CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method for determining a water cut value for a hydrocarbon composition for increasing the production of the hydrocarbon from a reservoir, the method comprising the steps of:

obtaining the hydrocarbon composition, where the hydrocarbon composition has the water cut value and a salinity value,

inducing a frequency value into the hydrocarbon composition,

detecting a temperature value, a salinity value and a mixture permittivity value of the hydrocarbon composition at the induced frequency value,

inducing a normalization frequency value into the hydrocarbon composition; and determining the water cut value using a determined salinity value and a determined ratiometric mixed permittivity value for the hydrocarbon composition, and the induced frequency value,

where the induced frequency value and the induced normalization frequency value are non-zero values.

2. The method of claim 1 where the determining the water cut value includes comparing the determined ratiometric mixture permittivity value for the hydrocarbon composition to a derived ratiometric mixture permittivity value from a ratiometric mixture permittivity value equation at the water cut value.

3. The method of claim 2 where the ratiometric mixture permittivity value equation is based upon a complex theoretical model mixture permittivity value equation that is an interpretation of a complex theoretical model mixture permittivity for a hydrocarbon composition and is normalized at the induced normalization frequency value.

4. The method of claim 2 where the ratiometric mixture permittivity value equation is based upon an empirically-determined mixture permittivity value equation that is derived from empirically-determined data of the mixture permittivity value, the induced frequency value, the salinity value and the water cut value for a hydrocarbon composition and is normalized at the induced normalization frequency value.

5. The method of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, where the determining the water cut value includes comparing the determined ratiometric mixture permittivity value for the hydrocarbon composition to a set of derived ratiometric mixture permittivity values that is derived from empirically-determined data of mixture permittivity values, induced frequency values, salinity values and water cut values for a hydrocarbon composition and is normalized at the induced normalization frequency value.

6. The method of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, comprising detecting a reference mixture permittivity value for the hydrocarbon composition at the induced normalization frequency.

7. The method of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, where the induced frequency value is a set of induced frequency values in a range of from a first frequency value to a second frequency value.

8. The method of claim 7 where the set of induced frequency values are induced sweepingly.

9. The method of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8, where determining the water cut value of the hydrocarbon composition includes comparing both the determined ratiometric mixture permittivity value and a derived ratiometric mixture permittivity value at the determined salinity value and the induced frequency value until the difference between the determined and derived permittivity values are within a pre-established margin of error.

10. The method of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, further comprising the step of determining the salinity value of the hydrocarbon composition using the detected salinity value and the temperature value.

11. A method for determining a water cut value and a salinity value for a hydrocarbon composition, the method comprising the steps of:

obtaining the hydrocarbon composition, where the hydrocarbon composition has the water cut value and the salinity value;

inducing a set of frequency values into the hydrocarbon composition in a range of from a first frequency value to a second frequency value;

detecting a set of mixture permittivity values of the hydrocarbon composition at the set of induced frequency values;

inducing a normalization frequency value into the hydrocarbon composition;

detecting a reference mixture permittivity value at the induced normalization frequency value;

determining a set of ratiometric mixture permittivity values using the reference mixture permittivity value and the set of detected mixture permittivity values;

deriving a first set of ratiometric mixture permittivity values at the set of induced frequency values, a first set of salinity values and a first water cut value, where the first set of ratiometric mixture permittivity values is normalized at a first reference mixture permittivity value determined at the induced normalization frequency value; deriving a second set of ratiometric mixture permittivity values at the set of induced frequency values, a second set of salinity values and a second water cut value, where the second set of ratiometric mixture permittivity values is normalized at a second reference mixture permittivity value determined at the induced normalization frequency value and where the first water cut value and the second water cut value are not the same; and

determining the water cut value and the salinity value of the hydrocarbon composition by comparing the set of determined ratiometric mixture permittivity values to the first set of derived ratiometric mixture permittivity values and the second set of derived ratiometric mixture permittivity values at the set of induced frequency values.

12. The method of claim 11 where the induced normalization frequency value is not within the set of induced frequency values.

13. An apparatus for determining a water cut value of a hydrocarbon composition, the apparatus comprising:

a capacitance probe in fluid contact with the hydrocarbon composition and that is operable to induce a frequency value into the hydrocarbon composition, to detect a mixture permittivity value associated with the induced frequency value and to form an associated signal for the detected mixture permittivity value;

a temperature probe in fluid contact with the hydrocarbon composition and that is operable to detect the temperature value of the composition and form an associated signal for the detected temperature value;

a salinity probe in fluid contact with the hydrocarbon composition and that is operable to detect the salinity value of the composition and form an associated signal for the detected salinity value; and

a computer;

wherein the apparatus is capable of determining the water cut value for the hydrocarbon composition.

14. The apparatus of claim 13 where the data stored on the readable medium includes a complex theoretical model ratiometric mixture permittivity value equation.

15. The apparatus of claims 13 or 14, where the data stored on the readable medium includes an empirically-determined ratiometric mixture permittivity value equation.

16. The apparatus of claims 13, 14, or 15, where the data stored on the readable medium includes empirically-determined data of ratiometric mixture permittivity values, induced frequency values, salinity values and water cut values for a hydrocarbon composition.

17. The apparatus of claims 13, 14, 15, or 16, where the data stored on the readable medium includes detected salinity values, determined salinity values and associated temperature values.

18. The apparatus of claims 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17, where the apparatus is operable to induce a frequency sweepingly into the hydrocarbon composition.

19. The apparatus of claims 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, or 18, where the apparatus includes two or more capacitance probes operable to induce a different frequency value into the hydrocarbon composition.

20. The apparatus of claim 19 where the two or more capacitance probes comprise at least one probe capable of inducing a normalization frequency value into the hydrocarbon composition.