 oxypropylene units. In some embodiments, the monoester or diester has about 4 to about 50 oxypropylene units. In some embodiments, the monoester or diester has about 4 to about 30 oxypropylene units.

Suitable propylene glycol fatty acid esters include, but are not limited to, propylene glycol laurates: Lauroglycol™ FCC and 90 (available from Gattefosse); propylene glycol caprylates: Capryol™ PGMC and 90 (available from Gatefosse); and propylene glycol dicaprylocaprates: Labrafac™ PG (available from Gatefosse).
As used herein, the term "quaternary ammonium compound" refers a compound that contains at least one quaternary ammonium group. Particularly useful quaternary ammonium compound are those that are capable of emulsifying, solubilizing, or suspending hydrophobic materials in water. Other quaternary ammonium compounds useful in the invention are those that can enhance bioavailability of the active pharmacological agent when administered to the patient. Suitable quaternary ammonium compounds include, but are not limited to, 1 ,2-dioleyl-3-trimethylammonium propane, dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, N-[1-(1 ,2-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride, 1 ,2-dioleyl-3-ethylphosphocholine, or 3-β-[N-[(N',N'-dimethylamino)ethan]carbamoyl]cholesterol. Other suitable quaternary ammonium compounds include, but are not limited to, Stepanquat™ 5ONF and 65NF (n-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, available from Stepan Products).
Suitable sorbitols include, but are not limited to, PharmSorbidex E420 (available from Cargill), Liponic 70-NC and 76-NC (available from Lipo Chemical), Neosorb (available from Roquette), Partech SI (available from Merck), and Sorbogem (available from SPI Polyols).
Starch, sodium starch glycolate, and pregelatinized starch include, but are not limited to, those described in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
As used herein, the term "starch" refers to any type of natural or modified starch including, but not limited to, maize starch (also known as corn starch or maydis amylum), potato starch (also known as solani amylum), rice starch (also known as oryzae amylum), wheat starch (also known as tritici amylum), and tapioca starch. The term "starch" also refers to starches that have been modified with regard to molecular weight and branching. The term "starch" further refers to starches that have been chemically modified to attach chemical functionality such as carboxy, hydroxyl, hydroxyalkylene, or carboxyalkylene groups. As used herein, the term "carboxyalkylene" refers to a group of formula -alkylene-C(O)OH, or salt thereof. As used herein, the term "hydroxyalkylene" refers to a group of formula -alkylene-OH.

Suitable sodium starch glycolates include, but are not limited to, Explotab

(available from JRS Pharma), Glycolys (available from Roquette), Primojel (available from DMV International), and Vivastar (available from JRS Pharma).
Suitable pregelatinized starches include, but are not limited to, Lycatab C and PGS (available from Roquette), Merigel (available from Brenntag), National 78-1551 (available from National Starch), Spress B820 (available from GPC), and Starch 1500 (available from Colorcon).
As used herein, the term "stearoyl macrogol glyceride" refers to a polyglycolized glyceride synthesized predominately from stearic acid or from compounds derived predominately from stearic acid, although other fatty acids or compounds derived from other fatty acids may used in the synthesis as well. Suitable stearoyl macrogol glycerides include, but are not limited to, Gelucire® 50/13 (available from Gattefosse).
As used herein, the term "sugar ester of fatty acid" refers to an ester compound formed between a fatty acid and carboxydrate or sugar molecule. In some embodiments, the carbohydrate is glucose, lactose, sucrose, dextrose, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, maltodextrin and the like. Suitable sugar esters of fatty acids include, but are not limited to sucrose fatty acid esters (such as those available from Mitsubishi Chemicals).
As used herein, the term "sulfosuccinate" refers to an dialkyl sulfosuccinate metal salt of formula, R-O-C(O)CH2CH(SO3 M+)C(O)O-R, wherein R is alkyl or cycloalkyl, wherein alkyl and cycloalkyl may be optionally substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups, and M is a metal, such as sodium, potassium and the like. In some embodiments, R is isobutyl, amyl, hexyl, cyclohexyl, octyl, tridecyl, or 2-ethylhexyl. Suitable sulfosuccinates are the Aerosol™ series of sulfosuccinate surfactants (available from Cytec).
As used herein, the term "taurate" refers to an alkyl taurate metal salt of formula, R-C(O)NR^CH2-CH2-SO3 M+, wherein R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl, wherein alkyl and cycloalkyl may be optionally substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups, and M is a metal, such as sodium, potassium and the like. In some embodiments, R is cocoyl or oleyl. In some embodiments, R' is methyl or ethyl.

Suitable taurates include, but are not limited to, the Geropon™ T series, which includes Geropon™ TC 42 and T 77 (available from Rhodia) and the Hostapon™ T series (available from Clariant).
As used herein, the term "vegetable oil" refers to naturally occurring or synthetic oils, which may be refined, fractionated or hydrogenated, including triglycerides. Suitable vegetable oils include, but are not limited to castor oil, hydrogenated castor oil, sesame oil, corn oil, peanut oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, benzyl benzoate, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, and palm oil. Other suitable vegetable oils include commercially available synthetic oils such as, but not limited to, Miglyol™ 810 and 812 (available from Dynamit Nobel Chicals, Sweden) Neobee™ M5 (available from Drew Chemical Corp.), Alofine™ (available from Jarchem Industries), the Lubritab™ series (available from JRS Pharma), the Sterotex™ (available from Abitec Corp.), Softisan™ 154 (available from Sasol), Croduret™ (available from Croda), Fancol™ (available from the Fanning Corp.), Cutina™ HR (available from Cognis), Simulsol™ (available from CJ Petrow), EmCon™ CO (available from Amisol Co.), Lipvol™ CO, SES, and HS-K (available from Lipo), and Sterotex™ HM (available from Abitec Corp.). Other suitable vegetable oils, including sesame, castor, corn, and cottonseed oils, include those listed in R. C. Rowe and P. J. Shesky, Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, (2006), 5th ed., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
In the pharmaceutical ingredient definitions, one of skill in the art will recognize that certain formulation ingredients may fall into more than one classification of the definitions herein. For example, a sugar ester of fatty acid may also be regarded as a fatty acid ester.
The present invention is also directed to processes for producing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. In one aspect, the process utilize direct blend techniques for producing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. In another aspect, the processes utilize wet granulation techniques for producing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. In a further aspect, the present invention is directed to dry granulation processes for producing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. Granulation of pharmaceutical formulations can be accomplished by any of the granulation techniques known to one of skill in the art. For example, dry granulation techniques include, but are not limited to, compression of the mixed powder under high pressure, either by roller compaction or "slugging" in a heavy-duty tablet press. Wet granulation techniques include, but are not limited to, high shear granulation, single-pot processing, top-spray granulation, bottom-spray granulation, fluidized spray granulation, extrusion/spheronization, and rotor granulation.
Accordingly, the present invention further provides a process for preparing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention comprising:
(a) mixing the active pharmacological agent with the first diluent/filler component, the disintegrant component, and the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, to form an initial mixture; and
(b) granulating the initial mixture with an aqueous solution comprising the wetting agent component to form a granulated mixture.
In some embodiments, (a) comprises:
(i) mixing the active pharmacological agent with at least a portion of the first diluent/filler component to form a first mixture; and
(ii) mixing the first mixture with the remainder of the first diluent/filler component, if any, the disintegrant component, and the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, to form the initial mixture.
In some embodiments, the aqueous solution further comprises the binder component.
In some embodiments, the process further comprises:
(i) drying the granulated mixture to form a dried granulated mixture; and (ii) mixing the optional lubricant component, if present, with the dried granulated mixture to form a final mixture.
In some embodiments, (ii) comprises:
(a) mixing the optional lubricant component, if present, with a portion of the dried granulated mixture; and
(b) mixing the mixture from (i) with the remainder of the dried granulated mixture.
In some embodiments, (ii)(b) is carried out in a blender.
The present invention further provides a process for preparing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention comprising: (i) mixing the active pharmacological agent with at least a portion of the first diluent/filler component to form a first mixture;
(ii) mixing the first mixture with the remainder of the first diluent/filler component, if any, the disintegrant component, and the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, to form the initial mixture;
(iii) granulating the initial mixture with an aqueous solution comprising the wetting agent component to form a granulated mixture
(iv) drying the granulated mixture to form a dried granulated mixture;
(v) mixing the optional lubricant component, if present, with the at least a portion of the dried granulated mixture; and
(vi) mixing the mixture from (v) with the remainder of the dried granulated mixture, if any.
In some embodiments, the aqueous solution further comprises the binder component.
The present invention further provides processes for producing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention comprising:
(i) mixing the first diluent/filler component, the optional second diluent/filler component, if present, the disintegrant component, the binder component, the wetting agent component, and the active pharmacological agent to form a first mixture; and
(ii) optionally granulating the first mixture.
In some embodiments, the first mixture futher comprises the optional lubricant component.
The processes described herein can be used to prepare any of the pharmaceutical formulations described herein, as well as any combination and subcombinations of the embodiments thereof.
The present invention further provides tablets comprising the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention. Any of the pharmaceutical formulations described herein, as well as any combination and subcombinations of the embodiments thereof, can be used to prepare the tablets of the invention.
The present invention further provides processes for producing the tablets of the invention comprising compressing the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention into tablets.

In some embodiments, the compressing is direct compression.
In some embodiments, the compressing yields a tablet of about 7 Kp to about 13 Kp hardness. In some embodiments, the tablet has a hardness of about 7 Kp to about 13 Kp.
The processes for producing tablets described herein can be used to prepare tablets of any of the pharmaceutical formulations described herein, or combinations or subcombinations thereof.
The present invention further provides a product of each of the processes of the invention.
The active pharmacological agents of the invention, including 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol, can be made by the methods described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,794,403, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The active pharmacological agents of the invention can also include pharmaceutically acceptable salts. As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to a salt formed by the addition of a pharmaceutically acceptable acid or base to a compound disclosed herein. As used herein, the phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" refers to a substance that is acceptable for use in pharmaceutical applications from a toxicological perspective and does not adversely interact with the active ingredient. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts, including mono- and bi- salts, include, but are not limited to, those derived from organic and inorganic acids such as, but not limited to, acetic, lactic, citric, cinnamic, tartaric, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malonic, mandelic, malic, oxalic, propionic, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, phosphoric, nitric, sulfuric, glycolic, pyruvic, methanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, toluenesulfonic, salicylic, benzoic, and similarly known acceptable acids. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 1418 and Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 66, 2 (1977), each of which is incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
The active pharmacological agent can also be one of two crystalline forms of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol, an anhydrate form and a monohydrate form. The crystalline forms can be prepared by any of various suitable means. In some embodiments, the process for preparing the monohydrate of the invention involves precipitating the monohydrate from a solution containing water.

The solution can further contain one or more additional solvents, such as solvents that are miscible with water. In some embodiments, the solution contains an alcohol such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol or isopropanol. In some embodiments, the alcohol is ethanol. The solution can contain alcohol or water in any suitable content. In some embodiments, the weight ratio of alcohol to water is about 1 :1 to about 3:1 , about 1.5:1 to about 2.5:1 , or about 2:1. The solution can be prepared by mixing 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol in water and optionally a solvent. The solution can be optionally heated and/or stirred to help dissolve the compound. Precipitation can be achieved by any suitable means including cooling, adding antisolvent to, or changing pH of the solution, or combination thereof. In some embodiments, the solution is cooled from a temperature of about 65 0C to about 95 0C, about 70 0C to about 90 0C, or about 75 0C to about 80 0C down to a temperature of about -20 0C to about 50 0C, about 0 0C to about 20 0C, about 0 0C to about 10 0C, or about 0 0C to about 5 0C. In some embodiments, the solution is cooled from a temperature of about 75 to about 80 down to a temperature of about 0 0C to about 5 0C. In some embodiments, the solution is held at an intermediate temperature for a period of time before reaching the final cooled temperature. In some embodiments, the intermediate temperature is about 40 0C to about 60 0C, about 45 0C to about 55 0C, or about 50 0C.
In alternative embodiments, the monohydrate can be precipitated from a solution containing water by adjusting pH of the solution. For example, the pH of a solution can be raised, thereby inducing precipitation of the monohydrate. In some embodiments, the pH is raised from about 7 (or lower) to about 9 or higher. pH can be adjusted according to routine methods such as the addition of a base such as hydroxide (e.g., NaOH). The monohydrate can also be precipitated by addition of antisolvent to a solution in which 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol is dissolved. Suitable antisolvents include water or other liquids of the sort. Suitable solvents include alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, or mixtures thereof or other water miscible solvents. The monohydrate can also be prepared by slurrying anhydrous compound of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol in water or a solvent containing water (e.g., ethanol/water mixture).

In some embodiments, the anhydrous crystal form is prepared by precipitation from an anhydrous solution. An anhydrous solution can contain less than about 1 %, less than about 0.5%, less than about 0.2%, less than about 0.1 %, less than about 0.05%, or less than 0.01 % water. Suitable solvents for precipitating the anhydrous crystal form include hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexanes, heptanes, and the like, ethers such as diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran, aromatics such as benzene or toluene and the like, chlorinated hydrocarbons such as dichloromethane and the like, as well as other organic solvents such as ethyl acetate and the like, and mixture thereof. In some embodiments, the anhydrate is precipitated from a solvent containing ethyl acetate. In some embodiments, the solvent further contains a hydrocarbon such a heptane. In further embodiments, the weight ratio of ethyl acetate to hydrocarbon is about 3:1 to about 1 :1 , about 1 :1 to about 1 :1 , or about 1.5:1.
Precipitation of the anhydrate can be induced by any of the various well known methods of precipitation. For example, precipitation can be induced by cooling the solution or addition of antisolvent. In some embodiments, the solution is cooled from a temperature of about 60 0C to about 90 0C, about 70 0C to about 85 0C, or about 75 0C to about 80 0C down to a temperature of about -20 0C to about 30 0C, about 0 0C to about 10 0C, or about 0 0C to about 5 0C. During the cooling process, the temperature can be optionally held at an intermediate temperature such as about 40 0C to about 60 ° C (e.g., about 45 0C to about 50 0C) for a period of time. Antisolvent methods can include addition of suitable antisolvents such as hydrocarbons (e.g., pentane, hexanes, heptanes in which 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol is poorly soluble) to a solvent in which 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol is dissolved. Suitable solvents include those that at least partially dissolve 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol, such as ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, and the like.
The two crystalline forms can be identified by their unique solid state signatures with respect to, for example, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and other solid state methods. Further characterization with respect to water or solvent content of the crystalline forms can be gauged by any of various routine methods such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), DSC and other techniques. For DSC, it is known that the temperatures observed will depend upon the rate of temperature change as well as sample preparation technique and the particular instrument employed. Thus, the values reported herein relating to DSC thermograms can vary by plus or minus about 4 0C. For XRPD, the relative intensities of the peaks can vary, depending upon the sample preparation technique, the sample mounting procedure and the particular instrument employed. Moreover, instrument variation and other factors can often affect the 2-theta values. Therefore, the peak assignments of diffraction patterns can vary by plus or minus about 0.2°. The physical properties and X-ray data distinguishing the anhydrous and monohydrate crystalline forms are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.
Data of Table 2 pertaining to water content of the crystalline forms, shows that the monohydrate crystal form was determined to contain close to the theoretical amount of water of 6.23 wt% according to TGA (see, e.g., Figure 3). DSC confirms the presence of water in the monohydrate, showing a dehydration event around 100 0C (varies from sample to sample, see, e.g., Figure 2)). In contrast, the anhydrate has essentially no water content, showing less than 0.02% by TGA (Figure 5) and a lack of a dehydration endotherm in the DSC (Figure 5).
In accordance with the distinguishing features provided by DSC and TGA analysis, the monohydrate has a differential scanning calorimetry traces comprising a dehydration endotherm. In some embodiments, the monohydrate has a differential scanning calorimetry trace comprising a dehydration endotherm having an onset at about 95 0C to about 120 0C, about 98 0C to about 1 18 0C, or about 95 0C to about 1 15 0C. In some embodiments, the monohydrate is characterized with a DSC further comprising both a dehydration endotherm and a melting endotherm with an onset of about 250 0C. In further embodiments, the monohydrate has a differential scanning calorimetry trace substantially as shown in Figure 2. In some embodiments, the monohydrate has a thermogravimetric analysis profile showing about 5.0% to about 7.0%, about 5.5% to about 6.5%, or about 5.9% to about 6.4% weight loss from about 60 0C to about 150 0C. In further embodiments, the monohydrate has a thermogravimetric analysis profile substantially as shown in Figure 3.

The anhydrous crystal form has a differential scanning calorimetry trace comprising a melting endotherm having an onset at about 250 0C and substantially lacking an endotherm corresponding to a dehydration event. In some embodiments, the anhydrous crystal form has a differential scanning calorimetry trace substantially as shown in Figure 4. In further embodiments, the anhydrous crystal form can have a thermogravimetric analysis profile showing less than about 1 %, less than about 0.5%, less than about 0.2%, less than about 0.1 %, or less than about 0.05% weight loss from about 60 to about 150 0C. In yet further embodiments, the anhydrous crystal form can have a have a thermogravimetric analysis profile substantially as shown in Figure 5.
DVS data (see Figures 6 and 7) of Table 2 reveal little weight gain for both crystalline forms, indicating that both the monohydrate and anhydrate forms are largely non-hygroscopic. In contrast, water solubility of the two forms shown in Table 2 markedly differ, with the monohydrate having significantly lower solubility than the anhydrate.
The two crystalline forms (see, e.g., Figure 1 ) have distinct XRPD patterns, allowing characterization of each the forms based on unique spectral signature. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the monohydrate has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 9.2° and about 12.2°. In some embodiments, the monohydrate has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 9.2°, about 12.2°, and about 15.2°. In further embodiments, the monohydrate has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 9.2°, about 12.2°, about 15.2°, and about 24.3°. In yet further embodiments, the monohydrate has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 9.2°, about 12.2°, about 15.2°, about 24.3°, about 25.4° and about 28.0°. In yet further embodiments, the monohydrate has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern substantially as shown in Figure 1 (upper).
Table 1



Table 2

In some embodiments, the anhydrous crystal form has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 8.2°, about 10.3°, and about 14.6°. In some embodiments, the crystal form has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 8.2°, about 10.3°, about 14.6°, about 15.1°, and about 16.3°. In some embodiments, the crystal form has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern comprising peaks, in terms of 2Θ, at about 8.2°, about 10.3°, about 14.6°, about 15.1°, about 16.3°, about 22.3°, about 24.8°, and about

26.7°. In further embodiments, the crystal form has an X-ray powder diffraction pattern substantially as shown in Figure 1 (lower).
The active pharmacological agent in the formulations of the present invention can comprise the anhydrous or monohydrate crystal forms of 2-(3-fluoro-4- hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations include at least about 50 %, at least about 60 %, at least about 70 %, at least about 80 %, at least about 90 %, at least about 95 %, at least about 96 %, at least about 97 %, at least about 98 %, at least about 99 %, at least about 99.1 %, at least about 99.2 %, at least about 99.3 %, at least about 99.4 %, at least about 99.5 %, at least about 99.6 %, at least about 99.7 %, at least about 99.8 %, at least about 99.9 %, by weight of either the monohydrate or anhydrous crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention contain a mixture of the monohydrate and anhydrous crystal forms. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations further include and additional active ingredient such as a progestin.
In general, the active pharmacological agent in the formulations of the invention is present in an a pharmaceutically effective amount. The phrase "pharmaceutically effective amount" refers to the amount of the active pharmacological agent that elicits the biological or medicinal response in a tissue, system, animal, individual, patient, or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. The desired biological or medicinal response may include preventing the disorder in a patient (e.g., preventing the disorder in a patient that may be predisposed to the disorder, but does not yet experience or display the pathology or symptomatology of the disease). The desired biological or medicinal response may also include inhibiting the disorder in a patient that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disorder (i.e., arresting or slowing further development of the pathology and/or symptomatology). The desired biological or medicinal response may also include ameliorating the disorder in a patient that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disease (i.e., reversing the pathology or symptomatology). The pharmaceutically effective amount provided in the propylaxis or treatment of a specific disorder may vary according to the specific condition(s) being treated, the size, age and response pattern of the patient, the severity of the disorder, the judgment of the attending physician or the like. In general, effective amounts for daily oral administration may be about 0.01 to 1 ,000 mg/kg, preferably about 0.5 to 500 mg/kg and effective amounts for parenteral administration may be about 0.1 to 100 mg/kg, preferably about 0.5 to 50 mg/kg.
In general, the pharmaceutical formulations, and compositions thereof, can be administered by any appropriate route, for example, orally. Oral formulations containing the present solid dispersions can comprise any conventionally used oral forms, including tablets, capsules, buccal forms, troches, lozenges and oral liquids, suspensions, and the like. Capsules or tablets containing the present pharmaceutical formulations can also be combined with mixtures of other active compounds or inert fillers and/or diluents. Oral formulations used herein may utilize standard delay or time release formulations or spansules.
Film coatings useful with the present formulations are known in the art and generally consist of a polymer (usually a cellulosic type of polymer), a colorant and a plasticizer. Additional ingredients such as wetting agents, sugars, flavors, oils and lubricants can be included in film coating formulations to impart certain characteristics to the film coat. The compositions and formulations herein may also be combined and processed as a solid, then placed in a capsule form such as a gelatin capsule.
The pharmaceutical formulations herein can also contain an antioxidant or a mixture of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid. Other antioxidants that can be used include sodium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate, optionally in conjunction with an amount of ascorbic acid. An example range for the antioxidant(s) is from about 0.05% to about 15% by weight, from about 0.5% to about 15% by weight, or from about 0.5% to about 5% by weight. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations contain substantially no antioxidant.
Additional numerous various excipients, dosage forms, dispersing agents and the like that are suitable for use in connection with the formulations of the invention are known in the art and described in, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
In order that the invention disclosed herein may be more efficiently understood, examples are provided below. It should be understood that these examples are for illustrative purposes only and are not to be construed as limiting the invention in any manner.

EXAMPLES
As used herein, the term "Cmax" refers to the maximum concentration of the active pharmacological agent in the blood plasma in the patient reached after dosing.

As used herein, the term "tmax" refers to the time it takes for the active pharmacological agent to reach its maximum concentration in the blood plasma of the patient after dosing. As used herein, the term "t1/2" refers to plasma half-life, or the time it takes for the concentration of the active pharmacological agent in the blood plasma of the patient to decrease to half of Cmax.
As used herein, the term "AUC" refers to the area under the plasma drug concentration as a function of time curve. As used herein, the term "AUCt" refers to the area under the plasma drug concentration curve up to a time point "t". As used herein, the term, "AUC0→∞ " refers to the area under the whole curve up to infinite time.

EXAMPLE 1
PREPARATION OF THE ANHYDROUS CRYSTAL FORM OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4- HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL
Solid 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (170 g, 0.627 mol) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3946 g, 23 volumes) at 75-80 0C. The resulting solution was treated with charcoal (17 g) at 75-80 0C. The filtrate was then concentrated at atmospheric pressure to 7 volumes and to the slurry was added heptane (793 g, 6 volumes) while maintaining at 75-80 0C, then cooled to 45-50 0C, held for 0.5 h, then cooled to 0-5 0C, and held for 1 h. The solid was filtered off, dried at 55-65 0C, 5-10 mm Hg, to afford an 87 % recovery and 99.4 % purity.

EXAMPLE 2
PREPARATION OF THE MONOHYDRATE CRYSTAL FORM OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4- HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL
A 3 L multi-neck flask with agitator, condenser, and temperature probe was charged with 274 g of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol and 1375 mL of pre-filtered ethanol. The mixture was heated to 75-80 0C to form a solution after 10 min. Water (688 mL) was added to the solution over the course of 0.5 h at 75-80 0C. The solution was then cooled to 50 0C over the course of 0.5 h and subsequently held at 50 0C for another 0.5 h (crystals began to appear at around 74 0C). The resulting suspension was then cooled to 0-5 0C over 0.5 h and held at 0-5 0C for 1 h. The solid was collected by filtration and the cake washed with 2 x 300 mL ethanohwater (2:1 v/v) precooled to 0-5 0C. The washed cake was dried at 32-38 0C, 20-25 mmHg for 20 h to give 281.8 g (96.1 1 % yield) of final monohydrate product. Water Content (KF) - 6.5%; TGA - 6.35 % water; DSC and XRPD consistent with monohydrate.

EXAMPLE 3
CONVERSION OF ANHYDRATE TO MONOHYDRATE CRYSTAL FORM
pH Method
Anhydrous 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (71 mg) was added to 2 mL of water and the mixture was pH adjusted to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH at which point the solution became clear. After 2 hours, the solution became light yellow and cloudy. The solution was centrifuged, the supernatant decanted and the precipitate air dried and then vacuum dried. XRPD and TGA of the product was consistent with the monohydrate.

Solvent/Antisolvent Method
Anhydrous 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (about

100 mg) was dissolved in 3 ml_ of ethanol afterwhich 4 ml_ water was added slowly until the solution became cloudy. The solution was centrifuged, the supernatant decanted, and the precipitate air dried and then vacuum dried. XRPD and TGA of the product was consistent with the monohydrate.

Aqueous Suspension Method
Anhydrous 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (84 mg) was suspended in 4.2 ml_ of water and stirred at room temperature for 40 hours. The solution was centrifuged, the supernatant decanted, and the precipitate air dried and then vacuum dried. XRPD and TGA was consistent with a mixture of anhydrate and monohydrate (2.4% water content by TGA).

EXAMPLE 4
STABILITY STUDIES OF THE TWO CRYSTAL FORMS
Short Term
XRPD studies revealed that the monohydrate was stable at 70 0C for one hour but partially dehydrated at 90 0C after one half hour, and completely dehydrated at 90 0C after one hour.

Medium Term
Samples of monohydrate were stored at room temperature, 56 0C, and 70 0C for one week. At room temperature, humidity was maintained at 0% RH. Humidity was not controlled for the higher temperatures.
The samples were analyzed by XRPD and TGA. Those samples stored at room temperature and 56 0C showed no obvious dehydration after one week. The sample at 70 0C showed no obvious hydration after 1 day, but after 4 days, the sample became partially dehydrated. After 7 days, the sample at 70 0C was mostly dehydrated.

Long Term
Non-micronized samples of monohydrate and anhydrate were stored at 40 °C/75%RH for three months. The monohydrate was also stored at 40 0C without humidity control. During the three months, the samples were checked after two weeks, one month, two months, and three months. XRPD and TGA revealed that both the monohydrate and anhydrate did not transform after three months, and HPLC revealed that the samples are chemically stable under the test conditions.
In a separate study, XRPD revealed that micronized samples of anhydrate did not transform to the monohydrate after storage at 25 °C/60% RH for three months; however, micronized samples did partially transform to the monohydrate after one month at 40 °C/75% RH. In contrast, non-micronized samples of anhydrate stored under the same conditions (40 °C/75% RH) did not show any obvious transformation.

EXAMPLE 5
ACQUISITION OF X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA FOR THE TWO
CRYSTAL FORMS
X-Ray data (e.g., see Figure 1 and Table 1 ) was acquired using an X-ray powder diffractometer (Scintag Inc., Cupertino, CA) having the following parameters: voltage 45 kV, current 40.0 mA, power 1.80 kW, scan range (2Θ) 3 to 40°, scan step size 0.02°, total scan time 22.6 minutes.

EXAMPLE 6
ACQUISITION OF DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY DATA FOR THE

TWO CRYSTAL FORMS
Differential scanning calorimetry data (see Figures 2 and 3) were collected using a DSC (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT) under the following parameters: 20 mL/min purge gas (N2), scan range 25 to 300 0C, scan rate 10 °C/min.

EXAMPLE 7
ACQUISITION OF THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS DATA FOR THE TWO

CRYSTAL FORMS
Thermogravimetric analysis data (see Figures 4 and 5) was collected using a TGA instrument (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT) under the following parameters: 20 mL/min purge gas(N2); scan range 25 to 3000C, scan rate 10°C/min.

EXAMPLE 8
ACQUISITION OF DYNAMIC VAPOR SORPTION DATA FOR THE TWO CRYSTAL FORMS
Dynamic Vapor Sorption (Allentown, PA) was used to measure the hygroscopicity of the anhydrate and monohydrate of the invention (see Figures 6 and 7). The step conditions were three hours each at 0%, 30%, 52.5%, 75% and 90% RH, two full cycles.

EXAMPLE 9
PREPARATION OF A GRANULE AND TABLET CONTAINING 75 MG OF 2-(3- FLUORO-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure below, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 3. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure below. Each tablet contained the unit dose amounts shown in Table 3.
1. An aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone K25) and sodium lauryl sulfate was prepared in purified water.
2. The anhydrous crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol was mixed with a portion of the mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD), passed through an appropriate screen and placed in a high shear mixer bowl.
3. The remainder of the mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel pH 1 13), and croscarmellose sodium was passed through an appropriate screen into the mixer bowl and mixed.
4. The blend from step 3 was granulated using the step 1 solution.

5. The step 4 granulation was dried and passed through an appropriate screen.
6. The magnesium stearate was passed through an appropriate screen.

7. The magnesium stearate was premixed with an equal portion of the blend in step 5, then the premix was added to the remainder of the step 5 material and mixed in a blender.
8. The final blend from step 7 was compressed into tablets using a tablet press.
9. A 7.5% solid solution of Opaglos 2 was prepared.
10. A sufficient amount of coating solution was applied to the tablets in order to provide a 3.0 % wt/wt increase in dried tablet weight.

Table 3
INGREDIENT % WT/WT UNIT DOSE
(mg/tablet)

Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0 75.0
fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 51.5 154.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0 45.0
1 13)
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0 12.0
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0 6.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 2.0 6.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5 1.5
Purified Water b — —
TOTAL 100.0 % 300.0
Film Coat 3.0 9.0
Opaglos 2, green
97W1 1753
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 10
FORMULATION AND TABLET CONTAINING 25% BY WEIGHT OF 2-(3-FLUORO- 4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL MADE BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure of Example 9, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 4. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure of Example 9.

Table 4
INGREDIENT % WT/WT
Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0
fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 48.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0
1 13)
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 5.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5
Purified Water b
TOTAL 100.0 %
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 1 1
FORMULATION AND TABLET CONTAINING 25% BY WEIGHT OF 2-(3-FLUORO- 4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-Z-VINYL-I 1S-BENZOXAZOL-S-OL MADE BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure of Example 9, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 5. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure of Example 9.

Table 5
INGREDIENT % WT/WT
Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0
fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 51.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0
1 13)
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 2.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5
Purified Water b
TOTAL 100.0 %
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 12
FORMULATION AND TABLET CONTAINING 25% BY WEIGHT OF 2-(3-FLUORO- 4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL MADE BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure of Example 9, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 6. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure of Example 9.

Table 6
INGREDIENT % WT/WT
Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0
fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 53.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0
1 13)
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 0.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5
Purified Water b
TOTAL 100.0 %
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 13
FORMULATION AND TABLET CONTAINING 25 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4- HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL MADE BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure of Example 9, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 7. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure of Example 9. Each tablet contained the unit dose amounts shown in Table 7.

Table 7
INGREDIENT % WT/WT UNIT DOSE
(mg/tablet)

Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0 25.0 fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 51.5 51.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0 15.0
1 13)
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0 4.0
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0 2.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 2.0 2.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5 0.5
Purified Water b — —
TOTAL 100.0 % 100.0

Film Coat 3.0 3.0
Opaglos 2, green
97W1 1753
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 14
FORMULATION AND TABLET CONTAINING 5 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4- HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL MADE BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure of Example 9, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 8. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure of Example 9. Each tablet contained the unit dose amounts shown in Table 8.

Table 8
INGREDIENT % WT/WT UNIT DOSE
(mg/tablet)

Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 5.0 5.0 fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 71.5 71.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0 15.0
1 13)
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0 4.0
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0 2.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 2.0 2.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5 0.5
Purified Water b — —
TOTAL 100.0 % 300.0

Film Coat 3.0 3.0
Opaglos 2, green
97W1 1753
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 15
FORMULATION AND TABLET CONTAINING 150 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4- HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL MADE BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The pharmaceutical formulation was prepared by steps 1-7 of the procedure of Example 9, utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients shown in Table 9. The tablets were prepared by steps 8-10 of the procedure of Example 9. Each tablet contained the unit dose amounts shown in Table 9.

Table 9
INGREDIENT % WT/WT UNIT DOSE
(mg/tablet)

Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0 150.0 fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) a 51.5 309.0

Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0 90.0
1 13)
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0 24.0
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone K25) 2.0 12.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 2.0 12.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5 3.0
Purified Water b — —
TOTAL 100.0 % 600.0

Film Coat 3.0 18.0
Opaglos 2, green
97W1 1753
a. If assay is other than 100.0 %, adjust the amount of input against mannitol accordingly.
b. Used in the process, but does not appear in the final tablet product.

EXAMPLE 16
TABLET CONTAINING 75 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL- 1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL
The pharmaceutical formulation and tablet of the example was prepared by the method of Example 9, substituting Opadry AMB, yellow for Opaglos 2, green.

EXAMPLE 17
TABLET CONTAINING 5 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO^-HYDROXYPHENYL)-Z-VINYL- 1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL
The pharmaceutical formulation and tablet of the example is prepared by the method of Example 9 utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients for Example 13, substituting Opadry AMB, yellow for Opaglos 2, green.

EXAMPLE 18
TABLET CONTAINING 25 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO^-HYDROXYPHENYL)-Z-VINYL- 1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL
The pharmaceutical formulation and tablet of the example was prepared by the method of Example 9 utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients for Example 14, substituting Opadry AMB, yellow for Opaglos 2, green.

EXAMPLE 19
TABLET CONTAINING 150 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO^-HYDROXYPHENYL)-Z-VINYL- 1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL
The pharmaceutical formulation and tablet of the example was prepared by the method of Example 9 utilizing the weight/weight percentages (% wt/wt) of the ingredients for Example 15, substituting Opadry AMB, yellow for Opaglos 2, green.

EXAMPLE 20
TABLET CONTAINING 25 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO^-HYDROXYPHENYL)-Z-VINYL- 1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL PREPARED BY A DIRECT BLEND METHOD
The pharmaceutical formulation of the example was prepared by the procedure below, using the weight/weight percentage amounts (% wt/wt) shown in Table 10.
1. Lactose anhydrous, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel pH 1 12), croscarmellose sodium, sodium lauryl sulfate, silicon dioxide (Syloid 244), and the anhydrate crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-Z-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol was added to a PK blender and blended for five to ten minutes.

2. The magnesium stearate was added to the mixture of step 1 and blended for an additional two minutes.
3. The blend of step 2 was then compressed into tablets using a tablet press.

Table 10
INGREDIENT % WT/WT
Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0
fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Lactose Anhydrous 49.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 15.0
1 12)
Croscarmellose Sodium 4.0
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 5.0
Silicon dioxide (Syloid 244) 1.0
Magnesium Stearate 0.5
TOTAL 100.0 %

EXAMPLE 21
TABLET CONTAINING 25% BY WEIGHT OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)- 7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL PREPARED BY A DIRECT BLEND METHOD
The pharmaceutical formulation of the example was prepared by the procedure below, using the weight/weight percentage amounts (% wt/wt) shown in Table 1 1.
1. Lactose anhydrous, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel pH 1 12), croscarmellose sodium, sodium lauryl sulfate, silicon dioxide (Syloid 244), sodium carbonate, and the anhydrate crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4- hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol was added to a PK blender and blended for five to ten minutes.
2. The magnesium stearate was added to the mixture of step 1 and blended for an additional two minutes.

3. The blend of step 2 was then compressed into tablets using a tablet press.

Table 1 1
INGREDIENT % WT/WT
Anhydrous crystal Form of 2-(3- 25.0
fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3- benzoxazol-5-ol
Lactose Anhydrous 47.5
Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicel pH 14.4
1 12)
Croscarmellose Sodium 3.84
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 4.8
Sodium carbonate 4.0
Silicon dioxide (Syloid 244) 0.96
Magnesium Stearate 0.5
TOTAL 100.0 %

EXAMPLES 22-39
PREPARATION OF GRANULE AND TABLETS CONTAINING 25% BY WEIGHT OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-7-VINYL-1 ,3-BENZOXAZOL-5-OL BY A WET
GRANULATION PROCESS
The granule and tablets of Examples 22-39 were prepared at a 300.0 g batch size by the following procedure using the weight/weight percentages of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), croscarmellose sodium (Cros.Na), and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 1 13) as shown Table 12. The percentage of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol in each of Examples 22-39 was 25.0% wt/wt. The percentage of magnesium stearate in the granule and tablets was 0.5%. The percentage of mannitol varied for each example and was calculated by substracting the percentages of SLS, PVP, croscarmellose sodium, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate in the batch from 100%. The weight values of each ingredient was calculated by multiplying the weight/weight percentages by the total 300.0 g batch size.
1. Mannitol (Pearlitol 200 SD), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 1 13) sodium lauryl sulfate, croscarmellose sodium, polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone K25), magnesium stearate, and 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol were weighed out independently for a 300 gram batch.
2. A 10% solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone K25) was prepared by dissolving the sodium lauryl sulfate in purified water followed by the polyvinylpyrrolidone.
3. 73 g of mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) was passed through #16 mesh screen directly into a Diosna granulator.
4. 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol was bag blended with 36 g of mannitol.
5. The step 4 mixture was passed through #16 mesh screen directly into the granulator.
6. The remaining mannitol was passed through #16 mesh screen directly into a Gral granulator.
7. The microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 1 13) was passed through #16 mesh screen directly into the granulator.
8. The croscarmellose sodium was passed through #16 mesh screen directly into the granulator.
9. The materials for were dry blended for 2 minutes with plow set at low speed.
10. The blend with was granulated with the step 2 solution over a period of three minutes using a pump with the plow set at low speed and the chopper off.
1 1. The percentage of water required for granulation was calculated using the following equation:

% Wa,er = Water(g) x l00
Water (g) + weight of step 1 ingredients (g)

12. After the granulation was completed, the granulation was mixed for additional 30 seconds with the plow at low speed and the chopper on.

13. The granulation was fluid bed dried at the temperature at an inlet temperature as shown in the table below until an LOD of less than 1-2% was obtained for a sample analyzed using Computrac moisture analyzer at 1000C.
14. The dried granulation of step 13 was milled using Comil.
15. The step 14 material was transferred into a PK-blender and blended for 5 minutes without intensifier bar activation.
16. Based on the yield in step 15, the amount of magnesium stearate required for final blend was calculated (theoretical amount for 3 kg batch was 1.5 g of magnesium stearate.
17. The magnesium stearate was passed through # 20 mesh screen and premixed with approximately equal amount of step 14 blend.
18. The premix was transferred to the PK-blender of step 15 and blended for 2 minutes without intensifier bar activation.
19. The step 18 blend was stored under refrigeration with desiccant protected from light and moisture until compression could be carried out.
20. The required amount of final blend of step 20 for tablet compression was weighed out.
21. To make the desired tablet, the blend of step 20 was compressed using a rotary press equipped with 0.225" x 0.6" modified caplet tooling adjusting the press as necessary to the specification given below.

Tablet Characteristics
Tablet Weight: Target 300 mg ± 3.75% (288.75 - 31 1.25 mg)
Average (n=10) ± 1.875% (2943.75 - 3056.25 mg)
Tablet Hardness: Target 10 Kp (Range 7 - 13 Kp)

Table 12a




a. For each example: 25.0% wt/wt of the anhydrous crystal form of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol; 0.5% wt/wt of magnesium stearate; and mannitol (Pearlitol 200SD) in each example was adjusted to bring total to 100% w/wt

EXAMPLE 40
MEASUREMENT OF PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS IN DOGS FOLLOWING SINGLE ADMINISTRATION OF 150 MG OF EXAMPLES 10, 20, AND 21
Nine twelve female dogs (7.0-1 1.8 kg) were assigned into three groups, three dogs per group. The dogs were administered a single dose of 150 mg of 2-(3-fluoro- 4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol. The dose was provided to each of the

9 dogs as 2 x 75 mg of one of three possible choices of pharmaceutical formulations:

(1 ) Example 10 tablets; (2) Example 20 tablets; or (3) Example 21 tablets. The dogs were fasted overnight prior to dosing. Blood samples were drawn at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after dosing, plasma was separated and assayed for

2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol content. The measured mean plasma concentrations of 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol- 5-ol were plotted as function of time after dosing (see Figure 8).

Individual dog plasma 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5- ol concentration-time profiles were subjected to noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses (WinNonlin, Model 200). Pharmacokinetic parameters were then determined for each dog: AUC0.∞, Cmax, tmax and t1/2, from the drug plasma concentration time profiles (see Table 13).

Table 13


standard deviation in parentheses

EXAMPLE 41
MEASUREMENT OF PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS IN HUMAN BIOAVAILABILITY STUDY FOR EXAMPLE 9 (75 MG OF 2-(3-FLUORO-4- HYDROXYPHENYL^-VINYL-I .S-BENZOXAZOL-δ-OL)
A three-period randomized cross-over study in thirty women with three formulations administered in the fasted state, followed by a fourth period where the subjects were randomized to receive one of the three formulations with a high fat breakfast (1/3 received the Example 9 tablet). Individual plasma 2-(3-fluoro-4- hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1 ,3-benzoxazol-5-ol concentration-time profiles were subjected to noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for each woman: AUC0.«, Cmaχ, tmaχ and t1/2 (see Table 15). The results are summarized in Table 14.


standard deviation in parentheses

EXAMPLE 42
DISSOLUTION PROFILE FOR EXAMPLE 10, 20, AND 21
In vitro dissolution profiles were generated per USP method Il (paddle) at 50 RPM using a dissolution medium of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid containing 0.25% Tween 80. Samples were assayed at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes for drug concentration. The results are summarized in Figure 9.

EXAMPLE 43
DISSOLUTION PROFILES FOR EXAMPLES 10, 1 1 , AND 12
In vitro dissolution profiles were generated per USP method Il (paddle) at 50 RPM using a dissolution medium of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid containing 0.25% Tween 80. Samples were assayed at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes for drug concentration. The results are summarized in Figure 10.

EXAMPLE 44
COMPRESSION PROFILE FOR EXAMPLES 10, 1 1 , AND 12
Compression profiles were generated during tableting by measuring hardness values at varying compression forces. Compression data were acquired using an automated interface (Korsch PMA) with the tablet press (Korsch XL 100) through out the tableting run. Tablets produced at various compression forces were evaluated for hardness using a Schleuniger 8E hardness tester. The results are summarized in Figure 1 1.

EXAMPLE 45
DISSOLUTION PROFILE FOR EXAMPLE 9 DURING ONE TO THREE MONTHS
OF STORAGE AT 250C AND 40 0C
The tablets of Example 9 were stored at 25 0C and 60% relative humidity for 1 month and 3 months, and at 40 0C and 75% relative humidity for 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. The dissolution profiles of the tablets were then studied after storage.

In vitro dissolution profiles were generated per USP method Il (paddle) at 50 RPM using a dissolution medium of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid containing 0.25% Tween 80.

Samples were assayed at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes for drug concentration. The results are summarized in Figure 12.

EXAMPLE 46
MEASUREMENT OF GEOMETRIC MEAN PARTICLE SIZE FOR THE GRANULE

OF EXAMPLES 22-39
Particle size of the granulated pharmaceutical formulations of each of

Examples 22-39 was measured prior to tablet compression using USP procedure 786. Two tests of particle size were conducted per batch of pharmaceutical formulation. The results are shown in Table 15.

Table 15


EXAMPLE 47
MEASUREMENT OF COMPRESSIBILITY INDEX FOR THE GRANULE OF

EXAMPLES 22-39
Compressibility index were calculated from poured bulk density and tapped density. Bulk density was calculated by pouring a known weight of powder onto a graduated cylinder and measuring the volume occupied by the powder blend. Tapped density represents a similar density calculation after compacting the powder blend with a predetermined number of taps. The results are summarized in Table 15.

EXAMPLE 48
MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE (Q15) FOR THE TABLETS OF
EXAMPLES 22-39
The dissolution profile of the tablets of Examples 22-39 were generated using the USP paddle method at 50 RPM using a dissolution medium of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid containing 0.25% Tween 80. A samples was assayed at 15 minutes using a stability indicating HPLC method. Q15 represents the amount of drug dissolved after

15 minutes. The results are summarized in Table 15.

EXAMPLE 49
MEASUREMENT OF FRIABILITY FOR THE TABLETS OF EXAMPLES 22-39
The friability of the tablets of Examples 22-39 were measured using USP procedure 1216 with three measurements per example. The results are shown in Table 15.
This application claims benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application Ser.

Nos. 60/780,045, filed March 6, 2006, and 60/797,503, filed May 4, 2006, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
Various modifications of the invention, in addition to those described herein, will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. Each reference cited in the present application, including patents, published applications, and journal articles, is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.