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1. WO2021056063 - PRODUIT ALIMENTAIRE

Note: Texte fondé sur des processus automatiques de reconnaissance optique de caractères. Seule la version PDF a une valeur juridique

[ EN ]

TITLE

A FOOD PRODUCT TECHNICAL FIELD

THIS INVENTION relates to a high protein food product and method of producing the high protein food product. More particularly, the invention relates to a high protein frozen confection and methods of producing and using same.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

Protein is a nutrient that is essential to healthy body function. Dietary protein is a source of amino acids including the essential amino acids phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine which cannot be synthesized by the human body. While most healthy diets include numerous different protein sources (e.g. meat, dairy products, eggs, legumes, grains etc ) the amount and quality of the protein can vary between these different sources.

Accordingly, food and dietary supplements have been prepared for human consumption that seek to make up for deficiencies in dietary protein or to provide a particular amino acid content or profile designed for a particular purpose, such as sarcopenia prevention and/or treatment, bodybuilding or weight training. However, many of these protein foods and supplements have an unpleasant, artificial taste or include “hidden” calories, sugar alcohols, fats and/or carbohydrates that detract from the nutritional benefit of these foods and dietary supplements. Many dietary protein supplements contain allergens; dairy, soya, egg and nut allergies are becoming increasingly common and the prescribed restrictive diets can be a cause of dietary protein deficiency and a need for a protein supplementation with a product with lower allergenic potential. In particular, currently available high protein iced confections or iced desserts contain relatively high levels of sugar, exhibit lower than expected protein levels and are generally substituted with whey protein, which is unsuitable for consumers who require a dairy-free option.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a protein food product that provides an optimal source of protein, while also having a pleasant taste and texture. In a preferred object, the protein food product has a relatively low level of lipids and carbohydrates and/or low allergenic potential.

The present invention is therefore broadly directed to a frozen confection, such as an ice cream or ice cream food product, comprising relatively high amounts of protein and relatively low amounts of sugars, carbohydrates and/or lipids. Suitably, the frozen confection of the invention provides an optimal source of protein, while also having a pleasant taste and texture and optionally demonstrates a low allergenic potential.

In a first aspect, the invention resides in a frozen confection comprising:

protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof;

one or more humectants;

one or more stabilizers;

optionally one or more emulsifiers;

optionally one or more flavouring agents; and

optionally one or more sweetening agents ;

wherein a total protein content is at least about 2% by weight of the frozen confection. In one embodiment, the total protein content is at least about 4%, at least about 10%, at least about 15% or at least about 20% by weight of the frozen confection.

In some embodiments, a total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight of the frozen confection. More particularly, the total carbohydrate content is suitably less than about 5% by weight of the frozen confection.

Suitably, a total lipid content is less than about 10% by weight of the frozen confection. More particularly, the total lipid content is suitably less than about 6% by weight of the frozen confection.

Suitably, a total sugar content is less than about 10% by weight of the frozen confection. In certain embodiments, the total sugar content is less than about 5% by weight of the frozen confection. In further embodiments, the total sugar content is less than about 1% by weight of the frozen confection. In this regard, the frozen confection of the present aspect can be substantially sugar-free.

In one embodiment, the protein that includes collagen peptides or derivatives thereof is or comprises a collagen hydrolysate. More particularly, the protein that includes collagen peptides or derivatives thereof can be a combination of gelatine and a collagen hydrolysate. An exemplary collagen hydrolysate is GELTTA® BodyBalance™ bioactive collagen peptide.

In some embodiments, the one or more humectants comprise polydextrose and/or erythritol.

In particular embodiments, the stabilizer is, or comprises, gelatine. An exemplary gelatine is GELITA® 250 bloom bovine hide gelatine.

In certain embodiments, the one or more sweetening agents comprise erythritol and/or stevia.

The one or more emulsifying agents are suitably selected from the group consisting of a monoglyceride, a diglyceride, a polysorbate and any combination thereof.

In some embodiments, the frozen confection of the present aspect is substantially dairy- free.

In a second aspect, the invention provides a method of producing a frozen confection including the steps of:

combining: protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof; one or more humectants; one or more stabilizers; optionally one or more emulsifiers; optionally one or more flavouring agents; and optionally one or more sweetening agents ; and

forming the frozen confection, wherein the total protein content of the frozen confection is at least about 2% by weight thereof.

Suitably, the frozen confection is that according to the first aspect.

In a third aspect, the invention provides a frozen confection produced according to the method of the second aspect.

In a fourth aspect, the invention resides in a method for providing nutritional supplementation to a subject, including the step of administering to the subject an effective amount of the frozen confection of the first or third aspects.

Throughout this specification, unless otherwise indicated, “comprise”, “ comprise ” and “ comprising ” are used inclusively rather than exclusively, so that a stated integer or group of integers may include one or more other non- stated integers or groups of integers.

As used in this specification the indefinite articles “a” and “an” may refer to one entity or a plurality of entities and are not to be read or understood as being limited to a single entity.

As used in this specification, the term “about” refers to a variation or tolerance in a stated amount, concentration, ratio or proportion, preferably defined as being no more than 10%, 5%, 2% or 1% above or below a stated amount, concentration, ratio or proportion.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to a frozen confection or frozen confectionary product, comprising relatively high amounts of protein and optionally relatively low amounts of carbohydrates, sugars and lipids. The frozen confection may be any as are known in the art, such as ice cream (inclusive of “soft serve” or regular ice cream), milk shakes, imitation ice cream (e.g., mellorine), frozen yogurt, frozen mousse, frozen fudge, frozen custard, sherbet, frozen shakes, frozen smoothies and other frozen dessert products.

In one aspect, the invention resides in a frozen confection comprising:

protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof;

one or more humectants;

one or more stabilizers;

optionally one or more emulsifiers;

optionally one or more flavouring agents; and

optionally one or more sweetening agents ;

wherein a total protein content is at least about 2% by weight of the frozen confection. Suitably, the total protein content of the frozen confection is at least about 0.5% by weight and up to about 80% (e.g., 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67,

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 % and any range therein) by weight, more particularly about 4% to about 75% by weight, even more particularly about 15% to about 70%, by weight, or advantageously about 40% to about 55% or 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 or 55 % by weight, or any range between these stated values. In various embodiments, the total protein content is at least about 4%, at least about 10%, at least about 15% or at least about 20% by weight of the frozen confection.

Suitably, a total carbohydrate content of the frozen confection is between about 0% to about 20% by weight thereof, such as 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 % by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto. In particular embodiments, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight, more particularly less than about 5% by weight and even more particularly less than about 2% by weight of the frozen confection. In some embodiments, the frozen confection is free or substantially free of carbohydrate (e.g., has no more than about 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% or 0.05% carbohydrate by weight of the frozen confection).

In particular embodiments, the carbohydrates of the frozen confection are “low GF’ carbohydrates. By low “G/” or low “ glycaemic index ” is meant a GI of less than about 60%, more particularly less than about 50%, advantageously less than about 40% or less than 30%, 20% or 10%.

Suitably, a total lipid content is between about 0% to about 20% by weight of the frozen confection, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 % by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto. In particular embodiments, the total lipid content of the frozen confection is between about 0% to about 10% by weight, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 % by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto. In certain embodiments, the frozen confection comprises substantially no lipid, such as no more than about 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% or 0.05% lipid by weight of the frozen confection.

Suitably, a total sugar content of the frozen confection is between about 0% to about 20% by weight thereof, such as 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 % by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto. Sugar may be selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and mixtures thereof. Such saccharides include: sucrose, fructose, glucose and lactose. Prior to use, the sugar may be in a crystalline, powder or syrup form In certain embodiments, the total sugar content is less than about 10% by weight, more particularly less than about 5% by weight and even more particularly less than about 2% by weight of the frozen confection.

In particular embodiments, the frozen confection of the present aspect is sugar-free or substantially free of sugar. As used herein, the term " sugar free " means that the frozen confection is substantially free of dietary sugars, such as glucose, sucrose and fructose, such as no more than about 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% or 0.05% sugar by weight of the frozen confection.

In some embodiments, the frozen confection comprises substantially no fibre, such as no more than about 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% or 0.05% fibre by weight of the frozen confection. In other embodiments, the frozen confection includes fibre, such as up to about 20% fibre by weight thereof (e.g., about 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and any range therein).

By “/z'hre” is meant substantially indigestible complex carbohydrates inclusive of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, such as including arabinoxylans, polydextrose, cellulose, starch, lignins, pectins, alginates, dextrins, chitins, poly- and oligo- saccharides typically, although not exclusively, derived from plants.

Other optional components of the frozen confection disclosed herein include vitamins and/or minerals, such as particular vitamins from plant sources. Non-limiting examples include vitamin A, B complex vitamins, ( e.g vitamins Bi, B3, Bό, Bi2, folate/Bci), vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and/or vitamin K, although without limitation thereto.

Minerals may include elements, such as iron, zinc, calcium, selenium, potassium, manganese and/or magnesium, inclusive of salts and complexes containing these elements, although without limitation thereto.

As generally used herein, the stated concentration, proportion or mass of any particular component or constituent of the frozen confection may be made with reference to the concentration, proportion or mass of the particular component or constituent used to produce the frozen confection, or may be the concentration, proportion or mass of the particular component or constituent in the final product.

It is also noted that the stated concentrations, proportions or masses of each component or constituent may be readily varied by a person of skill in the art. It will also be appreciated that concentrations, proportions or masses expressed in the range “x-y” include all values and sub-ranges within the stated range.

As used herein, the term “ protein ” includes any amino acid polymer comprising D- or L-amino acids, natural or non-natural amino acids as known in the art. Proteins, peptides and/or amino acids may be in the form of extracts, hydrolysates, purified, chemical synthetic, enriched or partially-purified forms.

In some embodiments, proteins may be obtained, derived, obtainable or derivable from natural sources such as plants and/or animals.

Animal sources include vertebrates, such as mammals, reptiles, fish, and/or birds and invertebrates, such as shellfish, crabs, lobsters and/or insects, although without limitation thereto. Non-limiting examples include whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, hydrolysed whey, casein, milk protein isolate, proteins from egg albumin, beef, lamb, pork, veal, venison, bison, goat, kangaroo, chicken, turkey, duck, emu, rabbit, fish, shellfish, crabs, lobster and/or crocodile, although without limitation thereto.

Plant sources include trees, vines, plant seeds, bark, roots, leaves, bulbs, tubers, nuts and/or fruit, although without limitation thereto. Plants may include grasses, cereals, legumes, seaweed, leafy vegetables, cruciform vegetables and fungi, although without limitation thereto. Non-limiting examples include soy protein, tofu, tempeh, pea protein, rice protein, bean proteins, corn protein, chickpea, faba bean, mungbean, chia protein, quinoa protein, spirulina protein, hemp seeds, lentils, nut proteins, heat germ protein, sorghum

protein and proteins obtained, derived, obtainable or derivable from vegetables and/or fruit such as spinach, watercress, kale, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, mushrooms, parsley, lettuce, zucchini, cucumber, capsicum, artichokes, cabbage, celery, eggplant, tomatoes, onion, beets, squash, pumpkin, potato, yams and/or sweet potato.

It will be appreciated that the aqueous proteinaceous or frozen portion of the frozen confection can be formed from a dairy-based milk protein source or ingredient (casein or sodium caseinate) as are known in the art, such as skim milk, whole milk, spray dried skim milk and yogurt, and/or a non-dairy-based milk protein source or ingredient, such as coconut cream, coconut milk, almond milk, oat milk and soy milk. For the present invention, additional sources of protein, such as a collagen hydrolysate, are preferably included in the frozen confection so as to achieve the required protein content thereof. In this regard, the frozen confection may comprise a plurality of protein sources (e.g., first and second protein sources).

In particular embodiments, the protein comprises hydrolysed collagen protein, amino acids and/or peptides, or derivatives thereof.

As used herein, “ peptides ” are proteins having no more than about 70 contiguous amino acids. In the specific context of collagen, this is a structural protein typically present in connective tissue or other tissues located in animal bodies. Collagen may be fibrillar or non-fibrillar and may be classified into types, of which Types I-V are the most common. Collagen peptides may be produced by enzymatic (e.g., collagenase), acid or alkali partial hydrolysis of collagen protein.

Non-limiting sources of the collagen protein, amino acids and peptides, include gelatine and/or collagen hydrolysates.

Suitably, gelatine is present at a concentration of about 1% to about 30% (e.g., about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30% and any range therein) by weight or particularly at about 5% to about 10% by weight of the frozen confection. Suitably, the gelatine is produced or derived from beef skin, such as by alkaline and/or acid treatment of collagen in the beef skin. An exemplary gelatine bloom value is about 125-300 (e.g., 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 155, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 205, 210, 215, 220, 225, 230, 235, 240, 245, 250, 255, 260, 265, 270, 275, 280, 285, 290, 295, 300 or any range therein) or more particularly about 225-280, and even more particularly, about 250.

In one particular embodiment, the gelatine is or comprises GELITA® 250 bloom bovine hide gelatine.

In some embodiments, the frozen confection comprises less than about 5%, less than about 1% or less than about 0.5% gelatine. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the frozen confection is free or substantially free of gelatine and/or a gelatine hydrolysate (e.g., has no more than about 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% or 0.05% gelatine and/or a gelatine hydrolysate by weight of the frozen confection). In this regard, the skilled person will appreciate that the frozen confection can still contain collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof, such as a collagen hydrolysate. To this end, the present inventors have surprisingly discovered that the presence of such collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof, and in particular collagen hydrolysates, can at least in part adequately substitute for gelatine and/or gelatine hydrolysate in the production of a frozen confection as described herein.

According to particular embodiments of the invention, the protein fraction of the food product comprises collagen hydrolysate with or without gelatine.

In contrast to gelatine, which is also a hydrolysis product of collagen, the term “ collagen hydrolysate ” refers to a collagen-derived product, such as native animal collagen, hydrolysed to an extent such that it no longer gels under the conditions of the standard Bloom test (i.e., has a Bloom strength of zero g). Unlike gelatine which is hot water soluble and has an average molecular weight of 180kDa, collagen hydrolysates tend to be cold water soluble and range in molecular weight from 2kDa to 12kDa.

In some embodiments, the collagen hydrolysate is a food ingredient that is derived by enzymatic hydrolysis of native animal collagen. It will be appreciated that a collagen hydrolysate can, in particular embodiments, be produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatine. In particular embodiments, however, the collagen hydrolysate is free or substantially free of a gelatine hydrolysate (e.g., has no more than about 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% or 0.05% a gelatine hydrolysate by weight thereof) or is substantially not derived or produced from the hydrolysis of gelatine.

Suitably, collagen hydrolysate is present at a concentration of about 0.5% to about 60% (e.g., about 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60% and any

range therein) by weight (i.e., wt%) or particularly about 5% to about 50% by weight of the frozen confection.

In particular embodiments, the collagen hydrolysate has an average molecular weight of about 500 to about 10000 Da (e.g., 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2500, 2600, 2700, 2800, 2900,

3000, 3100, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3500, 3600, 3700, 3800, 3900, 4000, 4100, 4200, 4300, 4400,

4500, 4600, 4700, 4800, 4900, 5000, 5500, 6000, 6500, 7000, 7500, 8000, 8500, 9000, 9500,

10000 Da and any range therein), and more particularly about 2,000 to 4,000 Da. In the context of the present description, all information relates to the weight-average molecular weight of the collagen hydrolysate. This can be determined in particular by means of gel permeation chromatography using calibrated standard peptides. Suitably, the collagen hydrolysate is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a collagen-containing starting material. Endopeptidases or exopeptidases of microbial or plant origin as are known in the art may be used for this hydrolysis. By suitable selection of the peptidases and the hydrolysis conditions, collagen hydrolysates can be produced in the molecular weight range required in each case.

The collagen-containing starting material is generally derived from, for example the skin or bones of vertebrates, such as mammals, fish or birds, and in particular from the skin of cattle or pigs (cattle split or pork rind). For the present invention, collagen hydrolysate of any origin or a mixture of such hydrolysates may be used. For example, collagen hydrolysate derived from bovine skin, fish collagen hydrolysate or mixtures thereof can be used in the compositions according to the invention.

An exemplary collagen hydrolysate is GEUTA® BodyBalance™ bioactive collagen peptide. This collagen hydrolysate is derived from a complex multi-step procedure by the degradation of type I collagen and can be defined by numerous specific collagen peptides with an average molecular weight of about 3.0 kDa. GEUTA® BodyBalance™ can also be defined by a specific matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry mass peaks fingerprint and a specific amino acid profile, as per the below table.


In another embodiment, the collagen hydrolysate is or comprises GELTTA® Verisol™ bioactive collagen peptide. GELITA® Verisol™ bioactive collagen peptide can be defined by a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry mass peaks fingerprint with specific collagen peptides of an average molecular weight of 2.0 kD that are optimized for skin health.

In particular embodiments, the frozen confection further comprises a further amino acid. To this end, the further amino acid can be any known in the art, inclusive of essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as derivatives or variants thereof, such as amino acid salts. Nonlimiting examples include leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, glutamine, threonine, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan, histidine, taurine, arginine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, ornithine, citrulline, urocanic acid, asparagine and tyrosine. In particular embodiments, the further amino acid is selected from the group consisting of leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, glutamine, threonine, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan, histidine, taurine, and any combination thereof.

With respect to the recited protein content of the frozen confection, it will be appreciated that the further amino acid content will be taken into consideration together with the recited protein when calculating the protein content by weight of the frozen confection.

The frozen confection may include one or more further amino acids in addition to the protein, such as those hereinbefore described, in a wt% concentration of about 0.1% to about 50% or any range therein such as, but not limited to, about 1% to about 35% or about 2% to about 20%. In particular embodiments the further amino acid is present at a wt%

concentration of about 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5,

2.75, 3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4, 4.25, 4.5, 4.75, 5, 5.25, 5.5, 5.75, 6, 6.25, 6.5, 6.75, 7, 7.25, 7.5,

7.75, 8, 8.25, 8.5, 8.75, 9, 9.25, 9.5, 9.75, 10, 10.25, 10.5, 10.75, 11, 11.25, 11.5, 11.75, 12,

12.25, 12.5, 12.75, 13, 13.25, 13.5, 13.75, 14, 14.25, 14.5, 14.75, 15, 15.25, 15.5, 15.75, 16,

16.25, 16.5, 16.75, 17, 17.25, 17.5, 17.75, 18, 18.25, 18.5, 18.75, 19, 19.25, 19.5, 19.75, 20,

21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45,

46, 47, 48, 49, 50 % and any range therein. In particularly preferred embodiments, the frozen confection comprises from about 1 wt% to about 50 wt% of the further amino acid.

The flavouring agents may be any natural or non-natural substance which adds or enhances flavour. The flavouring agents may also comprise natural or non-natural stabilizers, anti-caking and/or flow agents. Flavouring agents are typically comprised of a flavoured substance(s) and complexes manufactured or extracted from nature in liquid or powdered form to impart a particular flavour into a product. Excipients are added to pre serve, stabilize and maintain form and colour. Typical excipients may include flow agents, anticaking agents, antioxidants, including but not exclusively, MCT oil, ethanol, maltodextrin, gum acacia, tapioca starch, propylene glycol and triacetin. Suitably, the one or more flavouring agents are present at a concentration of about 0.1% to about 10% ( e.g ., 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 % and any range therein) by weight, more preferably about 0.1% to about 5% by weight or more preferably about 0.1% to about 2% by weight of the frozen confection.

The sweetening agents may be any natural, synthetic or artificial sweetening agent inclusive of sugar alcohols or polyols (e.g., erythritol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol, glycerol), aspartame, stevia, honey, corn syrup, neotame, agave nectar, rice malt, saccharin and sucralose, sucrose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, fructose (such as from fruit juice or fruit concentrates), isomaltulose (Palatinose™), dextrose, polydextrose, ribose, maltose, thaumatin, glycine, monk fruit, magrosides, although without limitation thereto. Suitably, the sweetening agent or combination of sweetening agents are present at a concentration of about 0.1% to about 70% (e.g., about 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%,

35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%, 65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70% and any range therein) by weight, more particularly about 15% to

about 30% by weight or even more particularly about 20% to about 25% by weight of the frozen confection.

In certain embodiments, the sweetening agent is not, or does not comprise, a sugar, such as sucrose or fructose. In alternative embodiments, the sweetening agent is or comprises a sugar, such as sucrose and/or corn syrup.

In certain embodiments, the sweetening agent is or comprises a low GI carbohydrate, such as isomaltulose and/or polydextrose. By low “GF or low “glycaemic index” is meant a GI of less than about 60%, more particularly less than about 50%, advantageously less than about 40% or less than 30%, 20% or 10%.

In other embodiments, the sweetening agent comprises erythritol and/or stevia.

It will be appreciated that the quantity or concentration of the flavouring agent and/or the sweetening agent should be high enough to sufficiently mask any undesirable flavours, such as bitterness, associated with the source of protein.

The frozen confection may further comprise one or more humectants. By “humectanf is meant a molecule, compound or substance that facilitates, promotes or enhances retention of moisture in the protein food product. Typical humectants comprise one or more hydrophilic groups that can form hydrogen bonds with water. Non-limiting examples include polyols, such as polydextrose, and sugar alcohols, such as glycerol, sorbitol, xylitol, and mannitol, although without limitation thereto. In some embodiments, the one or more humectants comprise polydextrose and/or erythritol.

Additional ingredients that may be present in the frozen confection include “gummy” bits or other flavoured gel-like particles ( e.g ., caramel pieces), fruit pieces or freeze dried powders, nuts, cacao nibs, coffee nibs, chocolate chips or pieces and/or a gel, syrup or sauce swirl such as chocolate or caramel, although without limitation thereto.

In some embodiments, the frozen confection may be coated, such as with a chocolate or other coating. In embodiments where the frozen confection comprises a chocolate coating, the coating process would be as typically used in the art. In certain embodiments, the chocolate or other coating would be a low sugar or sugar-free coating, dairy free and/or comprise added protein.

As used herein, the term “ stabilizer ” refers to compounds conventionally referred to in the prior art as stabilizers, such as those described in Arbuckle, W.S., Ice Cream, 4th Edition, AVI Publishing, 1986, Chapter 6, pages 84 to 92, which is incorporated by reference herein. Stabilizers typically improve the stability of the water ice composition of the frozen confection before freezing and act as thickening agents. Stabilizers may also increase the

viscosity of the liquid phase before and during freezing. Suitably, the stabiliser is a hydrocolloid. Exemplary stabilizers include agar, locust bean gum, carrageenan, guar gum, gelatine, carboxy methyl cellulose, pectin, algin products, algin- sodium alginate, propylene glycol alginate, gum arabic, karaya gum, gum tragacanth, carrageenan and salts thereof, psyllium seed husk and mixtures thereof.

In particular embodiments, the stabilizer is, or comprises, a gelatine, such as GELITA® 250 bloom bovine hide gelatine. Suitably, the gelatine is produced or derived from beef skin or hide, such as by alkali treatment of collagen in the beef skin. A preferred gelatine bloom value is about 225-280. Preferably, the bloom value is about 250.

Suitably, the one or more stabilizers are present at a concentration of about 0.1 % to about 5% (e.g., about 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5% and any range therein) by weight, more particularly about 0.1% to about 2% by weight or even more particularly about 0.1% to about 1% by weight of the frozen confection.

The term “ emulsifying agent ” or “ emulsifier ” refers to an excipient that would be understood to be used in the preparation and stabilization of emulsions, such as ice cream. It will be understood that emulsifiers are surfactants which lower the interfacial tension between the two phases oil and water and also cause a stabilization of the emulsion formed in addition to reducing the interface work. Exemplary emulsifying agents include mono- and di glycerides of saturated fatty acids, mono- and di-glycerides of partially saturated fatty acids, polyglycerol esters, sorbitan esters, stearoyl lactylate, lactic acid esters, citric acid esters, acetylated monoglyceride, diacetyl tartaric acid esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, lecithin and mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, the one or more emulsifying agents are selected from the group consisting of a monoglyceride, a diglyceride, a polysorbate and any combination thereof.

In various embodiments, the frozen confection of the present aspect is dairy-free or substantially dairy-free. As generally used herein, the terms “ dairy-free” and “ milk-free ” mean that the frozen confection does not contain milk or milk-derived ingredients that can cause, for example, milk allergy, milk protein allergy, or lactose intolerance. Accordingly, the frozen confection can be made at least in part from, for example, coconut cream, coconut milk, almond milk, oat milk, soy milk and other dairy-free milk or cream alternatives as are known in the art. In particular embodiments, less than 1 wt%, such as less than 0.9 wt%, 0.8 wt%, 0.7 wt%, 0.6 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 0.4 wt%, 0.3 wt%, 0.2 wt%, 0.1 wt% or less of dairy-derived ingredients are present in the frozen confection. In this regard, the frozen confection may also be considered to be hypoallergenic.

Another particular aspect of the invention provides a method of producing a frozen confection including the steps of:

combining: protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof; one or more humectants; one or more stabilizers; optionally one or more emulsifiers; optionally one or more flavouring agents; and optionally one or more sweetening agents ; and

forming the frozen confection, wherein the total protein content of the frozen confection is at least about 2% by weight thereof.

Suitably, the frozen confection is that according to the first mentioned aspect.

An exemplary method of producing the frozen confection of the invention may include the following steps.

• Heat dairy-based and/or non-dairy based milk protein source, water, a further protein source (e.g., collagen hydrolysate), a humectant, a stabilizer and optionally an emulsifier until dissolved, do not allow to boil.

• Once dissolved and cooled slightly optionally add a sweetening agent and a flavouring agent;

• Churn mixture until desired overrun is achieved;

• Pack and freeze.

In a related aspect, the invention resides in a frozen confection produced according to the method of the aforementioned aspect.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method for providing nutritional supplementation to a subject, including the step of administering to the subject an effective amount of the frozen confection described herein.

In particular embodiments, the present method is designed to supplement the nutritional or protein intake of subjects engaged in bodybuilding and protein supplementation, meal replacement, exercise recovery and/or mass gaining.

In other embodiments, the present method is designed to supplement the nutritional or protein intake of subjects suffering from age-related and/or disease-related muscle loss, such as sarcopenia and muscle loss associated with rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, hormonal imbalances, peripheral arterial disease, COPD, congestive heart failure, advanced kidney disease, cirrhosis, cancer, and HIV.

By “ effective amount ” it is meant an amount of the frozen confection that is sufficient to meet, at least in part, the specific nutritional requirements of the subject. Such amounts or concentrations can be determined routinely by those of ordinary skill in the art, for example, based upon blood-based assays, such as described herein or through other art-recognized means.

In some embodiments, the frozen confection may be utilized or administered once a day, twice a day, three times a day, four times a day, five times a day, six times a day, seven times a day, eight times a day, nine times a day, ten times a day, etc., or more, as needed.

So that particular embodiments of the invention may be fully understood and put into practical effect, reference is made to the following non-limiting examples.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

In the present Example, we provide a high protein dairy-based ice cream that contains relatively low levels of fats and sugars.

Dairy Based Ice Cream


Total Solids 36.09%

Product Overrun 25-50%

Exemplary Method of Production

• Heat Cream, Skim Milk, Water, BODYBALANCE, Polydextrose Erythritol and Gelatine until all powders are dissolved, do not allow to boil.

· Once dissolved and cooled slightly add stevia and flavouring.

• Place mixture into a churn until desired overrun is achieved, pack and freeze.

• Churning time, packing and freezing are subject to manufacturers capabilities.

Nutritional Panel

Example 2

In the present Example, we provide a high protein dairy-free ice cream that contains relatively low levels of fats and sugars.

Dairy Free Ice Cream


Total Solids 36.73%

Product Overrun 25-50%

Exemplary Method of Production

• Heat Coconut Cream, Coconut Milk, Water, BODYBALANCE, Polydextrose Erythritol and Gelatine until all powders are dissolved, do not allow to boil.

• Once dissolved and cooled slightly add stevia and flavouring.

• Place mixture into a churn until desired overrun is achieved, pack and freeze.

· Churning time, packing and freezing are subject to manufacturers capabilities.

Nutritional Panel

Example 3

In the present Example, we provide a lower protein dairy-free ice cream that contains relatively low levels of fats and sugars.


Exemplary Method of Production

• Heat Coconut Cream, Coconut Milk, Water, BODYBALANCE, Polydextrose Erythritol and Gelatine until all powders are dissolved, do not allow to boil.

• Once dissolved and cooled slightly add stevia and flavouring.

· Place mixture into a churn until desired overrun is achieved, pack and freeze.

• Churning time, packing and freezing are subject to manufacturers capabilities.

Nutritional Panel

It will therefore be appreciated from the foregoing that the invention provides a frozen confection, such as an ice cream, that provides an optimal source of protein and is optionally dairy-free, while suitably also having a pleasant taste and texture and a relatively low level of lipids, carbohydrates and sugars.

Throughout this specification, the aim has been to describe the preferred embodiments of the invention without limiting the invention to any one embodiment or specific collection of features. Various changes and modifications may be made to the embodiments described and illustrated herein without departing from the broad spirit and scope of the invention.

All patent, technical and scientific literature referred to herein is incorporated herein by reference.