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1. WO2011056697 - MÉTHODES DE TRAITEMENT PAR VOIE TOPIQUE D'INFECTIONS PAR LE VIRUS RESPIRATOIRE SYNCYTIAL (RSV) ET D'ÉTATS ASSOCIÉS

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TOPICAL METHODS OF TREATING RSVINFECTIONS AND RELATED

CONDITIONS

1. INTRODUCTION

[0001] The present invention relates to compositions comprising antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen and methods for preventing, treating or ameliorating symptoms and/or long term consequences associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection utilizing said compositions, in particular, the present invention relates to methods for preventing, treating or ameliorating symptoms and/or long term consequences associated with RSV infection, said methods comprising topically administering to a human subject an effective amount of one or more antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a R SV F or G antigen, wherein the RSV viral load is reduced. The present invention further provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof by ad ministering an effective amount of the antibodies of the invention.

2. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

[0002] Respiratory infections are common infections of the upper respiratory tract (e.g., nose, ears, sinuses, and throat) and lower respiratory tract (e.g., trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs). Symptoms of upper respiratory infection include runny or stiffly nose, irritability, restlessness, poor appetite, decreased activity level, coughing, and fever. Viral upper respiratory infections cause and/or are associated with sore throats, colds, croup, and the flu. Clinical manifestations of a lower respiratory infection include shallow coughing that produces sputum in the lungs, fever, and difficulty breathing.

[0003] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of respiratory disease worldwide. In the United States, it is responsible for tens of thousands of

hospitalizations and thousands of deaths per year (see Black, CP., Rcsp. Care 2003 48(3):209- 31 for a recent review of the biology and management of RSV). Infants and children are most at risk for serious RSV infections which migrate to the lower respiratory system, resulting in pneumonia or bronchiolitis. In fact, 80% of childhood bronchiolitis cases and 50% of infant pneumonias are attributable to RSV. The virus is so ubiquitous and highly contagious that

almost all children have been infected by two years of age. Although infection does not produce lasting immunity, reinfections tend to be less severe so that in older children and healthy adults RSV manifests itself as a cold or flu-like illness affecting the upper and/or lower respiratory system, without progressing to serious lower respiratory tract involvement.

However, RSV infections can become serious in elderly or immunocompromised adults.

(Evans, A.S., eds., 1989, Viral Infections of Humans. Epidemiology and Control, 3rd ed., Plenum Medical Book, New York at pages 525-544; Falsey, A.R., 1991, infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 12:602-608; and Garvie et al., 1980, Br. Med. J. 281 :1253-1254; Hertz el al., 1989, Medicine 68:269-281 ).

[0004] While a vaccine or commercially available treatment are not yet available, some success has been achieved in the area of prevention for infants at high risk of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV, as well as a reduction of LRI. In particular, there are two immunogiobuiin-based therapies approved to protect high-risk infants from serious LRI: RSV-IGIV (RSV-immunoglobulin intravenous, also known as RespiGam™) and palivizumab (SYNAGIS®). However, neither RSV-IGIV nor palivizumab has been approved for use other than as a prophylactic agent for serious lower respiratory tract acute RSV disease.

[0005] RSV is easily spread by physical contact with contaminated secretions. The virus can survive for at least half an hour on hands and for hours on countertops and used tissues. The highly contagious nature of RSV is evident from the risk factors associated with contracting serious infections. One of the greatest risk factors is hospitalization, where in some cases in excess of 50% of the staff on pediatric wards were found to be infected (Black, CP., Resp. Care 2003 48(3 ):209-31). Up to 20% of these adult infections are asymptomatic but still produce substantial shedding of the virus. Other risk factors include attendance at day care centers, crowd ed living conditions, and the presence of school-age siblings in the home,

[0006] Because, as discussed above, RSV is not simply an illness confined to high-risk infants, it is useful to explore RSV therapy, as opposed to prophylaxis, as an alternative treatment for low-risk pediatric and high risk adult populations. However treatment options for established RSV disease are limited. Severe RSV disease of the lower respiratory tract often requires considerable supportive care, including administration of humidified oxygen and respiratory assistance (Fields et al., eds, 1990, Fields Virology, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, Raven Press, New York at pages 1045-1072). The only drug approved for treatment of infection is the antiviral agent ribavirin (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, 1993, Pediatrics 92:501 -504). It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of RSV pneumonia and bronchiolitis, modifying the course of severe RSV disease in immunocompetent children (Smith et al., 1991, New Engl. I. Med. 325:24-29). However, ribavirin has had limited use because it requires prolonged aerosol administration and because of concerns about its

potential risk to pregnant women who may he exposed to the drug during its administration in hospital settings.

[0007] Clinical studies have been conducted exploring treatment of RSV using palivizumab. Malley and his colleagues studied the anti-viral effects of palivizumab on the lower respiratory tract RSV concentrations in RSV-infected, intubated infants with severe RSV disease, before and after a single infusion of 15 mg/kg palivizumab or placebo (see Malley, R. et al. , The Journal oƒ Inƒectious Diseases, 1998;178: 1555-1561). In that study, statistically significant reduction in lung viral titers were observed, but there was no improvement in the durati on of RSV hospitalization, th e days on suppl emental oxygen therapy, or hospital days with high lower respiratory infection scores.

[0008] In another study by Saez-Llorens and colleagues, a phase I/II clinical trial was conducted to describe the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome of a single intravenous 15-mg/kg dose ofpalivizumab in previously healthy children hospitalized with acute RSV infection. While the study concluded that intravenous palivizumab was safe and well-tolerated in children hospitalized with RSV disease, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes (i.e., no improvement in the duration of RSV hospitalization, the days on supplemental oxygen therapy, or hospital days with high lower respiratory infection scores), between placebo and palivizumab groups.

[0009] One way to improve the treatment outcomes and options would be to develop one or more highly potent RSV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Such MAbs should be human or humanized in order to retain favorable pharmacokinetics and to avoid generating a human anti-mouse antibody response, as repeat dosing would be required throughout the RSV season. One such antibody, motavizumab or MEDI-524, see Wu et al., J. Mol. Biol. 368:652-655 (2007)), results in a more successful clinical outcome in a treatment setting, as opposed to prophylaxis, it is postulated that an effective treatment of RSV in low-risk infants or in adults may mitigate the later development of respiratory illnesses or long term consequences, such as asthma, reactive airway disease (RAD), wheezing and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CORD).

Asthma and Reactive Airway Disease (RAD)

[0010] About 12 million people in the U.S. have asthma and it is the leading cause of hospitalization for children. The Merck Manual oƒ Diagnosis and Therapy (17th ed., 1999).

[0011] Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lung that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness ("AHR"), bronchoconstriction (i.e., wheezing), eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, and elevated IgE levels. Asthmatic attacks can be triggered by environmental triggers (e.g., acarids, insects, animals (e.g.. cats, dogs, rabbits, mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, rats, and birds), fungi, air pollutants (e.g., tobacco smoke), irritant gases, fumes, vapors, aerosols, chemicals, or pollen), exercise, or cold air. The cause(s) of asthma is unknown. However, it has been speculated that family history of asthma (London et al., 2001, Epidemiology 12(5):577-83), early exposure to allergens, such as dust mites, tobacco smoke, and cockroaches (Melen et al., 2001 , 56(7):646-52), and respiratory infections (Wenzel et al., 2002, Am J Med, 112(8):672-33 and Lin et al., 2001, J Microbiol Immune Infect, 34(4):259-64), such as RSV, may increase the risk of developing asthma. A review of asthma, including risk factors, animal models, and inflammatory markers can be found in O 'Byrne and Postma ( 1999), Am. J. Crit. Care. Med. 159:S41-S66, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0012] Current therapies are mainly aimed at managing asthma and include the administration of β-adrenergic drugs (e.g., epinephrine and isoproterenol), theophylline, anticholinergic drugs (e.g., atropine and ipratorpium bromide), corticosteroids, and leukotriene inhibitors. These therapies are associated with side effects such as drug interactions, dry mouth, blurred vision, growth suppression in children, and osteoporosis in menopausal women.

Cromolyn and nedocromil are administered prophylatically to inhibit mediator release from inflammatory cells, reduce airway hyperresponsiveness, and block responses to allergens. However, there are no current therapies available that prevent the development of asthma in subjects at increased risk of developing asthma. Thus, new therapies with fewer side effects and better therapeutic efficacy are needed for asthma. In particular, it is desirable to develop a therapeutic agent that can decrease or mitigate a patient's inflammatory reaction in response to a viral (i.e., RSV) infection, which is a risk factor for the later development of asthma.

[0013] Reactive airway disease is a broader (and often times synonymous)

characterization for asthma-like symptoms, and is generally characterized by chronic cough, sputum production, wheezing or dyspenea.

Wheezirag

[0014] Wheezing (also known as sibilant rhonchi) is generally characterized by a noise made by air flowing through narrowed breathing tubes, especially the smaller, tight airways located deep within the lung. It is a common symptom of RSV infection, and secondary RSV conditions such as asthma and brochiolitis. The clinical importance of wheezing is that it is an indicator of airway narrowing, and it may indicate difficulty breathing.

[0015] Wheezing is most obvious when exhaling (breathing out), but may be present during either inspiration (breathing in) or exhalation. WTieezing most often comes from the small bronchial tubes (breathing tubes deep in the chest), but it may originate if larger airways are obstructed.

Chrome obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

[0016] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term referring to two iung diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, that are characterized by obstruction to airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Both of these conditions frequently co-exist, hence physicians prefer the term COPD. It does not include other obstructive diseases such as asthma.

[0017] Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation and eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes. When the bronchi are inflamed and/or infected, less air is able to flow to and from the lungs and a heavy mucus or phlegm is coughed up. The condition is denned by the presence of a mucus-producing cough most days of the month, three months of a year for two successive years without other underlying disease to explain the cough.

[0018] This inflammation eventually leads to scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes. Once the bronchial tubes have been irritated over a long period of time, excessive mucus is produced constantly, the lining of the bronchial tubes becomes thickened, an irritating cough develops, and air flow may be hampered, the lungs become scarred. The bronchial tubes then make an ideal breeding place for bacterial infections within the airways, which eventually impedes airflow .

[0019] Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include chronic cough, i ncreased mucus, frequent clearing of the throat and shortness of breath. In 2004, an estimated 9 million Americans reported a physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis affects people of all ages, but is higher in those over 45 y ears old.

[0020] Smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of COPD deaths are caused by smoking. Other risk factors of COPD include air pollution, second-hand smoke, history of childhood respiratory infections, such as, for example, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and heredity.

[0021] In 2004, 1 1.4 million U.S. adults (aged 18 and over) were estimated to have

COPD. However, close to 24 million U.S. adults have evidence of impaired lung function, indicating an under diagnosis of COPD. An estimated 638,000 hospital discharges were reported; a discharge rate of 21.8 per 100,000 population. COPD is an important cause of hospitalization in our aged population. Approximately 65% of discharges were in the 65 years and older population in 2004.

[0022] In 2004, the cost to the nation for COPD was approximately $37.2 billion, including healthcare expenditures of $20,9 billion in direct health care expenditures, $7,4 billion in indirect morbidity costs and $8.9 billion in indirect mortality costs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0023] The present invention is based, in part, on the development of method s for achieving or inducing an effective serum titer of an antibody that immunospecifically binds to a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen in a mammal by topical administration of such an antibody. The present invention is also based, in part, on the identification of antibodies with higher affinities for a RSV antigen which results in increased efficacy for uses such that lower serum titers are effective. Further, such antibodies may also reduce viral load in a human more effectively than the current standard of care.

[0024] in another aspect, the modified antibodies of the invention can be used to treat, manage, and/or ameliorate respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof said method comprising topically administering a therapeutically effective amount of the antibodies of the invention by topical administration, wherein the management, treatment and/or amelioration is post-infection.

[0025] The present invention also provides methods of preventing, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject comprising topically administering to said subject one or more antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens with high affinity and/or high avidity. Because a lower serum titer of such antibodies is more effective than the effective serum titer of known antibodies, lower doses of said antibodies can be used to achieve a serum titer effective for the prevention, management, and/or amelioration of respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof. The use of lower doses of antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RS V antigens reduces the likelihood of adverse effects. Further, the high affinity and/or high avidity of the antibodies described herein enable less frequent topical administration of said antibodies than previously thought to be necessary for preventing, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof.

[0026] In another aspect, the invention provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering to said subject at least a first dose of a modified antibody of the invention so that said subject has a serum antibody titer of from about 0.1 μg/ml to about 800 μg/ml. In some embodiments, the serum antibody titer is present in the subject for several hours, several days, several weeks, and/or several months. In one embodiment, the first dose of a modified antibody of the invention is administered by pulmonary or intranasal delivery (i.e., topical administration).

[0027] Additionally, the present invention provides an antibody with high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) for the treatment and/or amelioration an upper respiratory tract RSV infection (URI) and/or lower respiratory tract RSV infection (LRI) as well as treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, wherein the antibody comprises one or more amino acid modifications in the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably a modified Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain). Such one or more amino acid modifications in the IgG constant domain results in a modified antibody having a modified effector function comprising an altered binding affinity for one or more FcR's as compared to a wild-type antibody without such amino acid modifications.

[0028] Contemplated as part of the invention is a modified antibody having a modified

Fc domain comprising one or more amino acid substitutions, wherein said amino acid substitutions result in a modified antibody having an increased antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), compared to the same antibody with a wild-type Fc domain (i.e., without said amino acid substitutions), referred to herein as a "3M" mutation or modified antibody.

[0029] Also contemplated as part of the invention is a modified antibody having a modified Fc domain comprising one or more amino acid substitutions, wherein said amino acid substitutions result in a modified antibody having a decreased antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), compared to the same antibody with a wild-type Fc domain (i.e., without said amino acid substitutions), referred to herein as a "TM" mutation or modified antibody.

[0030] It is also contemplated that modified antibodies of the invention include not only those containing amino acid substitutions that either increase or decrease effector functions (i.e., such as ADCC), but also, in addition, amino acid modifications that increases the in vivo half-life of the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g., Fc or hinge-Fc domain), and any molecule attached thereto, such that the modified antibody of the invention

include those with, for example, increased ADCC (3M) combined with increased in vivo half-life in a single modified antibody. Additionally, it is also contemplated that a modified antibody of the invention include those with, for example, decreased ADCC (TM) combined with increased in vivo half-life in a single modified antibody.

[0031] The present invention provides methods of preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject comprising topically administering to said subject an effective amount of an antibody provided herein (a modified antibody) which immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen with high affinity and/or high avidity. Because a lower and/or longer- lasting serum titer of the antibodies of the invention will be more effective in the management, prevention, treatment and/or amelioration of a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI) than the effective serum titer of known antibodies (e.g., palivizumab), lower and/or fewer doses of the antibody can be used to achieve a serum titer effective for the prevention, management, treatment and/or amelioration of a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and'or LRI), for example one or more doses per RSV season. The use of lower and/or fewer doses of an antibody of the invention that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen reduces the likelihood of adverse effects and are safer for administration to, e.g., infants or adults, over the course of treatment (for example, due to lower serum titer, longer serum half-life and'or better localization to the upper respiratory tract and'or lower respiratory tract as compared to known antibodies (e.g., palivizumab).

[0032] In one aspect, the invention provides a method of preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, the method comprising topically administering to a human patient in need thereof an effective amount of an antibody described herein (i.e., a modified antibody of the invention), such as a modified antibody that comprises a modified IgG constant domain which include not only those containing amino acid substitutions that either increase or decrease effector functions (i.e., such as ADCC), but also, in addition, amino acid modifications that increases the in vivo half-life of the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof

(e.g., Fc or hinge-Fc domain), and any molecule attached thereto, such that the modified antibody of the invention include those with, for example, increased ADCC (3M) combined with increased in vivo half-life in a single modified antibody. Additionally, it is also contemplated that a modified antibody of the invention include those with, for example, decreased ADCC (TM) combined with increased in vivo half-life in a single modified antibody.

In some embodiments, both upper and lower respiratory tract RSV infections and/or acute RSV disease, can be managed, prevented, treated, or ameliorated.

[0033] In another aspect, the invention provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering to said subject a first dose of an antibody of the invention so that said subject has a nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion antibody concentration of from about 0,01 jig/ml about 2,5 μg/ml. In some embodiments, the nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion antibody concentration is present in the subject for several hours, several days, several weeks, and/or several months. The first dose of a modified antibody of the invention can be a therapeutically effective dose, in one embodiment, the first dose of an antibody of the invention is administered by pulmonary or intranasal delivery.

[0034] In another aspect, the invention provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering an effective amount of a modified antibody of the invention, wherein the effective amount results in a reduction in RSV titer as measured in the nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) for local responses or measured in serum for a systemic response. The reduction of RSV titer in the above may be as compared to a negative control (such as placebo), as compared to another therapy (including, but not limited to treatment with palivizumab), or as compared to the titer in the patient prior to antibody administration.

[0035] In another aspect, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecificatly bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have an association rate constant or kon rate (antibody (Ab) + antigen (Ag)╌kon╌> Ab-Ag) of from about 105 M -1s-1 to about 1010 M -1s-1. In some embodiments, the antibody is a high potency antibody having a kon of from about 103 M -1s-1 to about 108 M -1s-1, preferably about 2.5 X 105 or 5 X 105 M -1s-1, and more preferably about 7.5 X 105 M -1s-1. Such antibodies may also have a high affinity (e.g., about 109 M-1) or may have a lower affinity. In one embodiment, the antibodies that can be used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have a kon rate that is at least 1.5-fold higher than a known anti-RSV antibody (e.g., palivizumab). [0036] In another aspect, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecificalty bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have a koff rate (Ab-Ag╌Koff╌> Ab + Ag) of from iess than 5 X 10-1 s-1 to less than 10 X 10-10s-1, in one embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have a koff rate that is at least 1.5-fold lower than a known anti-RSV antibody (e.g., palivizumab).

[0037] In another aspect, the antibodies that can be used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have an affinity constant or Ka (kon/koff) of from about 102 M- 1 to about 5 X 1015 M-1, or at least 104 M-1, or at least 109 M-1, or at least 1010 M-1, or at least 1011 M- 1. In some embodiments, the antibody is a high potency antibody having a Ka of about 109 M-1, preferably about 1010 M-1, and more preferably about 1011 M-1 as assessed using an assay described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore assay or Kinexa assay).

[0038] In another aspect, the antibodies of the invention, used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifieally bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have a dissociation constant or Kd (koff/kon) of from about 5 X 10-2M to about 5 X 10-16M as assessed using an assay described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore assay or Kinexa assay).

[0039] In another aspect, the antibodies that can be used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) have a dissociation constant (Kd) of between about 25 pM and about 3000 pM as assessed using an assay described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore assay or Kinexa assay).

[0040] In another aspect, the antibodies of the invention, used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) and have a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 6 nM to about 0.01 nM in an in vitro microneutralization assay. In certain embodiments, the microneutralization assay is well known in the art, such as, for example, as described in Johnson el al., 1999, J. Infectious Diseases 180:35-40. In some embodiments, the antibody has an IC50 of less than 3 nM, preferably less than 1 nM in an in vitro microneutralization assay.

[0041] In another aspect, the invention provides methods of prophylaetically or therapeutically administering one or more antibodies (e.g., a modified antibody) of the invention to a subject (e.g., an infant, an infant born prematurely, an immunocompromised subject, a medical worker, an adult with COPD). In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention is administered to a subject or human patient so as to prevent a RSV infection from being

transmitted from one individual to another, or to lessen the infection that is transmitted. In certain embodiments, the antibody is administered in such a way as to achieve (as compared to a placebo control) at least a 1 tog10 reduction in RSV viral titer, as measured by plaque culture of nasal washes or tracheal aspirate specimens, at least a 1.5 log10 reduction in RSV viral titer, as measured by plaque culture of nasal washes or tracheal aspirate specimens, at least a 2 log10 reduction in RSV viral titer, as measured by plaque culture of nasal washes or tracheal aspirate specimens, or at least a 2.5 iog10 reduction in RSV viral titer, as measured by plaque culture of nasal washes or tracheal aspirate specimens. In some embodiments, the subject has been exposed to (and may or may not be asymptomatic), or is likely to be exposed to another individual having RSV infection. In one embodiment, the antibody is administered to the subject intranasally once or more times per day (e.g., one time, two times, four times, etc.) for a period of about one to two weeks after potential or actual exposure to the RSV-infected individual. In one embodiment, the antibody is prophylactically administered to the subject intranasally once or more times per day (e.g., one time, two times, four times, etc.). In another embodiment, the antibody is prophylactically administered to the subject via a pulmonary route once or more times a day. In another embodiment, the antibody is administered to the subject via a pulmonary route once or more times a day at a time of about 72 hours, of about 48 hours, of about 24 hours, of about 12 hours after potential or actual exposure to RSV or after RSV infection. In certain embodiments, the antibody is administered at a dose of between about 60 mg/kg to about 0.025 mg/kg, and more preferably from about 0.025 mg/kg tol 5 mg/kg. In certain embodiments, the subject is administered the antibody of the invention via a pulmonary route for up to 30 seconds, up to 1 minute, up to 5 minutes, for up to 10 minutes, for up to 20 minutes, for up to 30 minutes, for up to 40 minutes. In such a case, the antibody of the invention is administered at a dose of between from about 0.025 mg/kg to about 15 mg/kg. Alternatively, the antibody of the invention is administered at a dose of between from about 0.25 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg. In yet another embodiment, the antibody of the invention is administered at a dose of between from about 0.025 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg. In yet another embodiment, the antibody of the invention is administered at a dose of between from about 1 mg/kg to about 15 mg/kg. In further embodiments, the antibody of the invention is administered at a dose of about 0.025 mg/kg, of about 0.030 mg/kg, of about 0.035 mg/kg, of about 0.040 mg/kg, of about 0.045 mg/kg, of about 0,050 mg/kg, of about 0.055 mg/kg, of about 0.060 mg/kg, of about 0.065 mg/kg, of about 0.070 mg/kg, of about 0.075 mg/kg, of about 0.080 mg/kg, of about 0.085 mg/kg, of about 0.090 mg/kg, of about 0.095 mg/kg, of about 0.1 mg/kg, of about 0.2 mg/kg, of about 0.3 mg/kg, of about 0.4 mg/kg, of about 0.5 mg/kg, of about 1 mg/kg, of about 2 mg/kg, of about 3 mg/kg, of about 4 mg/kg, of about 5 mg/kg, of about 6, mg/kg, of about 7 mg/kg, of about 8 mg/kg, of about 9 mg/kg, of about 10 mg/kg, of about 15 mg/kg.

[0042] The present invention also provides antibodies comprising a VH domain having the amino acid sequence of any VH domain listed in Table 1 and compositions comprising said antibodies for use in preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof. The present invention also provides antibodies comprising one or more VH complementarity determining regions (CDRs) having the amino acid sequence of one or more VH CDRs listed in Table 1 and compositions comprising said antibodies for use in preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof. The present invention also provides antibodies comprising a VL domain having the amino acid sequence of any VL domain listed in Table 1. The present invention also provides antibodies comprising one or more VL CDRs having the amino acid sequence of one or more VL CDRs listed in Table 1 and compositions comprising said antibodies for use in the prevention, treatment or amelioration of one or more symptoms and/or long term consequences associated with a RSV infection. The present invention further provides antibodies comprising a VH domain and a VL domain having the amino acid sequence of any VH domain and VL domain listed in Table 1 and compositions comprising said antibodies for use in the prevention, treatment or amelioration of one or more symptoms and/or long term consequences associated with a RSV infection. The present invention further provides antibodies comprising one or more VH CDRs and one or more VL CDRs having the amino acid sequence of one or more VH CDRs and one or more VL CDRs listed in Table 1 and compositions comprising said antibodies for use in the prevention, treatment or amelioration of one or more symptoms and/ or long term consequences associated with a RSV infection. In the above embodiments, preferably the antibody binds immunospecifically to a RSV antigen.

[0043] In other embodiments, the modified antibodies and methods of the invention encompass the use of antibodies comprising the VH domain and/or VL domain of MEDI-524 (motavizumab). In other embodiments, the methods of the invention encompass the use of antibodies comprising the VH chain and/or VL chain of MEDI-524 (motavizumab). In certain embodiments, the antibody comprises a modified Fc domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof, wherein the antibody has increased or decreased affinity for the FcRn receptor relative to the Fc domain of MEDI-524 (motavizumab) that does not comprise a modified Fc domain (i.e., unmodified MEDI-524).

[0044] In further embodiments, it is contemplated that the methods of the invention encompass the use of antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11, 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties. It is also contemplated that said antibodies may further be modified antibodies, such modifications as defined herein.

[0045] It is also contemplated that the modified antibodies and methods of the invention further modulates a patient's inflammatory response to infection by RSV, as compared to the same antibody without any IgG Fc region modifications. For example, administration of the modified antibodies of the invention to a patient in need thereof will further decrease cytokine release and/or further decrease chemokine release from RSV-infected tissues/cells when compared to the same antibody without any IgG Fc region modifications. It is believed that such a decrease in the pro-inflammatory response in a patient infected with RSV using the modified antibodies of the invention will further mitigate the risk of that patient later developing asthma or other chronic respiratory disease, such as COPD.

[0046] The present invention encompasses methods of delivering one or more antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens directly to the site of RSV infection. In particular, the invention encompasses pulmonary delivery of one or more antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens, in order to mitigate long term consequences of RSV infection, such as, for example, chronic obstructi ve pulmonary disease (COPD). The improved methods of delivering of one or more antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens reduce the dosage and/or frequency of administration of said antibodies to a subject.

3. 1 TERMINOLOGY

[0047] The terms "antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen, " "anti- RSV antibodies," "modified antibody" and analogous terms as used herein refer to Fc modified antibodies (i.e., antibodies that comprise a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1) constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc-domain or hinge-Fc domain)), that specifically bind to a RSV polypeptide. An antibody or a fragmen t thereof that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen may be cross-reactive with related antigens. Preferably, an antibody or a fragment thereof that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen does not cross-react with other antigens. An antibody or a fragment thereof that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen can be identified, for example, by immunoassays, BIAcore, or other techniques known to those of skill in the art. An Fc modified antibody or a fragment thereof binds specifically to a RSV antigen when it binds to a RSV antigen with higher affinity than to any cross-reactive antigen as determined using experimental techniques, such as radioimmunoassays (RIA) and

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), See, e.g. , Paul, ed., 1989, Fundamental Immunology Second Edition, Raven Press, New York at pages 332-336 for a discussion regarding antibody specificity.

[0048] Antibodies of the invention include, but are not limited to, synthetic antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, recombinantly produced antibodies, multispecifie antibodies (including bi-specific antibodies), human antibodies, humanized antibodies, chimeric antibodies, intrabodies, single-chain Fvs (scFv) (e.g. , including monospecific, bispecific, etc.), Fab fragments, F(ab') fragments, disulfide-linked Fvs (sdFv), anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies, and epitope-binding fragments of any of the above, in particular, antibodies of the present invention include immunoglobulin molecules and immunologically active portions of immunoglobulin molecules, i.e., molecules that contain an antigen-binding site that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen (a RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) (e.g., one or more complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of an anti-RSV antibody). The antibodies of the invention can be of any type (e.g., IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD, IgA and IgY), any class (e.g., IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 TgA1 and IgA2), or any subclass (e.g., IgG2a and IgG2b) of immunoglobulin molecule, in other embodiments, modified antibodies of the invention are IgG antibodies, or a class (e.g., human IgG 1) or subclass thereof.

[0049] The term "constant domain" refers to the portion of an immunoglobulin molecule having a more conserved amino acid sequence relative to the other portion of the immunoglobulin, the variable domain, which contains the antigen binding site. The constant domain contains the CH1, CH2 and CH3 domains of the heavy chain and the CHL domain of the light chain.

[0050] The term "effective neutralizing titer" as used herein refers to the amount of antibody which corresponds to the amount present in the serum of animals (human or cotton rat) that has been shown to be either clinically efficacious (in humans) or to reduce virus by 99% in, for example, cotton rats. The 99% reduction is defined by a specific challenge of, e.g., 103 pfu, 104 pfu, 105 pfu, 106 pfu, 107 pfu, 108 pfu, or 109 pfu of RSV.

[0051] The term "elderly" as used herein refers to a human subject who is age 65 or older.

[0052] The term "FcRn receptor" or "FcRn" as used herein refers to an Fc receptor ("n" indicates neonatal) which is known to be involved in transfer of maternal IgGs to a fetus through the human or primate placenta, or yolk sac (rabbits) and to a neonate from the colostrum through the small intestine. It is also known that FcRn is involved in the

maintenance of constant serum IgG levels by binding the IgG molecules and recycling them

into the serum. The binding of FcRn to IgG molecules is pH-dependent with optimum binding at pH 6.0. The amino acid sequences of human FcRn and murine FcRn are indicated by SEQ ID NO:337 and SEQ ID NO:338, respectively.

[0053] The term "fusion protein" as used herein refers to a polypeptide that comprises an amino acid sequence of an antibody and an amino acid sequence of a heterologous polypeptide or protein (i.e., a polypeptide or protein not normally a part of the antibody (e.g., a non-anti-RSV antigen antibody)).

[0054] The term "high potency" as used herein refers to antibodies that exhibit high potency as determined in various assays for biological activity (e.g., neutralization of RSV) such as those described herein. For example, high potency antibodies of the invention have an IC50 value less than 5 nM, less than 4 nM, less than 3 nM, less than 2 nM, less than 1.75 nM, less than 1.5 nM, less than 1.25 nM, less than 1 nM, less than 0.75 nM, less than 0,5 nM, less than 0.25 nM, less than 0.1 nM, less than 0.05 nM, less than 0.025 nM, or less than 0.01 nM, as measured by a microneutralization assay, in certain embodiments, the microneutralization assay is a microneutralization assay described herein or as in Johnson et al., 1999, J. Infectious Diseases 1 80:35-40. Further, high potency antibodies of the invention result in at least a 75%, preferably at least a 95% and more preferably a 99% lower RSV titer in a cotton rat 5 days after challenge with 105 pfu relative to a cotton rat not administered said antibodies. In certain embodiments of the invention, high potency antibodies of the present invention exhibit a high affinity and/or high avidity for one or more RSV antigens (e.g., antibodies having an affinity of at least 2 X 108 M-1 , between 2 X 108M-1 and 5 X 1012M-1, such as at least 2.5 X 108 M-1 , at least 5 X 108 M-1, at least 109 M- 1, at least 5 X 109 M-1, at least 1010 M-1 , at least 5 X 1010 M-1, at least 1011 M-1 , at least 5 X 10n M-1, at least 1012 M-1, or at least 5 X 1012 M-1 for one or more RSV antigens), as measured by any assay known in the art (e.g., BIAcore or Kinexa assays).

[0055] The term "human infant" as used herein refers to a human less than 24 months, preferably less than 16 months, less than 12 months, less than 6 months, less than 3 months, less than 2 months, or less than 1 month of age.

[0056] The term "human infant born prematurely" as used herein refers to a human born at less than 40 weeks gestational age, preferably less than 35 weeks gestational age, wherein the infant is less than 6 months old, preferably less than 3 months old, more preferably less than 2 months old, and most preferably less than 1 month old.

[0057] The terms "IgG Fc region," "Fc region," "Fc domain ," "Fc fragment" and other analogous terms as used herein refers the portion of an IgG molecule that correlates to a crystailizable fragment obtained by papain digestion of an IgG molecule. The Fc region consists of the C-terminal half of the two heavy chains of an IgG molecule that are linked by disulfide bonds. It has no antigen binding activity but contains the carbohydrate moiety and the

binding sites for complement and Fc receptors, including the FcRn receptor (see below). For example, an Fc fragment contains the entire second constant domain CH2 (residues 231-340 of human IgG1, see SEQ ID NO:339) and the third constant domain CH3 (residues 341-447 of human IgG1, see, SEQ ID NO:340). All numbering used herein is according to the EU Index (Kabat et al. (1991) Sequences of proteins of immunological interest, (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.) 5th ed.), unless otherwise indicated.

[0058] The term "IgG hinge-Fc region" or "hinge-Fc fragment" as used herein refers to a region of an IgG molecule consisting of the Fc region (residues 231-447) and a hinge region (residues 216-230; e.g., SEQ ID NO:341) extending from the N-terminus of the Fc region, according to the EU Index (Kabat et al. (1991) Sequences of proteins of immunological interest. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.) 5th ed.). An example of the amino acid sequence of the human IgG l hinge-Fc region is SEQ) ID NO:342.

[0059] As used herein, the terms "infection" and "RSV infection" refer to all stages of

RSVs life cycle in a host (including, but not limited to the invasion by and replication of RS V in a cell or body tissue), as well as the pathological state resulting from the invasion by and replication of a RSV. The invasion by and multiplication of a RSV includes, but is not limited to, the following steps: the docking of the RSV particle to a cell, fusion of a virus with a cell membrane, the introduction of viral genetic information into a cell, the expression of RSV proteins, the production of new RSV particles and the release of RSV particles from a cell. An RSV infection may be an upper respiratory tract RSV infection (URI), a lower respiratory tract RSV infection (LRI), or a combination thereof, in specific embodiments, the pathological state resulting from the invasion by and replication of a RSV is an acute RSV disease. The term "'acute RSV disease" as used herein refers to clinically significant disease in the lungs or lower respiratory tract as a result of an RSV infection, which can manifest as pneumonia and/or bronchiolitis, where such symptoms may include hypoxia, apnea, respiratory distress, rapid breathing, wheezing, cyanosis, etc. Acute RSV disease requires an affected individual to obtain medical intervention, such as hospitalization, administration of oxygen, intubation and/or ventilation.

[0060] The term "in vivo half-life" as used herein refers to a biological half-life of a particular type of IgG molecule or its fragments containing FcRn-binding sites in the circulation of a given animal and is represented by a time required for half the quantity administered in the animal to be cleared from the circulation and/or other tissues in the animal. When a clearance curve of a given IgG is constructed as a function of time, the curve is usually biphasic with a rapid a-phase which represents an equilibration of the injected IgG molecules between the intra-and extra-vascular space and which is, in part, determined by the size of molecules, and a longer p-phase which represents the catabolism of the IgG molecules in the intravascular space. The term "in vivo half-life" practically corresponds to the half-life of the IgG molecules in the β-phase. As used herein, "increased in vivo serum half-life" or "extended in vivo serum half-life" of an antibody that comprises a modified IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably the Fc domain or the hinge-Fc domain), refers to an increase in in vivo serum half-life of the antibody as compared to an antibody that does not comprise a modified IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g. , as compared to an the antibody that does not comprise the one or more modifications in the constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (i.e., an unmodified antibody), or as compared to another RSV antibody, such as palivizumab).

[0061] The term "lower respiratory" tract refers to the major passages and structures of the lower respiratory tract including the windpipe (trachea) and the lungs, including the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli of the lungs.

[0062] As used herein, the term "MEDI-524" is an unmodified anti-RSV monoclonal antibody (motavizumab) described in Wu et al., J. Mol. Biol. 368, 652-665 (2007), herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0063] As used herein, the term "modified antibody" is also synonymous with "Fc modified antibody" and is encompassed within the term "antibodies of the invention". Such encompasses any antibody described herein that comprises one or more "modifications" to the amino acid residues at given positions of the antibody constant domain (preferably an IgG and more preferably an IgG1 constant domain), or FcRn-binding fragment thereof wherein the antibody can have a modified effector function (i.e., ADCC) and, in combination, has an increased in vivo half-life as compared to the same antibody that does not comprise one or more modifications in the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof, as a result of, e.g., one or more modifications in amino acid residues identified to be involved in the interaction between the constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably, an Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), of said antibodies and the Fc Receptor neonate (FcRn). The term "modified antibody" or "Fc modified antibody" also encompasses antibodies that naturally comprise one or more of the recited residues at the indicated positions (e.g., the residues are already present in the recited position in the molecule without modification). Numbering of constant domain positions is according to the EU Index (Kabat et al. (1991) Sequences of proteins of immunological interest. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

Washington, D.C.) 5th ed.). As used herein, a "modified antibody" or "Fc modified antibody" may or may not be a high potency, high affinity and/or high avidity modified antibody. In certain embodiments, the modified antibody is a high potency antibody, and in other embodiments, a high potency as well as a high affinity modified antibody.

[0064] As used herein, one or more "modifications to the amino acid residues" in the context of a constant domain, or FcR-binding fragment thereof, of an antibody of the invention refers to any mutation, substitution, insertion or deletion of one or more amino acid residues of the sequence of the constant domain, or FcR-binding fragment thereof (preferably, Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain) of the antibody. Preferably, the one or more modifications are substitutions. In one embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions are: 234E, 235R, 235A, 235W, 235P, 235V, 235Y, 236E, 239D, 265L, 269S, 269G, 2981, 298T, 298F, 327N, 327G, 327W, 328S, 328V, 329H, 329Q, 330K, 330V, 330G, 330Y, 330T, 330L, 330I, 330R, 330C, 332E, 332H, 332S, 332W, 332F, 332D, and 332Y, wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions are: 239D, 330L, and 332.E, wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. Such Fc domain amino acid substitutions encompass an increase in ADCC (3M) if compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions is selected from the group consisting of: 233P, 234F, 234V, 235 A, 235E, 265 A, 327G, 330S, and 33 I S, wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions is selected from the group consisting of: 234F, 235E, and 33 I S, wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. Such Fc domain amino acid substitutions encompass a decrease in ADCC (TM) if compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid

modifications are, in addition to those described for 3M and TM, in combination with those at positions 251-256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436, with numbering according to the EU Index as in Kabat et al., supra. Such Fc domain combination amino acid substitutions encompass a modified antibody having either an increase in ADCC (3M) with an increase in in vi vo half life, or a modified antibody having a decrease in ADCC (TM) with an increase in in vivo half life, if both are compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. In certain other embodiments, an IgG constant domain comprises a Y at position 252 (252Y), a T at position 254 (254T), and/or an E at position 256 (256E) , wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. Such a combination of amino acid mutations serve to increase serum half-life of antibodies of the invention,

[0065] The term "multiplicity of infection" (M.O.I) as used herein is a way of quantifying the average number of RSV virus that infects a single cell, tissue or patient. In one

embodiment, patients having an RSV infection considered to be a clinical RSV infection, have a measured RSV M.O.I, ranging from about 0.001 to about 0.1. In yet another embodiment, patients having an RSV infection considered to be a clinical RSV infection, have a measured RSV M.O.I, of about 0.1 or of about 0.01.

[0066] The term "nursing home" as used herein means a human patient who is living in a nursing home or skill ed nursing facil ity (SNF) or place of communal residence for people who require constant nursing care and have significant deficiencies with activities of daily living. Residents may include, for example, the elderly and younger adults with physical disabilities,

[0067] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable" as used herein means being approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government, or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopia, European Pharmacopia or other generally recognized pharmacopia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans.

[0068] The term "RSV antigen" refers to a RSV polypeptide to which an antibody immunospecifically binds. A RSV antigen also refers to an analog or derivative of a RSV polypeptide or fragment thereof to which an antibody immunospecifically binds. In some embodiments, a RSV antigen is a RSV F antigen, RSV G antigen or a RSV SIT antigen.

[0069] The term "serum titer" as used herein refers to an average serum titer in a population of least 1 0, preferably at least 20, and most preferably at least 40 subjects up to about 100, 1000 or more.

[0070] As used herein, the term "side effects" encompasses unwanted and adverse effects of a therapy (e.g., a therapeutic agent). Unwanted effects are not necessarily adverse. An adverse effect from a therapy (e.g., a therapeutic agent) might be harmful or uncomfortable or risky. Examples of side effects include, but are not limited to, URI, rhinitis, diarrhea, cough, gastroenteritis, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramping, fever, pain, loss of body weight, dehydration, alopecia, dyspenea, insomnia, dizziness, mucositis, nerve and muscle effects, fatigue, dry mouth, and loss of appetite, rashes or swellings at the site of administration, flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills and fatigue, digestive tract problems and allergic reactions. Additional undesired effects experienced by patients are numerous and known in the art. Many are described in the Physician's Desk Reference (58th cd., 2004).

[0071] As used herein, the terms "subject" and "patient" are used interchangeably. As used herein, a subject is preferably a human. In one embodiment, the subject is a human, with a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI). in another embodiment, the subject is a human, at risk of developing a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI) (e.g., an immunocompromised or immunosuppressed human, or a genetically predisposed human). In one embodiment, the subject is a human with a respiratory' condition (including, but not limited to asthma, wheezing or RAD or COPD) that stems from, is caused by or associated with a RSV infection. In some embodiments, the subject is 0-5 years old or is a human infant, preferably age 0-2 years old (e.g., 0-12 months old). In other embodiments, the subject is an adult, or an elderly subject.

[0072] In certain embodiments of the invention, an "effective serum titer" is the serum titer in a subject, preferably a human that reduces the severity, the duration and'or the symptoms associated with a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease or RSV URI and/or LRI) in said subject. Preferably, the effective serum titer reduces the severity, the duration and/or the number symptoms associated with a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease or RSV URI and/or LRI) in humans with the greatest probability of complications resulting from the infection (e.g., a human with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, congenital immunodeficiency or acquired immunodeficiency, a human who has had a bone marrow transplant, a human infant, or an elderly human). In certain other embodiments of the invention, a "effective serum titer " is the serum titer in a cotton rat that results in a RSV titer 5 days after challenge with 103 pfu that is 99% lower than the RSV titer 5 days after challenge with 105 pfu of RSV in a cotton rat not administered an antibody that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen. In some embodiments, the therapeutically effective amount of an antibody of the invention is about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, about 1.0 mg/kg, about 1.5 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg or about 60 mg/kg. In one embodiment, a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody of the invention is about 15 mg of the antibody per kg of body weight of the subject.

[0073] As used herein, the terms ''treat," "treatment" and "treating" refer to the administration post-infection to result in the reduction or amelioration of the progression, severity, and'or duration of a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and'or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, COPD or a combination thereof) resulting from the administration of one or more therapies (including, but not limited to, the administration of one or more therapeutic agents, such as an antibody of the invention). In specific embodiments, such terms refer to the reduction or inhibition of the replication of RSV, the inhibition or reduction in the spread of RSV to other tissues or subjects (e.g., the spread to the lower respiratory tract), the inhibition or reduction of infection of a cell with a RSV, the inhibition or reduction of acute RSV disease, the inhibition or reduction of a respiratory condition caused by or associated with RSV infection (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD), and/or the inhibition or reduction of one or more symptoms associated with a RSV infection.

[0074] The term "upper respiratory" tract refers to the major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract including the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx).

4. DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0075] FIG. 1 shows a reduction in viral lung titers of cotton rats after therapeutic pulmonary administration of 10 mg/mi of motavizumab (MEDI-524) for 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes as compared to a vehicle control and a control antibody for 30 minutes.

[0076] FIG. 2A shows motavizumab levels in the serum of cotton rats after therapeutic pulmonary administration of 10 mg/ml of motavizumab (MEDI-524) for 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes as compared to a vehicle control and a control antibody for 30 minutes,

[0077] FIG. 2B shows motavizumab levels in lung homogenates of cotton rats after therapeutic pulmonary administration of 10 mg/ml of motavizumab (MEDI-524) for 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes as compared to a vehicle control and a control antibody for 30 minutes,

[0078] FIG. 3 shows a dose-titration study of motav izumab in cotton rats at a variety of concentrations after therapeutic pulmonary administration. Lung viral titers were measured.

[0079] FIG. 4A shows motavizumab levels in serum after therapeutic pulmonary administration in cotton rats at various concentrations of motavizumab.

[0080] FIG.4B shows motavizumab levels in lung homogenates after therapeutic pulmonary administration in cotton rats at various concentrations of motavizumab.

[0081] FIG. 5 shows lung viral titers of cotton rats after therapeutic pulmonary administration of motavizumab. Two groups were tested at two different virus input challenge doses, Ϊ 0Ε5 pfu or 10E4 pfu,

[0082] F1G.6 shows lung viral titers after prophylactically administering motavizumab via a nebulizer (pulmonary route) to cotton rats.

[0083] FIG. 7A shows motavizumab levels in cotton rat lungs 120 hours post prophylactic pulmonary administration via a nebulizer.

[0084] FIG. 7B shows motavizumab levels in cotton rat sera 24 hours and 120 hours after motavizumab administered prophylactically via a nebulizer.

[0085] FIG. 8 shows the efficacy of different concentrations of motavizumab given prophylactically via a nebulizer to cotton rats. Lung viral titers are shown.

[0086] FIG. 9A shows the amount of motavizumab in cotton rat serum after motavizumab was given prophylactically via a nebulizer to cotton rats at different

concentrations.

[0087] FIG. 9B shows the amount of motavizumab in cotton rat lung homogenates after motavizumab was given prophylactically via a nebulizer to cotton rats at different concentrations,

[0088] FIG. 10A shows lung virus titers after prophylactic pulmonary administration of motavizumab via a nebulizer at two time points prior to virus challenge.

[0089] FIG. 10Β shows serum levels of motavizumab after prophylactic pulmonary administration of motavizumab via a nebulizer at two time points prior to virus challenge.

[0090] The interaction of antibodies and antibody-antigen complexes w ith cells of the immune system effects a variety of responses, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) (reviewed in Daeron, Annu. Rev. Immunol 15:203-234 (1997); Ward and Ghetie, Therapeutic Immunol. 2:77-94 (1995); as well as Ravetch and Kinet, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 9:457-492 (1991)). ADCC refer to a cell-mediated reaction in which nonspecific cytotoxic cells that express FcRs (e.g. Natural Killer (NK) ceils, neutrophils, and macrophages) recognize bound antibody on a target cell and subsequently cause lysis of the target cell. The primary cells for mediating ADCC, NK cells, express FcγRlIi only, whereas monocytes express FcγRI, FcγRil and FcγRIII. FcR expression on hematopoietic cells is summarized in Table 3 on page 464 of Ravetch and Kinet, Annu, Rev. Immunol 9:457-92 (1991).

[0091] Several antibody effector functions are mediated by Fc receptors (FcRs), which bind the Fc region of an antibody. FcRs are defined by their specificity for immunoglobulin isotypes; Fc receptors for IgG antibodies are referred to as FcγR, for IgE as FceR, for IgA as FcoR and so on. Three subclasses of FcγR have been identified: FcγRI (CD64), FcγRil (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD 16). These different FcR subtypes are expressed on different cell types (reviewed in Ravetch and Kinet, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 9:457-492 (1991 )). For example, in humans, FcγRIIIB is found only on neutrophils, whereas FcγRIIIA is found on macrophages, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and a subpopuiation of T-cells. Notably, FcγRIIIA is the only FcR present on NK cells, one of the cell types implicated in ADCC.

[0092] Additionally, the present invention provides an antibody with high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) for the treatment and/or amelioration an upper respiratory tract RSV infection (URI) and/or lower respiratory tract RSV infection (LRI) as well as treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory-conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, wherein the antibody comprises one or more amino acid modifications in the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably a modified Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain) that increases the in vivo half-life of the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g., Fc or hinge-Fc domain), and any molecule attached thereto, and increases the affinity of the IgG, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof containing the modified region, for FcRn (i.e., a "modified antibody").

The amino acid modifications may be any modification of a residue (and, in some

embodiments, the residue at a particular position is not modified but already has the desired residue), preferably at one or more of residues 251 -256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436, wherein the modification increases the affinity of the IgG, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof containing the modified region, for FcRn, in other embodiments, the antibody comprises a tyrosine at position 252 (252Y), a threonine at position 254 (254T), and/or a glutamic acid at position 256 (256E) (numbering of the constant domain according to the EU index in Kabat et al. (1991). Sequences of proteins of immunological interest. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.) 5th ed. ("Kabat et al.")) in the constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof in other embodiments, the antibodies comprise 252Y, 254T, and 256E (see EU index in Kabat et al., supra) in the constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (hereafter "ΎΤΕ"),

[0093] The present invention provides methods of preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject comprising topically administering to said subject an effective amount of an antibody provided herein (a modified antibody) which immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen with high affinity and/or high avidity. Because a lower and/or longer-lasting serum titer of the antibodies of the invention will be more effective in the management, treatment and'or amelioration of a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI) than the effective serum titer of known antibodies (e.g., palivizumab), lower and/or fewer doses of the antibody can be used to achieve a serum titer effective for the management, treatment and/or amelioration of a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), for example one or more doses per RSV season. The use of lower and/or fewer doses of an antibody of the invention that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen reduces the likelihood of adverse effects and are safer for administration to, e.g., infants, over the course of treatment (for example, due to lower serum titer, longer serum half-life and'or better localization to the upper respiratory tract and/or lower respiratory tract as compared to known antibodies (e.g., palivizumab). In certain embodiments, an antibody is administered once or twice per RSV season.

[0094] Accordingly, the invention provides antibodies, and methods of using the antibodies thereof, having an increased potency and/or that have increased affinity and/or increased avidity for a RSV antigen (preferably RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) as compared to a known RSV antibody (e.g., palivizumab). In some embodiments, the antibody comprises a modified IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably, Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), which results in increased in vivo serum half-life, as compared to, for

example, antibodies that do not comprise a modified IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g., as compared to the same antibody that does not comprise one or more modifications in the IgG constant domain, or Fc-binding fragment thereof (i.e. , the same, unmodified antibody), or as compared to another RSV antibody, such as palivizitmab). In some embodiments, the antibodies are administered to a subject, wherein the subject is human subject.

[0095] In a specific embodiment, the invention provides a method of preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, the method comprising topically administering to a subject an effective amount of an antibody described herein, for example a modified antibody (i.e., an antibody of the invention). In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of managing, treating and/or ameliorating an acute RSV disease, or progression to an acute RSV disease, the method comprising topically administering to a subject an effective amount of an antibody of the invention. In some embodiments, the symptom or respiratory condition relating to the RSV infection is asthma, wheezing, RAD, COPD, nasal congestion, nasal flaring, cough, tachypnea (rapid coughing), shortness of breath, fever, croupy cough, or a combination thereof, in some embodiments, both upper and lower respiratory tract RSV infections are prevented, treated, managed, and/or ameliorated. In other embodiments, the progression from an upper respiratory tract infection to a lower respiratory tract infection is prevented, treated, managed, and/or ameliorated. In other other embodiments, acute RSV disease, or the progression to an acute RSV disease, is prevented, treated, managed, and/or ameliorated.

[0096] In a specific embodiment, the invention provides a method of preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, the method comprising topically administering to a subject an effective amount of an antibody of the invention. In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, the method comprising topically administering to a subject an effective amount of an antibody of the invention and an effective amount of a therapy other than an antibody of the invention. Preferably, such a therapy is useful in the management, treatment and/or amelioration of a RSV infection (preferably an acute RSV disease, or a RSV

URI and/or LRI). In another embodiment, the treated, managed and/or ameliorated in

accordance with the methods of the invention stems from, is caused by or is associated with a RSV infection, preferably a RSV URI and/or LRI.

[0097] The present invention provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering to said subject at least a first dose of an antibody of the invention so that said subject has a serum antibody titer of from about 0,1 .μg/ml to about 800 μg/ml, such as between 0.1 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml and 250 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml or 0.1 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml. In certain embodiments, the serum antibody titer is at least 0.1 μg/ml, at least 0.2 μg/ml, at least 0.4 μg/ml, at least 0.6 , μg/ml, at least 0.8 μg/ml, at least 1 μg/ml, at least 1.5 μg/ml, at least 2 μg/ml, at least 5 μg/ml, at least 10 μg/ml, at least 15 μg/ml, at least 20 μg/ml, at least 25 μg/ml, at least 30 μg/ml, at least 35 μg/ml, at least 40 μg/ml, at least 45 μg/ml, at least 50 μg/ml, at least 55 μg/ml, at least 60 μg/ml, at least 65 μg/ml, at least 70 μg/ml, at least 75 μg/ml, at least 80 μg/ml, at least 85 μg/ml, at least 90 μg/ml, at least 95 μg/ml, at least 100 μg/ml, at least 105 μg/ml, at least 110 μg/ml, at least 115 μg/ml, at least 120 μg/ml, at least 125 μg/ml, at least 130 μg/ml, at least 135 μg/ml, at least 140 μg/mt, at least 145 μg/ml, at least 150 μg/ml, at least 155 μg/ml, at least 160 μg/ml, at least 165 μg/ml, at least 170 μg/ml, at least 175 μg/ml, at least 180 μg/ml, at least 1 85 μg/ml, at least 190 μg/ml, at least 195 μg/ml, or at least 200 μg/ml, at least 250 μg/ml, at least 300 μg/ml, at least 350 μg/ml, at least 400 μg/ml, at least 450 μg/ml, at least 500 μg/ml, at least 550 μg/ml, at least 600 μg/ml , at least 650 μg/ml, at least 700 μg/ml, at least 750 μg/ml, or at least 800 μg/ml. In one embodiment, a therapeutically effective dose results in a serum antibody titer of approximately 75 μg/ml or less, approximately 60 μg/ml or less, resulting in a serum antibody titer of approximately 50 μg/ml or less, approximately 45 μg/ml or less, approximately 30 μg/ml or less, and preferably at least 2 μg/ml, more preferably at least 4 μg/ml, and most preferably at least 6 μg/ml.

[0098] In some embodiments the aforementioned serum antibody concentrations are present in the subject at about or for about 12 to 24 hours after the administration of the first dose of the antibody of the invention and prior to the optional administration of a subsequent dose. In some embodiments, the aforementioned serum antibody concentrations are present for a certain amount of days after the administration of the first dose of the antibody and prior to the optional administration of a subsequent dose, wherein said certain number of days is from about

20 days to about 180 days (or longer), such as between 20 days and 90 day, 20 days and 60 days, or 20 days and 30 days, and in certain embodiments is at least 20 days, at least 25 days, at least 30 days, at least 35 days, at least 40 days, at least 45 days, at least 50 days, at least 60 days, at least 75 days, at least 90 days, at least 105 days, at least 120 days, at least 135 days, at least 150 days, at least 165 days, at least 180 days or longer, in certain embodiments, the first dose of the antibody resulting in the aforementioned serum antibody concentrations is about 60 mg/kg or less, about 50 mg/kg or less, about 45 mg/kg or less, about 40 mg/kg or less, about 30 mg/kg or less, about 20 mg/kg or less, about 15 mg/kg or less, about 10 mg/kg or less, about 5 mg/kg or less, about 4 mg/kg or less, about 3 mg/kg, about 2 mg/kg or less, about 1.5 mg/kg or iess, about 1 .0 mg/kg or less, about 0.80 mg/kg or less, about 0.40 mg/kg or less, about 0.20 mg/kg or less, about 0,10 mg/kg or less, about 0.05 mg/kg or less, or about 0.025 mg/kg or less. In some embodiments, the first dose of an antibody of the invention is a therapeutically effective dose that results in any one of the aforementioned serum antibody concentrations, in one embodiment, the first dose of an antibody of the invention is administered in a sustained release formulation and/or by intranasal or pulmonary delivery.

[0099] The present invention also provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RS V disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering to said subject a first dose of an antibody of the invention so that said subject has a reduced R SV viral lung titer and/or RSV viral sputum titer (as determined using methods well known to those skilled in the art) as compared to a negative control, for example a subject receiving a placebo, as compared to the tiers in a subject prior to administration of the first dose of an antibody of the invention, or as compared to a subject receiving another RSV antibody (e.g., palivizumab). In embodiments, wherein the antibody is a modified antibody of the invention, the reduced RSV viral lung tier and/or RSV viral sputum titer may further be compared to a subject receiving the same antibody without the modifications in the IgG constant domain.

[00100] The present invention also provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering to said subject a first dose of an antibody of the invention so that said subject has a nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/ or bronchial alveolar lavaged (BAL) antibody concentration of from about 0.01 μg/ml to about 2.5 μg/ml (or more). In certain embodiments, the nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or BAL antibody concentration is at least 0.01 μg/ml, at least 0.011 μg/ml, at least 0.012 μg/ml, at least 0.013 μg/ml, at least 0.014 μg/ml, at least 0.015 μg/ml, at least 0.016 μg/ml, at least 0.017 μg/ml, at least 0.018 μg/ml, at least 0.019 μg/ml, at least 0.02 μg/ml, at least 0.025 μg/ml, at least 0.03 μg/ml. at least 0.035 μg/ml, at least 0.04 μg/ml, at least 0,05 μg/ml, at least 0.06 μg/ml, at least 0.07 μg/ml, at least 0.08 μg/ml, at least 0.09 μg/ml, at least 0.1 μg/ml, at least 0.11 μg/ml, at least 0.1 15 μg/ml, at least 0.12 μg/ml, at least 0.125 μg/ml, at least 0.13 μg/ml, at least 0.135 μg/ml. at least 0.14 μg/ml, at least 0.145 μg/ml, at least 0.15 μg/ml, at least 0.155 μg/ml, at least 0.16 μg/ml , at least 0.165 μg/ml, at least 0.17 μg/ml, at least 0.175 μg/ml, at least 0.18 μg/ml, at least 0.185 μg/ml, at least 0.19 μg/ml, at least 0.195 μg/ml, at least 0.2 μg/ml, at least 0.3 μg/ml, at least 0.4 μg/ml, at least 0.5 μg/ml, at least 0.6 μg/ml, at least 0.7 μg/ml, at least 0.8 μg/ml, at least 0.9 μg/ml, at least 1.0 μg/ml, at least 1.1 μg/ml, at least 1.2 μg/ml, at least 1.3 μg/ml, at least 1.4 μg/ml, at least 1.5 μg/ml, at least 1.6 μg/ml, at least 1.7 μg/ml, at least 1.8 μg/ml, at least 1.9 μg/ml, at least 2.0 μg/ml, at least 2.1 μg/ml, at least 2.2 μg/ml, at least 2.3 μg/ml, at least 2.4 μg/ml, at least 2.5 μg/ml or more.

[00101] In some embodiments the aforementioned nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion antibody concentrations are present in the subject at about or for about 12 to 24 hours after the administration of the first dose of the antibody of the invention and prior to the optional administration of a subsequent dose. In some embodiments, the aforementioned nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or BAL antibody concentrations are present for a certain amount of days after the administration of the first dose of the antibody and prior to the optional administration of a subsequent dose, wherein said certain number of days is from about 20 days to about 180 days (or more), and in certain embodiments is at least 20 days, at least 25 days, at least 30 days, at least 35 days, at least 40 days, at least 45 days, at least 50 days, at least 60 days, at least 75 days, at least 90 days, at least 105 days, at least 120 days, at least 135 days, at least 150 days, at least 165 days, at least 180 days or more. In certain embodiments, the first dose of the antibody resulting in the aforementioned nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or BAL antibody concentrations is about 60 mg/kg or less, about 50 mg/kg or less, about 45 mg/kg or less, about 40 mg/kg or less, about 30 mg/kg or less, about 20 mg/kg or less, about 15 mg/kg or less, about 10 mg/kg or less, about 5 mg/kg or less, about 4 mg/kg or less, about 3 mg/kg, about 2 mg/kg or less, about 1.5 mg/kg or less, about 1.0 mg/kg or less, about 0.80 mg/kg or less, about 0.40 mg/kg or less, about 0.2.0 mg/kg or less, about 0.10 mg/kg or less, about 0.05 mg/kg or less, or about 0.025 mg/kg or less. In some embodiments, the first dose of an antibody of the invention is a therapeutically effective dose that results in any one of the aforementioned nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or BAL antibody concentrations. In one embodiment, the first dose of an antibody of the invention is administered in a sustained release formulation and/or by intranasal and/or pulmonary delivery.

[00102] In specific embodiments, the present invention provides methods for treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof in a subject, said methods comprising topically administering an effective

amount of an antibody of the invention, wherein the effective amount resul ts in a reduction of about 1-fold, about 1.5-fold, about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, about 5-fold, about 8-fold, about 10-fold, about 15-fold, about 20-fold, about 25-fold, about 30-fold, about 35-fold, about 40-fold, about 45-fold, about 50-fold, about 55-fold, about 60-fold, about 65-fold, about 70-fold, about 75-fold, about 80-fold, about 85-fold, about 90-fold, about 95-fold, about 100-fold, about 105-fold, about 110-fold, about 115-fold, about 120 fold, about 125-fold or higher in RSV titer in the nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or BAL. The fold-reduction in RSV titer in the nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion and/or BAL may be as compared to a negative control {such as placebo), as compared to another therapy (including, but not limited to treatment with palivizumab), as compared to the titer in the patient prior to antibody administration or, in the case of modified antibodies, as compared to the same unmodified antibody (e.g., the same antibody prior to constant region modification).

[00103] The present invention provides methods of neutralizing RSV in the upper and/or lower respiratory tract or in the middle ear using an antibody of the invention to achieve a effective serum titer , wherein said effective serum titer is less than 30 μg/ml (and is preferably about 2 μg/ml, more preferably about 4 μg/ml, and most preferably about 6 μg/ml) for about 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180 or more days after administration without any other dosage administration. The antibody of the invention may or may not comprise a modified IgG (e.g., IgG 1) constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g., Fc or hinge-Fc domain) as described herein.

[00104] In other embodiments, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention have a high affinity for RSV antigen. In one embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention have a higher affinity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) than known antibodies, (e.g., palivizumab or other wild-type antibodies). The antibody used in accordance with the methods of the invention may or may not comprise a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1) constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g. , Fc or hinge-Fc domain). In certain embodiments, the antibody is a modified antibody, and preferably the IgG constant domain comprises the extended serum half-life ΥΊΈ modification (e.g., MEDI-524 YTE). In a specific embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention have a 20-fold, 25-fold, 30-fold, 35-fold, 40-fold, 45-fold, 50-fold, 55-fold, 60-fold, 65-fold, 70-fold, 75-fold, 80-fold, 90-fold, 100-fold or higher affinity for a RSV antigen than a known anti-RSV antibody as assessed by techniques described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore assay or Kinexa assay). In a more specific

embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention have a 20-fold, 25-fold, 30-fold, 35-fold, 40-fold, 45-fold, 50-fold, 55-fold, 60-fold, 65-fold, 70-fold, 75-fold, 80-fold, 90-fold, 100-fold or higher affinity for a RSV antigen than palivizumab as assessed by techniques described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore

assay or Kinexa assay), in another embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention have a 65-fold, preferably 70-fold, or higher affinity for a RSV antigen than palivizumab as assessed by techniques described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore assay or Kinexa assay). In accordance with these embodiments, the affinity of the antibodies is, in one embodiment, assessed by a BIAcore assay. In another embodiment, the affinity of the antibodies is assessed by a Kinexa assay .

[00105] In one embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens and have an association rate constant or kon rate (antibody (Ab) + antigen (Ag)╌kon╌> Ab-Ag) of between about 103 M -1s-1 to about 108 M -1s-1 (or higher), and in certain embodiments is at least 105 M -1s-1, at least 2 X 105 M -1s-1, at least 4 X 105 M -1s-1, at least 5 X 105 M -1s-1, at least 106 M -1s-1, at least 5 X 106 M -1s-1, at least 107 M -1s-1, at least 5 X 107 M -1s-1, or at least 108 M -1s-1. In another embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen and have a kon rate that is 1-fold, 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold or 5-fold higher than a known anti-RSV antibody. In a other embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen and have a kon rate that is 1 -fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold or higher than palivizumab. A more detailed explanation of individual rate constant and affinity calculations can be found in the BIAevaluation Software Handbook (BIAcore, Inc., Piscataway, NJ) and Kuby (1994) Immunology. 2nd Ed. (W.H. Freeman & Co., New York, NY).

[00106] In a specific embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens and have a koff rate (Ab-Ag ╌Koff╌> Ab + Ag) of less than 5 X 10-1 s-1 , less than 10-1 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-2 s-1 , less than 10-2 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-3 s-1, less than 10-3 s-1 , and preferably less than 5 X 10-4 s-1 , less than 10-4 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-5 s-1, less than 10-5 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-6 s-1, less than 10-6 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-7 s-1, less than 10-7 s-1, less than 5 X 10-8 s-1, less than 10-8 s-1, less than 5 X 10-9 s-1, less than 10-9 s-1, less than 5 X 10-10 s-1 , or less than 10-10 s-1 , In another embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a R SV antigen and have a koff rate that is 1-fold, 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, 30-fold, 40-fold, 50-fold, 60-fold, 70-fold, 80-fold, 90-fold, or 100-fold lower than a known anti-RSV antibody. In a other embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen and have a koff rate that is 1-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 15-fold, 20-fold, 30-fold, 40-fold, 50-fold, 60-fold, 70-fold, 80-fold, 90-foL or 100-fold or lower than palivizumab.

[00107] In a specific embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens have a kon of between

about 105 M -1s-1 and 108 M -1s-1 (or higher), and in certain embodiments is at least 105 M -1s-1, preferably at least 2 X 105 M -1s-1, at least 4 X 105 M -1s-1, at least 5 X 105 M -1s-1, at least 106 M- 1s-1, at least 5 X 106 M -1s-1, at least 107 M -1s-1, at least 5 X 107 M -1s-1, or at least 108 M -1s-1 and also have a koff rate of less than 5 X 10-1 s-1, less than 10-1 s-1, less than 5 X 10-2 s-1, less than 10-2 s-1, less than 5 X 10-3 s-1, less than 10-3 s-1, and preferably less than 5 X 10-4 s-1, less than 10-4 s-1, less than 7.5 X 10-5 s-1, less than 5 X 10-5 s-1, less than 10-5 s-1, less than 5 X 10-6 s-1, less than 10-6 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-7 s-1, less than 10-7 s-1 , less than 5 X 10-8 s-1, less than 10-8 s-1, less than 5 X 10-9 s-1 , less than 10-9 s-1, less than 5 X 10-10 s-1, or less than 10-10 s-1. In one embodiment, an antibody of the invention has a kon that is about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, or about 5-fold, or higher than palivizumab. In another embodiment, an antibody of the invention has a koff that is about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, or about 5-fold, or lower than paiivizumab.

[00108] In a specific embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens and have an affinity constant or Ka (kon/koff) of from about 102 M-1 to about 5 X 1013 M-1, and in certain

embodiments is at least 102 M-1, at least 5 X 102 M-1, at least 103 M-1, at least 5 X 103 M-1 , at least 104 M-1, at least 5 X 104 M-1, at least 105 M-1, at least 5 X 105 M-1, at least 106 M-1, at least 5 X 106 M-1 , at least 107 M-1, at least 5 X 107 M-1, at least 108 M-1, and preferably at least 5 X 108 M-1, at least 109 M-1, at least 5 X 109 M-1, at least 1010 M-1, at least 5 X 1010 M-1, at least 1011 M-3, at least 5 X 1011 M-1, at least 1012 M-1 , at least 5 X 1012 M-5, at least 1013 M-1, at least 5 X 1013 M-1 , at least 1014 M-1, at least 5 X 1014 M-1 , at least 1015 M-1 , or at least 5 X 3015 M-1.

[00109] In one embodiment, an antibody used in accordance with the methods of the invention has a dissociation constant or Kd (koff/kon) of less than 5 X 10-2 M, less than 10-2 M, less than 5 X 10-3 M, less than 10-3 M, less than 5 X 10-4 M, less than 10-4 M, less than 5 X 10-5 M, less than 10-5 M, less than 5 X 10-6 M, less than 10-6 M, less than 5 X 10-7 M, less than 10-7 M, less than 5 X 10-8 M, less than 10-8 M, less than 5 X 10-9 M, less than 10-9 M, less than 5 X 10 10 M, less than 10-10 M, less than 5 X 10-11 M, less than 10-11 M, less than 5 X 10-12 M, less than 10-12 M, less than 5 X 10-13 M, less than 10-33 M, less than 5 X 10-14 M, less than 10-34 M, less than 5 X 10-15 M, less than H)- 1 5 M, or less than 5 X 10- 16 M.

[00110] In a specific embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen and have a dissociation constant (Kd) of less than 3000 pM, less than 2500 pM, less than 2000 pM, less than 1500 pM, less than 1000 pM, less than 750 pM, less than 500 pM, less than 250 pM, less than 200 pM, less than 150 pM, less than 100 pM, less than 75 pM as assessed using an described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BIAcore assay). In another embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen and have a dissociation constant (Kd) of between 25 to 3400 pM, 25 to 3000 pM, 25 to 2500 pM, 25

to 2000 pM, 25 to 1500 pM, 25 to 1000 pM, 25 to 750 pM, 25 to 500 pM, 25 to 250 pM, 25 to 100 pM, 25 to 75 pM, 25 to 50 pM as assessed using an described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BlAcore assay or Kinexa assay). In another embodiment, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen and have a dissociation constant (Kd) of 500 pM, preferably 100 pM, more preferably 75 pM and most preferably 50 pM as assessed using an described herein or known to one of skill in the art (e.g., a BlAcore assay or Kinexa assay).

[00111] The present invention also provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof, said methods comprising topically administering to a subject a composition (for example, by pulmonary delivery or intranasal delivery) comprising one or more antibodies of the invention which immunospecifieally bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g.. RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) with higher affinity and/or higher avidity than known antibodies such as, e.g., palivizumab (e.g., antibodies having an affinity of from about 2 X 10

M-1 to about 5 X 1012 M-1 (or higher), and preferably at least 2 X 108 M-1, at least 2.5 X 108 M-1, at least 5 X 108 M-1, at least 109 M-1, at least 5 X 109 M-1, at least 1010 M-1, at least 5 X 1010 M-1, at least 101 1 M-1 , at least 5 X 10 1 1 M-1 , at least 1012 M-1 , or at least 5 X 10 12 M-1 lor one or more RSV antigens).

[00112] The IC50 is the concentration of antibody that neutralizes 50% of the RSV in an in vitro microneutralization assay. In certain embodiments, the microneutralization assay is a microneutralization assay described herein or as in Johnson et al., 1999, J. Infectious Diseases 180:35-40. In specific embodiments, the antibodies used in accordance with the methods of the invention immunospecifieally bind to one or more RSV antigens and have a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of less than 6 nM, less than 5 nM, less than 4 nM, less than 3 nM, iess than 2 nM, less than 1.75 nM, iess than 1.5 nM, iess than 1.25 nM, iess than 1 nM, less than 0.75 nM, less than 0.5 nM, less than 0.25 nM, less than 0.1 nM, less than 0.05 nM, iess than 0.025 nM, or less than 0.01 nM, in an in vitro microneutralization assay.

[00113] Thus, methods of the invention encompass the use of modified antibodies which have increased in vivo half-lives compared to known anti-RSV antibodies as a result of, e.g., one or more modifications in amino acid residues identified to be involved in the interaction between the Fc domain of said modified antibodies and the FcRn receptor. In one embodiment, the methods of the invention encompass the use of an antibody that immunospecifieally binds to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) with a high affinity and/or high avidity, and which comprises a modified IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof

(preferably, Fc domain or liinge-Fe domain), wherein the modified IgG constant domain results in increased affinity of the modified IgG constant domain for the FcRn relative to the same antibody that does not comprise a modified IgG domain or another RSV -antibody, such as the Fc domain of palivizumab. In accordance with this embodiment, the increased affinity of the Fc domain of said modified antibodies results in an in vivo half-life of said modified antibodies of from about 20 days to about 180 days (or more) and in some embodiments is at least 20 days, at least 25 days, at least 30 days, at least 35 days, at least 40 days, at least 45 days, at least 50 days, at least 60 days, at least 75 days, at least 90 days, at least 105 days, at least 120 days, at least 135 days, at least 150 days, at least 165 days, at least 180 days or longer. In another embodiment, the modified antibody comprises the VH and VL CDRs, domain or chain of MEDI-524, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, and an Fc domain with increased affinity for the FcRn receptor relative to the Fc domain of, e.g., palivizumab.

[00114] Embodiments of the invention include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. A method of reducing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) viral load in a human in need thereof, comprising a topical administration of an effective amount of a composition comprising a RSV antibody.

2. A method of preventing RSV viral load in a human in need thereof, comprising a topical administration of an effective amount of a composition comprising a RSV antibody.

3. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein said human has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

4. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the human is an elderly human, or is living in a nursing home.

5. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein said reduction of RSV viral load is by at least a 1.5 log 10, as measured by plaque culture of nasal washes or tracheal aspirate specimens.

6. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein said reduction of RSV viral load is by at least a 2.0 log10, as measured by plaque culture of nasal washes or tracheal aspirate specimens.

7. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein said topical administration is by pulmonary administration.

8. The method of embodiment 77 wherein said administration is via a nebulizer.

9. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the effective amount of said RSV antibody is selected from the group consisting of about 30 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about

15 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 1,5 mg/kg, about 1 mg/kg, about 0.75 mg/kg, about 0.5 mg/kg, about 0.25 mg/kg, about 0.1 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, and about 0.025 mg/kg.

10. The method of embodiment 7, wherein the pulmonary administration of the effective amount of the composition is for a d uration of up to 30 second s, up to 1 minute, up to 5 minutes, for up to 10 minutes, for up to 2.0 minutes, for up to 30 minutes,

11. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the RSV antibody has one or more of the characteristics selected from the group consisting of:

(a) an inhibitory concentration IC50 of about 6 nM to about 0.01 nM in an in vitro microneutraiization assay; and/or

(b) an affinity constant Ka rate of between 2 X 108M-1 and 5 X 1012M-1, as measured by a Kinexa assay,

12. The method of embodiment 1, 2 or 11, wherein said RSV antibody immunospecifically binds an RSV F antigen.

13. The method of embodiment 1, 2 or 11 , wherein said RSV antibody immunospecifically binds a RSV G antigen,

14. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein said composition further comprises a second antibody.

15. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein said RS V antibody is a bispecific antibody.

16). The method of embodiment 15, wherein said bispecific antibody immunospecifically binds an RSV F antigen and an RSV G antigen.

17. The method of embodiment 15 or 16, wherein said bispecific antibody is a modi fied antibody.

5.1 Antibodies

[00115] It should be recognized that antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen are known in the art. For example, palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody presently used for the prevention of RSV infection in pediatric patients. The present invention provides methods for preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof by administering to a subject an effective amount of a modified anti-RSV antibody of the invention as described in Table 1 or an antigen-binding fragment thereof.

[00116] The present invention also provides modified antibodies and methods for pre venting, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof by administering to a subject an effective amount of an anti-RSV antibody of the invention, wherein the antibody comprises a modified TgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably, Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain).

[00117] In one embodiment, the modified antibody has one or more amino acid modifications. The one or more amino acid modifications may be substitutions. In one embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions are: 234E, 235R, 235A, 235W, 235P, 235V, 235Y, 236E, 239D, 265L, 269S, 269G, 298I, 298T, 298F, 327N, 327G, 327W, 328S, 328V, 329H, 329Q, 330K . 330V, 330G, 330Y, 330T, 330L, 330I, 330R, 330C, 332E, 332H, 332S, 332 W, 332F, 332D, and 332Y, wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. Such Fc domain amino acid substitutions encompass an increase in ADCC (3M) if compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. A specific embodiment for 3M includes, but is not limited to, 239D, 330L, and 332 E.

[00118] In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions is selected from the group consisting of: 233P, 234F, 234V, 235A, 235E, 265A, 327G, 330S, and 331 S, wherein the numbering system is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. Such Fc domain amino acid substitutions encompass a decrease in ADCC (TM) if compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. A specific embodiment for TM includes, but is not limited to, 234F, 235E, and 331 S.

[00119] In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid modifications are, in addition to those described for 3M and TM, in combination with those at positions 251-256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436, with numbering according to the EU Index as in Kabat. Such Fc domain combination amino acid substitutions encompass a modified antibody having either an increase in ADCC (3M) with an increase in in vivo half life, or a modified antibody having a decrease in ADCC (TM) with an increase in in vivo half life, if both are compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. In certain embodiments, an IgG constant domain comprises a 239D, 330L, 332E, 252Y, 254T, and 256E, in other embodiments, an IgG constant domain comprises a 234F, 235E, 331 S, 252Y, 254T, and 256E.

[00120] The present invention provides antibodies (modified) that immunospecifically bind to one or more R8V antigens. Preferably, the antibodies of the invention

immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens regardless of the strain of RSV. The present invention also provides antibodies that differentially or preferentially bind to RSV antigens from one strain of RSV versus another RSV strain. In a specific embodiment, the antibodies of the invention immunospecifically bind to the RSV F glycoprotein, G glycoprotein or SH protein. In another embodiment, the antibodies present invention immunospecifically bind to the RSV F glycoprotein. In another embodiment, the antibodies of the present invention bind to the A, B, or C antigenic sites of the RSV F glycoprotein.

[00121] Antibodies of the invention include, but are not limited to, monoclonal antibodies, muitispecific antibodies, human antibodies, humanized antibodies, chimeric antibodies, single domain antibodies, camelised antibodies, single chain Fvs (scFv) single chain antibodies, bispecific, Fab fragments, F(ab') fragments, disulfide-iinked Fvs (sdFv) intrabodies, and anti-idiotypie (anti-Id) antibodies (including, e.g., anti-Id antibodies to antibodies of the invention), and epitope-binding fragments of any of the above. In particular, antibodies of the present invention include immunoglobulin molecules and immunologically active portions of immunoglobulin molecules, i.e., molecules that contain an antigen binding site that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen. The immunoglobulin molecules of the invention can be of any type (e.g., IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD, IgA and IgY), class (e.g., IgG1 , IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, lgA1 and IgA2) or subclass of immunoglobulin molecule. In a specific embodiment, an antibody (modified) of the invention is an IgG antibody, preferably an IgG l . In another specific embodiment, an antibody of the invention is not an IgA antibody.

[00122] The antibodies of the invention may be from any animal origin including birds and mammals (e.g., human, murine, donkey, sheep, rabbit, goat, guinea pig, camel, horse, or chicken). Preferably, the antibodies of the invention are human or humanized monoclonal antibodies. As used herein, ''human" antibodies include antibodies having the amino acid sequence of a human immunoglobulin and include antibodies isolated from human

immunoglobulin libraries or from mice that express antibodies from human genes.

[00123] The antibodies of the present invention may be monospecific, bispecific, trispecific or of greater multispecificity. Muitispecific antibodies may be specific for different epitopes of a R SV polypeptide or may be specific for both a RSV polypeptide as well as for a heterologous epitope, such as a heterologous polypeptide or solid support material. See, e.g., PCT publications WO 93/17715, WO 92/08802, WO 91/00360, and WO 92/05793; Tutt, et al.,

J. Immunol. 147:60-69(1991); U.S. Patent Nos. 4,474,893, 4,714,681 , 4,925,648, 5,573,920, and 5,601 ,819; and Kosielny et al., J. Immunol. 148:1547-1553 (1992).

[00124] The present invention provides for antibodies that exhibit a high potency in an assay described herein. High potency antibodies can be produced by methods disclosed in copending U.S. patent application Serial Nos. 60/168,426, 60/186,252, U.S. Publication No. 2002/0098189, and U.S. Patent No. 6,656,467 (which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety) and methods described herein. For example, high potency antibodies can be produced by genetically engineering appropriate antibody gene sequences and expressing the antibody sequences in a suitable host. The antibodies produced can be screened to identify antibodies with, e.g., high kon values in a BIAcore or Kinexa assay, for example.

[00125] In a specific embodiment, an antibody of the invention has approximately 20-fold, 25-fold, 30-fold, 35-fold, 40-fold, 45-fold, 50-fold, 55-fold, 60-fold, 65-fold, 70-fold, 75-fold, 80-fold, 90-fold, 100-fold or higher affinity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) than palivizumab or an antibody-binding fragment thereof as assessed by an assay known in the art or described herein (e.g., a BIAcore assay). In another embodiment, an antibody of the invention has an approximately 1 -fold, 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, or a higher Ka than palivizumab or an antigen-binding fragment thereof as assessed by an assay known in the art or described herein. In another embodiment, an antibody of the invention has an approximately 1-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 6-fold, 7-fold, 8-fold, 9-fold, 10-fold, 11 -fold 12-fold, 13-fold, 14-fold, 15-fold, 16-fold, 17-fold, 18-fold, 19-fold, or 20-fold or more potent than palivizumab or an antigen-binding fragment thereof in an in vitro

microneutralization assay. In certain embodiments, the microneutralization assay is a microneutralization assay described herein or as in Johnson et al., 1999, J. Infectious Diseases 180:35-40. The amino acid sequence of palivizumab is disclosed, e.g., in Johnson et ai, 1997, J. Infectious Disease 176:1215-1224 which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention is an antibody comprising a VH domain of SEQ ID NO:7 (or VH chain of SEQ ID NO:208) and/or a VL domain of SEQ ID NO:8 (or VL chain of SEQ ID NO:209) comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention is an antibody comprising a VH domain of SEQ ID NO:7 (or VH chain of SEQ ID NO:208) and/or a VL domain of SEQ ID NO:8 (or VL chain of SEQ ID NO: 209) comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG 1) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In other embodiments, a modified antibody of the invention is a modified palivizumab antibody or a modified antibody comprising a VH domain of SEQ ID NO:7 (or VH chain of SEQ ID NO:208) and/or a VL domain of SEQ ID NO:8 (or VL chain of SEQ ID NO:209) comprising a modified

IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein.

[00126] In another embodiment, the present invention provides for modified antibodies that immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens, said antibodies comprising one, two, three, or more CDRs having the amino acid sequence of one, two, three, or more CDRs of AFFF, P1212, P12f4, P11d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8c7, 1X-493L1 FR, H3-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A13a1 1, A1h5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, and/or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM14, AM16, AM23 (see Table 1) and further, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 1 1, 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In a other embodiment, an antibody of the invention immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen, and said antibody comprises one, two, three, or more CDRs having the amino acid sequence of one, two, three, or more CDRs of MEDI-524 comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In yet another embodiment, the present invention provides for one or more antibodies that immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV F antigens, said antibodies comprising a combination of VH CDRs and/or VL CDRs having the amino acid sequence of VH CDRs and/or VL CDRs of AFFF, P12f2, P12f4, P1 1d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8c7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A13a11, A1h5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(l ), A3e2, A14a4, A 16b4, A17b5, A17f5, and/or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM14, AM16, AM23 as shown in Table 1 , and further, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11, 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their en ti reties, compri sing a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In a other embodiment, an antibody of the invention immunospecifically binds to a RSV F antigen and said antibody comprises a combination of VH CDRs and/or VL CDRs having the amino acid sequence of the VH CDRs and/or VL CDRs of MEDI-524 (e.g., A4B4L1FR-S28R as shown in Table 1), comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein.



[00127] In one embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VH

CDR 1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 , SEQ ID NO: 10 or SEQ ID NO: 18. In another embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VH CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO:25, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:45, SEQ ID NO:3Q5, or SEQ ID NO:329. In another embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VH CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NQ:29, SEQ ID NO 79. or SEQ ID NO:31 1. In another embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VH CDR 1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 , SEQ ID NO: 10 or SEQ ID NO: 18, a VH CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO:25, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:45, SEQ ID NO:305, or SEQ ID NO:329, and a VH CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:79, or SEQ ID NO:31 1. In a other embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VH CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10, a VH CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 19, and a VH CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20. In accordance with these embodiments, the antibodies immunospecifically bind to a RSV F antigen.

[00128] In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the VH domain of an antibody of the invention is:

(SEQ ID NO:48), wherein the three underlined regions indicate the VH CDR1, CDR2, and CDR3 regions, respectively; the four non-underlined regions correlate with the VH FR 1, FR2, FR3, FR4, respectively; and the asterisk indicates the position of an A→Q mutation in VH FR4 as compared to the VH FR4 of palivizumab (SEQ ID NO:7). This VH domain (SEQ ID NO:48) is identical to that of the MED1-524 antibody described elsewhere herein. In some embodiments, this VH FR can be used in combination with any of the VH CDRs identified in Table 1. In one embodiment, the MEDI-524 antibody comprises the VH domain (SEQ ID

NO:48) and the C-gamma-1 (nGlm) constant domain described in Johnson et al. (1997), J. Infect. Dis. 176, 1215-1224 comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g... the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In one embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH chain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:208 and/or a VH domain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NQ:7. In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH chain having the amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO:254. In another embodiment, a modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH domain having the amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO:48.

[00129] In one embodiment of the present invention, the Fc modified antibodies comprise a VL CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:39, SEQ ID NO:47, SEQ ID NO:72, SEQ ID NO: 314, SEQ ID NO:320, or SEQ ID NO:335. In another embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VL CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO:23, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:50, SEQ ID NO:53, SEQ ID NO:57, SEQ ID NO:59, SEQ ID NO:63, SEQ ID NO:66, SEQ ID NO:69, SEQ ID NO:73, SEQ ID NO:75, SEQ ID NO:77, SEQ ID NO:308, SEQ ID NO:315, SEQ ID NO:321 , SEQ ID NO:326, SEQ ID NO:332, or SEQ ID NO:336. in another embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VL CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO: 16 or SEQ ID NO:61. In another embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VL CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:31 , SEQ ID NO:39, SEQ ID NO:47, SEQ ID NO:72, SEQ ID NO:314, SEQ ID NO:320, or SEQ ID NO:335, a VL CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:15, SEQ ID NO:23, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:50, SEQ ID NO:53, SEQ ID NO:57, SEQ ID NO:59, SEQ ID NO:63, SEQ ID NO:66, SEQ ID NO:69, SEQ ID NO:73, SEQ ID NO:75, SEQ ID NO:77, SEQ ID NO:308, SEQ ID NO:315, SEQ ID NO:321, SEQ ID NO:326, SEQ ID NO:332, or SEQ ID NO:336, and a VL CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO: 16 or SEQ ID NO:61. In a other embodiment, Fc modified antibodies of the invention comprise a VL CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:39, a VLCDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5, and a VLCDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6. In a specific embodiment, the antibodies have a high affinity for RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen). In further embodiments, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in

PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/05571 11 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11 , 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, are also included.

[00130] In one embodiment the amino acid sequence of the VL domain of an antibody of the invention is:

(SEQ ID NO: 11 ), wherein the three underlined regions indicate the VL CDR1, CDR2, and CDR3 regions, respectively; the four non-underlined regions correlate with the VL FR1 , FR2, FR3, FR4, respectively; the asterisk indicates the position of an L→V mutation in VL FR4 as compared to the VL FR4 of palivizumab. This VL domain (SEQ ID NO: l 1) is identical to that of the MEDI-524 antibody described elsewhere herein. In some embod iments, this VL framework can be used in combination with any of the VL CDRs identified in Table 1. in one embodiment, the MEDI-524 antibody comprises the VL domain (SEQ ID NO:209) and the C-kappa constant domain described in Johnson et al. (1997) J. Inƒect. Dis. 176, 1215-1224 and U.S. Patent No. 5,824,307, wherein said antibody comprises a modified IgG, such as a modified IgGi, constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof. In one embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VL chain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:209 and/or a VL domain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8. In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VL chain having the amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO:255 and/or a VL domain having the amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO: 1 1.

[00131] In a specific embodiment, Fc modified antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigens) comprise a VH domain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO:24, SEQ ID NO:28, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:36, SEQ ID NO:40, SEQ ID NO:44, SEQ ID NO:48, SEQ ID NO:51, SEQ ID NO:55, SEQ ID NO:67, SEQ ID NO:78, SEQ ID NO: 304, SEQ ID NO:310, SEQ ID NO:317, SEQ ID NO:323, or SEQ ID NO:328, and a VL domain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8, SEQ ID NO: 13, SEQ ID NO:21, SEQ ID NO:26, SEQ ID

MO: 30, SEQ ID NO:34, SEQ ID NO:38, SEQ ID NO:42, SEQ ID NO:46, SEQ ID NO:49, SEQ ID NO:52, SEQ ID NO:54, SEQ ID NO:56, SEQ ID NO:58, SEQ ID NO:60, SEQ ID NO:62, SEQ ID NO:64, SEQ ID NO:65, SEQ ID NO:68, SEQ ID NO:70, SEQ ID NO: 71, SEQ ID NO:74, SEQ ID NO:76, SEQ ID NO:3G7, SEQ ID NO:313, SEQ ID NO:319, SEQ ID NO:325, SEQ ID NO:331, or SEQ ID NO:334. In a other embodiment, Fc modified antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV F antigen comprise a VH domain having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:48 and a VL domain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 11. In another specific embodiment, the Fc modified antibodies of the invention have a high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen). In another embodiment, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11 , 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, are also contemplated.

[00132] In one embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 , SEQ ID NO: 10 or SEQ ID NO: 18 and a VL CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 22. SEQ ID NO:31 , SEQ ID NO:39, SEQ ID NO:47, SEQ ID NO:314, SEQ ID NO:320, or SEQ ID NO:335. In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR l having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 , SEQ ID NO: 10 or SEQ ID NO:1 8 and a VL CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO:23, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:50, SEQ ID NO:53, SEQ ID NO:57, SEQ ID NO:59, SEQ ID NO:63, SEQ ID NO:66, SEQ ID NO:69, SEQ ID NO:73, SEQ ID NO:75, SEQ ID NO:77, SEQ ID NO:308, SEQ ID NO:315, SEQ ID NO:321, SEQ ID NO:326, SEQ ID NO:332, or SEQ ID NO:336. In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 , SEQ ID NO: 10 or SEQ ID NO:18 and a VL CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO: 16 or SEQ ID NO:61. In accordance with these embodiments, the antibody immunospecifically binds to a RSV F antigen. In another specific embodiment, the Fc modified antibodies of the invention have a high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RS V F antigen or RSV G antigen). In another embodiment, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11, 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, are also contemplated.

[00133] In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a

VH CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID MO: 19, SEQ ID NO:25, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:45, SEQ ID NO:305, or SEQ ID NO:329, and a VL CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID M):14, SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:39, SEQ ID NO:47, SEQ ID NO:314, SEQ ID NO:320, or SEQ ID NO:335. In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO:25, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:41 , SEQ ID NO:45, SEQ ID NO:305, or SEQ ID NO:329, and a VL CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID MO:23, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:50, SEQ ID NO:53, SEQ ID NO:57, SEQ ID NO:59, SEQ ID NO:63, SEQ ID NO:66, SEQ ID NO:69, SEQ ID NO:73, SEQ ID NO:75, SEQ ID NO:77, SEQ ID NO:308, SEQ ID NO:315, SEQ ID NO:321 , SEQ ID NO:326, SEQ ID NO:332, or SEQ ID NO:336. in another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO:25, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:41 , SEQ ID NO:45, SEQ ID NO:305, or SEQ ID NO:329, and a VL CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO: 16, or SEQ ID NO:61. In accordance with these embodiments, the antibody immunospecifically binds to a RSV F antigen. In another specific embodiment, the Fc modified antibodies of the invention have a high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen). In another embodiment, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in

PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11 , 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, are also contemplated.

[00134] In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a

VH CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:79, or SEQ ID NO:311, and a VL CDR1 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:39, SEQ ID NO:47, SEQ ID NO:314, SEQ ID NO:320, or SEQ ID NO:335. In another embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:79, or SEQ ID NO:311, and a VL CDR2 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO:23, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:50, SEQ ID NO:53, SEQ ID NO:57, SEQ ID NO:59, SEQ ID NO:63, SEQ ID NO:66, SEQ ID NO:69, SEQ ID NO:73, SEQ ID NO:75, SEQ ID NO:77, SEQ ID

NO:308, SEQ ID NO:315, SEQ ID NO:321, SEQ ID NO:326, SEQ ID NO:332, or SEQ ID NO:336. In a other embodiment, an Fc modified antibody of the invention comprises a VH CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:79, or SEQ ID NO:311, and a VL CDR3 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO: 16. or SEQ ID NO:61 . in accordance with these embodiments, the antibody immunospecifically binds to a RSV F antigen. In another specific embodiment, the Fc modi fied antibodies of the invention have a high affinity and'Or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen). In another embodiment, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11 , 2008, each of which are in corporated by reference in their entireties, are also contemplated.

[00135] The present invention also provides Fc modified antibodies that

immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen), the Fc modified antibodies comprising derivatives of the VH domains, VH CDRs, VL domains, and VL CDRs described herein that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen. The present invention also provides antibodies comprising derivatives of paiivizumab, AFFF, P12f2, P12f4, P! ld4, Ale9, A 12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8C7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1 -7E5, L2-15B10, A13a11, A1h5, A4B4(1), MEDl-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM 14, AMI 6, AM23 as shown in Table 1 , comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g. , the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein and wherein said antibodies immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigen). In another specific embodiment, the Fc modified antibodies of the invention have a high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen). In another embodiment, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/05571 1 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11, 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, are also contemplated.

[00136] The present invention also provides Fc modified antibodies that

immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen) which comprise a framework region known to those of skill in the art (e.g., a human or non-human fragment). The framework region may be naturally occurring or consensus framework regions. Preferably, the framework region of an antibody of the invention is human (see, e.g., Chothia et al., 1998, J.

Mol. Biol. 278:457-479 for a listing of human framework regions, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). In a specific embodiment, an antibody of the invention comprises the framework region of MEDI-524.

[00137] In a specific embodiment, the present invention provides for Fc modified antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV F antigen, said antibodies comprising the amino acid sequence of one or more of the CDRs of an antibody listed in Table 1 (i.e., AFFF, P12f2, P12f4, P11d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17c4, A4B4, A8C7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-3F4, M3 H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1 -7E5, L2-15B1 G, A13a1 1, A1h5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1 ), A3e2, A14a4, AI6b4, Al7b5, A17f5, or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM14, AM16, AM23 and/or one or more of the CDRs in Table 1, and human framework regions with one or more amino acid substitutions at one, two, three or more of the following residues: (a) rare framework residues that differ between the murine antibody framework (i.e., donor antibody framework) and the human antibody framework (i.e., acceptor antibody framework); (b) Venier zone residues when differing between donor antibody framework and acceptor antibody framework; (c) interchain packing residues at the VH/VL interface that differ between the donor antibody framework and the acceptor antibody framework; (d) canonical residues which differ between the donor antibody framework and the acceptor antibody framework sequences, particularly the framework regions crucial for the definition of the canonical cl ass of the murine antibody CDR loops; (e) residues that are adjacent to a CDR; (g) residues capable of interacting with the antigen; (h) residues capable of interacting with the CDR; and (i) contact residues between the VH domain and the VL domain. In certain embodiments, the above-referenced antibodies comprise a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein.

[00138] The present invention encompasses Fc modified antibodies that

immunospecifically bind to a RSV F antigen, said antibodies comprising the amino acid sequence of the VH domain and/or VL domain or an antigen-binding fragment thereof of AFFF, P12f2, P12ft, P11 d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8C7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1 -7E5, L2-15B10, ABa11 , A 1h5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM14, AM16, AM23 as shown in Table 1 with mutations (e.g., one or more amino acid substitutions) in the framework regions. In certain embodiments, antibodies that

immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen comprise the amino acid sequence of the VH domain and/or VL domain or an antigen-binding fragment thereof of AFFF, P12f2, P12f4, P11d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8C7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A Ba11, A1b.5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A1715, or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM14, AM16, AM23 as shown in

Table 1 with one or more amino acid residue substitutions in the framework regions of the VH and/or VL domains.

[00139] The present invention also encompasses antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV antigens (e.g., RSV F antigens), said antibodies comprising the amino acid sequence of MEDI-524 with mutations (e.g., one or more amino acid substitutions) in the framework regions, in certain embodiments, antibodies which immunospecifically bind to one or more RSV F antigens comprise the amino acid sequence of MEDI-524 with one or more amino acid residue substitutions in the framework regions of the VH and/or VL domains and one or more modifications in the constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof

(preferably the Fc domain or hinge-Fdc domain).

[00140] The present invention also encompasses Fc modified antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen, said antibodies comprising the amino acid sequence of the VH domain and/or VL domain of an antibody in Table 1 (i.e., AFFF, P1212, P12f4, PI id4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8C7, 1 X-493L1FR, 1 13-31 4. M3H9, Y101 16. DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A13a11, Alh5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A 17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, or A17h4, D25, AM22, AM 14, AM16, AM23) with mutations (e.g., one or more amino acid residue substitutions) in the hypervariable and framework regions. Preferably, the amino acid substitutions in the hypervariable and framework regions improve binding of the antibody to a RSV antigen. In another specific embodiment, the Fc modified antibodies of the invention have a high affinity and/or high avidity for a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen). In another embodiment, antibodies and sequences described in WO 2008/147196 filed May 30, 2008, described in PCT/NL2009/050599 filed October 6, 2009, described in WO 2009/055711 filed October 24, 2008, described in WO 2007/101441 filed March 6, 2007, described in WO 2009/088159 filed December 11, 2008, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties, are also contemplated.

[00141] The present invention also provides for fusion proteins comprising an antibody provided herein that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen and a heterologous polypeptide. Preferably, the heterologous polypeptide that the antibody are fused to is useful for targeting the antibody to respiratory epithelial ceils,

5.1.1 Modifications of Antibody Fc Regions

[00142] The present invention provides for modified antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen which have modifications to their Fc regions.

[00143] In certain embodiments, the in vivo half-life of the modified antibody is increased as compared to as compared to the same antibody that does not comprise one or more modifications in the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof, as determined using methods described herein or known in the art (see Exampie 6,17), In some embodiments, the half-life of the modified antibody is increased by about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, about 5-fold, about 6-fold, about 7-fold, about 8-fold, about 9-fold, about 10-fold, about 20-fold or more as compared to the same antibody that does not comprise one or more modifications in the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof. In certain embodiments, the half-life of the modified antibody is increased by 1 day, 2 days, 3 clays, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 11 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 15 days, 1 6 days, 17 days, 18 days, 19 days, 20 clays, 25 days, 30 days or more as compared to the same antibody that does not comprise one or more modifications in the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof,

[00144] In a specific embodiment, modified antibodies having an increased half-life in vivo are be generated by introducing one or more amino acid modifications (i.e., substitutions, insertions or deletions) into an IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably a Fc or hinge-Fc domain fragment). See, e.g., International Publication Nos. WO 02/060919; WO 98/23289; and WO 97/34631; and U.S. Patent No. 6,277,375; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety . In a other embodiment, the modified antibodies have one or more amino acid modifications in the second constant CH2 domain (residues 231-340 of human IgG1 ) (e.g., SEQ ID NO:339) and/or the third constant CH3 domain (residues 341 -447 of human IgG1 ) (e.g., SEQ ID NO:340), with numbering according to the EU Index as in Kabat, supra.

[00145] The present invention provides amino acid residues and/or modifications in particular portions of the constant domain (e.g., of an IgG molecule) that interact with the FcRn, which modifications increase the affinity of the IgG, or fragment thereof, for the FcRn.

Accordingly, the invention provides molecules, preferably proteins, more preferably immunoglobulins (including any antibody disclosed in this application), that comprise an IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably a Fc or hinge-Fc domain fragment), having one or more amino acid modifications (i.e., substitutions, insertions, deletions, and/or naturally occurring residues) in one or more regions that interact with the FcRn, which modifications increase the affinity of the IgG or fragment thereof, for the FcRn, and also increase the in vivo half-life of the molecule. In certain embodiments, the one or more amino acid modifications are made in one or more of residues 251-256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436 of the IgG hinge-Fc region (for example, as in the human IgG1 hinge-Fc region depicted in SEQ ID NO:342), or analogous residues thereof, as determined by amino acid sequence alignment, in other IgG hinge-Fc regions. Numbering of residues are according to the EU index in Kabat et al. (1991). Sequences of proteins of immunological interest. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.) 5 th ed. ("Kabat et al.").

Antibody moditications are described in co-owned and co-pending U.S. Serial Mo. 10/020,354 which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00146] In another embodiment, the amino acid modifications are made in a human IgG constant domain such as a human IgG1 constant domain (e.g., those described in Kabat et al., supra), or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (preferably, Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain). In a certain embodiment, the modifications are not made at residues 252, 254, or 256 (i.e., all are made at one or more of residues 251, 253, 255, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, or 428-436) of the IgG constant domain. In one embodiment, the amino acid modifications are not the substitution with leucine at residue 252, with serine at 254, and/or with phenylalanine at position 256). In particular, in certain embodiments, such modifications are not made when the IgG constant domain, hinge-Fc domain, hinge-Fc domain or other FcRn-binding fragment thereof is derived from a mouse.

[00147] The amino acid modifications may be any modification, for example, at one or more of residues 251-256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436 , that increases the in vivo half-life of the IgG constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof (e.g., Fc or hinge-Fc domain), and any molecule attached thereto, and increases the affinity of the IgG, or fragment thereof, for FcRn. In some embodiments, the modified antibodies comprise one or more amino acid substitutions, naturally occurring amino acids, or combinations thereof, at the indicated amino acid positions. Preferably, the one or more modifications also result in a higher binding affinity of the constant domain, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof, for FcRn at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.4. in other embodiments, the modifications alter (i.e., increase or decrease) bioavailability of the molecule, in particular, alters (i.e., increases or decreases) transport (or concentration or half-life) of the molecule to mucosal surfaces (e.g., of the lungs) or other portions of a target tissue. In another embodiment, the amino acid modifications alter (preferably, increase) transport or concentration or half-life of the molecule to the lungs. In other embodiments, the amino acid modifications alter (preferably, increase) transport (or concentration or half-life) of the molecule to the heart, pancreas, liver, kidney, bladder, stomach, large or small intestine, respiratory tract, lymph nodes, nervous tissue (central and/or peripheral nervous tissue), muscle, epidermis, bone, cartilage, joints, blood vessels, bone marrow, prostate, ovary, uterine, tumor or cancer tissue, etc.

[00148] In certain embodiments, the IgG constant domain comprises a modification at one or more of residues 308, 309, 311, 312 and 314. In some embodiments, a modified antibody comprises a threonine at position 308, proline at position 309, serine at position 311, aspartic acid at position 312, and/or leucine at position 314. In other embodiments, a modified antibody comprises an isoleucine at position 308, proline at position 309, and/or a glutamic acid at position 311 , In yet another embodiment, a modified antibody comprises a threonine at

position 308, a proline at position 309, a leucine at position 311, an alanine at position 312, and/or an alanine at position 314. Accordingly, in certain embodiments a modified antibody comprises a constant domain, wherein the residue at position 308 is a threonine or isoleucine, the residue at position 309 is proline, the residue at position 31 1 is serine, glutamic acid or leucine, the residue at position 312 is alanine, and/or the residue at position 314 is leucine or alanine. In one embodiment, a modified antibody comprises threonine at position 308, proline at position 309, serine at position 311, aspartic acid at position 312, and/or leucine at position 314.

[00149] In some embodiments, a modified antibody comprises a constant domain, wherein one or more of residues 251, 252, 254, 255, and 256 is modified, in specific embodiments, residue 251 is leucine or arginine, residue 252 is tyrosine, phenylalanine, serine, tryptophan or threonine, residue 254 is threonine or serine, residue 255 is arginine, leucine, glycine, or isoleucine, and/or residue 256 is serine, arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, asparagine or threonine. In a more specific embodiment, residue 251 is leucine, residue 252 is tyrosine, residue 254 is threonine or serine, residue 255 is arginine, and/or residue 256 is glutamic acid. In certain embodiments, the residue at position 252 is a tyrosine, the residue at position 254 is a threonine, or the residue at position 256 is a glutamic acid, in other embodiments, modified IgG, such as a modified IgG1 , constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof, comprises the YTE modification, i.e., the residue at position 252 is a tyrosine (Y), the residue at position 254 is a threonine (T), and the residue at position 256 is a glutamic acid (E).

[00150] In specific embodiments, the amino acid modifications are substitutions at one or more of residues 428, 433, 434, and 436. in some embodiments, residue 428 is threonine, methionine, leucine, phenylalanine, or serine, residue 433 is lysine, arginine, serine, isoleucine, proline, glutamine or histidine, residue 434 is phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine, and/or residue 436 is histidine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, lysine, or methionine. In a more specific embodiment, residues at position 428 and/or 434 are substituted with methionine, and/or histidine respectively.

[00151] In other embodiments, the amino acid sequence comprises modifications at one or more of residues 385, 386, 387, and 389. In specific embodiments, residue 385 is arginine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, histidine, lysine, alanine or glycine, residue 386 is threonine, proline, aspartic acid, serine, lysine, arginine, isoleucine, or methionine, residue 387 is arginine, proline, histidine, serine, threonine, or alanine, and/or residue 389 is proline, serine or asparagine. In more specific embodiments, one or more of positions 385, 386, 387, and 389 are arginine, threonine, arginine, and proline, respectively. In yet another specific embodiment, one or more of positions 385, 386, and 389 are aspartic acid, proline, and serine, respectively.

[00152] In some embodiments, amino acid modifications are made at one or a combination of residues 251 , 252, 254, 255, 256, 308, 309, 31 1 , 312, 314, 385, 386, 387, 389, 428, 433, 434, and/or 436, particularly where the modifications are amino acid residues described immediately above for these residues.

[00153] In some embodiments, the molecule of the invention contains a Fc region, or

FcRn-binding fragment thereof, having one or more of the following: leucine at residue 251, tyrosine at residue 252, threonine or serine at residue 254, arginine at residue 255, threonine at residue 308, proline at residue 309, serine at residue 311, aspartic acid at residue 312, leucine at residue 314, arginine at residue 385, threonine at residue 386, arginine at residue 387, proline at residue 389, methionine at residue 428, and/or tyrosine at residue 434.

[00154] In certain embodiments, the FcRn-binding fragment has a modification at 1, 2,

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, or all 18 of residues 251 , 252, 254, 255, 256, 308, 309, 311, 312, 314, 385, 386, 387, 389, 428, 433, 434, and/or 436.

[00155] Due to natural variations in IgG constant domain sequences (see, e.g., Kabat et ai , supra), in certain instances, a first amino acid residue may be substituted (or otherwise modified) with a second amino acid residue at a given position or, alternatively, the second residue may be already present in antibody at the given position, in which case substitution is not necessary (for example, the Met at position 252 remains a Met). Amino acid modifications can be made by any method known in the art and many such methods are well known and routine for the skilled artisan. For example, but not by way of limitation, amino acid substitutions, deletions and insertions may be accomplished using any well-known PCR-hased technique. Amino acid substitutions may be made by site-directed mutagenesis (see, for example, Zoller and Smith, Nucl. Acids Res. 10:6487-6500, 1982; Kunkei, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 82:488, 1985, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties). Mutants that result in increased affinity for FcRn and increased in vivo half-life may readily be screened using well-known and routine assays, in a preferred method, amino acid substitutions are introduced at one or more residues in the IgG constant domain or FcRn-binding fragment thereof and the mutated constant domains or fragments are expressed on the surface of bacteriophage which are then screened for increased FcRn binding affinity.

[00156] Preferably, the modified amino acid residues are surface exposed residues.

Additionally, in making amino acid substitutions, preferably the amino acid residue to be substituted is a conservative amino acid substitution, for example, a polar residue is substituted with a polar residue, a hydrophilic residue with a hydrophilic residue, hydrophobic residue with a hydrophobic residue, a positively charged residue with a positively charged residue, or a negatively charged residue with a negatively charged residue. Moreover, preferably, the modified amino acid residue is not highly or completely conserved across species and/or is

critical to maintain the constant domain tertian' stracfare or to FcRn binding. For example, but not by way of limitation, modification of the histidine at residue 310 is not preferred.

[00157] Specific mutants of the Fc domain that have increased affinity for FcRn were isolated after the third-round panning from a library of mutant human IgG1 molecules having mutations at residues 308-314 (histidine at position 310 and tryptophan at position 313 are fixed), those isolated after the fifth-round panning of the library for residues 251 -256

(isoleucine at position 253 is fixed), those isolated after fourth-round panning of the library for residues 428-436 (histidine at position 429, glutamic acid at position 430, alanine at position 431, leucine at position 432, and histidine at position 435 are fixed), and those isolated after sixth-round panning of the library for residues 385-389 (glutamic acid at position 388 is fixed).

[00158] In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention contains a Fc region, or

FcRn-binding fragment thereof, having one or more amino acid modifications. Preferably, the one or more amino acid modifications may be substitutions. In one embodiment, the one or more amino acid substitutions are: 234E, 235R, 235A, 235W, 235P, 235V, 235Y, 236E, 239D, 265L, 269S, 269G, 298I, 298T, 298F, 327N, 327G, 327W, 328S, 328V, 329H, 329Q, 330K, 330V, 330G, 330Y, 330T, 3301., 3301, 330R, 330C, 332E, 332H, 332S, 332W, 332F, 332D, and 332Y, wherein the numbering sy stem is that of the EU index as set forth in Kabat. Such Fc domain amino acid substitutions encompass an increase in ADCC (3M) if compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. A specific embodiment for 3M includes, but is not limited to, 239D, 330L, and 332E. In another embodiment, the one or more amino acid modifications are, in addition to those described for 3M, in combination with those at positions 251-256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436, with numbering according to the EU Index as in Kabat. Such Fc domain combination amino acid substitutions encompass a modified antibody having either an increase in ADCC (3M) with an increase in in vivo half life, if both are compared to the same antibody without said amino acid substitutions. In certain embodiments, an IgG constant domain comprises a 239D, 330L, 332E, 252Y, 254T, and 256E. Among the amino acid residues at positions 251 -256 of the Fc region selected from the group consisting of the following residues: residue 252 is tyrosine, phenylalanine, serine, tryptophan or threonine; residue 254 is threonine; residue 255 is arginine, leucine, glycine, or isoleucine; and residue 256 is serine, arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, or threonine, in a particular embodiment, at least one amino acid modification is selected from the group consisting of the following: residue 251 is leucine, residue 252 is tyrosine, residue 254 is threonine, residue 255 is arginine, and residue 256 is glutamic acid, in certain embodiments, residue 252 is not leucine, alanine, or valine; residue 253 is not alanine; residue 254 is not serine or alanine; residue 255 is not alanine; and/or residue 256 is not alanine, histidine, phenylalanine, glycine, or asparagine.

[00159] In another embodiment, a modified antibody of the invention contains a Fc region, or FeRn-binding fragment thereof, having one or more particular amino acid residues among the amino acid residues at positions 285-290 of the Fc region. In particular

embodiments, residue 285 is not alanine; residue 286 is not alanine, giutamine, serine, or aspartic acid; residue 288 is not alanine; residue 289 is not alanine; and/or residue 290 is not alanine, giutamine, serine, glutamic acid, arginine, or glycine.

[00160] In some embodiments, a modified antibody of the invention contains a Fc region, or FcRn-binding fragment thereof, having one or more particular amino acid residues among the amino acid residues at positions 308-314 of the Fc region selected from the group consisting of the following residues: a threonine at position 308, a proline at position 309, a serine at position 311, and an aspartic acid at position 312. In another embodiment, an antibody of the invention comprises one or more specific modifications selected from the group consisting of an isoleucine at position 308, a proline at position 309, and a glutamic acid at position 311 . In another embodiment, a modified antibody comprises one or more specific amino acid residues selected from the group consisting of a threonine at position 308, a proline at position 309, and a leucine at position 311. In certain embodiments, position 309 is not an alanine; position 310 is not an alanine; position 31 1 is not an alanine or an asparagine; position 312 is not an alanine; and/or position 314 is not an arginine.

[00161] Accordingly, in certain embodiments a modified antibody comprises a constant domain having one or more particular amino acid residues in the Fc region selected from the group consisting of the following residues: the residue at position 308 is threonine or isoleucine: the residue at position 309 is proline; the residue at position 311 is serine, glutamic acid or leucine; the residue at position 312 is aspartic acid; and the residue at position 314 is leucine or alanine. In an embodiment, the modified antibody comprises a constant domain having one or more particular amino acid residues in the Fc region selected from the group consisting of the following residues: threonine at position 308, proline at position 309, serine at position 31 1, aspartic acid at position 312, and leucine at position 314.

[00162] In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention contains a Fc region, or

FcRn-binding fragment thereof, having one or more particular amino acid residues among the amino acid residues at positions 385-389 of the Fc region selected from the group consisting of the following residues: residue 385 is arginine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, histidine, lysine, alanine or glycine; residue 386 is threonine, proline, aspartic acid, serine, lysine, arginine, isoleucine, or methionine; residue 387 is arginine, proline, histidine, serine, threonine, or alanine; and residue 389 is proline, serine or asparagine. In particular embodiments, one or more of the amino acid residue at positions 385, 386, 387, and 389 is arginine, threonine, arginine, and proline, respectively. In another specific embodiment, one or more of the amino

acid residues at positions 385, 386, and 389 is aspartic acid, proline, and serine, respectively. In particular embodiments, the amino acid at any one of positions 386, 388, and 389 is not an alanine.

[00163] In some embodiments, the amino acid modifications are at one or more of residues 428-436. In specific embodiments, residue 428 is threonine, methionine, leucine, phenylalanine, or serine, residue 433 is arginine, serine, isoleucine, proline, glutamine or histidine, residue 434 is phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine, and/or residue 436 is histidine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, lysine, or methionine. In a more specific embodiment, residues at position 428 and/or 434 are substituted with methionine, and/or histidine respectively. In some embodiments, the amino acid residtte at position 430 is not alanine; the amino acid residue at position 433 is not alanine or lysine; the amino acid at position 434 is not alanine or glutamine; the amino acid at position 435 is not alanine, arginine, or tyrosine; and/or the amino acid at position 436 is not alanine or tyrosine.

[00164] In another embodiment, an antibody of the invention contains a Fc region, or

FcRn-binding fragment thereof, having one or more particular amino acid residues in the Fc region selected from the group consisting of a leucine at residue 251, a tyrosine at residue 252, a threonine at residue 254, an arginine at residue 255, a threonine at residue 308, a proline at residue 309, a serine at residue 311, an aspartic acid at residue 312, a leucine at residue 314, an arginine at residue 385, a threonine at residue 386, an arginine at residue 387, a proline at residue 389, a methionine at residue 428, and a tyrosine at residue 434.

[00165] In one embodiment, the invention provides modified immunoglobulin molecules that have increased in vivo half-life and affinity for FeRn relative to unmodified molecules (and, in some embodiments, altered bioavailability such as increased or decreased transport to mucosal surfaces or other target tissues). Such immunoglobulin molecules include IgG molecules that naturally contain an FcRn-binding fragment and other non-IgG

immunoglobulins (e.g., IgE, IgM, IgD, IgA and lgY) or fragments of immunoglobulins that have been engineered to contain an FcRn-binding fragment (i.e., fusion proteins comprising non-IgG immunoglobulin or a portion thereof and an FcRn-binding fragment). In both cases the FcRn-binding fragment has one or more amino acid modifications that increase the affinity of the constant domain fragment for FcRn, such as those pro vided above.

[00166] The modified immunoglobulins include any immunoglobulin molecule that binds (preferably, immunospecifically, i.e., competes off non-specific binding), as determined by immunoassays well known in the art and described herein for assaying specific antigen-antibody binding an antigen and contains an FcRn-binding fragment.

[00167] The IgG molecules of the invention, and FcRn-binding fragments thereof, are preferably IgGI subclass of IgGs, but may also be any other IgG subclasses of given animals.

For example, in humans, the IgG class includes IgG1 , IgG2, lg;G3, and IgG4; and mouse IgG includes IgG1 , IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgG3. It is known that certain IgG subclasses, for example, mouse igG2b and IgG2c, have higher clearance rates than, for example, IgG1 (Medesan et al., Eur. J. Immunol, 28:2092-2100, 1998). Thus, when using IgG subclasses other than IgG1 , it may be advantageous to substitute one or more of the residues, particularly in the CH2 and CH3 domains, that differ from the IgG 1 sequence with those of IgG1 , thereby increasing the in vivo half-life of the other types of IgG.

[00168] The immunoglobulins (and other proteins used herein) may be from any animal origin including birds and mammals. In one embodiment, the antibodies are human, rodent (e.g., mouse and rat), donkey, sheep, rabbit, goat, guinea pig, camel, horse, or chicken. As used herein, "human" antibodies include antibodies having the amino acid sequence of a human immunoglobulin and include antibodies isolated from human immunoglobulin libraries or from animals transgenic for one or more human immunoglobulin and that do not express endogenous immunoglobulins, as described inƒra and, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,939,598 by

Kueherlapati et al.

[00169] Modification of any of the antibodies of the invention (e.g., those with increased affinity and/or avidity for a RSV antigen) and/or other therapeutic antibodies to increase the in vivo half-life permits administration of lower effective dosages and/or less frequent dosing of the therapeutic antibody. Such modification to increase in vivo half-life can also be useful to improve diagnostic immunoglobulins as well, for example, permitting administration of lower doses to achieve sufficient diagnostic sensitivity.

[00170] One or more modifications in amino acid residues 251 -256, 285-290, 308-314,

385-389, and 428-436 of the constant domain may be introduced utilizing any technique known to those of skill in the art. The constant domain or fragment thereof having one or more modifications in amino acid residues 251-256, 285-290, 308-314, 385-389, and 428-436 may be screened by, for example, a binding assay to identify the constant domain or fragment thereof with increased affinity for the FcRn receptor (e.g., as described in Sections 5.5 and 5.6, infra). Those modifications in the hinge-Fc domain or the fragments thereof which increase the affinity of the constant domain or fragment thereof for the FcRn receptor can be introduced into antibodies to increase the in vivo half- lives of said antibodies. Further, those modifications in the constant domain or the fragment thereof which increase the affinity of the constant domain or fragment thereof for the FcRn can be fused to bioactive molecules to increase the in vivo half-lives of said bioactive molecules (and, preferably alter (increase or decrease) the bioavailability of the molecule, for example, to increase or decrease transport to mucosal surfaces (or other target tissue) (e.g., the lungs).

5.1.2 Antibody Conjugates and Fusion Proteins

[00171] In some embodiments, antibodies of the invention are conjugated or recombinantly fused to a diagnostic, detectable or therapeutic agent or any other molecule. When in vivo half-life is desired to be increased, said antibodies can be modified antibodies. The conjugated or recombinantly fused antibodies can be useful, e.g., for monitoring or prognosing the onset, development, progression and/or severity of a RSV URI and/or LRI as part of a clinical testing procedure, such as determining the efficacy of a particular therapy,

[00172] Further, an antibody of the invention may be conjugated or recombinantly fused to a therapeutic moiety or drug moiety that modifies a given biological response. Therapeutic moieties or drug moieties are not to be construed as limited to classical chemical therapeutic agents. For example, the drug moiety may be a protein, peptide, or polypeptide possessing a desired biological activity. Such proteins may include, for example, a toxin such as abrin, ricin A, pseudomonas exotoxin, cholera toxin, or diphtheria toxin; a protein such as tumor necrosis factor, γ-interferon, α-interferon, nerve growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, tissue plasminogen activator, an apoptotic agent, e.g., TNF-γ, TNF-γ, AIM I (see, international Publication No. WO 97/33899), AIM II (see, International Publication No. WO 97/3491 1), Fas Ligand (Takahashi et al., 1994, j. Immunol., 6:1567-1574), and VEGF (see, international Publication No, WO 99/23105), an anti-angiogenic agent, e.g., angiostatin, endostatin or a component of the coagulation pathway (e.g., tissue factor); or, a bioiogical response modifier such as, for example, a lymphokine (e.g., interferon gamma, interleukin-1 ("IL-1"), interleukin-2 ("IL-2"), interieukin-5 ("IL-5"), interieukin-6 ('IL-6"), interleukin-7 ("IL-7"), interleukin 9 ("IL-9"), interleukin-10 ("IL-10"), interleukin- 12 ("IL-12"), interleukin- 15 ("IL -15"), interleukin-23 ("IL-23"), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor ("GM-CSF"), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor ("G-CSF" )), or a growth factor (e.g., growth hormone ("GH")), or a coagulation agent (e.g., calcium, vitamin K, tissue factors, such as bttt not limited to, Hageman factor (factor XII), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekaliikrein (PK), coagulation proteins-factors II (prothrombin), factor V, Xlla, VIII, XIIIa, XI, XIa, IX, IXa, X, phospholipid, and fibrin monomer).

[00173] The present invention encompasses antibodies of the invention (e.g., modified antibodies) recombinantly fused or chemically conjugated (including both covalent and non-covalent conjugations) to a heterologous protein or polypeptide (or fragment thereof, preferably to a polypeptide of about 10, about 20, about 30, about 40, about 50, about 60, about 70, about 80, about 90 or about 100 amino acids) to generate fusion proteins. In particular, the invention provides fusion proteins comprising an antigen-binding fragment of an antibody of the invention (e.g., a Fab fragment, Fd fragment, Fv fragment, F(ab)2 fragment, a VH domain, a VH CDR, a VL domain or a VL CDR) and a heterologous protein, polypeptide, or peptide.

Preferably, the heterologous protein, polypeptide, or peptide that the antibody is fused to is useful for targeting the antibody to a particular cell type. For example, an antibody that immunospecifically binds to a cell surface receptor expressed by a particular cell type (e.g., an immune cell) may be fused or conjugated to a modified antibody of the invention.

[00174] In one embodiment, a fusion protein of the invention comprises AFFF, P12f2,

P12f4, P1 1 d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8C7, 1X-493L1 FR, FD-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(i), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A13a11, A1h5, A4B4(1 ), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(] ), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, or A17h4 antibody and a heterologous polypeptide, in another embodiment, a fusion protein of the invention comprises an antigen-binding fragment of AFFF, P12f2, P12 ft, P11d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8C7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-31 4. M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A13a1 1 , Alh5, A4B4(1 ), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, or A17h4 and a heterologous polypeptide. In another embodiment, a fusion protein of the invention comprises one or more VII domains having the amino acid sequence of any one of the VH domains listed in Table 1 or one or more VL domains having the amino acid sequence of any one of the VL domains listed in Table 1 and a heteroiogous polypeptide. In another embodiment, a fusion protein of the present invention comprises one or more VH CDRs having the amino acid sequence of any one of the VH CDRs listed in Table 1 and a heterologous polypeptide. In another embodiment, a fusion protein comprises one or more VL CDRs having the amino acid sequence of any one of the VL CDRs listed in Table 1 and a heteroiogous polypeptid e. In another embodiment, a fusion protein of the invention comprises at least one VH domain and at least one VI, domain listed in Table 1 and a heterologous polypeptide. In yet another embodiment, a fusion protein of the inv ention comprises at least one VH CDR and at least one VL CDR domain listed in Table 1 and a heterologous polypeptide.

[00175] In addition, an antibody of the invention can be conjugated to therapeutic moieties such as a radioactive metal ion, such as alpha-emitters such as 213Bi or macrocyclic chelators useful for conjugating radiometal ions, including but not limited to, 131In, 131LU, 1 31Y, 131Ho, 131Sm, to polypeptides. In certain embodiments, the macrocycl ic chelator is 1 ,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) which can be attached to the antibody via a linker molecule. Such linker molecules are commonly known in the art and described in Denardo et al., 1998, Clin Cancer Res. 4(10):2483-90; Peterson et al., 1999, Bioconjug. Chem. 10(4):553-7; and Zimmerman et al., 1999, Nuci. Med. Biol. 26(8):943-50, each incorporated, by reference in their entireties.

[00176] Methods for fusing or conjugating therapeutic moieties (including polypeptides) to antibodies are well known, see, e.g., Anion et al., "Monoclonal Antibodies For

Immunotargeting Of Drags in Cancer Therapy", in Monoclonal Antibodies And Cancer

Therapy, Reisfeid et al. (eds.), pp. 243-56 (Alan R. Liss, Inc. 1985); Hellstrom et al.,

''Antibodies For Drug Delivery", in Controlled Drug Delivery (2nd Ed.), Robinson et al (eds.), pp. 623-53 (Marcel Dekkcr, Inc. 1987); Thorpe, "Antibody Carriers Of Cytotoxic Agents In Cancer Therapy: A Review", in Monoclonal Antibodies 84: Biological And Clinical

Applications, Pinch era et al. (eds.), pp. 475-506 (1985); "Analysis, Results, And Future Prospective Of The Therapeutic Use Of Radiolabeled Antibody In Cancer Therapy", in Monoclonal Antibodies For Cancer Detection And Therapy, Baldwin et al. (eds.), pp. 303-16 (Academic Press 1985), Thorpe et al., 1982, Immunol. Rev. 62:1 19-58;╌C╌ U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,336,603, 5,622,929, 5,359,046, 5,349,053, 5,447,851 , 5,723, 125, 5,783,181, 5,908,626, 5,844,095, and 5,1 12,946; EP 307,434; EP 367,166; EP 394,827; PCT publications WO 91 /06570, WO 96/04388, WO 96/22024, WO 97/34631, and WO 99/04813; Ashkenazi et al., Proc. Natl. Acad, Sci. USA, 88: 10535-10539, 1991 ; Traunecker et al. Nature, 331 :84-86, 1988; Zheng et al., J. Immunol, 154:5590-5600, 1995; Vil et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:11337-11341, 1992; and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/727,043 filed October 14, 2005 entitled "Methods of Preventing and Treating RSV Infections and Related Conditions;" and U.S. Provisional No. 60/727,042 filed October 14, 2005 by Genevieve Losonsky entitled "Method s of Administering/Dosing Anti-RSV Antibodies for Prophylaxis and Treatment of RSV infections and Respiratory Conditions;" which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[00177] In particular, fusion proteins may be generated, for example, through the techniques of gene-shuffling, motif-shuffling, exon-shuffling, and/or codon-shuffling

(collectively referred to as "DNA shuffling"). DNA shuffling may be employed to alter the activities of antibodies of the invention (e.g., antibodies with higher affinities and lower dissociation rates). See, generally, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,605,793, 5,81 1,238, 5,830,721 , 5,834,252, and 5,837,458; Patten et al., 1997, Curr. Opinion Biotechnol. 8:724-33; Harayama, 1998, Trends Biotechnol. 16(2):76-82; Hansson, et al., 1999, J. Mol. Biol. 287:265-76; and Lorenzo and Blasco, 1998, Biotechniques 24(2):308- 313 (each of these patents and publications are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Antibodies, or the encoded antibodies, may be altered by being subjected to random mutagenesis by error-prone PGR, random nucleotide insertion or other methods prior to recombination. A polynucleotide encoding an antibody of the invention may be recombined with one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc. of one or more heterologous molecules.

[00178] The therapeutic moiety or drug conjugated or recombinantly fused to an antibody of the invention that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen should be chosen to achieve the desired therapeutic effect(s). A clinician or other medical personnel should consider the following when deciding on which therapeutic moiety or drug to conjugate or reeombinantiy fuse to an antibody of the invention: the nature of the disease, the severity of the disease, and the condition of the subject.

5.2 Therapeutic Uses of Antibodies

[00179] The present invention is directed to antibody-based therapies which involve administering antibodies of the invention to a subject, preferably a human, (e.g., to a subject in need thereof) for managing, treating and/or ameliorating a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LR1), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD). Therapeutic agents of the invention include, but are not limited to, antibodies of the invention (including analogs and derivatives thereof as described herein) and nucleic acids encoding the antibodies of the invention (including analogs and derivatives thereof and anti-idiotypic antibodies as described herein). Antibodies of the invention may be provided in pharmaceutically acceptable compositions as known in the art or as described herein.

[00180] Antibodies of the present invention that function as antagonists of a RSV infection can be administered to a subject, preferably a human, to treat or ameliorate a RSV URI and/or LRI, or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof). For example, antibodies that disrupt or prevent the interaction between a RSV antigen and its host cell receptor may be administered to subject, preferably a human, to prevent, manage, treat and/or ameliorate a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD).

[00181] In a specific embodiment, an antibody of the invention prevents or inhibits RSV from binding to its host cell receptor by at least 99%, at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 45%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 35%, at least 30%, at least 25%, at least 20%, or at least 10% relative to RSV binding to its host ceil receptor in the absence of said antibody or in the presence of a negative control in an assay known to one of skill in the art or described herein, such as by a competition assay or microneutralization assay. In another embodiment, a combination of antibodies of the invention prevents or inhibits RSV from binding to its host cell receptor by at least 99%), at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 45%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 35%, at least 30%, at least 25%, at least 20%, or at least 10% relative to RSV binding to its host cell receptor in the absence of said antibodies or in the presence of a negative control in an assay known to one of skill in the art or described herein, in certain embodiments, one or more modified antibodies of the invention can be administered either alone or in combination. In some embodiments, a combination of antibodies of the invention act synergistically to prevent or inhibit RSV from binding to its host and receptor and/or in managing, treating and/or ameliorating a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD).

[00182] In a specific embodiment, an antibody of the invention (modified) prevents or inhibits RSV-indueed fusion by at least 99%, at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 45%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 35%, at least 30%, at least 25%, at least 20%, or at least 10% relative to RSV-induced fusion in the absence of said antibody or in the presence of a negative control in an assay known to one of skill in the art or described herein. In another embodiment, a combination of antibodies of the invention prevents or inhibits RSV- induced fusion by at least 99%, at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 45%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 35%, at least 30%, at least 25%, at least 20%, or at least 10% relative to RSV-induced fusion in the absence of said antibodies or in the presence of a negative control in an assay known to one of skill in the art or described herein.

[00183] In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention results in reduction of about

1-fold, about 1.5-fold, about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, about 5-fold, about 8-fold, about 10-fold, about 15-fold, about 20-fold, about 25-fold, about 30-fold, about 35-fold, about 40-fold, about 45-fold, about 50-fold, about 55-fold, about 60-fold, about 65-fold, about 70-fold, about 75-fold, about 80-fold, about 85-fold, about 90-fold, about 95-fold, about 100-fold, about 105 fold, about 110-fold, about 115-fold, about 120 fold, about 125-fold or higher in RSV titer in the lung. The fold-reduction in RSV titer may be as compared to a negative control (such as placebo), as compared to another treatment (including, but not limited to treatment with paiivizumab), or as compared to the titer in the patient prior to antibody administration,

[00184] In a specific embodiment, an antibody of the present invention inhibits or downregulates RSV replication by at least 99%, at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 45%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 35%, at least 30%, at least 25%, at least 20%, or at least 10% relative to RSV replication in absence of said antibody or in the presence of a negative control in an assay known in the art or described herein. In another embodiment, a combination of antibodies of the invention inhibits or downregulates RSV replication by at least 99%, at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 45%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 35%, at least 30%, at least 25%, at least 20%, or at least 10% relative to RSV replication in absence of said antibodies or in the presence of a negative control in an assay known in the art or described herein.

[00185] In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention results in reduction of about

1-fold, about 1.5-fold, about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, about 5-fold, about 8-fold, about 10-fold, about 15-fold, about 20-fold, about 25-fold, about 30-fold, about 35-fold, about 40-fold, about 45-fold, about 50-fold, about 55-fold, about 60-fold, about 65-fold, about 70-fold, about 75-fold, about 80-fold, about 85-fold, about 90-fold, about 95-fold, about 100-fold, about 105 fold, about 110-fold, about 115-fold, about 120 fold, about 125-fold or higher in RSV titer in the upper respiratory tract. The fold-reduction in RSV titer may be as compared to a negative control (such as placebo), as compared to another treatment (including, but not limited to treatment with palivizumab), or as compared to the titer in the patient prior to antibody administration. In other embodiments, an antibody of the invention results in reduction of about 1-fold, about 1.5-fold, about 2-fold, about 3-fold, about 4-fold, about 5-fold, about 8-fold, about 10-fold, about 15-fold, about 20-fold, about 25-fold, about 30-fold, about 35-fold, about 40-fold, about 45-fold, about 50-fold, about 55-fold, about 60-fold, about 65-fold, about 70-fold, about 75-fold, about 80-fold, about 85-fold, about 90-fold, about 95-fold, about 100-fold, about 105 fold, about 1 10-fold, about 1 15-fold, about 120 fold, about 125-fold or higher in RSV titer in the lower respiratory tract. The fold-reduction in RSV titer may be as compared to a negative control (such as placebo), as compared to another treatment (including, but not limited to treatment with palivizumab), or as compared to the titer in the patient prior to antibody administration. The antibodies of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with other types of therapies (e,g., hormonal therapy, immunotherapy, and an ti -inflammatory agents). In some embodiments, the antibodies of the invention act synergistically with the other therapies. Generally, administration of products of a species origin or species reactivity (in the case of antibodies) that is the same species as that of the patient is preferred . Thus, in a other embodiment, human or humanized antibodies, derivatives, analogs, or nucleic acids, are administered to a human patient for therapy.

[00186] It is possible to use high affinity and/or potent in vivo inhibiting antibodies and/or neutralizing antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen, for both immunoassays directed to RSV, and the treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof. It is also possible to use polynucleotides encoding high affinity and/or potent in vivo inhibiting antibodies and/or neutralizing antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen, for both immunoassays directed to RSV and therapy for a RSV infection (e.g., treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD),

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof). Such antibodies will preferably have an affinity for the RSV F glycoprotein and/or fragments of the F glycoprotein.

[00187] In one embodiment, the invention also provides methods of treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term

consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof as alternatives to current therapies. In a specific embodiment, the current therapy has proven or may prove to be too toxic (i.e., results in unacceptable or unbearable side effects) for the patient. In another embodiment, an antibody of the invention decreases the side effects as compared to the current therapy. In another embodiment, the patient has proven refractory to a current therapy. In such embodiments, the invention provides for the administration of one or more antibodies of the invention without any other anti-infection therapies. In certain embodiments, a patient with a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease or RSV URT and/or LRI), is refractory to a therapy when the infection has not significantly been eradicated and/or the symptoms have not been significantly alleviated. The determination of whether a patient is refractory can be made either in vivo or in vitro by any method known in the art for assaying the effectiveness of a therapy for infections, using art-accepted meanings of "refractory" in such a context. In various embodiments, a patient with a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease or RSV URI and/or LRI) is refractory when viral replication has not decreased or has increased following therapy.

[00188] In a specific embodiment, the invention provides methods for managing, treating, and/or ameliorating one or more secondary responses to a primary viral infection, said methods comprising topically administering an effective amount of one or more antibodies of the invention alone or in combination with an effective amount of other therapies (e.g., other therapeutic agents). Examples of secondary responses to a primary viral infection include, but are not limited to, asthma-like responsiveness to mucosal stimula, elevated total respiratory resistance, increased susceptibility to secondary viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, and development of conditions such as, but not limited to, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup, and febrile bronchitis.

[00189] In other embodiments, a modified antibody of the invention can be used in passive immunotherapy (for therapy). To the extent the modified antibody also encompasses an extended half-life Fc modification, passive immunotherapy can be accomplished using lower doses and/or less frequent administration of the antibody resulting in fewer side effects, better patient compliance, less costly therapy/prophylaxis, etc. In a other embodiment, the therapeutic is an antibody that binds RSV, for example, any one or more of the anti-RSV antibodies

described herein, wherein said antibody is a modified antibody. In certain embodiments, antibodies of the invention can be used in passive immunotherapy.

[00190] In other embodiments, a human patient who is infected with RSV is treated by administering to said patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a F(ab)' fragment comprising three variable heavy complementarity determining regions (VH CDRs) and three variable light CDRs (VI. CDRs) having an amino acid sequence of VH CDR 1 (SEQ ID NO: 10), VH CDR 2 (SEQ ID NO: 19), and VH CDR 3 (SEQ ID NO:20) and having an amino acid sequence of VL CDR 1 (SEQ ID NO:39), VL CDR 2 (SEQ ID NO:5), and VL CDR 3 (SEQ ID NO:6), wherein said administration is pulmonary and is during the RSV season. There typically occurs a "spike" of RSV infections and/or RSV disease during the height of RSV season in adults and in the elderly. It is contemplated that a method of treatment with the above F(ab)' fragment can reduce the number of patient hospitalizations due to COPD, as compared to a similar cohort of patients who did not receive a therapeutically effective amount of said F(ab)' fragment or placebo.

53 Methods of Administration, Frequency, and Posing of Antibodies

[00191] In an embodiment, a composition for use in the prevention, management, treatment and/or amelioration of a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD) comprises an RSV antibody comprising a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain), described herein. In yet another embodiment, a composition of the present invention comprises one or more fusion proteins of the invention.

[00192] Various delivery systems are known and can be used to administer a therapeutic agent (e.g., a modified antibody of the invention), including, but not limited to, encapsulation in liposomes, microparticles, microcapsules, recombinant cells capable of expressing the antibody, receptor-mediated endocytosis (see, e.g., Wu and Wu, J. Biol. Chem. 262:4429-4432 (1987)), construction of a nucleic acid as part of a retro viral or other vector, etc. Methods of

administering a therapeutic agent (e.g., an antibody of the invention), or pharmaceutical composition include, topical administration, which include intranasal administration or pulmonary administration. The antibody compositions of the invention may be administered by any convenient route, for example by absorption through epithelial or mucocutaneous linings (e.g., oral mucosa, intranasal mucosa, rectal and intestinal mucosa, etc.) and may be administered together with other biologically active agents. In addition, pulmonary administration can also be employed, e.g., by use of an inhaler or nebulizer, and formulation with an aerosolizing agent. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 6,019,968, 5,985,320, 5,985,309, 5,934,272, 5,874,064, 5,855,913, 5,290,540, and 4,880,078; and PCT Publication Nos. WO 92/19244, WO 97/32572, WO

97/44013, WO 98/31346, and WO 99/66903, each of which is incorporated herein by reference their entirety. In a specific embodiment, an antibody of the invention, or composition of the invention is administered using Alkermes AIR™ pulmonary drug delivery technology (Atkermes, Inc., Cambridge, MA).

[00193] In a specific embodiment, it may be desirable to administer a therapeutic agent, or a pharmaceutical composition of the invention locally to the area in need of treatment. This may be achieved by, for example, and not by way of limitation, by topical administration (e.g., by intranasal spray).

[00194] In a specific embodiment, a composition of the invention comprises one, two or more antibodies of the invention. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprises one, two or more antibodies of the invention and a therapeutic agent other than an antibody of the invention. Preferably, the agents are known to be useful for or have been or are currently used for the treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof. In addition to therapeutic agents, the compositions of the invention may also comprise a carrier.

[00195] The compositions of the invention include bulk drug compositions useful in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions (e.g., compositions that are suitable for administration to a subject or patient) that can be used in the preparation of unit dosage forms. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention is a pharmaceutical composition. Such compositions comprise a therapeutically effective amount of one or more therapeutic agents (e.g., a modified antibody of the invention or other therapeutic agent), and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Preferably, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated to be suitable for the route of administration to a subject.

[00196] In a specific embodiment, the term "carrier" refers to a diluent, adjuvant (e.g.,

Freund's adjuvant (complete and incomplete)), excipient, or vehicle with which the therapeutic is administered. Such pharmaceutical carriers can be sterile liquids, such as water and oils, including those of petroleum, animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, mineral oil, sesame oil and the like. Water is a other carrier when the pharmaceutical composition is administered intravenously. Saline solutions and aqueous dextrose and glycerol solutions can also be employed as liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Suitable pharmaceutical excipients include starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, gelatin, malt, rice, flour, chalk, silica gel, sodium stearate, glycerol monostearate, talc, sodium chloride, dried skim milk, glycerol, propylene, glycol, water, elhanol and the like. The composition, if desired, can also contain minor amounts of wetting or emulsifying agents, or pH buffering agents. These compositions can take the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsion, tablets, pills, capsules, powders, sustained- release formulations and the like. Oral formulation can include standard carriers such as pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharine, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, etc. Examples of suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences" by E.W. Martin. Such compositions will contain a therapeutically effective amount of the antibody, preferably in purified form, together with a suitable amount of carrier so as to provide the form for proper administration to the patient. The formulation should suit the mode of administration.

[00197] In another embodiment, the composition is formulated in accordance with routine procedures as a pharmaceutical composition adapted for intravenous administration to human beings. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where necessary, the composition may also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocamne to ease pain at the site of the injection. Such compositions, however, may be administered by a route other than intravenous.

[00198] Generally, the ingredients of compositions of the invention are supplied either separately or mixed together in unit dosage form, for example, as a dry lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of active agent. Where the composition is to be administered by infusion, it can be dispensed with an infusion bottle containing sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the composition is administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water for injection or saline can be provided so that the ingredients may be mixed prior to administration.

[00199] The invention also provides that an antibody of the invention is packaged in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of antibody. In one embodiment, the antibody is supplied as a dry sterilized lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container and can be reconstituted, e.g., with water or saline to the appropriate concentration for administration to a subject. Preferably, the antibody is supplied as a dry sterile lyophilized powder in a hermetically sealed container at a unit dosage of at least 0,5 nig, at least 1 mg, at least 2 mg, or at least 3 mg, and more preferably at least 5 nig, at least 10 mg, at least 15 mg, at least 25 mg, at least 30 mg, at least 35 mg, at least 45 mg, at least 50 mg, at least 60 mg, or at least 75 mg. The lyophilized antibody can be stored at between 2 and 8° C in its original container and the antibody can be administered within 12 hours, preferably within 6 hours, within 5 hours, within 3 hours, or within 1 hour after being reconstituted, in an alternative embodiment, a modified antibody is supplied in liquid form in a hermetically sealed container indicating the quantity and concentration of the antibody. Preferably, the liquid form of the antibody is supplied in a hermetically sealed container at least 0.1 nig/ml, at least 0.5 mg/ml, or at least 1 mg/ml, and more preferably at least 2.5 mg/ml, at least 3 mg/ml, at least 5 mg/ml, at least 8 rag/ml, at least 10 mg/ml, at least 15 mg/ml, at least 25 mg/ml, at least 30 mg/ml, or at least 60 mg/ml.

[00200] The compositions of the invention can be formulated as neutral or salt forms.

Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include those formed with anions such as those derived from hydrochloric, phosphoric, acetic, oxalic, tartaric acids, etc., and those formed with cations such as those derived from sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, ferric hydroxides, isopropylamine, triethylamine, 2-ethylamino ethanol, histidine, procaine, etc.

[00201] The amount of a therapeutic agent (e.g., an antibody of the invention), or a composition of the invention that will be effecti ve in the pre v enting, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV

infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof can be determined by standard clinical techniques. For example, the dosage of a therapeutic agent, or a composition comprising an antibody of the invention that will be effective in the preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof can be determined by administering the composition to a cotton rat, measuring the RSV titer after challenging the cotton rat with 103 pfu of RSV and comparing the RSV titer to that obtain for a cotton rat not administered the therapeutic agent, or the

composition. Accordingly, a dosage that results in a 2 log decrease or a 99% reduction in RSV titer in the cotton rat challenged with 105 pfu of RSV relative to the cotton rat challenged with l(f pfu of RSV but not administered the therapeutic agent, or the composition is the dosage of the composition that can be administered to a human for the preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof.

[00202] The dosage of a composition which will be effective in the preventing, treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof can be determined by administering the composition to an animal model (e.g., a cotton rat or monkey) and measuring the serum titer, lung concentration or nasal turbinate and/or nasal secretion concentration of a modified antibody that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen. Accordingly, a dosage of an antibody or a composition that results in a serum titer of from about 0.1 μg/ml to about 450 ug/ml, and in some embodiments at ieast 0.1 μg/ml, at least 0.2 μg/ml, at least 0.4 μg/ml, at least 0.5 μg/ml, at ieast 0.6 μg/ml, at least 0.8 μg/ml, at least 1 μg/ml, at least 1.5 μg/ml, and preferably at least 2 μg/ml, at least 5 μg/ml, at ieast 10 μg/ml, at least 15 μg/ml, at least 20 μg/ml, at least 25 μg/ml, at least 30 μg/ml, at least 35 μg/ml, at least 40 μg/ml, at ieast 50 μg/ml, at least 75 μg/ml, at least 100 μg/ml, at least 125 μg/ml, at least 150 μg/ml, at ieast 200 μg/ml, at least 250 μg/ml, at least 300 μg/ml, at least 350 μg/ml, at least 400 μg/ml, or at least 450 μg/ml can be administered to a human for the treating, managing, and/or ameliorating respiratory conditions, including, but not limited to, long term consequences of RSV infection and/or RSV disease, such as, for example, asthma, wheezing, reactive airway disease (RAD), chronic

obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a combination thereof. In addition, in vitro assays may optionally be employed to help identify optimal dosage ranges.

[00203] The precise dose to be employed in the formulation will also depend on the route of administration, and the seriousness of the RSV URI and/or LRI, and should be decided according to the judgment of the practitioner and each patient's circumstances. Effective doses may be extrapolated from dose-response curves derived from in vitro or animal model (e.g., the cotton rat or Cynomolgous monkey) test systems,

[00204] For the antibodies of the invention, the dosage administered to a patient is typically 0,0.25 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. In some embodiments, the dosage administered to the patient is about 3 mg/kg to about 60 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. In one embodiment, the dosage administered to a patient is between 0,025 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of the patient's body weight, in another embodiment, the dose is 1 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. Generally, human antibodies have a longer half-life within the human body than antibodies from other species due to the immune response to the foreign polypeptides. Thus, lower dosages of human antibodies and less frequent administration is often possible. Further, the dosage and frequency of administration of the antibodies of the invention may be reduced by enhancing uptake and tissue penetration (e.g., into the nasal passages and/or lung) of the antibodies by modifications such as, for example, lipidation. In a other embodiment, the dosage to be administered to is about 100 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 2 mg/kg, about 1 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0,05 mg/kg, or about 0.025 mg/kg of the patient's body weight.

[00205] In a specific embodiment, antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising antibodies of the invention are administered once a month just prior to (e.g., within three months, within two months, within one month) or during the RSV season. In another embodiment, antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising modified antibodies of the invention are administered every two months just prior to or during the RSV season. In another embodiment, antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising antibodies of the invention are administered every three months just prior to or during the RSV season. In another embodiment, antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising antibodies of the invention are administered once just prior to or during the RSV season. In another embodiment, antibodies of the invention are administered twice, and most preferably once, during a RSV season. In some embodiments, antibodies of the invention are administered just prior to the RSV season and can optionally administered once during the RSV season. In some embodiments, antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising antibodies of the invention, are administered every 24

hours for at least three days, at least four days, at least five days, at least six days up to one week just prior to or during an RSV season. In specific embodiments, the daily administration of antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising antibodies of the invention, occur soon after RSV infection is first recognized (i.e., when the patient has nasal congestion and/or other upper respiratory symptoms), but prior to presentation of clinically significant disease in the lungs (i.e., prior to lower respiratory disease manifestation) such that lower respiratory disease is prevented. In another embodiment, modified antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising modified antibodies of the invention are administered intranasally once a day for about three (3) days while the patient presents with symptoms of RSV URI during the RSV season. Alternatively, in another embodiment, modified antibodies of the invention, or compositions comprising modified antibodies of the invention are administered intranasally once every other day for at least one week while the patient presents with symptoms of RSV URI during the RSV season. In yet another embodiment, modified antibodies of the invention are administered intranasally 12 hours post RSV-infection to a human patient who presents with an RSV viral load of about an M.O.I of 0,1. In yet another embodiment, modified antibodies of the invention are administered intranasally 24 hours post RSV-infection to a human patient who presents with an RSV viral load of about an M.O.I of 0.1. in yet another embodiment, modified antibodies of the invention are administered intranasally 48 hours post RSV-infection to a human patient who presents with an RSV viral load of about an M.O.I of 0.01.

[00206] The term "RSV season" refers to the season when RSV infection is most likely to occur. Typically, the RSV season in the northern hemisphere commences in November and lasts through April, but may be extended from August to June in the northem hemisphere, depending upon a region's climate,

[00207] In one embodiment, approximately 6)0 mg/kg or less, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, or approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less of an antibody the invention is administered 5 times, 4 times, 3 times, 2 times or, preferably, 1 time during a RSV season to a subject, preferably a human. In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention is administered about 1-12 times during the RSV season to a subject, wherein the doses may be administered as necessary, e.g., weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly, trimonthly, etc., as determined by a physician. In some embodiments, a lower dose (e.g., 5-15 mg/kg) can be administered more frequently (e.g., 3-6 times) during a RSV season. In other embodiments, a higher dose (e.g., 30-60 mg/kg) can be administered less frequently (e.g., 1-3 times) during a RSV season. However, as will be apparent to those in the art, other dosing amounts and schedules are easily determinable and within the

scope of the invention. In other embodiments, an antibody of the invention comprises one or more VH domains or chains and/or one or more VL domains or chains on Table 1, and comprises a modified constant domain described, such as modifications at those residues in the IgG constant domain identified herein.

[00208] In one embodiment, approximately 60 mg/kg or less, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0,20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of an antibody the invention is administered to a patient five times during a RSV season to a subject, preferably a human, intramuscularly or intranasally. In another embodiment, approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of an antibody the invention is administered to a patient three times during a RSV season to a subject, preferably a human, intramuscularly or intranasally. In yet another embodiment, approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less,

approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of an antibody the invention is administered two times and most preferably one time during a RSV season to a subject, preferably a human, intramuscularly or intranasally. In another embodiment, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less or approximately 0.025 mg/kg of a modified antibody of the invention is administered once a day for at least three days or alternatively, every other day for at least one week during a RSV season to a subject, preferably human, intranasally.

[00209] In a specific embodiment, approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or

less, approximately 1,5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0,80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of an antibody the invention in a sustained release formulation is administered to a subject, preferably a human, to prevent, manage, treat and/or ameliorate a RSV infection (e.g. , acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD). In another specific embodiment, an approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less,

approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less bolus of an antibody the invention not in a sustained release formulation is administered to a subject, preferably a human, to prevent, manage, treat and/or ameliorate a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD), and after a certain period of time, approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0,50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of the invention in a sustained release is administered to said subject (e.g., intranasally or intramuscularly) two, three or four times (preferably one time) during a RSV season. In accordance with this embodiment, a certain period of time can be 1 to 5 days, a week, two weeks, or a month. In another embodiment, approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of a modified antibody of the invention in a sustained release formulation is administered to a subject, preferably a human, intramuscularly or intranasally two, three or four times (preferably one time) during a RSV season to prevent,

manage, treat and/or ameliorate a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD).

[00210] In another embodiment, approximately 60 mg/kg, approximately 45 mg/kg or less, approximately 30 mg/kg or less, approximately 15 mg/kg or less, approximately 10 mg/kg or less, approximately 5 mg/kg or less, approximately 3 mg/kg or less, approximately 2 mg/kg or less, approximately 1.5 mg/kg or less, approximately 1 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.80 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.50 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.40 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.20 mg/kg or less, approximately 0,10 mg/kg or less, approximately 0.05 mg/kg or less, or approximately 0.025 mg/kg or less of one or more antibodies of the invention is administered intranasally to a subject to prevent, manage, treat and/or ameliorate a RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI), and/or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (e.g., asthma, wheezing, COPD and/or RAD). In one embodiment, antibodies of the invention are administered intranasally to a subject to treat URI and to prevent lower respiratory tract infection and/or RSV disease.

[00211] In certain embodiments, a single dose of a modified antibody of the invention is admin istered to a patient, wherein the dose is selected from the group consisting of about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, or about 1 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 55 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 65 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg, or about 75 mg/kg. In specific embodiments, a single dose of a modified antibody of the invention is administered once per y ear or once during the course of a RSV season, or once within 3 months, 2 months, or 1 month prior to a RSV season. In some embodiments, a single dose of an antibody of the invention is administered to a patient two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve times, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty five, or twenty six at bi-weekly (e.g., about 14 day) intervals over the course of a year (or alternatively over the course of a RSV season), wherein the dose is selected from the group consisting of about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, or about 1 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 55 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 65 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg, about 75 mg/kg, or a combination thereof (i.e., each dose monthly dose may or may not be identical).

[00212] in another embodiment, a single dose of an antibody of the invention is administered to patient two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, or twelve times at about monthly (e.g., about 30 day) intervals over the course of a year (or alternatively over the course of a RSV season), wherein the dose is selected from the group consisting of about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0,05 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, or about 1 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 55 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 65 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg, about 75 mg/kg, or a combination thereof (i.e., each dose monthly dose may or may not be identical).

[00213] In one embodiment, a single dose of an antibody of the invention is administered to a patient two, three, four, five, or six times at about bi-monthly (e.g., about 60 day) intervals over the course of a year (or alternatively over the course of a RSV season), wherein the dose is selected from the group consisting of about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0.2.0 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, or about 1 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 55 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 65 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg, about 75 mg/kg, or a combination thereof (i.e., each bi-monthly dose may or may not be identical).

[00214] in some embodiments, a single dose of an antibody of the invention is administered to a patient two, three, or four times at about tri-monthly (e.g., about 120 day) intervals over the course of a year (or alternatively over the course of a RSV season), wherein the dose is selected from the group consisting of about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, about 0,10 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, or about 1 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 55 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 65 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg, about 75 mg/kg, or a combination thereof (i.e., each tri-monthly dose may or may not be identical),

[00215] In certain embodiments, the route of administration for a dose of an antibody of the invention to a patient is intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or a combination thereof, but other routes described herein are also acceptable. Each dose may or may not be administered by an identical route of administration). In some embodiments, an antibody of the invention may be administered via multiple routes of administration simultaneously or subsequently to other doses of the same or a different antibody of the invention.

[00216] in certain embodiments, antibodies of the invention are administered

therapeutically to a subject (e.g., an infant, an infant born prematurely, an immunocompromised subject, a medical worker, or an elderly subject). Antibodies of the invention can be

therapeutically administered to a subject so as to prevent a RSV infection from being transmitted from one individual to another, or to lessen the infection that is transmitted. In some

embodiments, the subject has been exposed to (and may or may not be asymptomatic) or is likely to be exposed to another individual having RSV infection (e.g., acute RSV disease, or a RSV URI and/or LRI). For example, said subjects include, but are not limited to, a child in the same school or daycare as another RSV-infected child or other RSV -infected individual, an elderly person in a nursing home as an other RSV-infected individual, or an individual in the same household as a RSV infected child or other RSV-infected individual, medical staff at a hospital working with RSV-infected patients, etc. Preferably, the antibody administered therapeutically to the subject is administered intranasally, but other routes of administration described herein are acceptable, in some embodiments, the antibody of the invention is administered (e.g. , intranasally) at a dose of about 0.025 mg/kg, about 0.05 mg/kg, about 0.10 mg/kg, about 0.20 mg/kg, about 0.40 mg/kg, about 0.50 mg/kg, about 0.80 mg/kg, about 1 mg/kg, about 2 mg/kg, about 3 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, or about 50 mg/kg. Lower dosages and less frequent administration is preferred, for example, intranasal

administration (or other route) once every 2-4 hours, 4-6 hours, 6-8 hours, 8-10 hours, 10-12 hours, 12-14 hours, 14-16 hours, 16-18 hours, 18-20 hours, 20-22 hours, 22-24 hours (preferably once or twice per day) for about 3 days, about 5 days or about 7 days or as otherwise needed after potential or actual exposure to the RSV-infected individual. Any antibody of the invention described herein may be used, and in certain embodiments the antibody comprises a modified IgG (e.g., IgG1 ) constant domain, or FcRn binding fragment thereof (e.g., the Fc domain or hinge-Fc domain).

5.4 Diagnostic Used of Antibodies

[00217] Labeled antibodies of the invention (modified) and derivatives and analogs thereof, which immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen can be used for diagnostic purposes to detect, diagnose, or monitor a RSV URI and/or LRI. The invention provides methods for the detection of a RSV infection (e.g., a RSV URI and/or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof) comprising: (a) assaying the expression of a RSV antigen in cells or a tissue sample of a subject using one or more antibodies of the invention that immunospecifically bind to the RSV antigen; and (b) comparing the level of the RSV antigen with a control level, e.g., levels in normal tissue samples not infected with RSV, whereby an increase in the assayed level of RSV antigen compared to the control level of the RSV antigen is indicative of a RSV infection (e.g., a RSV URI and/or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof).

[00218] The invention provides a diagnostic assay for diagnosing a RSV infection (e.g., a

RSV URI and/or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof) comprising: (a) assaying for the level of a RSV antigen in cells or a tissue sample of an individual using one or more antibodies of the invention that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen; and (b) comparing the level of the RSV antigen with a control level, e.g., levels in normal tissue samples not infected with RSV, whereby an increase in the assayed RSV antigen level compared to the control level of the RSV antigen is indicative of a RSV infection (e.g., a RSV URI and/or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof). A more definitive diagnosis of a RSV infection (e.g., a RSV URI and/or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof) may allow health professionals to employ preventative measures or aggressive treatment earlier thereby preventing the development or further progression of the RSV infection.

5.5 Biological Activity and Assaya for Modified Antibodies

[00219] Antibodies of the present invention may be characterized in a variety of ways. In particular, antibodies of the invention may be assayed for the ability to immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen. Such an assay may be performed in solution (e.g., Houghten, 1992,

Bio/Techniques 13:412-421 ), on beads (Lam, 1991, Nature 354:82-84), on chips (Fodor, 1993, Nature 364:555-556), on bacteria (U.S. Patent No. 5,223,409), on spores (U.S. Patent Nos.

5,571 ,698; 5,403,484; and 5,223,409), on plasmids (Cull et al., 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US A 89:1865-1869) or on phage (Scott and Smith, 1990, Science 249:386-390; Devlin, 1990, Science 249:404-406; Cwirla et al., 1990, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6378-6382; and Felici, 1991 , J. Moi. Biol, 222:301-310) (each of these references is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference). Antibodies that have been identified to immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., a RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) can then be assayed for their specificity and affinity for a RSV antigen.

[00220] The antibodies of the invention may be assayed for immunospecific binding to a

RSV antigen and cross-reactivity with other antigens by any method known in the art.

Immunoassays which can be used to analyze immunospecific binding and cross-reactivity include, but are not limited to, competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as western blots, radioimmunoassays, ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay),

"sandwich" immunoassays, immunoprecipitation assays, precipitin reactions, gel diffusion precipitin reactions, immunodiffusion assays, agglutination assays, complement-fixation assays, immunoradiometric assays, fluorescent immunoassays, protein A immunoassays, to name but a few. Such assays are routine and well known in the art (see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Exemplary immunoassays are described briefly below (bttt are not intended by way of limitation).

[00221 ] Immunoprecipitation protocols generally comprise lysing a population of cells in a lysis buffer such as RIP A buffer (1% NP-40 or Triton X-100, 1 % sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.01 M sodium phosphate at pH 7.2, 1% Trasylol) supplemented with protein phosphatase and/or protease inhibitors (e.g., EDTA, PMSF, aprotinin, sodium vanadate), adding the antibody of interest to the cell lysate, incubating for a period of time (e.g., 1 to 4 hours) at 40° C, adding protein A and/or protein G sepharose beads to the cell lysate, incubating for about an hour or more at 40° C, washing the beads in lysis buffer and resuspending the beads in

SDS/sample buffer. The ability of the antibody of interest to immunoprecipitate a particular antigen can be assessed by, e.g., western blot analysis. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the binding of the antibody to an antigen and decrease the background (e.g., pre-clearing the cell lysate with sepharose beads). For further discussion regarding immunoprecipitation protocols see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 10.16.1.

[00222] Western blot analysis generally comprises preparing protein samples, electrophoresis of the protein samples in a polyacrylamide gel (e.g., 8%- 20% SDS-PAGE depending on the molecular weight of the antigen), transferring the protein sample from the polyacrylamide gel to a membrane such as nitrocellulose, PVDF or nylon, incubating the membrane in blocking solution (e.g., PBS with 3% BSA or non-fat milk), washing the membrane in washing buffer (e.g., PBS-Tween 20), incubating the membrane with primary antibody (the antibody of interest) diluted in blocking buffer, washing the membrane in washing buffer, incubating the membrane with a secondary antibody (which recognizes the primary antibody, e.g., an anti-human antibody) conjugated to an enzymatic substrate (e.g., horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase) or radioactive molecule (e.g., 32P or 125I) diluted in blocking buffer, washing the membrane in wash buffer, and detecting the presence of the antigen. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the signal detected and to reduce the background noise. For further discussion regarding western blot

protocols see, e.g., Ausubei et at, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1 , John Wiley & Sons, inc., New York at 10.8.1.

[00223] ELlSAs comprise preparing antigen, coating the well of a 96 well microtiter plate with the antigen, adding the antibody of interest conjugated to a detectable compound such as an enzymatic substrate (e.g., horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase) to the well and incubating for a period of time, and detecting the presence of the antigen. In ELISAs the antibody of interest does not have to be conjugated to a detectable compound; instead, a second antibody (which recognizes the antibody of interest) conjugated to a detectable compound may be added to the well. Further, instead of coating the well with the antigen, the antibody may be coated to the well. In this case, a second antibody conjugated to a detectable compound may be added following the addition of the antigen of interest to the coated well. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the signal detected as well as other variations of ELISAs known in the art. For further discussion regarding ELISAs see, e.g., Ausubei et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1 , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 11.2.1.

[00224] The binding affinity of an antibody to an antigen and the off-rate of an antibody-antigen interaction can be determined by competitive binding assays. One example of a competitive binding assay is a radioimmunoassay comprising the incubation of labeled antigen (e.g., 3H or 125I) with the antibody of interest in the presence of increasing amounts of unlabeled antigen, and the detection of the antibody bound to the labeled antigen. The affinity of the antibody of the present invention for a RSV antigen and the binding off-rates can be determined from the data by scatchard plot analysis. Competition with a second antibody can also be determined using radioimmunoassays. In this case, a RSV antigen is incubated with an antibody of the present invention conjugated to a labeled compound (e.g., 3H or 125I) in the presence of increasing amounts of an unlabeled second antibody.

[00225] In a other embodiment, BLAcore kinetic analysis is used to determine the binding on and off rates of antibodies to a RSV antigen. BIAcore kinetic analysis comprises analyzing the binding and dissociation of a RSV antigen from chips with immobilized antibodies on their surface.

[00226] In other embodiments, the KinExA assay technology may be used. Such measures binding events in the solution phase, not binding events between a solution phase and a solid phase. Measuring binding events in the solution phase avoids mass transport limitations and mobility effects inherent to methods which measure binding events between a solution phase and a solid phase.

[00227] The antibodies of the invention can also be assayed for their ability to inhibit the binding of RSV to its host cell receptor using techniques known to those of skill in the art. For example, cells expressing the receptor for RSV can be contacted with RSV in the presence or absence of an antibody and the ability of the antibody to inhibit RSV's binding can measured by, for example, flow cytometry or a scintillation assay, RSV (e.g., a RSV antigen such as F glycoprotein or G glycoprotein) or the antibody can be labeled with a detectable compound such as a radioactive label (e.g., 32P, 35S, and 1251) or a fluorescent label (e.g., fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, o-phthaldehyde and fluorescamine) to enable detection of an interaction between RSV and its host cell receptor. Alternatively, the ability of antibodies to inhibit RSV from binding to its receptor can be determined in cell-free assays. For example, RSV or a RSV antigen such as G glycoprotein can be contacted with an antibody and the ability of the antibody to inhibit RSV or the RSV antigen from binding to its host cell receptor can be determined. Preferably, the antibody is immobilized on a solid support and RSV or a RSV antigen is labeled with a detectable compound.

Alternatively, RSV or a RSV antigen is immobilized on a solid support and the antibody is labeled with a detectable compound, RSV or a RSV antigen may be partially or completely purified (e.g., partially or completely free of other polypeptides) or part of a ceil lysate. Further, a RSV antigen may be a fusion protein comprising the RSV antigen and a domain such as giutathionine S transferase. Alternatively, a RSV antigen can be biotinylated. using techniques well known to those of skill in the art (e.g., biotinylation kit, Pierce Chemicals; Rockford, IL).

[00228] The antibodies of the invention can also be assayed for their ability to inhibit or downregulate RSV replication using techniques known to those of skill in the art. For example, RSV replication can be assayed by a plaque assay such as described, e.g., by Johnson et al., 1997, journal of Infectious Diseases 176:1215-1224. The modified an tibodies of the invention can also be assayed for their ability to inhibit or downregulate the expression of RSV polypeptides.

Techniques known to those of skill in the art, including, but not limited to, Western blot analysis, Northern blot analysis, and RT-PCR can be used to measure the expression of RSV polypeptides. Further, the antibodies of the invention can be assayed for their ability to prevent the formation of syncytia.

[00229] The ability of the antibodies described herein to block RSV-induced fusion after viral attachment to the cells is determined in a fusion inhibition assay. This assay is identical to the microneutralization assay, except that the cells were infected with RSV (Long) for four hours prior to addition of antibody (Taylor et al,1992, J. Gen. Virol. 73:2217-2223).

[00230] Modified antibodies or compositions of the invention can be tested in vitro and in vivo for the ability to induce or inhibit the expression of cytokines by an RSV-infected tissue/cell, such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-15. Techniques known to those of skill in the art can be used to measure the level of expression of cytokines. For example, the level of expression of cytokines can be measured by analyzing the level of RNA of cytokines by, for example, RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, and by analyzing the level of cytokines by, for example, immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis and ELISA. The results of the modified antibody of the invention can be compared to the same antibody without the modifications, as described herein. The difference in cytokine response may be quantified by a relative percent: about 5% difference, about 10% difference, about 15% difference, about 20% difference, about 25% difference, about 30% difference, about 35% difference, about 40% difference, about 45% difference, about 50% difference, about 55% difference, about 60% difference, about 65% difference, about 70% difference, about 75% difference, about 80% difference, about 85% difference, about 90% difference, about 95% difference, about 100% difference, and so on. It is envisioned that the modified antibodies of the invention will, in one embodiment, inhibit the expression of cytokines by the RSV-infected tissues/cells (see Examples).

[00231] Alternatively, the level of expression of cytokines can be measured by analyzing the serum level of cytokines in a human patient. Such techniques as well known to those skilled in the art. For example, whole blood samples can be collected from treated patients and placed into tubes. The blood samples can be incubated at 37°C in a 5% CO2 saturated, humidified incubator. The blood samples can be spun, and the supernatant separated, flash-frozen, and stored at -20°C. Cytokines can then be assayed by any standard, conventional bioassay well known to those skilled in the art. For example, cytokine levels, such as, for example, TNF-alpha can be measured using IRMA kits (Medgenix, Brussels, Belgium). Alternatively, RIA assays can be used with specific commercially available antibodies against specific cytokines to sample whole blood supernatants.

[00232] Antibodies or compositions of the invention can be tested in vitro and in vivo for the ability to induce or inhibit the expression of chemokines by affector and memory

lymphocytes in response to RSV-infected tissues/cells, such as CC, CXC or C chemokines, well known to those skilled in the art. Techniques known to those of skill in the art can be used to measure the level of expression of chemokines. For example, the level of expression of cytokines can be measured by analyzing the level of RNA of chemokines by, for example, RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, and by analyzing the level of chemokines by, for example,

immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis and ELISA. The results of the modified antibody of the invention can be compared to the same antibody without the modifications, as described herein. The difference in chemokine response may be quantified by a relative percent: about 5% difference, about 10% difference, about 15% difference, about 20% difference, about 25% difference, about 30% difference, about 35% difference, about 40% difference, about 45% difference, about 50% difference, about 55% difference, about 60% difference, about 65% difference, about 70% difference, about 75% difference, about 80% difference, about 85% difference, about 90% difference, about 95% difference, about 100% difference, and so on. it is envisioned that the modified antibodies of the invention will, in one embodiment, inhibit the expression of chemokines by the affector and memory lymphocytes in response to RSV-infected tissues/ceils.

[00233] Alternatively, the level of expression of chemokines can be measured by analyzing the serum level of chemokines in a human patient. Such techniques as well known to those skilled in the art. For example, an ELISA can be employed after obtaining whole blood sample supernatants, as described above.

[00234] Antibodies or compositions of the invention can be tested in vitro and in vivo for their ability to modulate the biological activity of immune cells, preferably human immune cells (e.g., T-cells, B-cells, and Natural Killer cell s). The ability of an antibody or composition of the invention to modulate the biological activity of immune cells can be assessed by detecting the expression of antigens, detecting the proliferation of immune cells, detecting the activation of signaling molecules, detecting the effector function of immune ceils, or detecting the differentiation of immune cells. Techniques known to those of skill in the art can be used for measuring these activities. For example, cellular proliferation can be assayed by 3H thymidine incorporation assays and trypan blue cell counts. Antigen expression can be assayed, for example, by immunoassays including, but are not limited to, competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as western blots, immunohistochemistry

radioimmunoassays, ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), "sandwich" immunoassays, immunoprecipitation assays, precipition reactions, gel diffusion precipitin reactions, immunodiffusion assays, agglutination assays, complement-fixation assays, immunoradiometric assays, fluorescent immunoassays, protein A immunoassays and FACS analysis. The activation of signaling molecules can be assayed, for example, by kinase assays and electrophoretic shift assays (EMSAs).

[00235] Antibodies or compositions of the invention can also be tested for their ability to inhibit viral replication or reduce viral load in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays. For example, neutralization of the antibodies described herein can be determined by a microneutralization assay. This microneutralization assay is a modification of the procedures described by Anderson et al. (1985, J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:1 050-1052, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The procedures are also described in Johnson et al., 1999, J. Infectious Diseases 180:35-40, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Briefly, antibody dilutions are made in triplicate using a 96-well plate. Virus is incubated with serial dilutions of the antibodies of the invention to be tested for 2 hours at 37C in the wells of a 96-well plate. RSV susceptible HEp-2 cells (2.5 × 104) are added to each well and can be cultured for 5 days at 37C in 5% CO2. After 5 days, the medium was aspirated and cells were washed and fixed to the plates with 80% methanol and 20% PBS. RSV replication can be determined by F protein expression. Fixed cells can be incubated with a biotin-conjugated anti-F protein monoclonal antibody (pan F protein, C-site-specific MAb 133-1H) and detected by horseradish peroxidase conjugated avidin and turnover of substrate TMB (thionitrobenzoic acid), measured at 450 nm. The neutralizing titer can be expressed as the antibody concentration that caused at least 50% reduction in absorbency at 450 nm (the OD450) from virus-only control cells.

[00236] Antibodies or compositions of the invention can also be tested for their ability to decrease the time course of a RSV infection (e.g., a RSV URI and/or LRI), or a symptom or respiratory condition relating thereto (including, but not limited to, asthma, wheezing, RAD, or a combination thereof). Antibodies or compositions of the invention can also be tested for their ability to increase the survival period of humans suffering from a RSV infection (preferably, a RSV URI and/or LRI) by at least 25%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 75%, at least 85%, at least 95%, or at least 99%. Further, antibodies or compositions of the invention can be tested for their ability reduce the hospitalization period of humans suffering from a RSV infection

(preferably, a RSV URI and/or LRI) by at least 60%, at least 75%, at least 85%, at least 95%, or at least 99% as compared to placebo or a human who did not receive a therapeutic administration of the antibodies of the invention. Techniques known to those of skill in the art can be used to analyze the function of the antibodies or compositions of the invention in vivo.

[00237] The binding ability of IgGs and molecules comprising an IgG constant domain of

FcRn fragment thereof to FcRn can be characterized by various in vitro assays. PCT publication WO 97/34631 by Ward discloses various methods in detail and is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

[00238] For example, in order to compare the ability of a modified antibody of the invention to bind to FcRn with that of the unmodified or wild type IgG, the modi fied IgG and the unmodified or wild type IgG can be radio-labeled and reacted with FcRn-expressing cells in vitro. The radioactivity of the cell -bound fractions can be then counted and compared. The cell s expressing FcRn to be used for this assay are preferably endothelial cell lines including mouse pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (B10, D2.PCE) derived from lungs of B 10.DBA2 mice and SV40 transformed endothelial cells (SVEC) (Kim et al., J. Immunol, 40:457-465, 1994) derived from C3H/HeJ mice. However, other types of cells, such as intestinal brush borders isolated from 10- to 14-day old suckling mice, which express sufficient number of FcRn can be also used. Alternatively, mammalian cells which express recombinant FcRn of a species of choice can be also utilized. After counting the radioactivity of the bound fraction of modified IgG or that of the unmodified or wild type, the bound molecules can be then extracted with the detergent, and the percent release per unit number of cells can be calculated and compared.

[00239] Affinity of modified IgGs for FcRn can be measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement using, for example, a BIAcore 2000 (BIAcore Inc.) as described previously (Popov et al., Mol. Immunol, 33:493-502, 1996; Karlsson et al., J. Immunol.

Methods, 145:229-240, 1991 , both of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties). In this method, FcRn molecules are coupled to a BIAcore sensor chip (e.g., CM5 chip by

Pharmacia) and the binding of modified IgG to the immobilized FcRn is measured at a certain flow rate to obtain sensorgrams using BIA evaluation 2.1 software, based on which on- and off-rates of the modified IgG, constant domains, , to FcRn can be calculated.

[00240] Relative affinities of modified IgGs , and the unmodified or wild type IgG for

FcRn can be also measured by a simple competition binding assay. Unlabeled modified IgG or unmodified or wild type IgG is added in different amounts to the wells of a 96-well plate in which FcRn is immobilize. A constant amount of radio-labeled unmodified or wi ld type IgG is then added to each w ell. Percent radioactiviiy of the bound fraction is plotted against the amount of unlabeled modified IgG or unmodified or wild type IgG and the relative affinity of the modified hinge-Fc can be calculated from the slope of the curve.

[00241] Furthermore, affinities of modified IgGs , and the wild type IgG for FcRn can be also measured by a saturation study and the Scatchard analysis.

[00242] Transfer of modified IgG across the cell by FcRn can be measured by in vitro transfer assay using radiolabeled IgG and FeRn-expressing cells and comparing the radioactivity of the one side of the cell monolay er with that of the other side. Alternatively, such transfer can be measured in vivo by feeding 10- to 14-day old suckling mice with radiolabeled, modified IgG and periodically counting the radioactivity in blood samples which indicates the transfer of the IgG through the intestine to the circulation (or any other target tissue, e.g., the lungs). To test the dose-dependent inhibition of the IgG transfer through the gut, a mixture of radiolabeled and unlabeled IgG at certain ratio is given to the mice and the radioactivity of the plasma can be periodically measured (Kim et al., Eur. j. Immunol., 24:2429-2434, 1994).

[00243] The half-life of modified IgG can be measured by pharmacokinetic studies according to the method described by Kim et al. (Eur. J. of Immuno. 24:542, 1994), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. According to this method, radiolabeled modified IgG is injected intravenously into mice and its plasma concentration is periodically measured as

a function of time, for example, at 3 minutes to 72 hours after the injection. The clearance curve thus obtained should be biphasic, that is, α-phase and β-phase. For the determination of the in vivo half-life of the modified IgGs , the clearance rate in β-phase is calculated and compared with that of the unmodified or wild type IgG,

[00244] The effector functions of a modified antibody of the invention can be measured by an ADCC assay (see Examples). Chromium assays are well-known in the art (see, for exampl e, Brunner, K.T. et al., (1968) Quantitative Assay of the Lytic Action of Immune Lymphoid Cells on Cr-labelled Allogenic Target Cells in-vitro; inhibition by Iso-antibody and by Drags, Immunology 14,181 ). More recently, LDH cytotoxicity assays are being used. The assay is based on measurement of activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which is a stable enzyme normally found in the cytosol of all cells but rapidly releases into the supernatant upon damage of plasma membrane. Results can be analyzed by spectrophotometry at 500 nm. Such assays are available commercially as kits, therefore are readily available to those of skill in the art.

5.6 Methods of Producing Antibodies

[00245] Antibodies of the in vention that immunospecifically bind to an antigen can be produced by any method known in the art for the synthesis of antibodies, in particular, by chemical synthesis or preferably, by recombinant expression techniques. The practice of the invention employs, unless otherwise indicated, conventional techniques in molecular biology, microbiology, genetic analysis, recombinant DNA, organic chemistry, biochemistry, PGR, oligonucleotide synthesis and modification, nucleic acid hybridization, and related fields within the skill of the art. These techniques are described in the references cited herein and are fully explained in the literature. See, e.g.,, Maniatis et al. (1982) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; Sambrook et al. (1989), Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; Ausubel et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons (1987 and annual updates); Current Protocols in Immunology, John Wiley & Sons (1987 and annual updates) Gait (ed.) (1984) Oligonucleotide Synthesis: A Practical Approach, IRL Press; Eckstein (ed.) (1991)

Oligonucleotides and Analogues: A Practical Approach, IRL Press; Birren et al. (eds.) (1999) Genome Analysis: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

[00246] Antibody fragments which recognize specific RSV antigens (preferably, RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) may be generated by any technique known to those of skill in the art. For example, Fab and F(ab')2 fragments of the invention may be produced by proteolytic cleavage of immunoglobulin molecules, using enzymes such as papain (to produce Fab fragments) or pepsin (to produce F(ab')2 fragments). F(ab')2 fragments contain the variable region, the light chain constant region and the CHI domain of the heavy chain. Further, the

antibodies of the present invention can also be generated using various phage display methods known in the art.

[00247] For example, antibodies can also be generated using various phage display methods. In phage display methods, functional antibody domains are displayed on the surface of phage particles which carry the polynucleotide sequences encoding them. In particular, DNA sequences encoding VH and VL domains are amplified from animal cDNA libraries (e.g., human or murine cDNA libraries of affected tissues). The DNA encoding the VH and VL domains are recombined together with an scFv linker by PGR and cloned into a phagemid vector. The vector is cieetroporated in E. coli and the E. coli is infected with helper phage. Phage used in these methods are typically filamentous phage including fd and Ml 3 and the VH and VL domains are usually recombinantly fused to either the phage gene ill or gene WI. Phage expressing an antigen binding domain that binds to a particular antigen can be selected or identified with antigen, e.g., using labeled antigen or antigen bound or captured to a solid surface or bead. Examples of phage display methods that can be used to make the antibodies of the present invention include those disclosed in Brinkman et al., 1995, J. Immunol. Methods 182:41-50; Ames et al. , 1995, J. Immunol. Methods 184 : 177- 186; Kettleborough et al. , 1994, Eur. J .

Immunol. 24:952-958; Persic et al., 1997, Gene 187:9-18; Burton et al., 1994, Advances in Immunology 57:191-280; PCT Application No. PCT/GB91/O1 134; International Publication Nos. WO 90/02809, WO 91/10737, WO 92/01047, WO 92/18619, WO 93/1 1236, WO

95/15982, WO 95/20401 , and WO97/13844; and U.S. Patent Nos. 5,698,426, 5,223,409, 5,403,484, 5,580,717, 5,427,908, 5,750,753, 5,821,047, 5,571,698, 5,427,908, 5,516,637, 5,780,225, 5,658,727, 5,733,743 and 5,969,108; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00248] As described in the above references, after phage selection, the antibody coding regions from the phage can be isolated and used to generate whole antibodies, including human antibodies, or any other desired antigen binding fragment, and expressed in any desired host, including mammalian ceils, insect cells, plant cells, yeast, and bacteria, e.g., as described below. Techniques to recombinantly produce Fab, Fab' and F(ab')2 fragments can also be employed using methods known in the art such as those disclosed in PCT publication No. WO 92/22324; Mullinax et al., 1992, BioTechniques 12(6):864-869; Sawai et al., 1995, AJRI 34:26-34; and Better et al., 1988, Science 240:1041-1043 (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[00249] To generate whole antibodies, PGR primers including VH or VL nucleotide sequences, a restriction site, and a flanking sequence to protect the restriction site can be used to amplify the VH or VL sequences in scFv clones. Utilizing cloning techniques known to those of

skill in the art, the PGR amplified VH domains can be cloned into vectors expressing a VH constant region, e.g., the human gamma 4 constant region, and the PGR amplified VL domains can be cloned into vectors expressing a VL constant region, e.g., human kappa or lambda constant regions. Preferably, the vectors for expressing the VH or VL domains comprise an EF-1α promoter, a secretion signal, a cloning site for the variable domain, constant domains, and a selection marker such as neomycin. The VH and VL domains may also cloned into one vector expressing the necessary constant regions. The heavy chain conversion vectors and light chain conversion vectors are then co-transfeeted into ceil lines to generate stable or transient cell lines that express full-length antibodies, e.g., IgG, using techniques known to those of skill in the art.

[00250] For some uses, including in vivo use of antibodies in humans and in vitro detection assays, it may be preferable to use human or chimeric antibodies. Completely human antibodies are particularly desirable for therapeutic treatment of human subjects. Human antibodies can be made by a variety of methods known in the art including phage display methods described above using antibody libraries derived from human immunoglobulin sequences. See also U.S. Patent Nos. 4,444,887 and 4,716, 111 ; and International Publication Nos. WO 98/46645, WO 98/50433, WO 98/24893, WO98/16654, WO 96/34096, WO 96/33735, and WO 91/10741 ; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00251] Human antibodies can also be produced using transgenic mice which are incapable of expressing functional endogenous immunoglobulins, but which can express human immunoglobulin genes. For example, the human heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene complexes may be introduced randomly or by homologous recombination into mouse embryonic stem ceils. Alternatively, the human variable region, constant region, and diversity region may be introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells in addition to the human heavy and light chain genes. The mouse heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes may be rendered non functional separately or simultaneously with the introduction of human immunoglobulin loci by homologous recombination, in particular, homozygous deletion of the JH region prevents endogenous antibody production. The modified embryonic stem cells are expanded and micro injected into blastocysts to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to produce homozygous offspring which express human antibodies. The transgenic mice are immunized in the normal fashion with a selected antigen, e.g., all or a portion of a polypeptide of the invention.

Monoclonal antibodies directed against the antigen can be obtained from the immunized, transgenic mice using conventional hybridoma technology. The human immunoglobulin transgenes harbored by the transgenic mice rearrange during B cell differentiation, and subsequently undergo class switching and somatic mutation. Thus, using such a technique, it is possible to produce therapeutically useful IgG, IgA, igM and IgE antibodies. For an overview of this technology for producing human antibodies, see Lonberg and Huszar (1995, int. Rev, Immunol. 13:65-93). For a detailed discussion of this technology for producing human antibodies and human monoclonal antibodies and protocols for producing such antibodies, see, e.g., PCT publication Nos. WO 98/2.4893, WO 96/34096, and WO 96/33735; and U.S. Patent Nos. 5,41 3,923, 5,625, 126, 5,633,425, 5,569,825, 5,661,016, 5,545,806, 5,814,31 8, and

5,939,598, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. In addition, companies such as Abgenix, Inc. (Freemont, CA) and Genpharm (San Jose, CA) can be engaged to provide human antibodies directed against a selected antigen using technology similar to that described above.

[00252] A chimeric antibody is a molecule in which different portions of the antibody are derived from different immunoglobulin molecules. Methods for producing chimeric antibodies are known in the art. See, e.g., Morrison, 1985, Science 229: 1202; Oi et al., 1986,

BioTechniques 4:214; Gillies et al., 1989, J. Immunol. Methods 125:191-202; and U.S. Patent Nos. 5,807,715, 4,816,567, 4,816,397, and 6,331,415, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[00253] A humanized antibody is an antibody or its variant or fragment thereof which is capable of binding to a predetermined antigen and which comprises a framework region having substantially the amino acid sequence of a human immunoglobulin and a CDR having substantially the amino acid sequence of a non-human immunoglobulin. A humanized antibody comprises substantially all of at least one, and typically two, variable domains (Fab, Fab', F(ab'')2, Fabc, Fv) in which all or substantially all of the CDR regions correspond to those of a non human immunoglobulin (i.e., donor antibody) and all or substantially all of the framework regions are those of a human immunoglobulin consensus sequence. Preferably, a humanized antibody also comprises at least a portion of an immunogl obul in constant region (Fc), typically that of a human immunoglobulin. Ordinarily, the antibody will contain both the light chain as well as at least the variable domain of a heavy chain. The antibody also may include the CH1 , hinge, CH2, CH3, and CH4 regions of the heavy chain. The humanized antibody can be selected from any class of immunoglobulins, including IgM, IgG, IgD, IgA and IgE, and any isotype, including IgG1 , IgG2, IgG3 and lgG4. Usually the constant domain is a complement fixing constant domain where it is desired that the humanized antibody exhibit cytotoxic activity, and the class is typically IgG1 . Where such cytotox ic activity is not desirable, the constant domain may be of the IgG2 class. Examples of VL and VH constant domains that can be used in certain embodiments of the invention include, but are not limited to, C-kappa and C-gamma-1 (nG1 m) described in Johnson et al. (1997) J. Inƒect. Dis. 176, 1215-1224 and those described in U.S. Patent No. 5,824,307. The humanized antibody may comprise sequences from more than one class or isotype, and

seiecting particular constant domains to optimize desired effector functions is within the ordinary skill in the art. The framework and CDR regions of a humanized antibody need not correspond precisely to the parental sequences, e.g., the donor CDR or the consensus framework may be mutagenized by substitution, insertion or deletion of at least one residue so that the CDR or framework residue at that site does not correspond to either the consensus or the import antibody. Such mutations, however, will not be extensive. Usually , at least 75% of the humanized antibody residues will correspond to those of the parental FR and CDR sequences, more often 90%, and most preferably greater than 95%. Humanized antibodies can be produced using variety of techniques known in the art, including but not limited to, CDR-grafting (European Patent No. EP 239,400; International publication No. WO 91/09967; and U.S. Patent Nos, 5,225,539, 5,530,101, and 5,585,089), veneering or resurfacing (European Patent Nos. EP 592,106 and EP 519,596; Padlan, 1991 , Molecular immunology 28(4/5):489-498; Studnicka et al., 1994, Protein

Engineering 7(6):805-814; and Roguska et al., 1994, PNAS 91 :969-973), chain shuffling (U.S. Patent No. 5,565,332), and techniques disclosed in, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,407,213, U.S. Pat. No. 5,766,886, WO 9317105, Tan et al., J. Immunol. 169: 1119 25 (2002), Caldas et al., Protein Eng. 13(5):353-60 (2000), Morea et al. Methods 20(3):267 79 (2000), Baca et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272(16): 10678-84 (1997), Roguska et al . Protein Eng. 9(10):895 904 (1996), Couto et al., Cancer Res. 55 (23 Supp):5973s- 5977s (1995), Couto et al. Cancer Res. 55(8): 1717-22 (1995), Sandhu iS, Gene 150(2):409-10 (1994), and Pedersen et al., J. Mol. Biol 235(3):959-73 (1994). See also U.S. Patent Pub. No. US 2005/0042664 A1 (Feb. 24, 2005), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Often, framework residues in the framework regions will be substituted with the corresponding residue from the CDR donor antibody to alter, preferably improve, antigen binding. These framework substitutions are identified by methods well known in the art, e.g., by modeling of the interactions of the CDR and framework residues to identify framework residues important for antigen binding and sequence comparison to identify unusual framework residues at particular positions. (See, e.g., Queen et al , U.S. Patent No. 5,585,089; and Reichmann et al., 1988, Nature 332:323, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.)

[00254] Single domain antibodies, for example, antibodies lacking the light chains, can be produced by methods well-known in the art. See Riechmann et al., 1999, J. Immunol, 231 :25-38; Nuttall el al., 2000, Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. l(3):253-263; Muylderman, 2001 , J. Biotechnol. 74(4):277302; U.S. Patent No, 6,005,079; and International Publication Nos. WO 94/04678, WO 94/25591, and WO 01/44301, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00255] Further, the antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (e.g., a

RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) can, in turn, be utilized to generate anti-idiotype antibodies that "mimic" an antigen using techniques well known to those skilled in the art, (See, e.g., Greenspan & Bona, 1989, FASEB J. 7(5):437-444; and Nissinoff, 1991 , J. Immunol.

147(8):2429-2438).

5.6.1 Polynucleotides Encoding an Antibody

[00256] The invention provides polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an antibody (modified) of the invention that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen).

[00257] The polynucleotides may be obtained, and the nucleotide sequence of the polynucleotides determined, by any method known in the art. Since the amino acid sequences of AFFF, P12f2, P12f4, P11d4, Ale9, A12a6, A13c4, A17d4, A4B4, A8c7, 1X-493L1FR, H3-3F4, M3H9, Y10H6, DG, AFFF(1), 6H8, L1-7E5, L2-15B10, A 13a11, A1h5, A4B4(1), MEDI-524, A4B4-F52S, A17d4(1), A3e2, A14a4, A16b4, A17b5, A17f5, or A17h4 are known (see, e.g., Table 1), nucleotide sequences encoding these antibodies and modified versions of these antibodies can be determined using methods well known in the art, i.e., nucleotide codons known to encode particular amino acids are assembled in such a way to generate a nucleic acid that encodes the antibody. Such a polynucleotide encoding the antibody may be assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides (e.g., as described in Kutmeier et al., 1994,

BioTechniques 17:242), which, briefly, involves the synthesis of overlapping oligonucleotides containing portions of the sequence encoding the antibody, fragments, or variants thereof, annealing and ligating of those oligonucleotides, and then amplification of the ligated oligonucleotides by PGR.

[00258] Alternatively, a polynucleotide encoding an antibody of the invention may be generated from nucleic acid from a suitable source. If a clone containing a nucleic acid encoding a particular antibody is not available, but the sequence of the antibody molecule is kno wn, a nucleic acid encoding the immunoglobulin may be chemically synthesized or obtained from a suitable source (e.g., an antibody cDNA library or a cDNA library generated from, or nucieic acid, preferably poly A+ RNA, isolated from, any tissue or cells expressing the antibody, such as hybridoma ceils selected to express an antibody of the invention) by PGR amplification using synthetic primers hybridizable to the 3' and 5 ' ends of the sequence or by cloning using an oligonucleotide probe specific for the particular gene sequence to identify, e.g., a cDNA clone from a cDNA library that encodes the antibody. Amplified nucleic acids generated by PGR may then be cloned into replicable cloning vectors using any method well known in the art.

[00259] Once the nucleotide sequence of the antibody is determined the nucleotide sequence of the antibody may be manipulated using methods well known in the art for the manipulation of nucleotide sequences, e.g., recombinant DNA techniques, site directed mutagenesis, PCR, etc. (see, for example, the techniques described in Sambrook et al., 1990, Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, 2d Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY and Ausubel et al., eds., 1998, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, NY, which are both incorporated by reference herein in their entireties), to generate antibodies having a different amino acid sequence, for example to create amino acid substitutions, deletions, and/or insertions. In certain embodiments, amino acid substitutions, deletions and/or insertions are introduced into the epitope-binding domain regions of the antibodies and/or into the hinge-Fc regions of the antibodies which are involved in the interaction with the FcRn.

[00260] in a specific embodiment, one or more of the CDRs is inserted within framework regions using routine recombinant DNA techniques. The framework regions may be naturally occurring or consensus framework regions, and preferably human framework regions (see, e.g., Chothia et al., 1998, J. Mol. Biol. 278:457-479 for a listing of human framework regions).

Preferably, the polynucleotide sequence generated by the combination of the framework regions and CDRs encodes an antibody that immunospecifically binds to a particular antigen, such as the RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen. Preferably, one or more amino acid substitutions may be made within the framework regions, and, preferably, the amino acid substitutions improve binding of the antibody to its antigen. Additionally, such methods may be used to make amino acid substitutions or deletions of one or more variable region cysteine residues participating in an intrachain disulfide bond to generate antibody molecules lacking one or more intrachain disulfide bonds. Other alterations to the polynucleotide are encompassed by the present invention and within the skill of the art,

[00261] Mutagenesis may be performed in accordance with any of the techniques known in the art including, but not limited to, synthesizing an oligonucleotide having one or more modifications within the sequence of the constant domai n of an antibody or a fragment thereof (e.g., the CH2 or CH3 domain) to be modified. Site-specific mutagenesis allows the production of mutants through th e use of specific oligonucleotide sequences which encode the DNA sequence of the desired mutation, as well as a sufficient number of adjacent nucleotides, to provide a primer sequence of sufficient size and sequence complexity to form a stable duplex on both sides of the deletion junction being traversed. Typically, a primer of about 17 to about 75 nucleotides or more in length is preferred, with about 10 to about 25 or more residues on both sides of the junction of the sequence bei ng altered. A number of such primers introducing a

variety of different mutations at one or more positions may be used to generated a library of mutants.

[00262] The technique of site-specific mutagenesis is well known in the art, as exemplified by various publications (see, e.g.,. Kunkel et al., Methods Enzymol., 154:367-82, 1987, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). In general, site-directed mutagenesis is performed by first obtaining a single-stranded vector or melting apart of two strands of a double stranded vector which includes within its sequence a DNA sequence which encodes the desired peptide. An oligonucleotide primer bearing the desired mutated sequence is prepared, generally synthetically. This primer is then annealed with the single-stranded vector, and subjected to DNA polymerizing enzymes such as T7 DNA polymerase, in order to complete the synthesis of the mutation-bearing strand. Thus, a heteroduplex is formed wherein one strand encodes the original non-mutated sequence and the second strand bears the desired mutation. This heteroduplex vector is then used to transform or transfect appropriate cells, such as E. coli cells, and clones are selected which include recombinant vectors bearing the mutated sequence arrangement. As will be appreciated, the technique typically employs a phage vector which exists in both a single stranded and double stranded form. Typical vectors useful in site-directed mutagenesis include vectors such as the Ml 3 phage. These phage are readily commercially available and their use is generally well known to those skilled in the art. Double stranded plasmids are also routinely employed in site directed mutagenesis which eliminates the step of transferring the gene of interest from a plasmid to a phage.

[00263] Alternatively, the use of PGR with commercially available thermostable enzymes such as Taq DNA polymerase may be used to incorporate a mutagenic oligonucleotide primer into an amplified DNA fragment that can then be cloned into an appropriate cloning or expression vector. See, e.g., Tomic et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 18(6): 1656, 1987, and Upender et a!., Biotechniques, 18(1):29-30, 32, 1995, for PGR -mediated mutagenesis procedures, which are hereby incorporated in their entireties. PGR employing a thermostable ligasc in addition to a thermostable polymerase may also be used to incorporate a phosphorylated mutagenic oligonucleotide into an amplified DNA fragment that may then be cloned into an appropriate cloning or expression vector (see e.g., Michael, Biotechniques, 16(3):410-2, 1994, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[00264] Other methods known to those of skill in art of producing sequence variants of the

Fc domain of an antibody or a fragment thereof can be used. For example, recombinant vectors encoding the amino acid sequence of the constant domain of an antibody or a fragment thereof may be treated with mutagenic agents, such as hydroxyl amine, to obtain sequence variants.

5.6.3 Panning

[00265] Vectors, in particular, phage, expressing constant domains having one or more modifications in amino acid residues can be screened to identify constant domains having increased or decreased affinity for FcRn, Immunoassays which can be used to anaiyze binding of the constant domain or fragment thereof having one or more modifications in amino acid residues to the FcRn include, but are not limited to, radioimmunoassays, EL1SA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), "sandwich" immunoassays, and fluorescent immunoassays. Such assays are routine and well known in the art (see, e.g., Ausubel et al. , cds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, inc., New York, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Exemplary immunoassays are described briefly herein below (but are not intended by way of limitation). BIAcore kinetic analysis can also be used to determine the binding on and off rates of a constant domain or a fragment thereof having one or more modifications in amino acid residues to the FcRn. BIAcore kinetic analysis comprises analyzing the binding and dissociation of a constant domain or a fragment thereof having one or more modifications in amino acid residues from chips with immobilized FcR n on their surface.

5.6.4 Sequencing

[00266] Any of a variety of sequencing reactions known in the art can be used to directly sequence the nucleotide sequence encoding, e.g., variable regions and/or constant domains having one or more amino acid Fc domain modifications. Examples of sequencing reactions include those based on techniques developed by Maxim and Gilbert (Proc. Natl. Acad. Set. USA, 74:560, 1977) or Sanger (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 74:5463, 1977), it is also contemplated that any of a variety of automated sequencing procedures can be utilized (Bio/Techniques, 19:448, 1995), including sequencing by mass spectrometry (see, e.g., PCT Publication No. WO 94/16101 , Cohen et al., Adv. Chromatogr., 36:127-162, 1996, and Griffin et al., Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 38:147-159, 1993).

5-6.5 Rgcombinant Expression of an Antibody

[00267] Recombinant expression of an antibody of the invention (e.g., a heavy or light chain of an antibody of the inv ention or a single chain antibody of the invention) that immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen (e.g., RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) requires constniction of an expression vector containing a polynucleotide that encodes the antibody. Once a polynucleotide encoding an antibody molecule, heavy or light chain of an antibody, or fragment thereof (preferably, but not necessarily, containing the heavy and/or light chain variable domain) of the invention has been obtained, the vector for the production of the antibody molecule may be produced by recombinant DNA technology using techniques well-known in the art. Thus, methods for preparing a protein by expressing a polynucleotide containing an antibody encoding nucleotide sequence are described herein. Methods which are well known to those skilled in the art can be used to construct expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences and appropriate transcriptional and translational control signals. These methods include, for example, in vitro recombinant DNA techniques, synthetic techniques, and in vivo genetic recombination. The invention, thus, provides replicable vectors comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an antibody molecule of the invention, a heavy or light chain of an antibody , a heavy or light chain variable domain of an antibody or a fragment thereof, or a heavy or light chain CDR, operably linked to a promoter. Such vectors may include the nucleotide sequence encoding the constant region of the antibody molecule (see, e.g., International Publication Nos. WO 86/05807 and WO 89/01036; and U.S. Patent No. 5,122,464) and the variable domain of the antibody may be cloned into such a vector for expression of the entire heavy, the entire light chain, or both the entire heavy and light chains.

[00268] The expression vector is transferred to a host cell by conventional techniques and the transfected cells are then cultured by conventional techniques to produce an antibody of the invention. Thus, the invention includes host cells containing a polynucleotide encoding an antibody of the invention , or a heavy or light chain thereof, or fragment thereof, or a single chain antibody of the invention, operably linked to a heterologous promoter. In other embodiments for the expression of double-chained antibodies, vectors encoding both the heavy and light chains may be co-expressed in the host cell for expression of the entire immunoglobulin molecule, as detailed below.

[00269] A variety of host-expression vector systems may be utilized to express the antibody molecules of the invention (see, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 5,807,715). Such host-expression systems represent vehicles by which the coding sequences of interest may be produced and subsequently purified, but also represent cells which may, when transformed or transfected with the appropriate nucleotide coding sequences, express an antibody molecule of the invention in situ. These include but are not limited to microorganisms such as bacteria (e.g., E. coli and B. subtilis) transformed with recombinant bacteriophage DNA, plasmid DNA or cosmid DNA expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences; yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces Pichia) transformed with recombinant yeast expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences; insect cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., haculovirus) containing antibody coding sequences; plant cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., cauliflower mosaic virus, CaMV; tobacco mosaic virus, TMV) or transformed with recombinant plasmid expression vectors (e.g., Ti plasmid) containing antibody coding sequences; or mammalian cell systems (e.g., COS, CHO, BHK, 293, NS0, and 3T3 cells) harboring recombinant expression constructs containing promoters derived from the genome of

mammalian cells (e.g.. metaltothionein promoter) or from mammalian viruses (e.g., the adenovirus late promoter; the vaccinia virus 7.5K promoter). Preferably, bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli, and more preferably, eukaryotic cells, especially for the expression of whole recombinant antibody molecule, are used for the expression of a recombinant antibody molecule. For example, mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), in conjunction with a vector such as the major intermediate early gene promoter element from human cytomegalovirus is an effective expression system for antibodies (Foecking et al., 1986, Gene 45: 101 ; and Cockett et al. , 1990, Bio/Technology 8:2). In a specific embodiment, the expression of nucleotide sequences encoding antibodies of the invention which immunospecifically bind to a RSV antigen (preferably, RSV F antigen or RSV G antigen) is regulated by a constitutive promoter, inducible promoter or tissue specific promoter,

[00270] In bacterial systems, a number of expression vectors may be ad vantageously selected depending upon the use intended for the antibody molecule being expressed. For example, when a large quantity of such an antibody is to be produced, for the generation of pharmaceutical compositions of an antibody molecule, vectors which direct the expression of high levels of fusion protein products that are readily purified may be desirable. Such vectors include, but are not limited to, the E. coli expression vector pUR278 (Ruther et al., 1983, EMBO 12:1791), in which the antibody coding sequence may be ligated individually into the vector in frame with the lac Z coding region so that a fusion protein is produced; pIN vectors (Inouye & Inouye, 1985, Nucleic Acids Res. 13:3101-3109; Van Heeke & Schuster, 1989, J. Biol. Chem. 24:5503-5509); and the like. pGEX vectors may also be used to express foreign polypeptides as fusion proteins with glutathione 5-transferase (GST). In general, such fusion proteins are soluble and can easily be purified from lysed cells by adsorption and binding to matrix glutathione agarose beads followed by elution in the presence of free glutathione. The pGEX vectors are designed to include thrombin or factor Xa protease cleavage sites so that the cloned target gene product can be released from the GST moiety.

[00271] In an insect system, Autographa caliƒornica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) is used as a vector to express foreign genes. The virus grows in Spodoptera ƒrugiperda cells. The antibody coding sequence may be cloned individually into non-essential regions (for example the polyhedrin gene) of the virus and placed under control of an AcNPV promoter (for example the polyhedrin promoter).

[00272] In mammalian host cells, a number of viral-based expression systems may be utilized. In cases where an adenovirus is used as an expression vector, the antibody coding sequence of interest may be ligated to an adenovirus transcription/translation control complex, e.g., the late promoter and tripartite leader sequence. This chimeric gene may then be inserted in the adenovirus genome by in vitro or in vivo recombination. Insertion in a non-essential region of the viral genome (e.g., region E1 or E3) will result in a recombinant virus that is viable and capable of expressing the antibody molecule in infected hosts (e.g., see Logan & Shenk, 1984, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 8 1 :355-359). Specific initiation signals may also be required for efficient translation of inserted antibody coding sequences. These signals include the ATG initiation codon and adjacent sequences. Furthermore, the initiation codon must be in phase with the reading frame of the desired coding sequence to ensure translation of the entire insert. These exogenous translationai control signals and initiation codons can be of a variety of origins, both natural and synthetic. The efficiency of expression may be enhanced by the inclusion of appropriate transcription enhancer elements, transcription terminators, etc. (see, e.g., Bittner et al., 1987, Methods in Enzymol, 153:51-544).

[00273] In addition, a host cell strain may be chosen which modulates the expression of the inserted sequences, or modifies and processes the gene product in the specific fashion desired. Such modifications (e.g., glycosyiation) and processing (e.g., cleavage) of protein products may be important for the function of the protein. Different host cells have characteristic and specific mechanisms for the post-transiational processing and modifi cation of proteins and gene products. Appropriate cell lines or host systems can be chosen to ensure the correct modification and processing of the foreign protein expressed. To this end, eukaryotic host cells which possess the cellular machinery for proper processing of the primary transcript, glycosyiation, and phosphorylation of the gene product may be used. Such mammalian host cells include but are not limited to CHO, VERY, BHK, Hela, COS, MDCK, 293, 3T3, W138, BT483, Hs578T, HTB2, BT2O and T47D, NS0 (a murine myeloma cell line that does not endogenously produce any immunoglobulin chains), CRL7O3O and HsS78Bst ceils,

[00274] For l ong-term, high-yield production of recombinant proteins, stable expression i s preferred. For example, cell lines which stably express the antibody molecule may be engineered. Rather than using expression vectors which contain viral origins of replication, host cells can be transformed with DNA controlled by appropriate expression control elements (e.g., promoter, enhancer, sequences, transcription terminators, polyadenylation sites, etc.), and a selectable marker. Following the introduction of the foreign DNA, engineered cells may be allowed to grow for 1-2 days in an enriched media, and then are switched to a selective media. The selectable marker in the recombinant plasmid confers resistance to the selection and allows cells to stably integrate the plasmid into their chromosomes and grow to form foci which in turn can be cloned and expanded into ceil lines. This method may advantageously be used to engineer cell lines which express the antibody molecule. Such engineered cell lines may be particularly useful in screening and evaluation of compositions that interact directly or indirectly with the antibody molecule.

[00275] A number of selection systems may be used, including but not limited to, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Wigler et al., 1977, Cell 1 1 :223), hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Szybalska & Szybalski, 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48:202), and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (Lowy et al., 1980, Cell 22:8-17) genes can be employed in tk-, hgprt- or aprt-cells, respectively. Also, antimetabolite resistance can be used as the basis of selection for the following genes: dhƒr, which confers resistance to methotrexate (Wigler et al., 1980, Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:357; O'Hare et al., 1981, Proc, Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 1527); gpt, which confers resistance to mycophenolic acid (Mulligan & Berg, 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:2072); neo, which confers resistance to the aminoglycoside G-418 (Wu and Wis, 1991, Biotherapy 3:87-95; Tolstoshev, 1993, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32:573-596; Mulligan, 1993, Science 260:926-932; and Morgan and Anderson, 1993, Ann. Rev.

Biochem. 62: 191-217; May, 1993, TIB TECH 11(5):155-2 15); and hygro, which confers resistance to hygromycin (Santerre et al., 1984, Gene 30: 147). Methods commonly known in the art of recombinant DNA technology may be routinely applied to select the desired recombinant clone, and such methods are described, for example, in Ausubel et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. John Wiley & Sons, NY (1993); Kriegler, Gene Transfer and Expression. A Laboratory Manual, Stockton Press, NY (1990); and in Chapters 12 and 13, Dracopoli et al (eds.), Current Protocols in Human Genetics. John Wiley & Sons, NY (1994); Colberre-Garapin et al., 1981, J. Mol. Biol. 150:1 , which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

[00276] The expression levels of an antibody molecule can be increased by vector amplification (for a review, see Bebbington and Hentschel, The use of vectors based on gene amplification for the expression of cloned genes in mammalian ceils in DN A cloning. Vol. 3 (Academic Press, New York, 1987)). When a marker in the vector system expressing antibody is amplifiabte, increase in the level of inhibitor present in culture of host ceil will increase the number of copies of the marker gene. Since the amplified region is associated w ith the antibody gene, production of the antibody will also increase (Grouse et al., 1983, Mol. Cell. Biol. 3:257).

[00277] The host cell may be eo-transfected with two expression vectors of the invention, the first vector encoding a heavy chain derived polypeptide and the second vector encoding a light chain derived polypeptide. The two vectors may contain identical selectable markers which enable equal expressi on of heavy and light chain polypeptides. A lternatively, a single vector may be used which encodes, and is capable of expressing, both heavy and light chain polypeptides. In such situations, the light chain should be placed before the heavy chain to avoid an excess of toxic free heavy chain (Proudfoot, 1986, Nature 322:52: and Kohler, 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

USA 77:2197-2199). The coding sequences for the heavy and light chains may comprise cDNA or genomic DNA.

[00278] Once an antibody molecule of the invention has been produced by recombinant expression, it may be purified by any method known in the art for purification of an

immunoglobulin molecule, for example, by chromatography (e.g., ion exchange, affinity, particularly by affinity for the specific antigen after Protein A, and sizing column

chromatography), centrifugation, differential solubility, or by any other standard technique for the purification of proteins. Further, the antibodies of the present invention may be fused to heterologous polypeptide sequences described herein or otherwise known in the art to facilitate purification.

6. EXAMPLES

[00279] Unless indicated otherwise, the animals, vims stock and experimental design were conducted as follows: Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus, male, 8-10 weeks old) were obtained from Harlan Animals (PA). RSV, strain A2, was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA), A virus stock containing 1 × 106 plaque-forming units (pfu) per mi was prepared utilizing HEp-2 cell monolayers. Animals were infected intranasally with 106 pfu RSV A2 per kg bodyweight either before or after administration of the RSV antibody.

[00280] At predetermined time points described herein, cotton rats received motavizumab

(MEDI 524) or an unrelated control antibody. Route of administration was topical (pulmonary via nebulization). To assay viral titers in the lungs and in serum, animals were sacrificed, and lungs and blood were collected. Lungs were bisected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for further analysis. Serum was prepared from blood using BD microtainers and stored at -20°C.

[00281] Plaque assays were performed to assay viral titers in the lungs of sacrificed animals. Briefly, lungs were individually homogenized in HBSS using glass tissue

homogenizers. The resultant suspensions were centrifuged at 770xg for 10 minutes, and the supernatants were collected and stored at -80°C until analysis of viral titers by plaque titration. Lung homogenate samples were diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100 in HBSS, and 50 uL aliquots of neat, 1 : 10 and 1 : 100 dilutions were added to duplicate wells of HEp-2 cells in 24-well plates. After 1 hour incubation at 37°C, the inoculum was replaced with culture medium containing 1%

methylcellulose and the cells were returned to a 37°C incubator. Four days later the overlay was removed and the cells were fixed and stained with 0.1% crystal violet in 20% methanol for 30 minutes, washed, air dried, and the plaques were counted. The limit of detection for this assay is 200 PFU/gram of tissue. Samples with a virus titer below the limit of detection were noted (< 200 PFU/gm = log 10 of 2.3).

[00282] Human IgG ELISA assays were performed to measure the amount of RSV antibody in serum or lung homogenates. Antibody levels were measured using Biocoat anti-human IgG ELISA plates (BD, eat # 356180) and an IgG1 reference standard (MEDI 524).

Samples were diluted in PBST -BSA and incubated on plates for 60 min. After incubation with goat anti Human (H&L) HRP conjugate (Pierce, cat # 31412, 1 :30), human IgG was visualized by incubating with Sure Blue TMB substrate (KPL). Plates were read at 450 nm and analyzed using Softmax Pro 5.0,

EXAMPLE 1: Therapeutic Efficacy of a Nebulized RSV Antibody

[00283] Groups of cotton rats were infected with 106 pfu RSV A2 intranasalty. Twenty-four hours later, a Plexiglas chamber was saturated for 3 min with aerosolized motavizumab at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Groups of animals were then placed in the chamber and underwent antibody nebulization for different time periods (10 minutes, 20 minutes, or 30 minutes) at a concentration of 10 mg/ml motavizumab. Four days post infection, all animals were sacrificed and viral load was determined by plaque assay (crystal violet). Motavizumab levels were evaluated by measuring human IgG levels in the lung tissue and serum. Results are shown in FIG. 1 and 2A and 2B, There was an average of 1 .45 log10 reduction of RSV virus titer for those animals that received motavizumab for 30 minutes, as compared to animals that received a saline vehicle control (0.9% saline).

EXAMPLE 2: Pose Range Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy of a Nebulized RSV Antibody

[00284] The dose of motavizumab was varied in order to determine if lower amounts of motavizumab could be used and still show similar efficacy. Again, groups of animals were first infected with 106 pfu RSV A2 intranasally. Twenty-four hours later, a Plexiglas chamber was saturated for 3 min with aerosolized motavizumab at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml 0.5 mg/ml or 0.1 mg/ml. Different dosing groups of animals were then placed in the chamber and underwent antibody nebulization for 30 minutes. Four days post infection, all animals were sacrificed and viral load was determined by plaque assay (crystal violet).

Motavizumab levels were evaluated by measuring human IgG levels in the lung tissue and serum. Results are shown in FIG. 3 and 4A and 4B. The results indicated that viral reduction appeared dose-dependent with a 1 ,45 log10 reduction for the group that received 10 mg/ml. The plaque assay results (FIG. 3) confirmed the results described above in Example 1. Further, it appeared that tissues obtained from animals receiving motavizumab at concentrations of 5 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml 0.5 mg/ml or 0.1 mg/ml were below the levels of assay detection.

EXAMPLE 3: Different Viral Input Range to Test Therapeutic Efficacy of a Nebulized

[00285] Varying amounts of RSV A2 virus was administered to the animals to see if that would alter the outcome of RSV treatment. Groups of 5 animals each received either 104 or 105 pfu of RSV A2. Twenty four hours later, cotton rats were nebulized with motavizumab (10 mg/ml) for 30 min and sacrificed on day 4 post-treatment. Lung viral titers were evaluated by plaque assay as described above and results shown in FIG. 5. Animals that received 104 pfu of RSV and were treated with 10 mg/ml motavizumab had lung viral titers that were at the limit of detection and showed a mean reduction in viral titers of 2.64 log10 when compared to animals that had received control antibody. Some virus could be still assayed in animals that had receive Hr pfu and were given 10 mg/ml. Log reduction in those cases was almost identical to the 104 pfu challenge viral dose (2.66 log10). As expected, antibody concentrations were similar in serum and lung homogenates between groups (data not shown).

EXAMPLE 4: Prophylactic Efficacy of a Nebulized RSV Antibody

[00286] To test the prophylactic efficacy of a nebulized RSV antibody, cotton rats received nebulized RSV antibody (in this case, motavizumab) 24 hrs prior to infection with RSV A2 at 10° pfu. All animals were sacrificed four days post infection. Similar to the treatment studies described above in Examples 1 -3, viral load was determined by plaque assay (crystal violet). Motavizumab levels were evaluated by measuring human IgG levels in the lung tissue and serum.

[00287] The first study was performed to evaluate what exposure time was needed, keeping the input dose of motavizumab constant (10 mg/ml) and testing three different exposure times (10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes antibody nebulization). FIG. 6 shows the result of the plaque assay, while FIG. 7A and 7B show antibody levels measured in the lung and serum of sacrificed animals.

[00288] The data shows that prophy lactic nebulization of antibody can prevent viral infection. Thirty (30) minutes of nebulized motavizumab resulted in almost complete reduction of virus (4/5 animals showed titers below detection limit). The effect appeared to be dose-dependent as shorter time periods of nebulization resulted in less efficient reduction of virus.

[00289] Serum ELISA data suggests that inhaled antibody is retained in the lung over time. There is only a 25% average decrease in the lungs.

[00290] Lung ELISA shows that the amount of motavizumab that gets to the lung in groups that inhaled the antibody for 30 minutes were equivalent to the animals that had motavizumab intranasally delivered at 1 mg/kg (data not shown).

EXAMPLE 5: Prophylactic Efficacy of Varving Concentrations of a Nebulized RSV Antibody

[00291] The efficacy of different concentrations of motavizumab (10 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, 1 mg/mi and 0.5 mg/ ml) given prophyiaetically via nebulizer administration to reduce RSV infection was evaluated in cotton rats. Like in the previous experiment in Example 4, groups of animals inhaled the various concentrations of motavizumab for 30 minutes, 24 hours prior to infection using 106 pfu of RSV A2. Animals were sacrificed four days later. Control animals received 10 mg/ml of an unrelated control antibody (R347). Plaque assay results are shown in FIG. 8 and ELISA results shown in FIG. 9A and 9B.

[00292] Efficacy of nebulized motavizumab appeared to be dose-dependent. Efficacy was seen for motavizumab concentrations of 10 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml. The other concentrations of 1 mg/mi and 0,5 mg/ ml motavizumab provided less protection and 0.1 mg/ml of motavizumab appeared to provide none. When antibody levels were evaluated by IgG ELISA, motavizumab concentrations in lung homogenates were comparable as between 10 mg/ml nebulization and 1 mg/kg intranasal administration. Antibody levels for 1 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml doses were below the limits of detection by the assay used.

EXAMPLE 6: Duration of Prophyliaetie Protection with Nebulization of an RSV Antibody

[00293] These studies were designed to determine how long lasting prophylactic protection is when dosed via a nebulizer. Briefly, groups of animals received either 72 or 48 hrs prior infection, a single dose of nebulized motavizumab at different concentrations (10, 5, or 1 mg/ml) and were challenged with 106 pfu RSV A2. All animals were sacrificed on day 4.

Results of lung viral titers and serum le vels are shown in FIG, 10A and B as well as Table 2, below.

[00294] It appeared that the efficacy of nebulized motavizumab was dose-dependent with statistically significant reductions in lung viral load for the 10 mg/mi and 5 mg/ ml doses.

PROPHETIC EXAMPLE 7; Cyaomolgus Monkey Studies Testing Nebulization of an RSV Antibody

[00295] Further testing of a nebulized administration of an RSV antibody will be performed on other animal models, such as, for example, cynomolgus monkeys. Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, between 2 to 3.5 kg) will be used in this study. The monkeys can be purchased from Covance Research Products, Inc. (Princeton, NJ), The animals will be exposed to an RSV antibody solution (10 mg/ml) diluted with 0.9 % saline from a stock solution (100 mg/ml). The antibody solution will be placed in a six-jet Coliison nebulizer (BG1, Inc., Waltham, MA) or a Retec nebulizer (InTox Products, Moriarity, NM) to generate small and large droplets, respectively. Each monkey will be exposed to the aerosolized RSV antibody for 30 minutes.

[00296] The diagram below shows the head-only exposure system to be used in the study.

Animals will be sedated with ketamine and medetornidine and placed in a plethysmography box with its head protruding out of the plethysmography box. A erosol will be delivered to the respiratory tract of the exposed animal through a nasal mask. The exposure box has a similar design as those used in the Biosafety III laboratories of Lovelace Respiratory Research institute and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (see e.g., Zaucha et al., 2001). Use of the mask should not influence aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract. The respiratory rate and tidal volume of the test animal will be recorded using the whole-body plethysmography and a pulmonary analyzer system (model Max II, Buxco Electronics, Sharon, CT). The exposure time will be 30 minutes. Filter sampler and a cascade impactor will be used to determine the aerosol concentration and size distribution. A 47-mm Pallflex fiberfilm filter (borosilicate glass fiber coated with fluorocarbon) (Pail Corporation, East Hills, NY) will be used in the filter sampler operated at 0.5 L/min flow rate. The filter sampling time will be 1 and 2 minutes for aerosols generated from the Retec and Collison nebulizers, respectively. The impactor and filter samples will be taken at the same aerosol delivery line right after the exposure to antibody. The aerodynamic particle size distribution will be measured with a Mercer impactor operated at an approximate flow rate of 2 L/min (InTox Products). No dilution air will be added for the impactor or filter sampling. The impactor sampling time will be 0,5 and 1 min for aerosols generated from the Retec and Collison nebulizers, respectively. The Mercer impactor is a low-flow-rate, 7-stage cascade impactor with a 50% cutoff aerodynamic diameter between 0.5 and 11.5 μm (Mercer et al., 1970).

[00297] Blood trom tested animals will be collected at various time-points, ranging trom

15 minutes to 120 hours post antibody nebulization. At 120 hrs, the animals will be euthanized, and a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will be performed on the lungs with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, lung tissue will be collected and flushed (at the lung surface and the pulmonary artery) with PBS to remove as much blood as possible before honiogenization. The lungs will then be homogenized in 9 ml of PBS/g of lung tissue. Concentrations of RSV antibody in sera, BALs and lung homogenates will be determined using an anti-human IgG ELISA with anti-idiotype antibody reagents. The concentrations of total IgG, consisting of cynomolgus monkey and human IgG, in BALs and lung homogenates will be measured by ELISA. For BALs and lung homogenates, the ratio of human IgG (ng/ml) relative to total IgG (μg/ml) will be calculated and compared as described previously (see e.g. , Wu et al., 2007).


PROPHETIC EXAMPLE 8: CLINICAL TRIALS

[00299] Antibodies of the invention tested in in vitro assay s and animal models may be further evaluated for safety, tolerance and pharmacokinetics in groups of normal healthy adult volunteers. The volunteers are administered by a topical (e.g., intranasal or pulmonary) delivery system a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg of an antibody or fragment thereof which immunospecifically binds to a RSV antigen. Each volunteer is monitored at least 24 hours prior to receiving the single dose of the antibody or fragment thereof and each volunteer will be monitored for at least 48 hours after receiving the dose at a clinical site. Then volunteers are monitored as outpatients on days 3, 7, 14, 21 , 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 postdose.

[00300] Blood samples are collected via an indwelling catheter or direct venipuncture using 10 ml red-top Vacutainer tubes at the following intervals: (1) prior to administering the dose of the antibody or antibody fragment; (2) during the administration of the dose of the antibody; (3) 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after administering the dose of the antibody; and (4) 3 days, 7 days 14 days, 21 days, 28 days, 35 days, 42 days, 49 days, and 56 days after administering the dose of the antibody. Samples are allowed to clot at room temperature and serum will be collected after centrifugation.

[00301] The antibody or antibody fragment is partially purified from the serum samples and the amount of antibody or antibody fragment in the samples will be quantitated by ELISA. Briefly, the ELISA consists of coating microtiter plates overnight at 4°C with an antibody that recognizes the antibody or antibody fragment administered to the volunteer. The plates are then blocked for approximately 30 minutes at room temperate with PBS-Tween-0.5% BSA. Standard curves are constructed using purified antibody or antibody fragment, not administered to a volunteer. Samples are diluted in PBS-Tween-BSA. The samples and standards are incubated for approximately 1 hour at room temperature. Next, the bound antibody is treated with a labeled antibody (e.g., horseradish peroxidase conjugated goat- anti -human IgG) for approximately 1 hour at room temperature. Binding of the labeled antibody is detected, e.g., by a spectrophotometer.

[00302] The concentration of antibody or antibody fragment levels in the serum of volunteers are corrected by subtracting the predose seritm level (background level) from the serum levels at each collection interval after administration of the dose. For each volunteer the pharmacokinetic parameters are computed according to the model-independent approach (Gibaldi et al., eds., 1982, Pharmacokinetics, 2nd edition, Marcel Dekker, New York) from the corrected serum antibody concentrations.

7. EQUIVALENTS

[00303] Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.

[00304] All publications, patents and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference into the specification to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent or patent appiication was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated herein by reference.