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1. WO2020160646 - PROCÉDÉS ET DISPOSITIFS DE CAPTURE, DE COMMANDE ET/OU DE TRANSFORMATION DE CO2 ET LEURS UTILISATIONS

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR CAPTURING, CONTROLLING AND/OR TRANSFORMING CO2, AND USES THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application claims priority to US provisional application No . 62/801 ,410 filed on February 5, 2019 and to US provisional application No . 62/834,615 filed on April 16, 2019. These documents are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0002] The present disclosure relates to methods and devices for capturing and transforming carbon dioxide (CO2) and more particularly for transporting captured CO2 and converting captured CO2 into carbon-derived end-products.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0003] Accumulation of CO2 gas in the atmosphere has provoked concern regarding its effect on the global climate and spawned worldwide interest in the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Global warming seems to critically, and possibly irreversibly, change the environment sector and such a global climate change will likely affect future generations.

[0004] Methods and devices that allow capturing and transforming CO2 to produce a valuable carbon-derived end-product such as synthetic fuels would be of great benefit in reducing the purported effects of carbon dioxide on global warming. There would thus be a need for a technology that allows to at least solve one problem of the existing technologies for capturing and/or transforming CO2.

[0005] There are no indoor air standards for CO2 level; however, high indoor air levels of CO2 could be an indicator the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system is not working properly. The amount of CO2 in a building is usually related to how much fresh air is being brought into that building. In general, the higher the CO2 level in the building, the lower the amount of fresh air exchange. Therefore, examining levels of CO2 in indoor air can reveal if the HVAC systems are operating within guidelines. CO2 levels are usually measured in percent (%) of air or parts per million (ppm). High CO2 levels, generally over 1000 ppm, indicate a potential problem with air circulation and fresh air in a room or building. In general, high CO2 levels indicate the need to examine the HVAC system. High CO2 levels can cause poor air quality and can even extinguish pilot lights on gas-powered appliances.

[0006] It is established that high CO2 level in an indoor and confined environment can cause potential health issues:

250 - 350 ppm: background (normal) outdoor air level

350 - 1 ,000 ppm: typical level found in occupied spaces with good air exchange

1 ,000 - 2,000 ppm: level associated with complaints of drowsiness and poor air

2,000 - 5,000 ppm: level associated with headaches, sleepiness, and stagnant, stale, stuffy air. Poor concentration, loss of attention, increased heart rate and slight nausea may also be present

5,000 ppm: this indicates unusual air conditions where high levels of other gases could also be present. Toxicity or oxygen deprivation could occur. This is the permissible exposure limit for daily workplace exposures

40,000 ppm: this level is immediately harmful due to oxygen deprivation.

[0007] For example, CO2 level measured on April 9, 2019 was 41 1.33 ppm NOAA-ESRL (US National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration - Earth System Research Laboratory).

[0008] There is thus a need for a technology that would allow for at least solve on problem of the existing technologies for monitoring and/or capturing CO2 in a closed or confined indoor environment (e.g. residential, commercial, institutional or industrial buildings). Such a need is felt for examples in confined spaces such as conference rooms, hospitals, airplanes, subways, mines, space vehicles, space station, tunnels, homes, schools, etc.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0009] According to an aspect, there is provided a method of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) comprising:

forcing air or a CO2 emission into a CCh-capturing device;

monitoring a level of CO2 captured by the CCh-capturing device; and

monitoring and/or controlling temperature of at least one of the CO2 captured and the CCh-capturing device,

when reaching a predetermined level of CO2, releasing the captured CO2 for stocking the captured CO2 in a tank, for converting the captured CO2 into at least one carbon-derived end-product, or for transporting the captured CO2 at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is captured.

[00010] In another aspect herein disclosed, there is provided a CO2-capturing device comprising:

a C02-adsorbing substrate contained within at least one column;

a CO2 sensor in fluid flow communication with the at least one column; and

a temperature monitoring and/or controlling unit for monitoring and/or controlling temperature of at least one of captured CO2, the CO2- adsorbing substrate and the CCh-capturing device.

[00011] According to one aspect, there is provided a C02-capturing device comprising a fluidized bed and a CCh-adsorbing substrate.

[00012] Also provided in another aspect is a method of managing CO2 capture and/or CO2 emission, the method comprising:

providing a CCh-capturing device as defined herein; and

capturing CChfrom air or from the CO2 emission into the CCh-capturing device by a method as defined herein.

[00013] Yet another aspect disclosed herein is a method for managing CO2 capture and/or CO2 emission, the method comprising:

providing a CCh-capturing device as defined herein;

capturing CChfrom air or from the CO2 emission into the CCh-capturing device;

transporting the C02-capturing device at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is captured; and

releasing the CO2 for stocking the CO2 in a tank or for converting the CO2 into at least one carbon-derived end-product.

[00014] A further aspect disclosed is a method for managing CO2 capture and/or CO2 emission, the method comprising:

providing a CCh-capturing device as defined herein;

capturing CChfrom air or from the CO2 emission into the CCh-capturing device;

releasing the CO2 for stocking the CO2 in a tank; and

transporting the tank at a different location than a location whereat the

CO2 is captured.

[00015] According to another aspect there is provided a method for managing CO2 capture and/or CO2 emission, the method comprising:

providing a CCh-capturing device as defined herein;

capturing CChfrom air or from the CO2 emission into the CCh-capturing substrate;

transporting the CCh-capturing substrate at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is captured; and

releasing the CO2 for stocking the CO2 in a tank, for converting the CO2 into at least one carbon-derived end-product, or for transporting the CO2 at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is released.

[00016] According to another aspect there is provided a method for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space comprising:

sensing a CO2 concentration in the confined space;

optionally sensing O2 concentration in the confined space;

when reaching a first predetermined concentration of CO2, forcing air from the space into a CCh-capturing device so as to decrease CO2 concentration in the confined space; and

releasing the captured CO2.

[00017] According to another aspect there is provided a method for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space comprising:

sensing a CO2 concentration in the confined space;

optionally sensing O2 concentration in the confined space;

when reaching a first predetermined concentration of CO2, forcing air from the space into a CCh-capturing device so as to decrease CO2 concentration in the confined space; and

releasing the captured CO2 for stocking the captured CO2 in a tank, for converting the captured CO2 into at least one carbon-derived end- product, for contacting the CO2 with at leat one plant, for contacting the CO2 with a liquid, or for transporting the captured CO2 at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is captured.

[00018] According to another aspect there is provided a method for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space comprising:

sensing a CO2 concentration in the confined space;

optionally sensing O2 concentration in the confined space;

when reaching a first predetermined concentration of CO2, forcing air from the space into a CCh-capturing device so as to decrease CO2 concentration in the confined space; and

monitoring a level of CO2 captured by the CCh-capturing device.

[00019] According to another aspect there is provided a system for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space, the device comprising:

a first inlet for receiving air from the confined space;

a C02-capturing device in fluid flow communication with the first inlet; and

a first outlet in fluid flow communication with the CCh-capturing device for discharging into the confined space the air treated by the CCh-capturing device and having a CO2 reduced content.

[00020] According to another aspect there is provided a system for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space, the device comprising:

a first inlet for receiving air from the confined space;

a C02-capturing device in fluid flow communication with the first inlet;

a second inlet for receiving air from outside the confined space;

a heat exchanger for exchanging heat between air incoming from the first inlet and air incoming from the second inlet;

a first outlet in fluid flow communication with the CCh-capturing device for discharging into the confied space air treated by the CCh-capturing device and having a CO2 reduced content; and

a second outlet in fluid flow communication with the heat exchanger and/or the CCh-capturing device for discharging the captured CO2 and/or air having a CO2 reduced content.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[00021] FIG. 1 is a longitudinal view of a CCh-capturing device, in accordance with an embodiment herein disclosed;

[00022] FIG. 2A is a cross-sectional view of a column comprising a CO2-capturing substrate, in accordance with an embodiment herein disclosed;

[00023] FIG. 2B is a cross-sectional view of a C02-capturing device comprising a plurality of columns according to FIG. 2A;

[00024] FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of a method of capturing and transforming CO2, in accordance with an embodiment herein disclosed; and

[00025] FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of an example of a method and a system for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space, in accordance with an embodiment herein disclosed;

[00026] FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of another example of a method and a system for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space, in accordance with an embodiment herein disclosed; and

[00027] FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of another example of a method and a system for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space, in accordance with an embodiment herein disclosed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE

[00028] In understanding the scope of the present disclosure, the term “comprising” and its derivatives, as used herein, are intended to be open ended terms that specify the presence of the stated features, elements, components, groups, integers, and/or steps, but do not exclude the presence of other

unstated features, elements, components, groups, integers and/or steps. The foregoing also applies to words having similar meanings such as the terms, “including”, “having” and their derivatives. The term “consisting” and its derivatives, as used herein, are intended to be closed terms that specify the presence of the stated features, elements, components, groups, integers, and/or steps, but exclude the presence of other unstated features, elements, components, groups, integers and/or steps. The term“consisting essentially of”, as used herein, is intended to specify the presence of the stated features, elements, components, groups, integers, and/or steps as well as those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s) of features, elements, components, groups, integers, and/or steps.

[00029] Terms of degree such as“about” and“approximately” as used herein mean a reasonable amount of deviation of the modified term such that the end result is not significantly changed. These terms of degree should be construed as including a deviation of at least ±5% or at least ±10% of the modified term if this deviation would not negate the meaning of the word it modifies.

[00030] The present disclosure relates to a device and methods for improving capturing and transforming or carbon dioxide (CO2).

[00031] In certain embodiments, decentralized capture and centralized transformation of concentrated CO2 have been found advantageous. For example, decentralized capture of concentrated CO2 minimizes required energy and investments, while centralized transformation of CO2 allows optimizing the size of infrastructure and of waste heat transfer from industrial partners.

[00032] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises a zeolite.

[00033] For example, the zeolite can be chosen from zeolites disclosed in

WO 2019151748 that is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00034] For example, the zeolite comprises Cu, Ti, Si or mixtures thereof. [00035] For example, the zeolite can have a high CO2 absorption rate.

[00036] For example, the zeolite can have a low desorption temperature.

[00037] For example, the zeolite can have a low desorption temperature that can be lower than 250, 200, 150, 125 or 1 10 °C.

[00038] For example, the zeolite can have an effective lifetime of at least 10 years.

[00039] For example, the CCh-capturing device is a fluidized bed comprising a CCh-adsorbing substrate.

[00040] For example, the CCh-adsorbing substrate is the zeolite.

[00041] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises at least one column comprising a CCh-adsorbing substrate.

[00042] For example, the CCh-adsorbing substrate is the zeolite.

[00043] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises an adsorbent.

[00044] For example, the adsorbent can be chosen from materials disclosed in WO 2019151748 that is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00045] For example, the adsorbent can be chosen from titanosilicates disclosed in WO 2019151748 that is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00046] For example, the C02-capturing device can comprise a substrate chosen from titanosilicates disclosed in WO 2019151748 that is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00047] For example, the adsorbent or substrate comprises Cu, Ti, Si or mixtures thereof.

[00048] For example, the adsorbent or substrate can have a high CO2 absorption rate.

[00049] For example, the adsorbent or substrate can have a low desorption temperature.

[00050] For example, the adsorbent or substrate can have a low desorption temperature that can be lower than 250, 200, 150, 125 or 1 10 °C.

[00051] For example, the adsorbent or substrate can have an effective lifetime of at least 10 years.

[00052] For example, the CCh-capturing device is a fluidized bed comprising a C02-adsorbing substrate.

[00053] For example, the CCh-adsorbing substrate is the adsorbent or substrate.

[00054] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises at least one column comprising a CCh-adsorbing substrate.

[00055] For example, the CCh-adsorbing substrate is the adsorbent or substrate.

[00056] For example, the CO2 emission is chosen from plant emissions, plant smokes and plant fumes.

[00057] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises at least one titanosilicate.

[00058] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises a titanosilicate molecular sieve.

[00059] For example, the CCh-capturing device comprises a planar titanosilicate molecular sieve.

[00060] For example, the C02-capturing device comprises an adsorbent or a C02-adsorbing substrate.

[00061] For example, in the method, device or system, the adsorbent or substrate comprises at least one titanosilicate.

[00062] For example, in the method, device or system, the adsorbent or substrate comprises a titanosilicate molecular sieve.

[00063] For example, in the method, device or system, the adsorbent or substrate comprises a planar titanosilicate molecular sieve.

[00064] For example, in the method, device or system, the adsorbent or substrate comprises Cu, Ti, Si or mixtures thereof.

[00065] In some embodiments, when a predetermined level of CO2 is reached in the C02-capturing device, the captured CO2 may be released for stocking, for example in a tank; for conversion into at least one carbon-derived end-product; or for transportation to a different location than a location where location.

[00066] In one embodiment, the captured CO2 is released for stocking, for example in a tank.

[00067] For example, the releasing of the captured CO2 is carried out by heating at least a portion of the CCh-capturing device.

[00068] For example, now referring back to FIG. 2A and 2B, the column comprises a plurality of electric heating elements placed on at least a portion of the column.

[00069] For example, the releasing of the captured CO2 is carried out by heating at least a portion of the CCh-capturing device at a temperature of about 100°C to about 250°C.

[00070] For example, the releasing of the captured CO2 is carried out by heating at least a portion of the C02-capturing device at a temperature of less than about 250°C.

[00071] For example, the releasing of the captured CO2 is carried out by heating at least a portion of the CCh-capturing device at a temperature of less than about 125°C.

[00072] For example, releasing of the captured CO2 is carried out by desorbing CChfrom the CCh-capturing device.

[00073] For example, the releasing of CO2 comprises heating at least one portion of the at least one column.

[00074] For example, as shown in FIG. 2A and 2B, the column comprises a plurality of electric heating elements placed on at least a portion of the column.

[00075] For example, the releasing of CO2 comprises heating at least one portion at a temperature of about 100°C to about 250°C.

[00076] For example, the releasing of CO2 comprises heating at least one portion at a temperature of less than about 250°C.

[00077] For example, the releasing of CO2 comprises heating at least one portion at a temperature or less than about 125°C.

[00078] For example, the heating is carried out by contacting a hot gas with the at least one portion.

[00079] For example, the hot gas is the air or the CO2 emission.

[00080] For example, the method further comprises at least one feature from the features described in the description or disclosure of the present patent application.

[00081] In another embodiment, the method comprises, when reaching a predetermined level of CO2, converting the captured CO2 into the at least one carbon-derived end-said product.

[00082] For example, the carbon-derived end-product is chosen from synthetic fuel, methane, methanol, ethane, ethanol, propane, propanol, benzene, toluene, xylene and mixtures thereof.

[00083] For example, the captured carbon dioxide can be used to create methanol. For example, it is possible to synthesize methanol directly from carbon dioxide by combining it with hydrogen according to the reaction:


[00084] For example, the captured carbon dioxide can be used to produce methane. For example, it is possible to synthesize methane directly from carbon dioxide by according to the reaction:


[00085] For example, the carbon-derived end-product is chosen from aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons.

[00086] For example, the carbon-derived end-product is chosen from synthetic fuels. For example, the captured carbon dioxide can be converted into synthetic fuel, by means of metal catalysts within one or two steps:

CO2 - synthetic fuel

CO2 - CO - synthetic fuel

[00087] For example, the conversion of CO2 into the carbon-derived end-product is carried out by using metal catalysts. For example, the conversion of CO2 into the carbon-derived end-product is carried out by using heterogenous metal catalysts.

[00088] For example, the carbon dioxide source can be a concentrated source (such as an industrial source or plant) or it can be a diffused source. For example, the carbon dioxide source can be atmospheric CO2.

[00089] For example, the carbon dioxide source can be obtained at a site of production.

[00090] For example, the method can further comprises purifying the carbon dioxide captured so as to separate carbon dioxide from at least one impurity.

[00091] For example, the method can further comprises capturing at least one impurity.

[00092] For example, the at least one impurity can comprise a sulfur-based product.

[00093] For example, the at least one impurity can comprise a SOx or NOx product.

[00094] For example, the at least one impurity can comprise H2S.

[00095] For example, the method can further comprise converting H2S in

H2SO4.

[00096] For example, the method can further comprise converting the impurity into a valuable product.

[00097] For example, the device further comprises a CO2 storing tank connected to the at least one column.

[00098] For example, the device further comprises a housing for receiving the at least one column.

[00099] For example, the device is a mobile unit.

[000100] In some embodiments, the device comprising a C02-captured substrate comprising CO2 adhered thereto may be transported to another location for further transformation. For example, the device is configured to be disposed on a trailer, a wagon, a truck, a boat or a train.

[000101] For example, the CCh-capturing substrate comprises a zeolite.

[000102] For example, the zeolite comprises Cu, Ti, Si or mixtures thereof.

[000103] For example, the method further comprises liquefying the CO2.

[000104] In an embodiment, the CCh-capturing device is ready to use, autonomous, modular and/or standardized.

[000105] For example, the method can further comprise forcing air from the space into a CCh-capturing device so as to decrease CO2 concentration in the confined space to a second predetermined concentration and stopping to force air into the CCh-capturing device.

[000106] For example, the method can further comprise monitoring a level of CO2 captured by the CCh-capturing device.

[000107] For example, the method can further comprise monitoring and/or controlling temperature of at least one of the CO2 captured and the CO2-capturing device.

[000108] For example, the method can further comprise, when reaching a predetermined level of CO2, releasing the captured CO2 for stocking the captured CO2 in a tank, for converting the captured CO2 into at least one carbon-derived end-product, for contacting the CO2 with at leat one plant, for contacting the CO2 with a liquid, or for transporting the captured CO2 at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is captured.

[000109] For example, the method can further comprise forcing air from the space into a CCh-capturing device so as to decrease CO2 concentration in the confined space to a second predetermined concentration and stopping to force air into the CCh-capturing device.

[000110] For example, the method can further comprise monitoring and/or controlling temperature of at least one of the CO2 captured and the CO2-capturing device.

[000111] For example, the method can further comprise treating the captures CO2 with a filter, UV system, an ozonation system or activated charcoal.

[000112] For example, the method can further comprise treating the air having a CO2 reduced content with a filter, UV system, an ozonation system or activated charcoal.

[000113] For example, the confined space can be in a residential, commercial, institutional or industrial building.

[000114] For example, the confined space can be in a conference room, in a hospital, an airplane, a subway, a mine, a space vehicle, a space station, a tunnel or a vehicle.

[000115] For example, the CCh-capturing substrate can comprise a zeolite. [000116] For example, the zeolite can comprise Cu, Ti, Si or mixtures thereof.

[000117] For example, the CCh-capturing device can be a device as defined in the present disclosure.

[000118] For example, the system can further comprise a sensor for sensing CO2 concentration in the confined space.

[000119] For example, the system can further comprise a sensor for sensing CO2 concentration outside the confined space.

[000120] For example, the system can further comprise a sensor for sensing O2 concentration in the confined space.

[000121] For example, the system can further comprise a sensor for sensing O2 concentration outside the confined space.

[000122] For example, the captured CO2 can be used for urban rooftop farming.

[000123] For example, the captured CO2 can be used for preparing carbonated beverages.

[000124] For example, releasing the captured CCh can comprise releasing thef CO2 for stocking the captured CO2 in a tank, for converting the captured CO2 into at least one carbon-derived end-product, for contacting the CO2 with at leat one plant, for contacting the CO2 with a liquid, or for transporting the captured CO2 at a different location than a location whereat the CO2 is captured.

[000125] For example, the system can further comprise a second outlet in fluid flow communication with the CCh-capturing device for discharging the captured CO2.

[000126] For example, the system can further comprise a second inlet for receiving air from outside the confined space.

[000127] For example, the system can further comprise a heat exchanger in communication with the first and second outlets for exchanging heat between air incoming from the first and second inlets.

[000128] Referring now to FIG. 1 , the CCh-capturing device is represented by FIG. 1 , according to a non-limiting embodiment. The device comprises a column which contains a C02-adsorbing substrate. The column may be comprised in a housing (as shown by the rectangular border surrounding the column). In the C02-capturing mode (or CO2 adsorption mode), a stream of air/C02 emission Gini is forced via valve Vi into the column where CO2 adsorption takes place, and exits as gas Gout2 via valve V2. A CO2 sensor is in fluid flow communication with the column. For example, referring to FIG. 1 , the device comprises one sensor near the entrance of the device and one sensor near the exit of the device. The device further comprises a temperature monitoring and/or controlling unit for monitoring and/or controlling the temperature of the captured CO2, the C02-adsorbing substrate and/or the CO2-capturing device (e.g. Tz). CO2 adsorption is an exothermic reaction. Thus when the temperature Tz exceeds a predetermined temperature, the device or a portion thereof (for example a portion of the column) may be cooled, using for example a cooling liquid or a gas Gin2 as shown in FIG. 1. A stream of cooling gas Gin2 may be introduced into the device via an inlet other than the inlet for introducing the Gini gas (via valve Vi), and exits the device via an outlet other than the outlet for existing the Gouti gas (via valve V2). The gas Gout2 exiting the device, having extracted heat from the C02-adsorbing substrate, has a temperature Tout2 higher than its temperature Tin2 when entering the device.

[000129] While the device shown in FIG. 1 comprises one column, it will be understood that the device herein disclosed may contain a plurality of columns. For example, FIG. 2B is a cross-sectional view of a C02-capturing device, according to another embodiment, which contains 28 columns.

[000130] Referring now to FIG. 2A, there is shown a cross-sectional view of a C02-capturing column (also referred to as basic unit). The column is an

aluminum column comprising zeolite pellets (e.g. CCh-adsorbing substrate). It will be understood that the CCh-adsorbing substrate may be comprised in other suitable containers of different shapes and sizes, and that other suitable materials may be used in lieu of aluminum. Referring still to FIG. 2A, the column may further comprise at least one fin for providing heat transfer. As described above, the column comprises suitable inlets and outlets for CO2 flue gases (e.g. an inlet and an outlet for the gas to be adsorbed and an inlet and outlet for the gas serving as cooling gas). Electric heating and/or cooling elements may be added adjacent to the housing if required.

[000131] In some embodiments, and referring now to FIG. 2B more specifically, a plurality of columns (or basic units) are stacked so as to form a stackable unit (e.g. C02-capturing device). As shown in FIG. 2B, the stackable unit includes four interstices (or spaces) which facilitate cooling, or heating with heat transfer gas. The stackable unit may comprise an external enclosure designed for providing suitable mechanical and security integrity. The stackable unit may be stacked, placed underground, etc. For example, the stackable units are containers that may be connected together to form an efficient network for CO2 adsorption/desorption units. For example, the outlet of one container maybe the inlet of another container.

[000132] The stackable unit shown in FIG. 2B is a box shaped stackable unit however other containers such as cubes, cylinders etc. may be contemplated. The dimensions and properties of the stackable unit, in terms of adsorption capacity, volume, weight, etc. will vary based on the user’s needs.

[000133] Fig. 3 is a schematic of the method according to another embodiment. The CO2 may be captured efficiently at different industrial sites or anywhere diffuse CO2 is present, using a network of units. When the units are fully loaded, the CO2 can be transferred (either in gas or liquid form) for example by truck, train, ship or by pipeline to the transformation plant (according to transport logistics expertise) for converting into carbon-derived end-products, for example synthetic fuels.

[000134] Figs. 4-6 show examples of methods and systems for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a confined space. Such methods and systems can comprise an air exchanger or a heat exchanger. Hot air to be purified and having a high CO2 content i.e. concentration higher than a predetermined value is thus treated with a C02-capturing device. Such a predetermined value can be about 250, 275, 300, 325, 350, 375, 400, 425, 450, 475, 500, 525, 550, 575, 600, 625, 650, 675, 700, 725, 750, 775, 800, 825, 850, 875, 900, 925, 950, 975, 1000, 1 100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900 or 2000 ppm. CO2 is captured and can eventually be discharged from the CCh-capturing device and used in various possible manners as described in the present disclosure. This can be done for example pursuant to CO2 desorption. Air treated by the C02-capturing device and having a reduced content in CO2 can then be discharged inside the confined space. It can also be discharged outside the confined space (for example if O2 level is lower than a predetermined value). Fresh air coming from outside the confined space can be injected into the confined space.

[000135] For example, one adult person generates about 1 kg of CCh/day (emission, breathing). For example, 50 kg of zeolite can absorb about 1 kg of CCh/hour.

[000136] Forexample, in a conference room, where about 12 persons work together for a period of 8 hours, the methods, devices and systems of the present disclosure can comprise for example up to 200 kg of zeolite and would thus completely neutralize the CO2 emissions of all participants.

[000137] According to another example, the methods, devices and systems of the present disclosure can capture only a desired portion of the CO2 emission in the confined area. For example, about 25 %, 50 % or 75 % of the C02 can alternatively be captured.

[000138] Figs. 4-6 show examples of operating modes of the methods and systems of the present disclosure: Absorption mode, Purge mode and Fresh Air mode. All sensors, switches, valves and control systems are not

represented in these (schematic representations). OFF and Standby mode are not shown. Also, additional modes where optional features are used, like ozonation or UV capabilities, are not shown in those figures. For example, all inlets (In 1 and In 2) can be provided with CO2 and O2 sensors. For example, all outlets (Out 1 and Out 2) can be provided with CO2 and O2 sensors.

[000139] Fig. 4 shows the sytem and method operating in Absorption mode. The stale air of the confined space (Hot air inlet with high CO2 level to be purified) enters through the first inlet (In 1 ), the CO2 contained in this stale air is absorbed gradually by the zeolite and emerges by the first outlet (Out 1 ). No exchange with the outside is necessary. The concentration of CO2 in the air at the first outlet of the system and method (Out 1 ) is lower than the concentration of CO2 in the first air inlet (In 1 ) ([C02]outi < [C02]ini). The energy efficiency of the system and method is maximum. The system and method reduce the level of CO2 from the confined space to the desired level to maximize the safety, health and comfort of confined space occupants. When the zeolite has reached its maximum absorption capacity in CO2, the system and method switches to Purge mode.

[000140] Fig.5 shows the system and method in operating in Purge mode. The system and method can increase the temperature of the zeolite core at the desorption temperature using one or the other of the various mechanisms previously expressed. The CO2 absorbed by the zeolite isreleased to the second outlet No. 2 (Out 2). When the CO2 concentration of the zeolite core reaches a minimum ([C02]zeoiite « 0), the system and method stop the heating of the core. The system and method is ready to operate in Absorption mode again.

[000141] When an oxygen supply is required for the safety, health and comfort of the confined space occupants in the confined space, the system and method allow the addition of fresh outdoor air into the confined space while allowing the reduction of the CO2 concentration in the confined space. Fig. 6 illustrate the Fresh Air mode. When the oxygen supply has reached the

threshold required to assure the safety, health and comfort of the confined space occupants, the system and method are again ready to swith in the Absorption mode. In Fresh Air mode, in order to maximize and optimize the overall energy efficiency of the system and method, a heat exchange between the stale air of the confined space and the outside fresh air is operated. Various heat exchange methods can be used such as that of plate heat exchangers for example. In no time, however, will there be an exchange of matter (gas molecules) between the stale air in the confined space and the outside fresh air.

[000142] In order to maximize the environmental impact of the system and method, the use of renewable electric energy is recommended for the energy supply of the device.

[000143] The examples detailed below are non-limitative and are used to better exemplify the methods of the present disclosure.

EXAMPLE: CO2 adsorption and desorption

[000144] Referring to FIG. 1 , there is provided a longitudinal view of the C02-capturing device comprising a column containing a C02-adsorbing substrate (e.g. the zeolite). Depending on whether the device is an adsorption or desorption mode, different parameters (or variables) will vary such as certain valves being open or closed, temperature of the zeolite and CO2 concentration at the outset of the column.

[000145] In an embodiment, zeolite adsorption is carried out as follows. Table 1 below details variables pertaining to the CCh-capturing device when in process of adsorbing CO2. A CO2 measuring unit is placed near the valve Vi to detect the concentration or CO2 upon entering the column [C02]in. The [C02]in can depend on the type of gas/emission used. In the adsorption mode, valve Vi is opened while valve V3 remains closed. The air/C02 emission gas Gini is forced into the zeolite containing column via valve Vi . The pressure Pin of the gas Gini is greater than the pressure Pout exiting the column, e.g. Pin is two to three times greater than Pout. The gas Gini is forced through the column and an exothermic reaction takes place such that the zeolite temperature Tz increases. For example, the temperature Tini of the gas prior to entering the column is a preferred temperature for CO2 adsorption. Thus in some embodiments it is necessary to extract excess heat formed, for example by liquid cooling or by using an air or flue gas Gin2 having a lower temperature T m2, as shown in FIG. 1 . The liquid or gas can be circulated around at least a portion of the column. For example, a preferred temperature for adsorption is less than 1 00°C.

[000146] The valve V2 at the outset of the column is open. The gas Gouti exiting the column has a pressure Pout of about 1 atm. The gas Gouti has the same composition as the gas Gini entering the column but with a substantially lower concentration of CO2, that is until zeolite saturation. A CO2 measuring unit is placed near the valve V2 to detect the CO2 concentration exiting the column [C02]out. Upon saturation of the zeolite, the [C02]out will begin to increase and/or will be similar to the [C02]in. The air or flue gas Gout2 exiting the device (that serves to extract excess heat) has the same content as gas Gint2 but its temperature Tout2 is higher.

Table 1 :


[000147] In one embodiment, zeolite desorption is carried out as follows. Table 2 below details variables pertaining to the C02-capturing device when in process of desorbing CO2. When the zeolite is saturated with CO2, as can be determined by detecting an increase in CO2 concentration at the outset of the column [CChJout, the valves Vi and V2 are closed and valve V3 is opened. CO2 desorption is an endothermic process such that the zeolite temperature Tz will decrease and injection of heat will be necessary. For example, the temperature in the column may be increased by circulating a hot gas or liquid around the column, or by heating, using for example an electric heater, a portion of the column. For example, heat supply can be provided by air or flue gas Gin2. For example, a preferred temperature for desorption is about 120°C. The hot gas Gin3 flows through valve V3 until completion of zeolite desorption.

Table 2:



[000148] It will be appreciated that, for simplicity and clarity of illustration, where considered appropriate, reference numerals may be repeated among the figures to indicate corresponding or analogous elements or steps. In addition, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the exemplary embodiments described herein. However, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the embodiments described herein may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures and components have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the embodiments described herein. Furthermore, this description is not to be considered as limiting the scope of the embodiments described herein in any way but rather as merely describing the implementation of the various embodiments described herein.